CN100449647C - Programming a phase-change material memory - Google Patents

Programming a phase-change material memory Download PDF

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CN100449647C
CN100449647C CN 02829578 CN02829578A CN100449647C CN 100449647 C CN100449647 C CN 100449647C CN 02829578 CN02829578 CN 02829578 CN 02829578 A CN02829578 A CN 02829578A CN 100449647 C CN100449647 C CN 100449647C
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pulse
state
material
memory device
unit
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CN 02829578
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CN1669091A (en
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T·A·劳里
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奥翁尼克斯公司
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C13/00Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C11/00, G11C23/00 - G11C25/00
    • G11C13/0002Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C11/00, G11C23/00 - G11C25/00 using resistive RAM [RRAM] elements
    • G11C13/0021Auxiliary circuits
    • G11C13/0069Writing or programming circuits or methods
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C11/00Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor
    • G11C11/56Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor using storage elements with more than two stable states represented by steps, e.g. of voltage, current, phase, frequency
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C11/00Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor
    • G11C11/56Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor using storage elements with more than two stable states represented by steps, e.g. of voltage, current, phase, frequency
    • G11C11/5678Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor using storage elements with more than two stable states represented by steps, e.g. of voltage, current, phase, frequency using amorphous/crystalline phase transition storage elements
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C13/00Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C11/00, G11C23/00 - G11C25/00
    • G11C13/0002Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C11/00, G11C23/00 - G11C25/00 using resistive RAM [RRAM] elements
    • G11C13/0004Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C11/00, G11C23/00 - G11C25/00 using resistive RAM [RRAM] elements comprising amorphous/crystalline phase transition cells
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C13/00Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C11/00, G11C23/00 - G11C25/00
    • G11C13/0002Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C11/00, G11C23/00 - G11C25/00 using resistive RAM [RRAM] elements
    • G11C13/0021Auxiliary circuits
    • G11C13/0069Writing or programming circuits or methods
    • G11C2013/0078Write using current through the cell
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C13/00Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C11/00, G11C23/00 - G11C25/00
    • G11C13/0002Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C11/00, G11C23/00 - G11C25/00 using resistive RAM [RRAM] elements
    • G11C13/0021Auxiliary circuits
    • G11C13/0069Writing or programming circuits or methods
    • G11C2013/0092Write characterized by the shape, e.g. form, length, amplitude of the write pulse

Abstract

存储器件具有组成单元(604),组成单元(604)包括用来存储单元的数据的结构相变材料。 Constituent unit having a structure of the memory device (604), the constituent unit (604) includes a data storage unit for the phase-change material. 这种材料可以是硫族化合物合金。 Such material may be a chalcogenide alloy. 将第一脉冲(204)加到单元(604)上,使材料保持在第一状态,例如复位状态,此时材料为非晶态且具有较高的电阻率。 The first pulse (204) to the unit (604), to maintain the material in a first state, such as reset state, then the material is amorphous and has a high resistivity. 然后,将第二脉冲(208)加到单元(604)上,使材料从第一状态改变为第二个不同的状态,例如置位状态,此时材料为结晶态且具有较低的电阻率。 Then, the second pulse (208) to the unit (604) on the material changes from a first state to a second different state, for example, a set state, then the material is crystalline and has a lower resistivity . 所述第二脉冲(208)具有一般的三角形状,而不是矩形脉冲。 The second pulse (208) has a generally triangular shape rather than a rectangular pulse.

Description

编^S变材料存储器 Eds change material memory ^ S

背景 background

本发明涉及用于对结构相变材料固体存储器件进行编程的技术,例如利用可编程为不同电阻率状态来存储数据的硫族化物材料存储器的编程技术。 The present invention relates to a structure of the phase change material solid state memory device programming techniques, such as by programming the programmable memory material is a chalcogenide different resistivity state to store data.

使用结构相变材料作为数据存储机理的固体存储器件(简称为" 相变存储器")比传统的基于电荷的存储器在成本和性能上具有明显的优势,相变存储器由组成单元的阵列构成,每个单元具有一些结构相变材料来存储所述单元的数据。 Using structural phase-change material as the data storage mechanism of solid state memory device (abbreviated as "PCM") than traditional charge-based memory has obvious advantages in cost and performance, phase-change memory is made of an array of cells, each Some units have a data structure of the phase change material to store the cell. 这种材料例如可以是硫族化物合金,它呈现从非晶态到结晶态可逆的结构相变.将少量>^克族化物合金结合到电路中,使所述单元可以起快速转换的可编程电阻器的 Such material may be, for example, a chalcogenide alloy, which exhibits from the amorphous state to the crystalline structure of a reversible phase transition into the circuit a small amount of binding> g ^ chalcogenide alloy, the programmable unit may be quickly converted from resistor

作用。 effect. 这种可编程电阻器可以呈现比40倍的结晶态(低电阻率)和非晶态(高电阻率)之间的电阻率动态范围还大的动态范围,并且还能够呈现允许在每个单元中进行多位存储的多种中间态。 This programmable resistor may exhibit more than 40 times the crystalline state (low resistivity) and the dynamic range of resistivity between the amorphous (high resistivity) larger dynamic range, and also allows each cell capable of presenting in various intermediate states of multi-bit memory. 存储在单元中的数据通过测量单元的电阻率读出。 Data stored in the cell is read out by means of resistivity measurements. 硫族化物合金单元也是非易失性的。 Chalcogenide alloy units are also nonvolatile.

