CN100434795C - Biomass combustion device with low NOx emission and combustion method thereof - Google Patents

Biomass combustion device with low NOx emission and combustion method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100434795C
CN100434795C CNB2004100986040A CN200410098604A CN100434795C CN 100434795 C CN100434795 C CN 100434795C CN B2004100986040 A CNB2004100986040 A CN B2004100986040A CN 200410098604 A CN200410098604 A CN 200410098604A CN 100434795 C CN100434795 C CN 100434795C
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China
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combustion
grate
burning
chamber
zone
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CN1789807A (en
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董利
宋文立
高士秋
何京东
李静海
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Institute of Process Engineering of CAS
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Institute of Process Engineering of CAS
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Abstract

The present invention relates to a biomass low-NOx burning device and a burning method. The device comprises a vertical burner above which a flue is arranged. The inner cavity of the vertical burner is divided by a spacer plate into a pyrolysis chamber and a burning chamber with communicated bottoms; the lower part of the spacer plate is provided with a communicating port communicating the pyrolysis chamber with the burning chamber. A hopper is arranged above the pyrolysis chamber. The lower part of the burning chamber is successively provided with an inclined grate and a rotary tapping device. A burning zone in the burning chamber and under the pyrolysis chamber is divided into a reducing zone above the inclined grate and a burning-out zone under the reducing zone. A burner wall is respectively provided with a primary air inlet, a secondary air inlet and a tertiary air inlet corresponding to the inclined grate, the reducing zone and the burning-out zone. Combined with the burning characteristics of biomass fuel volatile components and the coke, the method forms different burning atmospheres in the burner to realize nice burning so as to reduce black smoke. Via reducing burning and the reduction of the searing coke, NOx in the burning process is reduced so as to enhance burning efficiency and simultaneously reduce pollutants.

Description

The low NOx combustion apparatus of living beings and combustion method
Invention field
The present invention relates to a kind of biomass combustion device and combustion method, be particularly related to a kind of jet-black, nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) that can effectively reduce the biomass combustion discharging, improve the efficient burning device and the combustion method of biomass combustion utilization ratio.
Background technology
Poor day by day along with fossil energy receives much concern as the development and use of the biomass energy of the fourth-largest energy.China's biomass energy is abundant, agricultural wastes density wherein is little, the stacking volume is big, open burning is seriously polluted, potential safety hazard is big, for this reason, people have developed multiple biomass combustion and have utilized method, but because the living beings volatile matter is many, the coke burning is asynchronous with volatile combustion, the after-flame degree is poor, the over-emitting black exhaust situation is serious, thereby has restricted the promotion and application of biomass fuel burning technology, and living beings contain more nitrogen element, can generate a large amount of pollutant NOx in the time of burning, so need the method for a kind of low NOx efficient burning living beings of exploitation.
Application number is that 95102081.1 Chinese invention patent applications disclose a kind of low NOx smokeless coal-burning method and combustion furnace, and coal at first utilizes self calory burning hypoxemia pyrolytic gasification in vaporizer, and semicoke remaining after the coal gasification burns in the combustion chamber.When the pyrolysis gas that vaporizer produces passed through the coal-char combustion layer of vaporizer base burning mouth, nitrogenous gas such as NOx were reduced to N by semicoke 2Because the jet-black that imperfect combustion produces is when the semicoke layer at process port place, the part jet-black is adsorbed to the surface of semicoke, is burnt along with the burning of semicoke, reduces the discharging of jet-black and CO.
Summary of the invention
The low NOx combustion apparatus that the purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of living beings, this device can reduce the discharging of pollutants such as jet-black and NOx when improving biomass combustion efficient, realize that the high-efficiency environment friendly burning of living beings utilizes.
Another object of the present invention provides a kind of low NOx combustion apparatus method of living beings.
The object of the present invention is achieved like this:
The low NOx efficient burning device of living beings provided by the invention comprises:
One vertical shaft furnace, the body of heater top is provided with flue outlet, and every being divided into pyrolysis chamber and the combustion chamber that the bottom communicates, the lower partition has the connected entrance that is communicated with pyrolysis chamber and combustion chamber to the body of heater inner chamber by a dividing plate; Top, described pyrolysis chamber is equipped with hopper; Be provided with inclined grate and rotation deslagging device successively in the bottom, combustion chamber; The combustion zone that is positioned in the combustion chamber under the pyrolysis chamber is divided into reducing zone and burning-out zone, described reducing zone is positioned on the inclined grate, burning-out zone under the reducing zone, with the corresponding furnace wall in reducing zone and combustion chamber on be respectively equipped with wind inlet, secondary wind inlet and a tertiary air import.
