CN100529743C - Method and apparatus for optically controlling the quality of objects having a circular edge - Google PatentsMethod and apparatus for optically controlling the quality of objects having a circular edge Download PDF
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- CN100529743C CN100529743C CNB2004800175142A CN200480017514A CN100529743C CN 100529743 C CN100529743 C CN 100529743C CN B2004800175142 A CNB2004800175142 A CN B2004800175142A CN 200480017514 A CN200480017514 A CN 200480017514A CN 100529743 C CN100529743 C CN 100529743C
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- 238000001914 filtration Methods 0.000 claims 1
- 238000003672 processing method Methods 0.000 claims 1
- 238000004519 manufacturing process Methods 0.000 description 12
- 230000004438 eyesight Effects 0.000 description 4
- 239000000463 materials Substances 0.000 description 3
- 230000000694 effects Effects 0.000 description 2
- 238000005516 engineering processes Methods 0.000 description 2
- 238000004364 calculation methods Methods 0.000 description 1
The present invention relates to method for quality with the preferable object of optical means check with circular edge, wherein, with the edge of light directive object.In addition, the present invention relates to a kind of device, be used for having the quality of the object of circular edge, specifically, be used for realizing that the device of the inventive method has the luminous lighting unit at the edge that is used for illuminated objects at least by the optical means check.
Long time has appearred in these class methods and device, and they are particularly playing more and more important effect aspect the complete detection of commercial production product aspect the complete detection of object.These method and apparatus not only relate to product surrendered before or before comprehensive acceptance, finished product is checked as far as possible completely.And, a kind of trend has also appearred at present, and promptly to guarantee the intermediate product quality between manufacturing step repeatedly, and make the energy early detection go out the defective or the mismachining tolerance of product.
In the semi-conductor industry field, set up a plurality of detection systems for many years, they can detect the various standards in the semiconductor wafer production.The effect of these systems provides the basis of setting up international standard (SEMI standard, the i.e. international standard of semiconductor equipment and material) for the quality of " wafer " product, and this provides global unified standard for all enterprises in the semi-conductor industry.
A situation that key feature is a wafer surface of wafer quality, what can exert an influence is particle, dirt, the coarse and defective that must be detected with very high resolution.In these areas, the terminal of inherent each production line of the scope that wafer manufacturer not only will in the end be checked is carried out quality check, and in manufacture process, carry out such inspection on several points, to guarantee that defective silicon chip is according to the type of its defective with distribute as early as possible and can be disallowable to come out, these defective silicon chips are continued they are processed aborning avoiding, this causes expensive, even also can be sent to the client to defective product.
With the detectable defective of vision (even defective is not obvious, only with special illuminations with by just finding out under the optical amplification system), has arrived the client and will mainly produce following problem there:
1, defective is detected (for example in the scope of acceptance) in early days and generally can causes complaint and the wafer delivered is return.Its consequence is for example to have delayed further processing, has caused corresponding product-feed to interrupt.
If 2 defectives just just detect in further processing or in the latter stage of further processing, then must spent expensive manufacturing and thereby the product of the higher price of tool integrally make a distinction.This has unnecessarily reduced actual production capacity on the one hand, and has caused the cost on the discontinued product in further process on the other hand.
If 3 nd defectives cause the fracture of wafer in further processing, people just must increase the reconstruction of dustless environment of the costliness after material cost (in this case, material cost itself has reached sizable number), this problem of generation and the stopping production of the whole production line that is accompanied by.
Under existing technical situation, whether the automatic detection of wafer surface only detects the surface particle, coarse and defective, and the fringe region of wafer is not within the scope that detects.This fringe region of SEMI standard definition is the transitional region from the front wafer surface to the chip back surface, and the scope that enters into 3 millimeters of wafer surface from wafer edge region respectively.
Because the fringe region of the wafer (part of=edge+marginarium, especially exclusionary zone is the standard definition that detected by present SEMI surface) got rid of fully outside the definition of wafer surface quality standard at present, the fringe region of wafer just by operating personnel with manually, vision ground checks.In this inspection, could on the edge of wafer, check the defective that may exist as utility appliance with very strong light source.In this course, people check the edge to reflection of light, and this reflection is produced by out-of-flatness.Yet from making and the further angle of processing, the reliability of this visible sensation method and reproducibility are the poorest, and it makes so far and can not be in a similar fashion the pro and con of wafer to be defined quality standard.