用于对相变存储单元编程的传统技术是:在电压大于相变材料的开关阈值的条件下将电流的矩形脉冲(具有恒定的幅度)加到单元上,这使材料处于复位状态(非晶态和高电阻率)。 Traditional techniques for phase change memory cell is programmed: at a voltage greater than the switching threshold of the phase change material is a rectangular pulse current conditions (constant amplitude) is applied to the unit, which makes the material in a reset state (an amorphous state and high resistivity). 然后仍然在电压大于开关阈值的条件下施加后续矩形脉冲,将材料改变为置位状态(结晶态和低电阻率)。 Then a subsequent rectangular pulse is still applied at a voltage greater than the switching threshold, the change material is set state (low resistivity and the crystalline state). 复位脉冲的电流幅度高于置位脉沖,以便将相变材料的温度升高到Tn,即非晶化温度,随后将材料迅速冷却, 保持在非晶态。 Current amplitude of the reset pulse is higher than the set pulse, so that the temperature of the phase change material is raised to Tn of, i.e., the amorphous temperature, followed by rapid cooling material remains in the amorphous state. 要改变成结晶态,可以将材料加热回到最佳温度T。 To change to a crystalline state, the material may be heated back to the optimal temperature T. pt, 所述T叩t低于Tm, T。 pt, the rapping T t is less than Tm, T. pt是允许单元中的材料在相对较短的时限内结晶因而产生较低电阻的温度。 pt is a material unit allows crystallization temperature thus producing a lower resistance in a relatively short time frame. 理想的情况是采用以下方法来实现这一 Ideally, use the following method to achieve this

点:使置位脉冲的幅度小于复位脉沖的幅度以防止相变材料达到非晶化温度,但置位脉冲的幅度又足够大以使材料达到T。 Point: The amplitude of the set pulse amplitude is less than the reset pulse to prevent the amorphous phase change material reaches a temperature, but the set pulse amplitude big enough for the material reaches T. pt。 pt.

由于相变存储器的制造过程和材料的变化,对于利用置位脉沖所获得的给定编程电流/电压电平,在制成的器件的单元中的相变材料的实际温度在各个单元之间会有显著的差异。 Due to variations in the manufacturing process and the phase change memory material, a given programming current / voltage level is set for using the obtained pulse, the actual temperature of the phase change material in the cell in the device made between the respective units will there are significant differences. 这种差异会无意间使器件的一个或多个单元中的材料在加上传统矩形脉沖时达到Tra, 从而导致那些单元错误的保持在复位状态,而不改变为置位状态。 This difference may inadvertently make one or more units of the material of the device reaches Tra when coupled with the traditional rectangular pulse, thereby causing those cells maintained in the reset state error, without changing to the set state. 为避免这个问题,传统的编程技术使用幅度减小的矩形置位脉冲(加到器件的每个单元上),如图1所示。 To avoid this problem, conventional programming techniques used to reduce the amplitude of a rectangular set pulse (each cell is applied to the device), as shown in FIG. 考虑到在所述幅度时单元温度 Considering the temperature unit when the amplitude

的预期变化,置位电流应足够低,以保证在加置位脉冲时器件中没有单元达到Tm,但这种解决方案会减慢存储器件的编程,因为由于置位脉冲的较低幅度所产生的低于最佳的温度,就需要较长的矩形置位脉冲。 Anticipated changes, the set current should be low enough to ensure that the set pulse applied when the device is not cell reaches Tm, but this solution would slow down the programming of the memory device, because due to the lower amplitude of the generated set pulse is lower than the optimum temperature, it takes a long rectangular set pulse. 此外,存储器中许多单元的稳定显著低于最佳温度,这就减小了这些单元中置位和复位状态之间的电阻率动态范围。 In addition, the stability of many memory cells is significantly lower than the optimum temperature, which reduces the dynamic range of resistivity between these units are set and reset states.

附图简要说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

附图中用举例的方式而不是限制的方式来说明本发明,附图中 BRIEF by way of example and not by way of limitation of the present invention will be described, the drawings

类似的参考符号表示类似的元件,应当指出,本公开中提到"一个"实施例并不一定指同一实施例,是指至少一个实施例。 Similar reference characters denote similar elements throughout, it should be noted that the present disclosure to "one" embodiment does not necessarily refer to the same embodiment, it means at least one embodiment.

图l示出用于对相变存储器进行编程的传统脉沖序列. Figure l shows a pulse sequence in the conventional phase change memory programming.

图2示出按照本发明实施例的相变存储器编程脉冲序列,包括 Figure 2 shows a sequence of phase-change memory programming pulses according to embodiments of the present invention, comprising

置位扫描(set sweep)。 Scan Set (set sweep).

图3示出相变材料存储单元的结晶时间随相变材料温度而变的曲线。 FIG 3 illustrates a graph crystallization time of the phase change material of memory cell the phase change material with temperature-dependent.

图4示出另一个相变存储器编程脉冲序列,包括置位扫描。 Figure 4 shows another set scanning sequence of phase-change memory programming pulses, comprising 图5示出将按照本发明实施例的置位扫描加到单元上时,存储单元中相变材料的温度变化与时间的关系曲线。 Figure 5 illustrates the upper set of the embodiment applied to the scanning unit, the storage unit temperature change of the phase change material versus time curve of the embodiment according to the present invention.

图6示出对于特定的相变存储器件,存储单元电阻对编程电流电平的曲线。 Figure 6 shows a phase change for a particular memory device, memory cell resistance curve programmed current level.

