CN100390372C - Underground reciprocating oil puming machine driven by rotary motor - Google Patents

Underground reciprocating oil puming machine driven by rotary motor Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100390372C
CN100390372C CNB2006100098541A CN200610009854A CN100390372C CN 100390372 C CN100390372 C CN 100390372C CN B2006100098541 A CNB2006100098541 A CN B2006100098541A CN 200610009854 A CN200610009854 A CN 200610009854A CN 100390372 C CN100390372 C CN 100390372C
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China
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motor
oil
plunger barrel
electric machine
present
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Expired - Fee Related
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CNB2006100098541A
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CN1821541A (en
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寇宝泉
白相林
李立毅
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Harbin Institute of Technology
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Harbin Institute of Technology
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Abstract

The present invention relates to an underground reciprocating oil pumping machine driven by a rotary motor, particularly to an oil pumping machine. The existing oil pumping machine has the problems of high energy consumption, big size, large inertial load, etc.; furthermore, a trolley is driven by a big horse. An electric machine (12) is arranged in a buffering oil pipe (13) of the present invention, an output shaft of the electric machine (12) is connected with a lead screw (15), a plunger piston (18) which is matched with the lead screw (15) can be driven to make a linear movement when the lead screw (15) is driven to rotate by the electric machine (12), so the underground raw oil can be conveyed to the ground. The present invention works by a principle that the rotating movement of the electric machine is converted into the linear movement of a plunger piston pump based on the driving mode of a rotating electric machine and a ball lead screw. Therefore, the present invention has the characteristics of simple structure, stable running, high system efficiency, favorable energy saving effect, etc.; furthermore, the present invention can satisfy the automatic controlling requirements of the oil production technology, and adapt to the bad work environment. Meanwhile, the oil pumping machine also has the advantages of low cost, high reliability, strong overload capacity, long stroke, high efficiency, good flexibility and simple structure; furthermore, the present invention is favorable for popularization and application.

