CH708688B1 - Stable molded body as fire protection and / or thermal insulation and lightweight board with such, manufacturing process and use thereof and building containing a stable molded body or a lightweight board. - Google Patents

Stable molded body as fire protection and / or thermal insulation and lightweight board with such, manufacturing process and use thereof and building containing a stable molded body or a lightweight board. Download PDF

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Publication number
CH708688B1
CH708688B1 CH01150/14A CH11502014A CH708688B1 CH 708688 B1 CH708688 B1 CH 708688B1 CH 01150/14 A CH01150/14 A CH 01150/14A CH 11502014 A CH11502014 A CH 11502014A CH 708688 B1 CH708688 B1 CH 708688B1
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Switzerland
Prior art keywords
binder
fire protection
stable
expanded
thermal insulation
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CH01150/14A
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German (de)
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CH708688A2 (en
Inventor
Maier Martin
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Adt Aero Dämm Technik Gmbh
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Priority to CH01751/13A priority Critical patent/CH708678A2/en
Priority to CH00141/14A priority patent/CH709259A2/en
Application filed by Adt Aero Dämm Technik Gmbh filed Critical Adt Aero Dämm Technik Gmbh
Priority to CH01150/14A priority patent/CH708688B1/en
Publication of CH708688A2 publication Critical patent/CH708688A2/en
Publication of CH708688B1 publication Critical patent/CH708688B1/en

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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B28/00Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements
    • C04B28/02Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements containing hydraulic cements other than calcium sulfates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B26/00Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing only organic binders, e.g. polymer or resin concrete
    • C04B26/02Macromolecular compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B28/00Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements
    • C04B28/02Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements containing hydraulic cements other than calcium sulfates
    • C04B28/04Portland cements
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B28/00Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements
    • C04B28/02Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements containing hydraulic cements other than calcium sulfates
    • C04B28/10Lime cements or magnesium oxide cements
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B28/00Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements
    • C04B28/14Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements containing calcium sulfate cements
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B28/00Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements
    • C04B28/24Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements containing alkyl, ammonium or metal silicates; containing silica sols
    • C04B28/26Silicates of the alkali metals
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B38/00Porous mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware; Preparation thereof
    • C04B38/02Porous mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware; Preparation thereof by adding chemical blowing agents
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B38/00Porous mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware; Preparation thereof
    • C04B38/10Porous mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware; Preparation thereof by using foaming agents or by using mechanical means, e.g. adding preformed foam
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2111/00Mortars, concrete or artificial stone or mixtures to prepare them, characterised by specific function, property or use
    • C04B2111/00474Uses not provided for elsewhere in C04B2111/00
    • C04B2111/00612Uses not provided for elsewhere in C04B2111/00 as one or more layers of a layered structure
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2111/00Mortars, concrete or artificial stone or mixtures to prepare them, characterised by specific function, property or use
    • C04B2111/20Resistance against chemical, physical or biological attack
    • C04B2111/28Fire resistance, i.e. materials resistant to accidental fires or high temperatures
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2111/00Mortars, concrete or artificial stone or mixtures to prepare them, characterised by specific function, property or use
    • C04B2111/40Porous or lightweight materials
    • Y02W30/92

Abstract

A stable molded article for use as a thermal insulation and / or as a fire protection, made on the basis of expanded perlite as an essential component. The expanded perlite used is a closed-cell perlite, meaning that it consists of air-filled spheres of expanded, closed-cell silica sands. The pearlite beads have a compressive strength of at least 0.4 N / mm 2 and in the dry state, a bulk density of 50 to 400 grams / liter. The remainder of the molding consists of at least one binder. The invention further relates to a lightweight board with such a shaped body for use in construction, a method for producing a shaped body and a lightweight board, a use of a lightweight board and a building with a lightweight board or a molded body.

Description

Description: This invention relates to a special stable molded body and a stable lightweight building board with such a molded body, for all types of applications and in particular when designed as panels for installation as internal and external thermal insulation of buildings. The plates and moldings are also versatile replaceable for fire protection. On the other hand, the invention relates to the process for the preparation of these stable moldings and plates, their use and finally structures consisting of or containing such moldings or plates, or structures in which external or internal walls are equipped therewith against the heat transfer, i. In industry-standard terms, they are "isolated" - that is, thermally insulated.