图7示出对于大的存储单元群,存储单元电阻与编程电流的关系曲线,图中示出所述大存储单元群中较宽的变化的实例, FIG. 7 shows an example of the relationship of a large group of memory cells, memory cell programming current resistance curves in FIG large group of memory cells in a wide variation in the illustrated,

图8示出相变材料存储器件的方框图,包括用来提供对器件组成单元进行编程所需的电压和电流的波形成形和驱动电路, 8 illustrates a block diagram of a phase change material memory device, the device comprising a constituent unit for providing voltage and current waveform required for forming and programming the drive circuit,

图9示出包括编程过程的相变存储器的便携式应用的实施例方 Example 9 illustrates the portable party applications include programming the phase change memory embodiments

框图。 block diagram. 详细说明 Detailed description

按照本发明的实施例,用于对相变存储器进行编程的置位脉冲通常成形为三角形,而不是矩形。 According to an embodiment of the present invention, a set pulse for programming a phase change memory is generally triangular shaped, rather than rectangular. 本文中这种脉冲也称为"置位扫描"。 This pulse is also referred to herein as "scan set." 利用置位扫描,可以提高置位脉冲电流的幅度,使得器件所有单元中的相变材料在置位脉冲期间可以达到至少T。 Using the set scanning, to increase the amplitude of the set current pulse, so that the phase change material in all cells in the device during the set pulse reaches at least T. pt的温度,但由于脉沖后沿部分向下倾斜,器件所单元仍改变为置位状态。 Pt temperature, but due to the pulse trailing edge portion is inclined downward, the device unit is changed to the set state yet. 在存储器中发生较好的结晶,而与制造过程和材料的变化无关。 Crystallization takes place preferably in memory, regardless of variations in manufacturing processes and materials. 有了较好的结晶, 置位和复位状态之间的电阻率差异就更为显著。 With better crystals resistivities between the set and reset status is more significant. 这意味着提高了存储器中差异的容限,因此,通过允许制造和测试流程中更高的产出来降低制造成本。 This means that the increase in the margin of difference in the memory, and therefore, the manufacturing and testing process by allowing a higher yield out of lower manufacturing costs.

虽然当三角形置位脉冲的幅度大于传统置位脉冲的幅度时,存储器件可达到高达Tm的温度,但三角形脉沖具有衰减或向下倾斜的后沿部分,使得即使达到Tm的单元也有可能冷却到T柳并在此温度或接近此温度时结晶。 Although when the triangular set pulse amplitude greater than the amplitude of the conventional set pulse, the memory device can reach temperatures as high Tm, but the attenuation or a triangular pulse having a trailing downwardly inclined portion, so that even if the cell reaches Tm is also possible to cool Liu T crystallize at this temperature and at or near this temperature. 后沿部分期间的衰减足够慢,确保在大约T。 After along period of partial decay slowly enough to ensure that about T. pt 时那些单元用最少的所需时限来产生那些单元中较好的结晶。 Pt when those cells with the desired time to produce a minimum of those units is preferably crystalline. 对于预期其单元群中具有大差异的器件,由于后沿部分的倾斜而从最大 For cell population expected to have a large difference in the device, since the trailing portion is inclined from the maximum

值到最小值的电流过渡时间需要比预期有较小差异的器件要长一些。 To a minimum value of the transition time of the current device requires a smaller difference is longer than expected.

图2示出按照本发明实施例的相变存储器的编程脉冲序列。 Figure 2 shows a sequence of programming pulses to the phase change memory in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. 将第一脉冲204加到相变存储器的组成单元上。 The constituent unit 204 of the first pulse applied to phase change memory. 所述脉冲可以是任何 The pulse may be any

传统类型。 Traditional type. 典型的形状是矩形,如图所示,具有恒定的电流幅度。 Typical shapes are rectangular, as shown, having a constant current amplitude. 矩形脉沖比较容易产生,只用单一的开关晶体管即可(未示出),如在以上背景部分中所述,第一脉冲可以是复位或非晶化脉冲,所述 Rectangular pulse more prone only (not shown) to a single switching transistor, as in the above background section, the first pulse may be reset or amorphizing pulse, the

脉沖的幅度Iw。 Iw pulse amplitude. t足够高,以便使单元中的相变材料达到Tm,即,材料的非晶化温度,或者,在第一脉沖204使单元保持在预定的状态时,电流幅度可以不同,还这样选择第一脉沖204的脉冲宽度,使其具有足以获得预定状态的长度. t high enough, so that the phase change material cell reaches Tm, i.e., temperature of the amorphous material, or a first pulse 204 in the cell is maintained at a predetermined state when the current amplitude may be different, also select the first pulse width of pulse 204 so as to have a length sufficient to achieve a predetermined state.

加第一脉沖204后加第二脉沖208,所述第二脉冲通常是三角形, 如图所示。 Applying a first pulse 204 is applied after the second 208 pulse, the second pulse is generally triangular, as shown in FIG. 第二脉沖208具有前沿部分,其幅度峰值或最大值为 The second pulse has a leading edge portion 208, which is a maximum amplitude peak or

"(nuu),其后沿部分衰减到最小值I2(rain)。前沿部分具有比后沿部分大得多的斜率,根据制造过程和相变材料上的材料变化,以及存储器 "(Nuu), trailing edge portion of the attenuation to a minimum value I2 (rain). After the leading edge portion having a slope much greater than the edge portion, the material according to the change in the phase change material and the manufacturing process, and a memory

件组成单元中的电路,可以这样选择第二脉沖的形状,以便在存储器件的每个单元上加上第二脉沖时,每个单元都从第一状态改变为第二个不同的状态。 The unit circuit composed of elements, shape of the second pulse may be selected such that, when coupled to the second pulse at each unit memory device, each cell is changed from a first state to a second different state. 第一和第二状态可以是在上述背景部分中所述 A first and a second state may be described in the above background section

的复位和置位状态。 The reset and set states. 第二脉冲208的成形涉及许多参数的设定,包括最大和最小值、衰减速率/脉冲宽度,应根据所用相变材料的结构和类型,以及存储器件的工作热环境来设定。 Forming a second pulse 208 involves setting a number of parameters, including maximum and minimum values, the decay rate / pulse width should be set according to the type of structure and phase change material, and the thermal environment of the memory device.