Description

The underground reciprocating oil puming that a kind of electric rotating machine drives
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of oil pumper.
Background technology
Present most widely used conventional beam-pumping unit oil extraction system mainly is made up of three parts: above ground portion: it is made up of motor 1, reduction box 2 and quadric chain 3 (comprising crank, connecting rod, crossbeam, walking beam), horse head and polished rod eye etc.; Under ground portion: oil well pump 7, it is suspended on the lower end of oil pipe 5 in the sleeve pipe 6; The mid portion of contact ground and under ground portion: rod string 4, it is made up of the sucker rod and the box cupling of one or more diameters.The composition of conventional beam-pumping unit oil extraction system as shown in Figure 1.
The pumping production system passes to down-hole liquid with electric energy from ground, thereby down-hole liquid is given rise to ground.The process of whole system work is exactly the process that an energy constantly transmits and transforms, and transmitting each time and transform all of energy can have certain loss.
In three ingredients of pumping production system, the under ground portion of different system and the structure of mid portion and operating principle are basic identical, and the main distinction of system is the difference of oil pumper.Therefore, the difference of oil pumper has determined the status of energy consumption of pumping production system.
The basic functional principle of beam pumping unit is to utilize electric energy to be converted to rotatablely moving of motor, after reducer slows down, utilize quadric chain to change the straight reciprocating motion of suspension point into again, have simple in structure, reliability is high, few easy workout part, easy and simple to handle, easy to maintenance, advantage such as maintenance cost is low.Yet, because the architectural feature of conventional beam-pumping unit itself, determine that it exists that counterbalance effect is poor, the clean torque ripple of crank axle is big, have negative torque, shortcomings such as load factor is low, inefficiency, " low load with strong power " and energy consumption height, mainly show as the problem of following four aspects:
1. the high problem of energy consumption: the energy loss of beam pumping unit is mainly following two aspects:
1., motor loss: generally speaking, when working under (60%-100%) rated power condition, its efficient approaches rated efficiency to turning motor in power output, and about about 90%, promptly generator loss is about 10%.Yet, because the load variations of motor of oil extractor is very violent and frequent, in each stroke of oil pumper, twice instantaneous power maximum and twice instantaneous power minimum (general this twice maximum all will appear in the power output of motor, minimizing numerical value is also unequal), its instantaneous power maximum may surpass rated power, and minimum is generally negative power, it is not only power output not of motor, drag by oil pumper on the contrary and generate electricity, therefore the variation of output power of motor head and shoulders above the scope of (60%-100%) rated power, particularly when balance of well pumping unit is bad, its motor even may in (20%-120%) rated power scope, change, at this moment the efficient of motor reduces, and loss also must increase, from the field measurement data, the loss of motor have up to 30%-40%.
2., transmission loss: transmission loss mainly contains band transmission loss, reduction box loss and communtation loss.
The band transmission loss can be divided into two classes, and a class is and the loss of load-independent, comprises the bending loses around belt pulley, the friction loss of entry and exit race, and windage loss is during many belt transmission, because the power loss that strap length error and race error cause.Another kind of is the loss relevant with load, comprises the Elastic Sliding loss, and loss of traction radially slides friction loss etc. between belt and race.Generally speaking, the loss of band transmission is based on bending loses and Elastic Sliding loss, and the field measurement data show that a large amount of belt of oil pumping machine transmission efficiencies are about 85%, and therefore, the band transmission loss is about about 15%.
The reduction box loss comprises bearing loss and gear losses, and three supplementary bearings are arranged in the reduction box, is generally rolling bearing.Along with the increase of the rotating speed and the diameter of axle, bearing loss also increases, and how many greases adds in the rolling bearing also can influence loss.Generally under lubricated good situation, the loss of a supplementary bearing is about about 1%, so the loss of reduction box three supplementary bearings is about 3%.Three pairs of herringbone bears are generally arranged in the reduction box, and gear has relative slip between the flank of tooth that is meshed when transmission, therefore friction and power loss will take place.The filling sliding agent can avoid metal directly to contact between the gears engaged face, reduces friction loss.A pair of gear drive power loss is about 2%, and then the transmission loss of three pairs of gears of oil pumping unit reduction gearbox is 6%.Therefore, the total power loss of reduction box is about 9%-10%, and this is the data under lubricated good situations, if the reduction box insufficient lubrication, power loss will increase, and efficient also will descend.
The commutation part of conventional beam-pumping unit mainly is a quadric chain, and three supplementary bearings and steel cable are generally arranged, and its loss mainly comprises horse head wire rope deformation loss and bearing friction loss.The wire rope that hangs rod string on pumping unit horsehead contacts with horse head repeatedly crimp takes place, and is stretched repeatedly simultaneously, therefore produces deformation loss, and the deformation loss of wire rope is about 2%.And the power loss of three supplementary bearings is about 3%, therefore, takes all factors into consideration wire rope and bearing, and the energy loss of beam pumping unit quadric chain is about 5%.
The consideration of comprehensive above three aspects, the machine driving energy loss of conventional beam-pumping unit own is about 30%.
2. the problem of low load with strong power: the beam pumping unit in the actual production is operated in " low load with strong power " state of low power factor, poor efficiency, high energy consumption throughout the year, and this is owing to following factor causes:
1., when the motor of beam-pumping unit Capacity Selection, often in order to pursue big safety factor or the system load varies amount is big, the result makes motor capacity excessive, causes " low load with strong power " phenomenon, cause motor to depart from best operating point, operational efficiency and power factor reduce.In general, the selection of motor power (output) is always greater than the actual loading requirement, so motor seldom moves in its rated power scope, even when maximum load, also do not reach rated power.If load is under the variable condition for a long time, the waste of energy is even more serious.