Although old buildings are often beautiful - sometimes actual monuments - but they usually have a poor thermal insulation building envelope and are generally difficult to dam later. The development of efficient insulation systems, such as a good heat-insulating insulation plaster or well-insulating insulation boards is therefore a challenge. Today, there are insulating plasters and insulation boards based on airgel, which absorb twice as much heat as usual insulating plaster types. The reference value for the insulation is the heat transfer, and this is expressed as the coefficient of thermal conductivity or lambda value (λ = lambda). Airgel insulation plasters have a heat code or a lambda value of 30 mW / mK, as a pure laboratory value, and insulation boards made of airgel nonwoven one of 12 to 15 mW / mK. These airgel insulation boards are therefore much more efficient. In addition, the airgel insulating plaster, when pumped, partially loses its effect because the airgel is mechanically stressed by the pump.
In Switzerland, for example, there are about 1.5 million old buildings. With this building substance must be lived, yes, one wants to receive it consciously often. But at the same time the energy consumption of the country is increasing. 4.5 million tonnes of light heating oil and 3 million cubic meters of natural gas are imported annually, according to the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. 43 percent of them are burned for heating buildings. In order to be more economical with these energy sources, there is no way around a better isolation of these old houses around. But how do you insulate a historic old building - is it now a timber frame house, a house from the Art Deco era or an old town house? Homeland Security does not allow you to simply pack historical façades with modern insulation boards.
To get the look of an old house wall, a plaster is best. The lining of winding staircases, round arches and retaining walls with conventional thick insulation boards is sometimes costly. A cladding made of insulating plaster can be decidedly easier to install, especially on winding areas. In addition, the plaster rests directly on the masonry and leaves no gaps where moisture can condense. In practice, therefore, often resorting to combinations of insulation boards and insulation finishes. Large, flat surfaces are covered with insulation boards, however, angular areas of the building are provided with insulating plaster.
One of the best, if not the very best, insulating material that can be industrially produced is airgel. The material, also known as "frozen smoke" because of its appearance, consists of about 5 percent silicate - the rest is air. Already in the 1960s airgel was used to insulate space suits and brought it to 15 entries in the Guinness Book of Records, including those as "best insulator" and "lightest solid" with thermal conductivities or Lambda values of 2 to 5 mW / ( mK). Airgel is already being used in the construction sector, for example as an inflatable insulation material for wall gaps or in the form of fiber fleece insulation boards. In fact, airgel pellets are extremely light, almost weightless, and they can be held between thumb and forefinger. But once you rub your fingers together, these globules crumble. After two or three movements only a fine powder is left. If the powder is gently mixed with water and the plaster thus applied is applied by hand, good results can be achieved, but if the plaster is pumped through the hose of a professional cleaning machine at a pressure of 5 to 20 bar, the mechanical destroys Stress the airgel and its heat-insulating effect. Airgel should therefore be integrated into the plaster in such a way that its effect is maintained even when mechanically pumping the Dämmputzes. Laboratory samples of this airgel plaster developed by the Swiss Federal Materials Testing Institute EMPA in CH-Dübendorf gave a thermal conductivity λ of 30 mW / (mK). So this airgel insulating plaster would be more than twice as good. Heat insulates like a conventional insulating plaster and comparable or even better insulating than a sheet of extruded polystyrene (EPS). The conventional insulating plasters have thermal conductivities or lambda values between 65 and 90 mW / (mK), the worst only a λ value of 110 or 130 mW / (mK).
For practical application, the airgel insulating plaster is sprayed with a plastering machine on the masonry and then pulled smooth. This soft insulating plaster must then be protected in a further operation with a fabric-embossed investment mortar. However, it has been shown that an airgel applied as a pumped plaster, lets through significantly more heat, especially when the pumping section is long. Due to the mechanical stress of the airgel in the pump its effect coincides and the thermal conductivity or the lambda value increases. In the case of a 30-meter-long pumping line, the heat transfer and thus the thermal conductivity or the lambda value increase from 30 to 40 to 45 mW / mK.
Thermal insulation panels on the other hand suffer by their assembly no deterioration of their λ value. An airgel plate has a λ value of 15 to 20 mW / mK, which is better than an extruded polystyrene plate (EPS plate) with its λ value of 33 mW / mK. Although thermal insulation panels can not be used everywhere, they are ideal in many situations because they offer a low λ value. Airgel panels or airgel insulation plasters are generally very expensive. If a thermal insulation panel with comparable λ values could be used at much lower prices, it would be very interesting for many applications. A thin and light insulation board can basically be installed quickly and easily, and it can be cut to any size.