Except with the visual observation (inspection of carrying out with scattered light by operating personnel, it is wrong abrim in itself that this inspection method is considered to) in addition, has only a kind of aut.eq. (being " the boundary scan device " of Raytex company) that detects wafer at present, this device is checked the edge of wafer, but can not check fringe region.Yet, the system of the scattered light estimation of this laser beam based on vertical directive edge.Can not fully satisfy requirement of client.On the one hand, because low excessively resolution (to measured value of the per 25 μ m of wafer circumference) and the limited thus sensitivity of this system.In addition, the estimation of used scattered light to the deviation of wafer and ideal geometry (distortion), with the deviation of the edge side side of formation and operating period of measurement itself to the processing (wafer is with respect to the inclination of laser beam axis) of wafer unusual sensitivity all.
With passing through defective particular type (dirt, scratch, chip, covering, particle or the like) in the scope of vision-based detection it is being classified, the classification of defective, only just possible in the more time-consuming step of checking impaired wafer with microscope in more detail so far.For existing automatic system, equally also can only be undertaken the assessment of detected defective by the operator, the operator must analyze the camera images of each defective for this reason.Immediately, the detection of wider, statistical test and systematic error equally also can not or be implemented so far.
Must, it is more and more important that Waffer edge becomes, because advise as the SEMI standard, the diameter of the processing of Waffer edge is 300mm.Therefore, this zone is to be exposed to extra mechanical pressure, and this pressure only partly produces and needs the defective that be detected or it can react delicately to the defective of existence.
Along with the demand than the major diameter wafer is grown steadily, and the requirement of quality also rises to equal height, just need (especially for wafer manufacturer one side) a kind of system fully automatically to check the defective and the roughness of Waffer edge, be that silicon chip can accurately be measured by standard by a kind of system, so that do not pollute in the corresponding manufacturing step that wafer is made and between the step and damage, and defective detected and classify.
Summary of the invention
Therefore an object of the present invention is to improve and further develop method for quality and the device of checking preferable object with optical means, the detection that described method and apparatus can carry out reliably, can review with maximum degree of accuracy the edge of object with circular edge.
According to the present invention, above-mentioned purpose realizes with the described step of claim 1, promptly is with the quality of the preferable object with rounded edge of optical means check.Correspondingly, aforementioned with the preferable method process improvement of optical means inspection with rounded edge, detected by a measuring unit from the light that object gives off owing to reflection, refraction and/or diffraction, the defective on object and/or in the object is determined by detected picture signal.
According to the present invention, at first, find to check the fringe region of object to have ever-increasing importance with circular edge.In addition, discovery only can seriously cause mistake with the quality of visual inspection fringe region at present by operating personnel and almost can not review.According to the present invention, use a measuring unit to detect the light that gives off from object owing to reflection, refraction and/or diffraction.At last, find that also the defective on object and/or in the object can detect in mode reliable and that can review by detected picture signal, and have very high degree of accuracy.
Method of the present invention can be used for the multiple detection task in the scope of surface inspection.Object can be the object of any kind in principle, preferably workpiece or industrial finished product certainly, for example rod and pipe, stamping parts, rolled parts etc.Object should be partially transparent at least, and for example object can be lens.Yet as previously mentioned, main application fields of the present invention is the quality inspection of the quality inspection of semiconductor chip, particularly silicon wafer.For this reason, being primarily aimed at silicon wafer is below narrated.
Except the automated optical to the defective of wafer edge region detects, can also realize expediently the defective of finding is classified.
By being used in combination image processing device, for example camera, lens or lighting module, and effective image processing algorithm, defective and the particle in the view data of the Waffer edge that is provided by camera is provided in this rim detection system.The defective of finding can use image processing software, perhaps by shape or pass through at the strength characteristic of parameterisable scope or on the basis of defective catalogue, automatically be classified successively with.The catalogue of defective can be prepared on the basis of the view data that obtains from previous measured value.In addition, can on the basis of some images of a class sample defects, be trained into a self-learning system to the automatic classification of the defective found.Then, can classify automatically with neuroid.
This marginal check system is " shooting " Waffer edge when the rotation wafer, and analyzes received picture signal about defective by image processing software.The standard that detects defective mainly is the change of shape, i.e. the deviation of geometric properties and intensity of reflected light, and this deviation can be fairly obvious, for example as the difference of the luminance brightness in the view data that is recorded.Detected defective finally is classified, and classification is to be undertaken by comparing with some exemplary defectives according to measurement result.For this purpose, can use the neuroid of training under monitoring.More fully handle as a kind of, can on the basis of classification results, be divided into wafer several independent classifications of representing the different quality grade.