2., beam pumping unit is the bigger plant equipment of moment of inertia, during work, particularly to coagulate oily structure well all be that bringing onto load starts for viscous crude and height, need high-power start, and Y series electromotor overload ability general (be generally rated load 2 times), therefore, in order to satisfy the needs that start, having to be equipped with the bigger motor of rated power drags, in addition, the motor load of oil pumper is the varying load that has impact, in order to make the motor stable operation that drags oil pumping and to have certain overload capacity, needs to be equipped with motor by the peak power of oil pumper.For a long time, the pumping-unit motor that use in the oil field is in actual motion, all be in light running mostly, even indivedual target phases are no-load running, most of motor load rate are lower than 45%, power factor is lower than below 0.6, pumping-unit motor is in low load, low power factor state operation down for a long time, has caused the bigger rate loss of circuit, transformer, motor.In addition, the motor of most of beam pumping unit adopts direct Starting mode, and except causing the impact and accident to electrical network and dragging system, 8-10 starting current has doubly also caused huge energy loss.
3., when pump installation according to certain length of stroke, piston diameter etc. adaptive good after, after stroke frequency was also determined fully, the ability to work of oil pumper just became a changeless amount.And with respect to the variation of oil well load, in extraction process, the fixing ability of oil pumper can't respond to the load that changes.Therefore, the ability to work surplus of oil pumper usually takes place, the problem of our low load with strong power often said just, too much idle extraction or poor efficiency extract and cause the level of fishing for to be discontented with, and oil pumper usually is in the duty of halfload or light load.It is the underloading oil well that there is nearly 80% oil well in China, and after the oil field development peak period, underground Tibetan oil mass is few, and the oil pumping amount descends.In this case, oil pumper needs running continuously, and " partly takes out " sometimes or " sky is taken out ", the phenomenon of " low load with strong power " occurred.
4., it is big that the characteristics of oil pumper operation are that running load is cyclically-varying height difference, thereby when operation motor be in low load with strong power, average power factor is very low, most of in addition oil pumper actual loading is significantly smaller than nominal load again, oil pumper itself is with regard to low load with strong power, so motor low load with strong power problem is even more serious, general ten type oil pumper average load rates are lower than 30%, so that below 15%, average power factor is 0.1~0.4,12 type oil pumper average load rates are below 20%, power factor is about 0.2, and reactive current is big, and line loss is the outstanding problem that the used for oil extractor power consumption decreases.
5., every induction conductivity of directly linking electrical network, no matter much loads, its exciting current is fixed, the electric current that is used to produce torque reduces with the minimizing with load, and exciting current is constant.So motor operates under the situation that is lower than nominal load, power factor is less than rated power factor.Load is light more, and power factor is low more.
3. the dimensional problem after stroke increases:
When conventional beam-pumping unit increased stroke, the reduction box moment of torsion was with proportional increase, and corresponding weight and size also will be heavier bigger.With 12 type beam pumping units is example, peak load 120kN, minimum load 60kN, stroke is 3M, and then the reduction box moment of torsion is 53kN.m, if stroke is increased to 4.2m, then the reduction box moment of torsion will be increased to 75kN.m, as seen stroke is increased to 4.2m by 3m, and reduction box will be increased to 105kN.m by 53kN.m, and 2 class rise.In addition, behind the increase stroke, limit because of being subjected to the walking beam pivot angle, four connecting rod sizes must increase.
Therefore, after the conventional beam-pumping unit stroke increases, its appearance and size and gross weight will increase considerably, for example, specified polished rod load is the common beam oil pumper of 100kN, when the polished rod maximum stroke is increased to 4.5m by 3m, the oil pumper gross weight rises to 25t by 15t, net increase 66.6%.This is because the design feature of beam pumping unit self determines, this design feature can't be carried out the exploitation of the heavy oil pumper of long stroke, big carrying.
4. the excessive problem of inertial load: the quadric chain of conventional beam-pumping unit makes that the horse head characteristics of motion is similar simple harmonic motion, its maximum speed and minimum speed are much higher than the speed of uniform motion, so acceleration is also much bigger than uniform motion, cause inertial load big, make the oil pumper bearing load excessive, shortened oil pumper application life.
Therefore, although people have done a large amount of research aspect oil pump energy-saving for many years, manufacturer successively develops forward type oil pumper, phased crank oil pumper, air balance oil pumper, special-shaped oil pumper (two horse head) both at home and abroad, curved beam-pumping unit, diameter-adjusting and torque-changing oil pumper (two-stage balanced), barbell beam-pumping unit or the like, but, these oil pumpers are failed to break away from electric energy and are changed into and rotatablely move, to rotatablely move with quadric chain again and change straight reciprocating motion into, thereby not solve root problem.
Summary of the invention
Exist the size after energy consumption height, low load with strong power, stroke increase to increase and the excessive problem of inertial load at existing oil pumper, the invention provides that a kind of cost is low, reliability is high, overload capacity is strong, long stroke, efficient height, flexibility reach oil pumper simple in structure well.
The underground reciprocating oil puming that a kind of electric rotating machine drives, it comprises electric machine controller 8, cable 9, flowline 10, plunger barrel 11, motor 12, buffering oil pipe 13, the lower end of described flowline 10 and plunger barrel 11 are tightly connected, the lower end of plunger barrel 11 is provided with motor 12, be with buffering oil pipe 13 in the outside of described motor 12, the upper end of buffering oil pipe 13 and the outer wall of plunger barrel 11 are tightly connected, and have oily inlet hole 14 on the sidewall of the plunger barrel 11 that cushions oil pipe 13 inside; The two ends of described cable 9 are connected with motor 12 with electric machine controller 8 respectively;
Be provided with leading screw 15 in described plunger barrel 11, the lower end of leading screw 15 is connected with the output shaft of motor 12; The top of oily inlet hole 14 is provided with the end fixture 16 of fixedlying connected with the inwall of plunger barrel 11 in described plunger barrel 11, and the upper end of described leading screw 15 is connected with end fixture 16 by bearing, and described end fixture 16 is provided with axially extending bore 16-1; On described leading screw 15, be provided with feed screw nut 17, be fixed with plunger 18 on the described feed screw nut 17; Be provided with unidirectional delivery valve 19 above the end fixture 16 in plunger barrel 11, be provided with unidirectional inlet valve 20 below the motor 12 in buffering oil pipe 13.Type of belt drive that the underground reciprocating oil puming that electric rotating machine of the present invention drives is based on electric rotating machine+ball-screw is converted to rotatablely moving of motor the straight-line principle work of plunger displacement pump, compare with beam pumping unit with linear motor oil pumping machine, have simple in structure, operate steadily, system effectiveness height, good energy-conserving effect, can satisfy oil production technology automatically control requirement and adapt to characteristics such as bad working environment, be particularly suitable for deep-well, viscous crude, oil well such as the control of finding time uses, for new way has been opened up in the manufacturing of heavy oil pumper.This is invented described oil pumper and has following effect simultaneously:
1, simple in structure, cost is low, reliability is high: adopt electric rotating machine actuation plunger pump, need not the reducer and the quadric chain of rod string and beam pumping unit, also need not the ground derrick, realized no bar oil pumping, therefore can reduce the oil pumper cost significantly, improve the reliability of system.
2, efficient height: the loss of electric rotating machine is little, power factor is high, and the transmission efficiency of ball-screw is also high, and need not the reducer and the quadric chain of rod string and beam pumping unit, has realized no bar oil pumping.Simultaneously, the transmission efficiency of electric rotating machine+ball-screw also will be much higher than the transmission efficiency of linear electric motors.Therefore, the present invention is the efficient height of driving element own not only, and the driving-chain of whole system is short, has improved oil recovery efficiency greatly.
3, long stroke: the underground reciprocating oil puming that electric rotating machine drives is not owing to use quadric chain, overcome the shortcoming that the reduction box moment of torsion increased when beam pumping unit increased stroke, the length that only needs to increase leading screw gets final product, oil pumper appearance and size and gross weight value added are very little, therefore, be applicable to long stroke.
4, inertia is little: the characteristics of motion of the underground reciprocating oil puming that electric rotating machine drives has the short time acceleration and deceleration motion except that last bottom dead centre, and the most of the time is a uniform motion, and inertial load is descended significantly, and the oil pumper performance is greatly improved.
5, overload capacity is strong: because variable frequency drive motors has very high overload capacity, to the requirement of high thrust, therefore need not " low load with strong power " in the time of can solving startup.
6, flexible good: owing to adopt the type of belt drive of electric rotating machine+ball-screw, transmission link is few, and system is easy to control, and the stroke of oil pumper (in the leading screw length range) and jig frequency can be in real time, any change.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of the beam pumping unit of existing routine, and Fig. 2 is a structural representation of the present invention.
The specific embodiment
The specific embodiment one: present embodiment is the underground reciprocating oil puming that a kind of electric rotating machine drives, it comprises electric machine controller 8, cable 9, flowline 10, plunger barrel 11, motor 12, buffering oil pipe 13, the lower end of described flowline 10 and plunger barrel 11 are tightly connected, the lower end of plunger barrel 11 is provided with motor 12, be with buffering oil pipe 13 in the outside of described motor 12, the upper end of buffering oil pipe 13 and the outer wall of plunger barrel 11 are tightly connected, on the sidewall of the plunger barrel 11 that cushions oil pipe 13 inside, have oily inlet hole 14, be provided with unidirectional inlet valve 20 in the buffering oil pipe 13 below motor 12.The two ends of described cable 9 are connected with motor 12 with electric machine controller 8 respectively;
Be provided with leading screw 15 in described plunger barrel 11, the lower end of leading screw 15 is connected with the output shaft of motor 12; The top of oily inlet hole 14 is provided with the end fixture 16 of fixedlying connected with the inwall of plunger barrel 11 in described plunger barrel 11, be provided with unidirectional delivery valve 19 in the plunger barrel 11 above end fixture 16, the upper end of described leading screw 15 promptly is connected with end fixture 16 by bearing, the effect of end fixture 16 is the end of anchoring filament thick stick 15, prevents its shake and off-centre.Described end fixture 16 is provided with axially extending bore 16-1, and axially extending bore is along the hole of leading screw length direction, and purpose is that crude oil can upwards enter flowline 10 from plunger barrel 11.On described leading screw 15, cooperate and be provided with feed screw nut 17, be fixed with plunger 18 on the described feed screw nut 17, when 12 rotatings of electric machine controller 8 control motors rotatablely move, ball-screw 15 just is converted to rotatablely moving of motor 12 straight reciprocating motion up and down of plunger 18, so plunger 18 can constantly give rise to ground to the crude oil oil from underground oil wells.
Electric machine controller 8 is a core with DSP or microprocessor, it can receive the signal from each sensor, and according to specific data processing method and control law, the rotating speed of decision motor 12 rotors and the stroke of feed screw nut 17, and then the jig frequency and the stroke of control plunger displacement pump.Described motor 12 can be multi-phase permanent synchronous motor (brshless DC motor), also can be multiphase induction motor or polyphase reluctance machine, can realize the object of the invention.Its concrete course of work is as follows: electric machine controller 8 the AC energy of ground electrical distribution system through over commutation, filtering, after the inversion, input to the motor 12 of down-hole through cable 9, for the rotation of the output shaft of motor 12 provides energy, because the lower end of leading screw 15 is connected with the output shaft of motor 12, so the rotation of the output shaft of motor 12 promptly can drag leading screw 15 rotations, the rotation of leading screw 15 can drive upwards moving linearly of the feed screw nut 17 that is mated and plunger 18, cushion and be full of oil in the oil pipe 13 this moment, plunger 18 moves upward in the process, can pressure be passed down by oily inlet hole 14 on the one hand, unidirectional inlet valve 20 cuts out, can pressure be uploaded by the axially extending bore 16-1 on the end fixture 16 on the other hand unidirectional delivery valve 19 is opened, thereby the crude oil in the plunger barrel 11 is pushed in the oil pipe 10, give rise to ground from oil pipe 10; When plunger 18 moves to the upper end of plunger barrel 11,12 counter-rotatings of electric machine controller 8 control motors, then feed screw nut 17 and plunger 18 downward moving linearlies, at this moment the pressure in plunger barrel 11 and the buffering oil pipe 13 reduces, delivery valve 19 cuts out, and inlet valve 20 is opened, under pressure, crude oil is outer in unidirectional inlet valve 20 is drawn into buffering oil pipe 13 from buffering oil pipe 13, again from cushioning oil pipe 13 in intake 14 enters into plunger barrel 11.Make motor 12 just change, reverse, just change so repeatedly ..., just can be continuously crude oil from the underground ground that gives rise to.