Unlike thermal insulation panels fire protection is about keeping a high heat - high temperatures - as a result of a fire on one side of the fire protection plate as long as possible from the other side of the fire protection board. Here, the density of the plate plays a different role. It should be high, so that the plate due to their material and its mass in case of fire has an endothermic reaction, that is, can absorb large amounts of energy when exposed to heat due to the elimination of large amounts of water and other reaction products. A cooling effect of the system is the result. Conventionally used as base material, for example, materials based on gypsum, calcium silicate, expanded mica, expanded clay. The binding agents used are water glass, gypsum, phosphates and cement, in particular magnesium cement or glass cement. A fire protection board should be as light as possible and yet necessarily as heavy as necessary with the best possible fire protection properties.
The object of this invention is therefore to provide stable moldings and lightweight panels with such a molded body for thermal insulation or for use as fire protection and to provide the method for their preparation, namely for stable moldings as well as for lightweight panels with such a stable shaped body, which provide a lower λ value than conventional thermal insulation panels and which have such a stability and durability that they are suitable as lightweight construction material for all types of applications, for installation on interior and exterior walls of buildings or in a particular embodiment can be used as fire protection panels.
In addition, these stable moldings and plates should be inexpensive to produce, so that they are also economically competitive with the established thermal insulation methods such as the orders of insulating plaster or growing conventional insulation boards, such as those of extruded polystyrene and other thermal insulation material used. Likewise, they should be technically convincing as fire protection boards and be competitively priced. So it is a further object of the invention to provide a method by which such stable moldings on the one hand and plates on the other hand can be produced.
Finally, it is an object of the invention to provide on the one hand the use of such stable moldings for various applications and applications, and on the other hand to specify the use of such lightweight panels with moldings, for better thermal insulation of building envelopes and for improved fire protection.
This object is achieved by a stable molded body with the features of claim 1 and of a lightweight board according to claim 7 with such a stable shaped body.
The method for producing such stable molded body and lightweight panels is characterized by the features of claim 9.
The use of the stable molded body and lightweight panels produced according to the features of claim 13, and a building is characterized by the features of claims 14 or 15.
Reference to the drawings, a dimensionally stable plate with a stable molded body and its structure is described in more detail as well as their use for building on building walls explained. The structure of any three-dimensional shaped body as well as its production are essentially identical.
It shows:
1 shows a dimensionally stable plate made of the homogeneous mixture of air-filled spheres of expanded closed-cell silica sands, mineral binder and a foaming agent;
Fig. 2: the structure of an embodiment of the dimensionally stable plate as a laminate, in a cross section;
Fig. 3: the structure of a sandwich plate in a cross section;
Fig. 4 shows the structure of a dimensionally stable plate, in which a flat side and a narrow side of a armie-generating reinforcing layer or an additional insulating layer is enclosed;
Figure 5 shows the structure of a dimensionally stable plate having a plurality of plate-like cores, which are connected by dowels and in which a flat side and all narrow sides are bordered by a reinforcing reinforcing layer.
Fig. 6: the first step for the thermal insulation of a plastered old building wall - removing the old Put zes and clean;
Fig. 7 shows the second step for equipping a plastered old building wall with dimensionally stable thermal insulation panels - and leveling the wall by means of a plaster;
Fig. 8: the third step for the equipment of a plastered old building wall with a thermal insulation - with
Applying an adhesive mortar spread and applying dimensionally stable thermal insulation panels to the still moist adhesive mortar and fixing if necessary;
Fig. 9: the fourth step for the equipment of a plastered old building wall with thermal insulation panels - with the application of a concealed plaster with integrated reinforcing mesh;
Fig. 10: the fifth step - applying a fine plaster and, if necessary, orders a paint.