In order to obtain image side by side, in real time and image to be identified, most optimized image process software module is provided, the online data ground that its can be enough provide carries out reliably and the detection of the defective that can repeat.Online evaluation during the measuring process, can in measuring later treatment step, from view data, detect defective except this equally, promptly raw data be carried out non-online evaluation.
As previously mentioned, can use a kind of basis that is divided into the defective catalogue of several classes as classification of defects, this defective catalogue is by forming by means of the exemplary deficiencies of detected each class of measuring system in advance, and can at any time increase extra classification or can be by increasing or deleting indivedual models and make amendment.
Advantageously, the distance between monitor wafer and the measuring unit automatically.Can prevent effectively because the picture quality that the distance change that is taking place during measuring causes damaged in the tracking of the relative position between measuring unit and the wafer.In order to compensate the tolerance of this tracker and wafer geometric configuration, can be used in combination a Based Intelligent Control and regulate the interface, this interface can be in the very short reaction time to testee and measuring unit between the variation of actual relative position respond, and it is invariable as far as possible to keep at a distance during measuring by corresponding adjustment process.In this respect, both can the tracking measurement unit with respect to the distance that is held actionless wafer, also can follow the tracks of wafer, both can follow the tracks of all axis in other words, also can follow the tracks of indivedual axis selectively with respect to the distance that is held actionless measuring unit.
Fringe region automatic defect detection to wafer can be less than 1 micron flaw size effectively, and can have higher distinguishing ability.For this purpose, this measuring unit can provide a measured value for 2 microns on per 2 microns wafer circumference and the edge side surface direction.System compares with prior art, having improved aspect the resolving power more than 1000 times, has covered whole fringe region in addition.
As for device of the present invention, foregoing purpose can be realized by the feature of claim 18.Correspondingly, have in order to optical detection a circular edge object quality device (it have at least one luminous lighting unit with the illumination object the edge) feature be, the measuring unit of this device comprises photoimaging system and at least one video camera, this camera can be with the photoimaging that goes out from object radiation owing to reflection, refraction and/or diffraction, also comprise the evaluation unit, it can determine on object surface or the defective of inner by detected picture signal.Device of the present invention can preferably be used for realizing the method for one of claim 1～17, like this, the part of front explanation can be combined in this in addition with reference to and avoid repetition.
Specifically, as lighting unit, the present invention can use cold light source, the laser instrument of LED (light emitting diode), cold light source, particularly controlled height output, certainly, and also or conventional light source.Advantageously, the pharosage of lighting unit can be adapted to variable regulation and control, so that can be regulated, for example for the coarse surface of check, can use low pharosage, and for the smooth surface of check, can use higher pharosage.Specifically, can the selective light flux density so that little defective can obtain high sensitivity, the structure of the big defective that surpasses generalized case then can be used lower sensitivity.In addition or as selecting, the angle of illumination also can change, and for example rotates lighting unit by hinge and changes light angle.
Advantageously, measuring unit can comprise the camera arrangement of being made up of a plurality of cameras.In this case, can use matrix array camera and linear array camera.Specifically, camera can be arranged to the semicircle that symmetric relation is arranged with wafer.Specifically, camera can be arranged to hinge rotationally, so that can be from the photo of different visual angle picked-up objects.
In order when catching the edge of wafer, to detect the whole edge of wafer, need twice continuous measurement.Between twice measurement, wafer is grasped at a different position, is operated the zone that is covered so that can check when measuring for the second time when measuring for the first time.Because the wafer Measuring Time of every 300mm is lower than 15～20 seconds and (does not comprise heavily and grabbing, promptly the zone that may cover the operation of wafer is used as exclusionary zone and handles), perhaps the Measuring Time of each wafer be lower than 30～40 seconds (comprise heavily grab and crystal rotated for the first time during be operated the measurement of overlay area, and get rid of the time that each robotic arm provides wafer), the productive capacity of system (per hour handling 60 or more wafer) can be towards the practical application in producing.From this requirement, the time shutter of taking a sweep trace, therefore sensitivity, the light intensity of photoimaging system and the intensity of light source of the linear array camera that uses must meet specific requirement in the time range of several microseconds.For section integral time of such weak point, use high sensitivity time delay integration (TDI) sensor to find to the linear array camera it is favourable.Different with the linear array camera of a plurality of each several parts that are arranged in parallel of traditional use, be the same linearity range of the object that is capped its time delay.By signal is one by one integrated, camera provides a clear improved picture signal, like this, just helps to realize higher sensitivity.
In order to make a video recording, can also use special optical amplification system, they have the clear depth of field of high resolution, maximum and have high luminous transparency simultaneously, thereby can realize desired detection sensitivity.