"』和1^in)的电平可以采用各种数值。例如,"(^)可以显著 "" And 1 ^ in) level may take various values. For example, "(^) can be significantly

地大于If。 Greater than If. Mt,或只要脉冲宽度足够长,能确保加有脉冲的单元中的 MT, or as long as the pulse width long enough to ensure that the unit of the added pulses

相变材料能结晶,12(,)也可以显著地较小,结晶是温度和材料在此 The phase change material can be crystallized, 12 (,) may be significantly smaller, and the crystallization temperature of the material is here

温度下停留的时间的函数。 A function of residence time at temperature. 这一点可用图3来解释,图3示出结晶时间(在相变材料存储单元中)作为相变材料温度的函数的曲线图。 This can be used to explain FIG. 3, FIG. 3 shows a time graph of crystallinity as a function of the temperature of the phase change material (phase change material in the memory unit). 所述曲线图表示在温度低于T。 The graph shows a temperature lower than T. pt时,材料需要较长的时间结晶,所以, 需要较低的电流幅度(大致转换为在相变材料中产生的较低温度), 较长的脉沖宽度,来置位相变材料单元。 pt, the crystalline material takes a long time, therefore, require lower current magnitude (substantially to a lower temperature is generated in the phase change material), the longer the pulse width, means to set the phase change material. 理想的是,置位脉冲应具有的电流幅度能在存储器件的尽可能多的单元中产生T。 Ideally, the set pulse current amplitude should produce in as many cells of the memory device T. pt,以便为那些单元提供最短的编程时限、T^以及最低的置位状态电阻。 pt, in order to provide the shortest time limit is programmed those cells, T ^ and the lowest resistance of the set state.

12(^)的电平也可以在很宽的数值范围内变化,包括低到零。 12 (^) level can also vary over a wide range of values, including low to zero. Reason

想的是,置位脉冲的120^)的上限能确保加有所述脉冲的所有单元中 Thought that the upper limit of the set pulse 120 ^) is added to ensure that all units of the pulses

相变材料的温度在脉冲结束时(达到TBin时)都低于Ta。 The temperature of the phase change material at the end of the pulse (time to reach TBIN) lower than Ta.

图4示出另一个相变存储器的编程脉冲序列。 Figure 4 shows a further sequence of programming pulses to the phase change memory. 注意,在此实例中第二脉沖(置位扫描)308,虽然一般仍可称为三角形,但在前沿和后沿之间有一个较短的中间部分,所述中间部分相对于前沿和后沿部分而言具有基本上是零的斜率,而且,和图2的线性衰减斜率不同,图4中后沿部分具有非线性的斜率。 Note that, in this example a second pulse (Scan Set) 308, although still referred to generally triangular, but between the leading and trailing edges have a shorter intermediate portion, said intermediate portion with respect to the leading and trailing edges For portions having a substantially zero slope, and, FIG. 2, and the linear attenuation slope different from the slope portion in FIG. 4 along with nonlinear. 一般来说,后沿部分的衰减速率可以有很宽的范围,包括多项式、对数式以及指数式,只要后沿部分使器件中所有相关的单元扫过(sweep through)快速结晶温度时限。 In general, the rate of decay of the trailing portion can have a wide range, including polynomial, logarithmic, and exponential, as long as the trailing edge sweep all relevant units of the device (sweep through) rapid crystallization temperature limit portion.

三角形置位脉沖对相变存储器中单元温度的影响示于图5的示范曲线图中.可以看出,即使在对于三角形置位脉沖中给定的幅度和衰减有很大的温度变化(由阴影部分表示)的情况下,整个存储器件仍在快速的结晶温度时限内被扫描,使器件中的所有单元都获得最佳的,即最低的置位电阻。 Effect of the triangular set pulse to the phase change memory cell temperature is shown in the exemplary graph of FIG. 5. As can be seen, even at a great temperature change (a shaded triangular set pulse for a given amplitude attenuation and case portion shown), the entire memory device is still being scanned rapid crystallization temperature within a time limit, so that all cells in the device are optimal, i.e., the lowest set resistance. 这一点也示于图6,图6示出对于特定的相变存储器件,存储单元电阻与置位电流的关系曲线。 This is also shown in FIG. 6, FIG. 6 shows the curve for a particular phase change memory device, memory cell resistance and the set current. 以复位状态开始,当存储单元对各种电平的编程电流作出响应时绘制其电阻。 To begin the reset state, when the drawing resistance memory cell in response to a variety of programming current levels. 加各种电平的编程电流的顺序用箭头表示,从左边开始,向右移动, 再回到左边。 Plus various levels of programming current order is indicated by arrows, from the left, moving to the right, then back to the left. 可以看出,在置位电流快速升高到接近复位电平之前的置位电流值处可获得最低的置位电阻,最好,当置位扫描脉沖从其峰值向下扫描回来时,置位脉冲的三角形性质能使这最低的置位电阻被"锁定"。 As can be seen, the current rapidly increased to the set value at the reset level until close to the lowest set resistance can be obtained in the set current, preferably, when the scan pulse is set scan back down from its peak, set this pulse enables the triangular nature of the lowest set resistance is "locked." 确保存储器件中每个单元有最低的置位电阻,就可为存储器的读出操作提供优良的安全系数、更高的制造产出以及更好的产品可靠性。 To ensure that memory device each cell has the lowest set resistance, can provide excellent safety factor of the memory read operation, a higher manufacturing yield and better reliability.