The cross section of described vertical shaft furnace is circular or square.Described dividing plate is tubular dividing plate or dull and stereotyped dividing plate.Described rotation deslagging device is rotary valve or helix transporting device.
Described pyrolysis chamber is positioned at the vertical shaft furnace center, and described inclined grate is the cone-shaped grates of base sealing, and its cone angle is 90-120 °.Described inclined grate also can be two layers of cone-shaped grates, and promptly cone-shaped grates is a upper grate, and its below is provided with a back taper lower floor fire grate, and cone angle is 90-120 °.
Described pyrolysis chamber is positioned at a side of vertical shaft furnace, described inclined grate is an inclined grate horizontal by 30-60 ° of angle, and vertical with the furnace wall and angled smoke deflector is installed at the described secondary wind inlet on the furnace wall, described combustion chamber and the upper-lower position place of tertiary air import respectively.
Described inclined grate is two-layer inclined grate, and promptly inclined grate is the upper strata inclined grate, and its below is provided with an inclined grate and becomes clover leaf lower floor inclined grate, and the angle of lower floor's inclined grate and horizontal plane is 30-60 °.
Described vertical shaft furnace is a circular cross-section, and described pyrolysis chamber is positioned at the center of vertical shaft furnace, and described secondary wind and the tertiary air that is blown into by secondary air mouth and three air inlets tangentially sent into along the pyrolysis chamber.
Described vertical shaft furnace is the square-section, and described pyrolysis chamber is positioned at a side of vertical shaft furnace, and vertical with the furnace wall and angled smoke deflector is installed at the described secondary wind inlet on the furnace wall, described combustion chamber and the upper-lower position place of tertiary air import respectively.
The low NOx efficient burning method of living beings provided by the invention, its combustion step is as follows:
1) biomass fuel is sent into the pyrolysis chamber from the hopper of upper of furnace body, utilizes biomass combustion produces on the inclined grate of combustion chamber heat and pyrolysis chamber bottom heat to make that living beings heat up, pyrolysis, separates out volatile matter, generates biomass coke;
2) the effect next part of the volatile matter of Sheng Chenging negative pressure in stove enters combustion chamber and secondary wind and the tertiary air mixed combustion sent into from the connected entrance on the dividing plate, extenuate volatile matter and coke and rob the contradiction of oxygen burning mutually, can reduce the high phenomenon of over-emitting black exhaust and CO discharging, improve efficiency of combustion;
3) biomass coke of another part volatile matter and generation moves up into the reducing zone under the effect lower edge inclined grate of gravity and rotation deslagging device 12, with a wind mixed combustion of sending into, because the part jet-black that produces when volatile matter and coke mixed combustion is adsorbed to coke surface when passing scorching hot coke layer, burnt along with the burning of coke, can be reduced the jet-black growing amount; Burning in the reducing zone is an anoxycausis, and the reducing atmosphere of formation can reduce the growing amount of NOx in the burning, and the NOx of burning generation can be reduced to N when passing scorching hot coke layer in addition 2, also can reduce the discharge capacity of NOx in the biomass fuel combustion process;
4) under the effect of gravity and rotation deslagging device, scorching hot lime-ash moves along inclined grate, enters burning-out zone by the reducing zone, with the after-flame wind mixed combustion of sending into burning-out zone, further after-flame reduces ash content carbon, and the lime-ash of generation is discharged to outside the stove under the rotation deslagging device drives.
In the course of the work, biomass fuel can rely on self gravitation to flow on greater than 30 ° inclined grate in angle, form moving bed, behind the lime-ash of rotation deslagging device discharge section after-flame, the coke that burns on the fire grate will flow automatically and replenish, and the part of fuel of pyrolysis chamber can flow on the fire grate and further to replenish, and the fuel in the hopper also enters the pyrolysis chamber thereupon, makes the continuous motion of stove endogenous substance fuel.Feed in the whole stove, the rotary speed that can utilize control to rotate deslagging device of burning and slag tap are regulated, and be simple to operate, convenient and easy.