As for illumination, can use the dark ground illumination of a radial symmetry for each camera, it can detect defective and irrelevant their direction.Under the situation of dark ground illumination, the incident of light can change, and makes can take multiple measurements object in order to obtain higher information density, and for example for the first time measuring the incident (angle) in time is 20 °, and measuring the incident angle in time for the second time can be 45 °.Can select to use triangular web to change the continuous coverage of regulated quantity (for example at the visual angle of pharosage, light angle, camera or the like), also can come integrated a plurality of systems with the configuration that has nothing in common with each other, this makes and can carry out parallel measurement to the regulated quantity that changes, in order that do not reduce the productive capacity during the quality check.
Yet the accessible in theory sharpness depth of field of such optical system upwards is restricted again.For this reason, people use another device with tracking camera and illuminator keeping constant distance with Waffer edge, thereby the deviation of acceptable geometric configuration that can compensate for wafer itself and the deviation brought when rotating wafer with operating system.
Because the comparability of measuring between the system of same structure is very important aborning, from the calibration meaning in fact, can use various mechanism that the ground of adaptation each other of different systems is combined.
Because the ageing process of each parts, cause the long-term fluctuation of measurement result, for example because the variation of the light intensity of lighting source and because the influence of environment, Temperature Influence or the like for example, on periodic review measured value and the basis with respect to the statistical estimation of measuring system long-term stability, this fluctuation can compensate measuring unit by the method for set.
In order to calibrate and long-term stability, not only use from routine is produced, extract, measured object (reference member) several times, also use the test block (exemplar) of making especially and stipulating for these tasks.
Because be used to check smooth surface at present, check that particularly wafer surface (structured light and scattered light assessment) can not be used for curved surface even the measuring principle of quality lowers the requirement, compare with common degree of accuracy in plane of crystal is measured nano-seconds, optical check adds that imaging method provides a kind of optional method.In addition, the possibility that this method also provides (as an integrated component of system) can train classification, this training can with compare with vision classification.
From now on, owing to the foreseeable growth of being advised in interior as the SEMI standard of edge treated is used, the fringe region of wafer will become the more and more important quality standard of silicon chip.For producing the wafer that 300mm (millimeter) scope two sides can process, a large amount of so far overleaf applications of vacuum of using will be eliminated, the pollution on surface because the contact of this wafer invariably accompanies.Therefore, this technology only exist by the edge grab the folder and marginal operation is effectively produced and further processing possibility.
Equally, in the wafer fab industries field because will increase mechanical stress on the crystal edge by operation to the edge, thus in new production line to the automatic inspection system of Waffer edge need be with increase.(beginning to use) in the scope in acceptance inspeciton under the situation of successfully using method of the present invention, people also can be desirably in this respect will obtain multiple application on production line.
The possibility that the present invention is being deposited all improvement and further developing.For this reason, people can consult preferred embodiment of the present invention on the other hand in conjunction with the accompanying drawings with reference to the dependent claims of claim 1 and 18 on the one hand.When the reference accompanying drawing is narrated embodiments of the invention, also narrated further improvement of the present invention and development.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the three-dimensional view according to an embodiment of the device that is used for the preferable object quality with rounded edge of optical check of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the three-dimensional detail view of the amplification of the measuring unit in Fig. 1 device.
Fig. 1 schematically shows and of the present inventionly checks the especially embodiment of the device of the quality of silicon wafer of the preferable object with rounded edge with optical means.
To be described in detail an actual measurement unit 1 that is used to measure below, it is placed on the base 2, base 2 be supported as far as possible no any vibration.Except base 2, a lighting unit 3 also is provided, the latter comprises the cold light source 4 of 6 high outputs.To each cold light source, all there is a photoconductive tube 5 to be attached thereto, photoconductive tube 5 offers measuring unit 1 to the light of cold light source 4.Below lighting unit 4, an amplifying unit 6 is provided, be used for electric motor driven startup with variable focus readjust the characteristic of the photoimaging system 7 of measuring unit 1 (see figure 2).
In addition, also has an assessment unit 8, this assessment unit 8 comprises 6 industry assessment PC 9, and these 6 assessment PC 9 are associated with 6 camera arrangements 10,11,12,13,14,15, and each evaluation calculation machine 9 is handled the data that one of camera arrangement 10-15 records respectively.Hub 16 is used for communicating between the assessment PC 9 that is connected to hub 16 by network interconnection.
Single workstation1 7 by the switch 18 with mouse 19, keyboard 20 and screen 21 provides unified center operations operator interfaces.