也可以通过考虑图7来理解置位扫描的优点,图7中示出对于存储器件中的大存储单元群的存储单元电阻和编程电流的关系曲线。 Advantages may be understood by considering the set scanning FIG. 7, FIG. 7 shows in a graph the relationship memory cell resistance and a large programming current memory cell group of the memory device. 这种器件因其存储器组成单元群中的相当大的差异而受到损害。 Such devices because of a considerable difference in the memory cell group composed of compromised. 为将所有单元从置位状态变为复位状态,(对每个单元)加幅度为Ireset To all units from the set state to the reset state (for each cell) plus amplitude Ireset

的传统矩形脉沖就行.但加同样矩形置位脉冲(具有恒定的幅度)的传统编程技术不能使器件中的每一个单元返回到置位状态。 Conventional rectangular pulse on the line, but the same rectangular set pulse applied (having a constant amplitude) of conventional programming techniques can not each of the device unit returns to the set state. 这是因为要实现这一点电流幅度必需至少高达Ic。 This is because to achieve this magnitude must be at least as high as the current Ic. 肌,但在这种幅度时,当脉 Muscle, but in this amplitude, when the pulse

冲突然结束时,某些单元,即在区域704中的那些单元,仍停留在复位状态。 When the red end abruptly, some cells, i.e. those cells in the region 704, remains in the reset state. 相反,如果12,选择为如图所示,用置位扫描就不会发生这种情况,因为在脉冲緩慢衰减到12(^)的时间之前,所有羊元, 包括在区域704以及区域708中的那些单元,会在结晶温度时限内被扫描(所以能保证回复到置位状态)。 Conversely, if the 12, shown in FIG selected by the scan set that does not happen, because before the pulse decay slowly to 12 (^) time, all sheep element, including in the region 704 and a region 708 those units will be scanned in the crystallization temperature limit (so to ensure return to the set state). 置位扫描用回路712表示,其后沿部分用点画线表示。 Represented by the set scanning circuit 712, indicated by dotted lines in the subsequent section.

现转向图8,图中所示为相变材料存储器件的方框图,包括波形成形和驱动电路,用以提供对器件组成单元进行编程所需的电压和电流电平,器件以存储单元604的阵列为特征,所述阵列中每个单元604可以用唯一的一对垂直导体614和水平导体610存取。 Turning now to Figure 8, a block diagram shown in FIG phase change material memory device, including a drive and a waveform shaping circuit for providing the constituent unit for the device voltage and current levels required to program the device to the memory cell array 604 characterized by each of said array unit 604 may use a unique pair of horizontal conductors 614 and vertical conductors 610 access. 在此实施例中,水平导体610允许把来自定时逻辑电路620的控制信号提供给争个单元604,以便接通或断开其中的固体开关。 Embodiment, the horizontal conductor 610 allows providing a control signal from the timing circuit 620 to the contention logic units 604, so as to turn on or off the solid state switch which in this embodiment. 所述固体开关与相变材料块串联,开关的另一端子连接到电源或电源回线节点。 The solid state switch in series with the phase change material block, the other terminal of the switch connected to the power supply or return line node. 因此,当接通开关时电流可以通过相变材料流出或被吸收,所述编程电流通过垂直导体614提供。 Thus, turning on the switch when the current flowing through the phase change material or absorbed, the programming current is provided by vertical conductor 614. 编程电流的流出或吸收可以或者通过读出电路618或者通过波形成形和驱动电路608进行,根据进行读出或写入操作而定。 Programming current flows or can be absorbed, or by reading out the waveform shaping circuit 618 or 608 and the drive circuit, read or write operations may be performed in accordance with. 读出电路618可以完全是传统电路。 Readout circuit 618 may be entirely conventional circuit.

将这样设计波形成形和驱动电路608,以便按照以上描述第一和第二脉冲提供对单元604进行编程所需的电压和电流电平,其中, 第二脉冲具有一般的三角形状。 The thus designed and drive waveform shaping circuit 608, according to the above described first and second pulse unit 604 provides voltage and current levels required to program, wherein the second pulse has a generally triangular shape. 波形成形电路可以利用传统的模拟波形成形电路实现,例如积分器/斜坡电路、指数和对数电路以及其它电路。 Waveform shaping circuit using conventional analog waveform shaping circuit implementations, for example, integrator / ramp circuits, exponential circuits and other circuits, and the number of pairs. 然后由传统的扇出电路驱动成形的脉冲,以便确保每个连接到垂直导体604上的单元604接收到具有所需电平的电压和电流, 实现置位扫描, Then the driving pulse shaping by a conventional fan-out circuitry to ensure that each cell 604 is connected to the vertical conductors 604 having received the required voltage and current levels, to achieve the set scan,

与产生脉冲关联的定时由定时逻辑电路620确定,定时逻辑电 Associated with the timing pulses generated by the timing logic circuit 620 is determined, the timing logic

路620向波形成形和驱动电路608和读出电路608提供数字控制信号,使得这些电路按照正确的定时或者测量存储单元604的电阻或者向所选存储单元604提供复位和置位脉沖。 And the passage 620 to the waveform shaping circuit 608 and drive circuit 608 provides a digital read-out control signal, or circuits such that the reset and set pulses provided to the selected memory cell 604 in accordance with the correct timing or measuring the resistance of memory cell 604. 单元604的存取可以随机进行,每个单元可单独存取,或按照逐行的方式协调进行,视存储器系统的较高级要求而定。 Random access unit 604 may be performed, each cell may be accessed individually, or by progressive coordinated manner, depending on system memory requirements may be higher.