The present invention realizes that the theoretical foundation of the low NOx efficient burning of living beings is:
Utilize the living beings volatile matter to separate out the characteristics that obviously are divided into two stages with the coke burning, form different combustion atmospheres in stove inner tissue, the burning of volatile combustion and coke separated carry out, corresponding air capacity is provided respectively, and it is rapid to reduce volatile combustion, needs the burning of a large amount of air and coke during the burning slowly, air output is the contradiction between the Da Yi increase fly ash content too, it is many to solve the uneven jet-black that causes of air-supply, and the problem of after-flame difference realizes efficient burning; Meanwhile,, utilize reduction inhibition, the reducing NOx of anoxycausis and scorching hot coke, realize the low NOx drainage of biomass combustion at the stoker surface combustion atmosphere different with combustion chamber inner tissue.
The low NOx combustion apparatus of living beings provided by the invention and combustion method, its major advantage is:
(1) utilize gravity that biomass fuel is moved having on the inclined grate of certain angle continuously, form moving bed, the feed in the whole stove, burn and slag tap and can utilize the rotary speed of control rotation deslagging device to regulate, simple to operate, convenient and easy;
(2) pyrolysis of living beings separates and carries out with burning, can avoid the contradiction between the burning of volatile combustion and coke, reduces the phenomenon of over-emitting black exhaust, the raising efficiency of combustion;
(3) reduction of anoxycausis in the reducing zone and scorching hot coke can reduce the growing amount of NOx in the combustion process;
(4) classification vertically of upper furnace burning room air is sent into, and further reduces NOx and generates.
Description of drawings:
Accompanying drawing 1 is the structural representation of the embodiment of the invention 1;
Accompanying drawing 2 is the tangentially schematic diagram of air-supply of accompanying drawing 1;
Accompanying drawing 3 is the structural representation of the embodiment of the invention 2;
The specific embodiment
The invention will be further described to reach embodiment in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
Embodiment 1:
Accompanying drawing 1 is the structural representation of embodiment 1.
The combustion furnace 100 of embodiment 1 is a upright cylinder, and tubular pyrolysis chamber 2 is positioned at the burner hearth middle part, and the bottom is that back taper fire grate 11 is connected with rotary valve type deslagging device 12.In the combustion process, the charging of biomass fuel, slagging-off and burning velocity are by rotary valve type deslagging device 12 controls of lower furnace.Biomass fuel enters the pyrolysis chamber 2 that is positioned at the burner hearth center from the hopper 1 of upper furnace, volatile matter is separated out in heating rapidly under the effect of furnace heat, a part of volatile matter of separating out enters combustion chamber 4 internal combustion by connected entrance 9, and the coke of another part volatile matter after with fuel thermal decomposition is that 90-120 ° cone-shaped grates 6 enters reducing zone 10 burnings along cone angle.In the reducing zone, after contacting, the wind that coke and volatile matter and fire grate below are sent into carries out anoxycausis, formation can suppress the reducing atmosphere that NOx generates, in addition, because scorching hot coke has strong reduction to NOx, the NOx that burning generates is reduced when entering the combustion chamber by scorching hot coke layer, has further reduced the growing amount of NOx; At burning-out zone 7, unburnt coke mixes abundant after-flame with after-flame wind, thereby has reduced ash content carbon, improves the after-flame degree.The lime-ash of after-flame is discharged burner hearth by rotary valve type deslagging device 12.In upper furnace combustion chamber 4, for the tangential firing mode has been adopted in overheavy firing, combustion air (two, tertiary air) 13 is tangentially sent into from four direction along imaginary circle, as shown in Figure 2.From two, the mixed combustions around 2 of tertiary air spout 5,3 air that sprays into burner hearth and the volatile matter that enters combustion chamber 4, flue gas in the tubular pyrolysis chamber, forming spiralling air-flow can the time of staying of prolong smoke in combustion chamber 4, reduce the jet-black discharging, improve efficiency of combustion.In addition, secondary wind, tertiary air layering are sent into to make and are realized fractional combustion in the combustion chamber vertically, further reduce the NOx growing amount.
Embodiment 2:
Accompanying drawing 3 is structural representations of embodiment 2.