Fig. 2 is the partial enlarged view of Fig. 1, and it illustrates in greater detail the three-dimensional view of measuring unit 1.Tested object is a wafer 22, and its edge will carry out quality check with optical means.Wafer 22 is to offer measuring unit 1 by not shown manipulator.For this purpose, used loading pin 23, perhaps finished the back it is handed to the manipulator in measuring operation to receive wafer 22 from the manual manipulator.Chuck drive device 24 provides the rotation of wafer 22.
Six camera arrangement 10-15 are provided altogether, two camera arrangements 10,11,22 upper edge region from the top to the wafer is vertically directed, two camera arrangements 12,13 are directed to lower limb regions perpendicular ground from the bottom, and two camera arrangements 14,15 are flatly directed towards the transverse edge of wafer 22.What interrelate with each camera of camera arrangement 10-15 is optical imaging system 7 combination, that amplify, and it can make because at reflection, refraction and/or the diffraction of each camera arrangement 10-15 and from the photoimaging of wafer 22 radiation.
Six photoconductive tubes 5 (only showing the end of photoconductive tube among Fig. 2 for simplicity) provide light from height output cold light source 4.Owing to have the last measuring head 25 of two cameras 10 and 11, and the following measuring head 26 with two cameras 12 and 13, the light by photoconductive tube 5 receptions offers optics 27 respectively and is used to produce dark ground illumination.Along with the use of dark ground illumination, can realize that the non-diffraction center of zero level maximal value does not drop on the optical axis, and observed the eliminating.So just can advantageously find out thin linear structure, for example edge or scratch.
Two different light of middle measuring head 28 usefulness with level arrangement of two camera arrangements 14 and 15 are thrown light on.To the photographic system 14 of back, as previously mentioned, light is the transverse edge that is radiated wafer 22 in dark ground illumination too.But the camera arrangement 15 to the front provides light parts 29, is used to produce bright field illumination.Under the situation of bright field illumination, illumination and observation light beam overlap, and the picture that is absorbed by camera arrangement 15 is dark in the front of a light background.
In order to adjust the correct relative between wafer 22 and each measuring head 25,26,28, different feedthroughs is provided, promptly be that a horizontal tracking cell 30 and a vertical tracking cell 31 are to advance wafer 22 horizontally and vertically on the one hand, on the other hand, an additional vertical tracking cell 32 is used for the edge-perpendicular tracking measurement head 28 along wafer 22.Tracking cell 30,31,32 can be controlled and be regulated by control and regulon, this control and regulon can change the relative position between wafer 22 and the measuring head 25,26,28 in the shortest reaction time, and can correct the position by corresponding adjustment process.
On assessment PC 9, be provided with imaging software, it detects the physical location of measuring head 25,26,28 with respect to the edge of wafer 22.From the view data that receives of the fringe region of wafer 22, by this software detection and take out defective, and classified subsequently.At last, the data based user's who assesses out needs are carried out handles and delivers to workstation1 7 to show and further to analyze on screen 21.
It is to be noted that at last the foregoing description only is of the present invention in order to illustrate, but the present invention is not limited to the foregoing description.
Priority Applications (4)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|CN1809744A CN1809744A (en)||2006-07-26|
|CN100529743C true CN100529743C (en)||2009-08-19|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|CNB2004800175142A CN100529743C (en)||2003-05-19||2004-03-10||Method and apparatus for optically controlling the quality of objects having a circular edge|
Country Status (1)
|CN (1)||CN100529743C (en)|
Cited By (1)
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|CN105051781A (en) *||2012-03-02||2015-11-11||赛特玛逊有限公司||Machine-vision system and method for remote quality inspection of a product|
Families Citing this family (3)
|Publication number||Priority date||Publication date||Assignee||Title|
|DE102010026351B4 (en) *||2010-07-07||2012-04-26||Siltronic Ag||Method and apparatus for inspecting a semiconductor wafer|
|CN104458763A (en) *||2014-12-12||2015-03-25||元亮科技有限公司||Wide-view surface defect detector|
|CN104576496A (en) *||2015-01-22||2015-04-29||北京中拓机械集团有限责任公司||Lifting device for semiconductor chip|
- 2004-03-10 CN CNB2004800175142A patent/CN100529743C/en not_active IP Right Cessation
Cited By (3)
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|CN105051781A (en) *||2012-03-02||2015-11-11||赛特玛逊有限公司||Machine-vision system and method for remote quality inspection of a product|
|US9955123B2 (en)||2012-03-02||2018-04-24||Sight Machine, Inc.||Machine-vision system and method for remote quality inspection of a product|
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Granted publication date: 20090819
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