可以利用各种不同的制造过程,包括稍作改动的传统的互补金属氣化物半导体(CMOS)逻辑电路制造过程来制造图8所示的存储器件。 You may utilize a variety of different manufacturing processes, including a slightly modified conventional complementary metal vapor semiconductor (CMOS) logic circuit manufacturing process to manufacture the memory device shown in Fig. 可以在同一集成电路(IC)芯片上形成单元604的阵列和波形成形和驱动电路608,如果这样,可以获得系统集成在单一芯片上的低成本的优点, May form an array unit 604 and the waveform in the same integrated circuit (IC) chip forming and driving circuit 608, and if so, can obtain the advantage of low cost system integrated on a single chip,

图9示出以上描述的相变存储器编程过程的便携式应用904的方框图。 Figure 9 shows a block diagram 904 illustrating the above-described phase change memory programming process portable applications. 相变存储器908按照以上描述的编程过程的实施例工作。 Phase-change work memory 908 according to an embodiment of the programming process described above. 相变存储器908可以包括一个或多个集成电路芯片,每个芯片具有按照以上图1到8中描述的编程技术的各种实施例编程的存储器阵列。 Phase-change memory 908 may comprise one or more integrated circuit chips, each chip having a memory array according to various embodiments of the above embodiments programming FIG programming technique described in 1-8. 这些芯片可以是分离的、独立的存储器件,将它们设置成模块, 例如传统的动态随M取存储器(DRAM)模块,或者将它们与其它片上功能结合在一起,在后一种实施例中,相变存储器908可以是I/O处理器或孩i控制器的一部分。 These chips may be separate, a separate memory device, they are provided as modules, for example with M conventional dynamic access memory (DRAM) modules, or they can be combined with other on-chip functions, in the latter embodiment, the memory 908 may be a phase change / O processor or controller part I i children.

应用904可以是例如便携式笔记本电脑、数字静止和/或视频摄像机、个人数字助理或移动(蜂窝)手持电话等。 Application 904 may be a portable notebook computers, digital still and / or video cameras, personal digital assistants or mobile (cellular) portable telephone. 在所有这些应用中, 电子系统包括处理器910,它用相变存储器908作为程序存储器来存储代码和数据供其执行。 In all these applications, the electronic system includes a processor 910, which uses a phase-change memory 908 as program memory to store code and data for execution thereof. 或者,相变存储器908可用作大容量存储器件,用于代码和数据的非易失存储。 Alternatively, a phase-change memory 908 may be used as a mass storage device, a nonvolatile memory for code and data. 便携式应用904通过1/0接口914与其它装置例如个人计算机或计算机网络等通信。 The portable application 904 via interface 914 to communicate with other 1/0 devices such as a personal computer or a computer network like. I/O接口914 可以接入计算机外围设备总线、高速数字通信传输线或非制导传输天线。 I / O interface 914 may access a computer peripheral bus, a high speed digital communication transmission line or unguided transmission antennas. 处理器和相变存储器908之间以及处理器和I/0接口904之间的通信可以利用传统的计算机总线体系结构来实现。 Between 908 and communication may utilize conventional computer bus architectures between the processor and I / 0 interface 904 to achieve a phase change memory and a processor.

便携式应用904的上述部件由电池918通过电源总线916供电。 Application of the above-described portable member 904 by the battery 918 through the power supply bus 916.

由于应用904 —般由电池供电,其功能部件,包括相变存储器件908, 应设计成在低耗电水平提供所需的功能。 Since the application 904-- generally powered by a battery, the function member, including phase change memory device 908, it should be designed to provide the desired level of functionality in the low power consumption. 此外,由于便携式应用的受约束的尺寸的缘故,图9所示的各种部件,包括相变存储器件908, 应提供较高的功能密度.当然,相变存储器908还有其它的非便携式应用,此文未予示出。 Further, due to the size of the constrained portable applications, the various components shown in FIG. 9, includes a phase change memory device 908 should provide a higher functional density. Of course, a phase-change memory 908 there are other non-portable applications This text is not shown. 这些应用包括:例如可得益于非易失性存储器件例如相变存储器的大型网络服务器或其它计算装置。 These applications include: for example, a nonvolatile memory device, for example, phase change memory large network servers or other computing devices can benefit.

作为一个实例,相变材料可以是Ge2Sb2Te5。 As one example, the phase change material may be Ge2Sb2Te5. 示范的脉冲可以具有峰值电流幅度Ireset,所述I加et足够高,使阵列中的单元可以被编程为复位状态。 Exemplary pulse may have a peak current amplitude of the Ireset, the I et plus high enough so that the cells in the array may be programmed to the reset state. 示范的脉沖也可具有下降沿,它在大约200nsec内从Ifeset下降到零电流。 Exemplary pulse may also have a falling edge, it falls to zero current from Ifeset within about 200nsec. 但这些特性仅为示例,本编程技术也可使用各种不同的相变材料和具有较慢的下降沿的脉沖形状。 However, these features are merely exemplary, the present techniques may also be programmed to use a variety of phase change materials having a slower falling pulse shape.

概言之,以上说明了相变材料存储器编程技术(称为置位扫描) 的各种实施例。 In summary, the above described phase change material memory programming (called a scan set) various embodiments. 在以上的说明书中,是参阅具体的示范实施例对本发明加以说明的。 In the foregoing specification, refer to a specific exemplary embodiment of the present invention will be described. 但显然可以对其进行各种修改和变化,而不会背离如所附权利要求书所提出的本发明的广义精神和范围。 But it will be apparent that various modifications and variations, without departing from the appended claims broader spirit and scope of the invention being proposed. 例如,相变材料可以是硫族化物合金或可以用作可编程电阻器的其它合适的结构的相变材料。 For example, the phase change material may be a chalcogenide alloy or other suitable phase change material structure can be used as a programmable resistor. 所以,本说明书和附图应认为是说明性的而非限制性的。 Therefore, the specification and drawings are to be regarded as illustrative rather than restrictive.