Rohperlit is a chemically and physically converted, volcanic rock (Obsidin) with white, pudri-gem appearance. The crude perlite contains up to 2% water and has a density of 900-1600 kg / m3. According to a process with multi-stage annealing to temperatures of about 800 ° C to 1400 ° C perlite inflates to the 10-15fache volume. The density of the inflated product is then only 50-400 kg / m3, so has a very exceptionally light weight. The bloating of perlite has been known for years. However, the previous Blähmethode leads to open-ended, torn Perliten. For the present dimensionally stable plates, however, a novel perlite, consisting of glazed balls with closed flea spaces, is used. The process for producing this novel perlite is multi-stage and is described in detail in WO 2013 6/053 635 A1. The perlite sand is first sorted by means of a grading curve into different grain sizes. Each individual grain size is then inflated in a trickle canal with multistage temperature zones of increasing temperatures and thus glazed the surface of the balls. Typical grain sizes produced in this way are: 0.1 mm to 0.5 mm 0.5 mm to 0.8 mm 0.8 mm to 1.0 mm 1.0 mm to 2.0 mm
So far, perlites have been bloated in traditional ovens. As a consequence of the uncontrolled effect of temperature, the perlites, which have a low bulk density of less than 300 grams / liter as dry expanded product, are broken. Basically, insulation boards with a low bulk density have a higher porosity and accordingly always a better insulating effect. Accordingly arise in traditional ovens open-line perlite, which naturally have a high water absorption capacity and are accordingly less suitable as thermal insulation material. If, for example, in the prior art, a dry inflated product having a bulk density of less than 300 grams / liter is used as insulating material in plates, plasters or fillers, then additional measures are necessary for hydrophobing or coating the surface with bitumen, ie essential. However, these waterproofing measures make such insulation boards economically less interesting. With the method according to WO 2013/053 635 it is possible to produce closed-cell perlite having a bulk density low in the dry state of less than about 50 to 400 grams / liter. If here is spoken of closed cell, so it is meant largely closed cell, because you can not rule out that when puffing one or the other grain of sand is not optimally and really waterproof blown. But in comparison with the previously inflated perlites, all of which were open-pored, this method can in principle produce closed-cell perlite, ie with closed pores and therefore watertight. Basically, the insulating effect is increased when as much air is introduced into the plate. It has been found that the proportion of air in the insulating board can be increased by deliberately introducing a foaming agent when the mineral binder is mixed or mixed. The glazed, closed on their surface, filled with air balls of expanded silica sands are basically mixed with a mineral binder, which was also optionally mixed with a foaming agent and water was added. Optionally, the closed cell perlites may be admixed with up to about 10% by volume of airgel in powder form. Suitable binders for thermal insulation purposes are mineral as well as organic binders, for example polymers, epoxies, vinyl esters, phenolic resins and others. These binders may be homogeneous binders or else mixtures of various binders, for example those of phosphates, cements, gypsum, waterglass, lime, pH-neutral silica sol or of other mineral binders. Optionally, other suitable additives can be added. As such, stone dust, fly ash, minerals, expanded mica, expanded clay, open-pore perlites, etc. are suitable. All components are mixed with the closed cell expanded perlite to form a homogeneous mixture and then pressed or cast or poured into a mold, after which the mixture hardens therein. The optional foaming ensures that the plate as a whole has a density of between 120 kg / m3 and 1200 kg / m3, depending on the specific composition of all components due to the air in the expanded perlites and the air from the foaming agent. The incorporation of this foaming agent as air entraining agents can be done by adding it to the binder and foaming it by mixing together with the binder. Thereafter, this foamed mixture is mixed with the expanded perlite, after which the mixture hardens. Alternatively, a foaming agent may be added to the binder as air entraining agents, which will foam only by heat input, much like the action of yeast in a dough, after which the binder cures. Another variant is that a finished foam is added to the binder or the finished mixture of binder and perlite.
The pearlite shaped bodies or plates produced in this way, with or without additional hydrophobic coating, are in each case stiff and dimensionally stable and have a surprisingly good stability, so that a special reinforcing effect is achieved.
Layer or an additional specific insulating layer is not necessary for most applications. As a special feature and in contrast to the known open-line perlites, the closed-cell expanded beads have an astonishing compressive strength of 0.4 to 5 N / mm 2. These values were previously determined in a practical experiment. Optionally, an airgel nonwoven fabric can optionally be added homogeneously, or in the context of a laminate-like layer structure, a layer of airgel powder can be incorporated into the layer structure of the plate.
If particularly stiff plates are required with increased stability, they may optionally be equipped with additional stabilizing layers in the form of a lattice structure as reinforcing reinforcing layer. Such a reinforcing layer can be applied on one of the flat sides of the plate or on both flat sides or can also enclose the surfaces of a shaped body. As an intermediate layer into the interior of a plate or a molded body, for example, an airgel nonwoven layer can be installed as an additional insulating layer, so that a laminate layer structure is produced. As an option, anchorage systems can be incorporated inside the moldings or panels, such as dowels approximately passing through the layer structure across the layers.