Claims (2)

1. the underground reciprocating oil puming that drives of an electric rotating machine, it is characterized in that it comprises electric machine controller (8), cable (9), flowline (10), plunger barrel (11), motor (12), buffering oil pipe (13), the lower end of described flowline (10) and plunger barrel (11) are tightly connected, the lower end of plunger barrel (11) is provided with motor (12), be with buffering oil pipe (13) in the outside of described motor (12), the upper end of buffering oil pipe (13) and the outer wall of plunger barrel (11) are tightly connected, and have oily inlet hole (14) on the sidewall of the inner plunger barrel (11) of buffering oil pipe (13); The two ends of described cable (9) are connected with motor (12) with electric machine controller (8) respectively;
Be provided with leading screw (15) in described plunger barrel (11), the lower end of leading screw (15) is connected with the output shaft of motor (12); The top of oily inlet hole (14) is provided with the end fixture (16) of fixedlying connected with the inwall of plunger barrel (11) in described plunger barrel (11), the upper end of described leading screw (15) is connected with end fixture (16) by bearing, and described end fixture (16) is provided with axially extending bore (16-1); On described leading screw (15), be provided with feed screw nut (17), be fixed with plunger (18) on the described feed screw nut (17);
The top of the end fixture (16) in plunger barrel (11) is provided with unidirectional delivery valve (19), and the below of the motor (12) in buffering oil pipe (13) is provided with unidirectional inlet valve (20).
2. the underground reciprocating oil puming that a kind of electric rotating machine according to claim 1 drives is characterized in that described motor (12) is multi-phase permanent synchronous motor or multiphase induction motor or polyphase reluctance machine.
CNB2006100098541A 2006-03-24 2006-03-24 Underground reciprocating oil puming machine driven by rotary motor Expired - Fee Related CN100390372C (en)