The section of burner hearth of embodiment 2 is a rectangle, utilizes dividing plate 14 that upper furnace is divided into pyrolysis chamber 2 and combustion chamber 4.Two-layer inclined grate arranges that as shown in Figure 3 the charging of biomass fuel, slagging-off and burning velocity are by auger conveyor 12 controls of lower furnace.Biomass fuel enters pyrolysis chamber 2 from the hopper 1 of upper furnace, volatile matter is separated out in heating rapidly under the effect of furnace heat, a part of volatile matter of separating out enters combustion chamber 4 internal combustion by connected entrance 9, and the coke of another part volatile matter after with fuel thermal decomposition enters reducing zone 10 burnings along upper strata inclined grate 16.In the reducing zone, after contacting, the wind that coke and volatile matter and fire grate below are sent into carries out anoxycausis, suppressing NOx generates, in addition, because scorching hot coke has strong reduction to NOx, the NOx that burning generates is reduced when entering combustion chamber 4 by scorching hot coke layer, has further reduced the growing amount of NOx.At burning-out zone 7, unburnt coke mixes abundant after-flame with after-flame wind, reduces ash content carbon, improves the after-flame degree, and the lime-ash of after-flame is discharged burner hearth under the effect of auger conveyor.In upper furnace combustion chamber 4, two, tertiary air 5,3 adopts layerings to send into, and makes and realizes fractional combustion in the combustion chamber 4 vertically, further reduces the NOx growing amount.In order to strengthen combustion intensity, be provided with smoke deflector 15 in the combustion chamber 4, can strengthen the mixing intensity between flue gas, volatile matter and the air on the one hand, can also increase flow of flue gas stroke in the combustion chamber on the other hand, prolong the time of staying of imperfect combustion composition in stove, reduce jet-black discharging degree, improve efficiency of combustion;
The inclined grate of present embodiment is two-layer inclined grate, be that inclined grate 16 is the upper strata inclined grate, its below is provided with and 16 one-tenths clover leaf lower floors of inclined grate inclined grate 17, and the angle of upper strata inclined grate 16 and lower floor's inclined grate 17 and horizontal plane all can be 30-60 °.
The present invention utilizes living beings (particularly agricultural wastes) to act as a fuel, low price, the lime-ash that burning generates can be used as fertilizer application again, turn waste into wealth, has bigger economic benefit, and adopt this technology also to solve the problem of environmental pollution that the living beings open burning brings, have remarkable social benefit.

Claims (11)

1, a kind of low NOx combustion apparatus of living beings is characterized in that, comprising:
One vertical shaft furnace (100), the body of heater top is provided with flue outlet (8), every being divided into pyrolysis chamber (2) and combustion chamber (4) that the bottom communicates, dividing plate (14) bottom has the connected entrance (9) that is communicated with pyrolysis chamber (2) and combustion chamber (4) to the body of heater inner chamber by a dividing plate (14); Top, described pyrolysis chamber is equipped with hopper (1); (4) bottom is provided with inclined grate and rotation deslagging device (12) successively in the combustion chamber; The combustion zone that is positioned in the combustion chamber (4) under the pyrolysis chamber (2) is divided into reducing zone (10) and burning-out zone (7), described reducing zone (10) is positioned on the inclined grate, burning-out zone (7) under reducing zone (10), with the corresponding furnace wall in reducing zone (10) and combustion chamber (4) on be respectively equipped with a wind inlet (20), secondary wind inlet (5) and tertiary air import (3).
By the low NOx combustion apparatus of the described living beings of claim 1, it is characterized in that 2, the cross section of described vertical shaft furnace (100) is circular or square.
3, by the low NOx combustion apparatus of the described living beings of claim 1, it is characterized in that described dividing plate (14) is tubular dividing plate or dull and stereotyped dividing plate.
4, by the low NOx combustion apparatus of the described living beings of claim 1, it is characterized in that described rotation deslagging device (12) is rotary valve or auger conveyor.
5, by the low NOx combustion apparatus of claim 1 or 2 described living beings, it is characterized in that described pyrolysis chamber (2) are positioned at vertical shaft furnace (100) center, described inclined grate is the cone-shaped grates (6) of base sealing, and its cone angle is 90-120 °.
6, by the low NOx combustion apparatus of the described living beings of claim 5, it is characterized in that described inclined grate is two layers of cone-shaped grates, promptly cone-shaped grates (6) is a upper grate, and its below is provided with a back taper lower floor fire grate, and cone angle is 90-120 °
7, press the low NOx combustion apparatus of claim 1 or 2 described living beings, it is characterized in that, described pyrolysis chamber (2) is positioned at a side of vertical shaft furnace (100), described inclined grate is an inclined grate horizontal by 30-60 ° of angle (16), and the described secondary wind inlet (5) on the furnace wall, described combustion chamber (4) is installed vertical with the furnace wall and angled smoke deflector (15) respectively with the upper-lower position place of tertiary air import (3).