Claims (20)

1.一种用于对存储器件进行编程的方法,所述方法包括: 将第一脉冲加到所述存储器件的组成单元上,所述单元具有结构相变材料以存储所述单元的数据,并且将所述材料保持在第一状态,以及然后将第二脉冲加到所述单元上以便将所述材料从所述第一状态改变为第二个不同的状态,所述第二脉冲具有一般的三角形状。 1. A method for programming a memory device, the method comprising: a first pulse is applied to the constituent elements of the memory device, the unit having a data structure to store the phase change material cell, and the material is maintained in a first state and a second pulse is then applied to the material on the unit so as to change from the first state to a second different state, the second pulse having the general the triangular shape.
2. 如权利要求l所述的方法,其中,所述第二脉冲具有前沿部分和后沿部分,所迷前沿部分具有比所述后沿部分更陡的斜率。 2. The method according to claim l, wherein said second pulse having a leading part and a trailing part, the leading part of the fan than said trailing portion of steeper slope.
3. 如权利要求2所述的方法,其中,所述第二脉冲还包括在所述前沿部分和所述后沿部分之间的中间部分,并且所述中间部分相对所述前沿和后沿部分具有基本上零的斜率。 3. The method of claim 2 and the intermediate portion relative to the leading and trailing portions, wherein said second pulse further includes an intermediate portion between the leading portion and said trailing portion, having a substantially zero slope.
4. 如权利要求l所述的方法,其中,使所述第一脉沖具有这样的形状,以便将所述材料保持在高电阻状态,并且使所述第二乐》冲具有这样的形状,以便将所述材料保持在低电阻状态。 4. The method according to claim l, wherein said first pulse has such a shape, so that the material is kept in a high resistance state, and the second music "punch having a shape to the material is maintained in a low resistance state.
5. 如权利要求4所述的方法,其中,所述第二脉冲具有这样的幅度和衰减速率,使得如果将所述第一脉冲和所述第二脉冲加到所述存储器件的每个组成单元上,所述存储器件的每个组成单元从所述第一状态改变为所述第二状态,与制造过程和所述器件中的材料变化无关。 5. The method according to claim 4, wherein the second pulse has a magnitude and decay rate, such that if the first pulse and the second pulse is applied to each component of the memory device unit, each constituent unit of the memory device is changed from said first state to said second state, regardless of variations in manufacturing processes and materials of the devices.
6. 如权利要求5所述的方法,其中,如果将所述笫二脉冲加到所述器件的至少部分组成单元上,那么,所述第二脉冲的所述幅度足够高,足以使这些单元中的相变材料达到非晶化温度。 6. A method as claimed in claim 5, wherein at least part of the unit if the undertaking of two pulses are applied to the device, then the amplitude of the second pulse is high enough to make these units the phase change material reaches the amorphizing temperature.
7. 如权利要求6所述的方法,其中,所迷衰减速率足够慢,足以使已达到非晶化温度的那些組成单元以足够慢的速度冷却,使得那些单元中的所勤目变材料从所述第一状态改变为所述第二状态。 7. The method according to claim 6, wherein the fan decay rate sufficiently slow enough so that the constituent unit has reached the temperature of the amorphous cooled at a rate slow enough such that the ground entry change material in those cells from changing the first state to the second state.
8. —种存储器件,它包括:具有多个组成单元的阵列,每个单元具有用来存储所迷单元的数据的结构相变材料;波形成形和驱动电路,它连接成提供对所述多个组成单元进行编禾呈所需的电压和电流电平,所述成形和驱动电路产生第一务K冲,将其加到所述存储器件的多个组成单元之一,使所述组成单元的材料保持在第一状态,然后将第二脉冲加到所述组成单元,使其所述材料从所述第一状态改变为第二个不同的状态,其中所述第二脉冲具有一般的三角形状。 8. - kind of memory device, comprising: an array having a plurality of constituent units, each unit having a fan used to store the data unit structural phase change material; and a drive waveform shaping circuit, which is connected to said plurality to provide a composition unit was programmed Wo voltage and current levels required, the forming and driving circuit generates a first punch works K, which is applied to one of a plurality of constituent units of the memory device, the constituent unit the material remains in a first state, a second pulse is then applied to the constituent units, so the material is changed from the first state to a second different state, wherein the second pulse has a generally triangular shape.
9. 如权利要求8所述的存储器件,其中,所述波形成形和驱动电路将所述第二Ji^冲成形为具有前沿部分和后沿部分,所述前沿部分具有比所述后沿部分更陡的斜率。 9. The memory device according to claim 8, wherein said waveform shaping circuit and the second driving Ji ^ shaped punch having a leading part and a trailing part, the leading edge portion of the rear edge portion than the steeper slope.
10. 如权利要求8所述的存储器件,其中,所述材料可以以响应的方式从高电阻状态改变为低电阻状态,所述电路使所述第一脉冲具有这样的形状,使得当施加所述第一脉沖时使所述组成单元中的所述材料保持在所述高电阻状态,并且使所述第二脉冲具有这样的形状, 使得当施加所述第二脉冲时使所述组成单元中的所述材料保持在所述低电阻状态。 10. The memory device according to claim 8, wherein the material may be changed from the manner in response to the high resistance state to the low resistance state, the circuit of the first pulse has a shape such that, when applied to the when said first pulse so that the composition of the material in the unit is maintained high resistance state, and the second pulse has such a shape, such that when the composition of the second pulse applying unit the material is held in the low resistance state.
11. 如权利要求10所述的存储器件,其中,所述电路使所迷第二务P中具有这样的形状:所述第二乐P中具有这样的幅度和衰减速率,使得如果将所述第一脉冲和所述第二脉沖加到所述存储器件的每个组成单元上,所述存储器件的每个组成单元从所述第一状态改变为所述第二状态,与制造过程和所迷器件中的材料变化无关。 11. The memory device according to claim 10, wherein said second circuit causes the fan traffic P having a shape: the second Le P having such an amplitude and decay rate, such that if the each constituent unit of the first pulse and the second pulse to said memory device, each constituent unit of the memory device is changed from said first state to said second state, with the manufacturing process and the independent of variations in the material of the device fans.