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CN100390372C true CN100390372C (en) 2008-05-28

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Families Citing this family (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101846060A (en) * 2010-05-05 2010-09-29 戚威 Reciprocating defueling pump with rotating oil pipe
CN103032289B (en) * 2012-12-28 2015-09-23 深圳市锦瑞电子有限公司 Plunger pump and there is the cellanalyzer of this plunger pump
CN103277292B (en) * 2013-06-14 2016-08-17 中国海洋石油总公司 A kind of high-pressure fluid mixing pump accurate control device and control method
CN108397159B (en) * 2018-02-07 2020-07-10 中国石油天然气股份有限公司 Rodless oil production device and system
CN112392444B (en) * 2020-11-30 2022-11-15 李顺英 Electric lead screw rodless oil extraction device with closed power mechanism

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US5404767A (en) * 1993-09-03 1995-04-11 Sutherland; James M. Oil well pump power unit
RU2191925C1 (en) * 2001-02-05 2002-10-27 ООО "Сибирь-Мехатроника" Movable-electrode tube oil pumping unit
CN1415858A (en) * 2002-10-29 2003-05-07 李华林 Electric oil-immersed plunger pump
CN1544783A (en) * 2003-11-25 2004-11-10 上海市第一建筑有限公司 Double-acting hydraulic climbing die block system

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US5404767A (en) * 1993-09-03 1995-04-11 Sutherland; James M. Oil well pump power unit
RU2191925C1 (en) * 2001-02-05 2002-10-27 ООО "Сибирь-Мехатроника" Movable-electrode tube oil pumping unit
CN1415858A (en) * 2002-10-29 2003-05-07 李华林 Electric oil-immersed plunger pump
CN1544783A (en) * 2003-11-25 2004-11-10 上海市第一建筑有限公司 Double-acting hydraulic climbing die block system

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