8, press the low NOx combustion apparatus of the described living beings of claim 7, it is characterized in that, described inclined grate is two-layer inclined grate, be that inclined grate (16) is the upper strata inclined grate, its below is provided with an inclined grate (16) and becomes clover leaf lower floor inclined grate (17), and lower floor's inclined grate (17) is 30-60 ° with the angle of horizontal plane.
9, a kind of low NOx combustion method that uses the living beings of the described burner of claim 1, it is characterized in that, living beings are burnt in low NOx efficient burning device, described burner comprises: a vertical shaft furnace (100), the body of heater top is provided with flue outlet (8), every being divided into pyrolysis chamber (2) and combustion chamber (4) that the bottom communicates, dividing plate (14) bottom has the connected entrance (9) that is communicated with pyrolysis chamber (2) and combustion chamber (4) to the body of heater inner chamber by a dividing plate (14); Top, described pyrolysis chamber is equipped with hopper (1); (4) bottom is provided with inclined grate and rotation deslagging device (12) successively in the combustion chamber; The combustion zone that is positioned in the combustion chamber (4) under the pyrolysis chamber (2) is divided into reducing zone (10) and burning-out zone (7), described reducing zone (10) is positioned on the inclined grate, burning-out zone (7) under reducing zone (10), with the corresponding furnace wall in reducing zone (10) and combustion chamber (4) on be respectively equipped with a wind inlet (20), secondary wind inlet (5) and tertiary air import (3);
Its combustion step is as follows:
1) biomass fuel is sent into pyrolysis chamber (2) from the hopper (1) of upper of furnace body, utilizes biomass combustion produces on the inclined grate of combustion chamber (4) heat and pyrolysis chamber (2) bottom heat to make that living beings heat up, pyrolysis, separates out volatile matter, generates biomass coke;
2) the effect next part of the volatile matter of Sheng Chenging negative pressure in stove enters combustion chamber (4) and secondary wind and the tertiary air mixed combustion sent into from the connected entrance (9) on the dividing plate (14);
3) biomass coke of another part volatile matter and generation moves up into reducing zone (10) under the effect lower edge inclined grate of gravity and rotation deslagging device (12), with a wind mixed combustion of sending into;
4) under the effect of gravity and rotation deslagging device (12), scorching hot lime-ash moves along inclined grate, enter burning-out zone (7) by reducing zone (10), with the after-flame wind mixed combustion of sending into burning-out zone (7), further after-flame, reduce ash content carbon, the lime-ash of generation is discharged to outside the stove under rotation deslagging device (12) drives.
10, press the low NOx combustion method of right 9 described living beings, it is characterized in that, described vertical shaft furnace (100) is a circular cross-section, described pyrolysis chamber (2) is positioned at the center of vertical shaft furnace (100), described secondary wind that is blown into by secondary air mouth (5) and three air inlets (3) and tertiary air along the pyrolysis chamber (2) tangentially send into.
11, press the low NOx combustion method of right 9 described living beings, it is characterized in that, described vertical shaft furnace (100) is the square-section, described pyrolysis chamber (2) is positioned at a side of vertical shaft furnace (100), and the described secondary wind inlet (5) on the furnace wall, described combustion chamber (4) is installed vertical with the furnace wall and angled smoke deflector (15) respectively with the upper-lower position place of tertiary air import (3).
CNB2004100986040A 2004-12-13 2004-12-13 Biomass combustion device with low NOx emission and combustion method thereof Expired - Fee Related CN100434795C (en)

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CN101650025B (en) * 2008-08-15 2011-12-14 中国科学院过程工程研究所 Decoupling combustion furnace and decoupling combustion method
CN102322630B (en) 2011-09-24 2014-03-19 刘伟奇 Method and devices for burning macromolecular matters efficiently and cleanly
CN104214767B (en) * 2014-08-14 2016-08-17 中国环境科学研究院 A kind of method and device of biomass reduction coal-burned industrial boiler flue gas nitrogen oxide
CN107300177B (en) * 2016-04-16 2020-01-31 袁甫新 Garbage pyrolysis device for preventing ash jam
CN106178936B (en) * 2016-07-14 2018-10-12 胡大苇 The processing method of the ash-laden gas generated in one heavy metal species pyrometallurgical processes

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