12. 如权利要求ll所述的存储器件,其中,所述电路使所述第二脉冲具有这样的形状:如果将所述第二脉冲加到所述器件的至少部分组成单元上,那么,所述第二脉冲的所述幅度足够高,足以使这些单元中的相变材料达到非晶化温度。 Means at least a part if the second pulse is applied to the device, then, as: 12. The memory device of claim ll wherein said circuit causes said second pulse has such a shape as claimed in claim, the amplitude of the pulses of said second high enough to cause the phase change material reaches these units amorphization temperature.
13. 如权利要求12所述的存储器件,其中,所迷电路使所述第二脉冲具有这样的形状:所述衰减速率足够慢,足以使已达到非晶化温度的那些組成单元以足够慢的速度冷却,使得那些单元中的所述相变材料从所述第一状态改变为所述第二状态。 13. The memory device of claim 12, wherein the fans of the second pulse circuit having such a shape that: the decay rate is slow enough to cause those constituent unit has reached the transition temperature of amorphous slow enough cooled at a rate such that the unit of the phase change material changes from a first state to the second state.
14. 如权利要求8所述的存储器件,其中,所述阵列以及所述波形成形和驱动电路形成在同一集成电路(IC)芯片上。 14. The memory device according to claim 8, wherein said array and said waveform shaping and driving circuit are formed on the same integrated circuit (IC) chip.
15. —种用于对存储器件进行编程的方法,所述方法包括: 将第一脉冲加到所述存储器件的组成单元上,所述单元具有用来存储所述单元的数据的结构相变材料,所述第一脉沖用来将所述材料保持在第一状态,以及然后将笫二脉冲加到所述单元上使所述材料从所述第一状态改变为第二个不同的状态,所述第二脉沖具有有效时限,在所述有效时限内所述第二脉冲的信号电平随时间不断下降,并且其中,所述单元在所述有效时限内从所述第一状态改变为所述第二状态。 15. The - method for programming a memory device, the method comprising: a first pulse is applied to the constituent elements of the memory device, for storing a data unit having the unit structural phase transition material, the first pulse is used to retain the material in a first state, and then undertaking of two pulses to cause the material to change from the first state to a second state different from said unit, the second pulse having an effective time, the effective time limit in the signal level of the second falling pulse with time, and wherein said means within said effective time is changed to the first state from the said second state.
16. 如权利要求15所述的方法,其中,使所述第一脉冲具有这样的形状,以便将所述材料保持在高电阻状态,并且使所述笫二脉冲具有这样的形状,以便将所述材料保持在低电阻状态。 16. The method according to claim 15, wherein said first pulse has such a shape, so that the material is kept in a high resistance state, and the undertaking of the two pulses having such a shape, so the said material is maintained in a low resistance state.
17. 如权利要求16所述的方法,其中,所述第二脉沖具有这样的幅度和衰减速率,使得如果将所述第一脉冲和所述第二脉冲加到所述存储器件的每个组成单元上,所述存储器件的每个组成单元从所述第一状态改变为所述笫二状态,与制造过程和所述器件中的材料变化无关。 17. The method according to claim 16, wherein the second pulse has a magnitude and decay rate, such that if the first pulse and the second pulse is applied to each component of the memory device unit, each constituent unit of the memory device is changed from the second state to the undertaking of a first state, regardless of variations in manufacturing processes and materials of the devices.
18. —种存储器件,它包括:具有多个组成单元的阵列,每个单元具有用来存储所述单元的数椐的结构相变材料;波形成形和驱动电路,它连接成提供对所述多个组成单元进行编程所需的电压和电流电平,所迷成形和驱动电路产生第一脉沖,将其加到所述存储器件的多个组成单元之一,使所述组成单元的材料保持在第一状态,然后将第二脉冲加到所述组成单元,使其所述材料从所述第一状态改变为第二个不同的状态,所述第二脉冲具有有效时限, 所述电路使所述第二脉冲具有这样的形状,使得在所述有效时限内所述第二脉冲的信号电平随时间不断下降,并且其中,所述单元在所述有效时限内从所述第一状态改变为所述第二状态。 18. - kind of memory device, comprising: an array having a plurality of constituent units, each unit having a structure noted in the means for storing phase change material; and a drive waveform shaping circuit, which is connected so as to provide the a plurality of constituent units voltage and current levels required to program, and the shaping of the fan driving circuit generates a first pulse, which is applied to one of a plurality of constituent units of the memory device, the material holding the constituent unit in a first state, a second pulse is then applied to the constituent units, so the material is changed from the first state to a second different state, the second pulse having an effective time, so that the circuit the second pulse has such a shape, such that within the effective time of the signal level of the second falling pulse with time, and wherein said first means is changed from the active state within the time limit the second state.
19. 如权利要求18所述的存储器件,其中,使所述第一脉沖具有这样的形状,以便将所述材料保持在高电阻状态,并且使所迷第二l^ 沖具有这样的形状,以便将所述材料保持在低电阻状态。 19. The memory device according to claim 18, wherein said first pulse has such a shape so as to hold the material in a high resistance state, and the second fan l ^ the punch has a shape, the material so as to remain in a low resistance state.
20. 如权利要求19所述的存储器件,其中,所述第二脉冲具有这样的幅度和衰减速率,使得如果将所述第一脉沖和所迷第二脉冲加到所述存储器件的每个组成单元上,所述存储器件的每个组成单元从所述第一状态改变为所述第二状态,与制造过程和所述器件中的材料变化无关。 20. The memory device according to claim 19, wherein the second pulse has a magnitude and decay rate, such that if the first pulse and the second pulse is applied to the fan of each of said memory device the constitutional units, each constituent cell of the memory device is changed from said first state to said second state, regardless of variations in manufacturing processes and materials of the devices.
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