These novel, glazed balls have a very low water absorption capacity, in contrast to torn perlite. On the basis of these balls, mixed with a mineral binder added with a foaming agent, moldings or plates produced by molding or compression molding are dimensionally stable and vapor-permeable, which is important for the interior climate of a building. In order to improve open-line perlites in terms of water absorbency, they have hitherto been coated, for example with bitumen. Another variant is to impregnate open-line perlites with paraffin, silane or siloxane or to improve them with silicone and to use them for fillings. With the novel method mentioned above, however, no finishing measures and no impregnation are necessary with surface-glazed perlites, since the product hardly absorbs water. Although the perlites contained in the plate or the molded body are closed-cell and thus almost water-tight, the plate or the shaped body may still be permeable to water or to vapor, depending on the additional components added. If, however, completely watertight and completely vapor-impermeable molded bodies or plates are desired, their surfaces can additionally be treated with a water repellent.
In Fig. 2, the dimensionally stable plate is provided with a reinforcing layer or airgel-nonwoven layer and shown in cross section. It is used to create a thermal insulation on building envelopes, which of course goes with bare insulation boards without special reinforcement layer. As a special feature, however, the insulation board shown here has a laminate structure of at least two layers, namely a plate-like core 1 of glazed and thus closed at its surface, filled with air balls, which are formed by expanding silica sand or by puffing of pearlite and with a mineral binder was added with the addition of a foaming agent to a homogeneous mixture, which then cured. The expanded spheres of different diameters have a specific gravity of only about 50-400 kg / m3. So they are extremely lightweight and extremely heat-insulating, with a λ value of 35 to 50 mW / mK, and thus comparable to that of a much more expensive EPS insulation board. Overall, however, the dimensionally stable plate thus obtained always remains air or vapor permeable. At least one of the flat sides of the plate-like core 1 is equipped in the example shown with a lattice structure 2 as reinforcing reinforcing layer or with airgel-fleece layer. This lattice structure 2 can already be connected in the manufacturing process of the gluing by means of a mineral adhesive mixture, for example based on water glass or lime and / or lime and cement or by glazing with the resulting core by placing it in the bottom of the box-shaped mold, in which the core is solidified so that it already adheres to this core and reinforces it. This grid structure may be tissue, a scrim, a net-like grid structure or a nonwoven. The material for this reinforcing layer can be, for example, cellulose or glass, or natural or synthetic fibers are used. A laminate construction can also be achieved by providing a plate-like core of glazed and thus surface-closed, air-filled beads of expanded silica or expanded perlite on the surface by gluing or by welding the glazed surfaces to a lattice structure as reinforcing reinforcing layer according to which a plurality of such reinforced panels are bonded by gluing or welding into a laminate.
Fig. 3 shows a dimensionally stable plate as a thermal insulation board, which shows an effective sandwich construction, of three layers, wherein the middle, "clamped" layer is the plate-shaped core 1, which consists of the said inflated beads of pearlite mixed with a mineral binder and a foaming agent. The reinforcing layers or airgel nonwoven layers 2 on the two opposite flat sides of this thermal insulation panel may be constructed of different materials and structures or identical. It is understood that plates with alternately several reinforcing or airgel nonwoven layers 2 and a plurality of cores 1 can be built. The total thickness of the simplest, two-layer dimensionally stable plates measures approximately 10-40 mm, which does not mean that even thicker plate can not be produced.
Fig. 4 shows a variant of the dimensionally stable plate as a thermal insulation board in which a flat side and all narrow sides are bordered by a reinforcing reinforcing layer 2. This reinforcing layer 2 may for example consist of cellulose glass. Other possibilities provide reinforcing layers 2 of natural fibers or synthetic fibers. Advantageously, such reinforcing layers 2 are mechanically fastened as scrim, knit or nonwoven on the plate-like core or they are laminated on him. Another variant is that the
Reinforcing layer 2 is incorporated in a lime mortar or cementitious mortar, which adheres to the reinforced sides of the plate-like core 1.
Fig. 5 shows the structure of a dimensionally stable plate as a thermal insulation board with a plurality of plate-like cores 1, which are connected by dowels 12 and in which a flat side and all narrow sides are bordered by a reinforcing reinforcing layer 2. The individual plate-like cores 1 may consist of different materials, and they are provided at least on a flat side with a laminated fleece 13. The panel shown in Fig. 5 is constructed as follows: First, a box is made of a material which acts as a reinforcing layer later than the panel. Then, first, a plate-like core 1 as a homogeneous insulation board, which consists in its volume as a result of adding the foaming agent to about 30% of air and 10% to 20% by weight of mineral binder, filled in the box. Next, a web 13 is placed on this insulation board in the box, and then dowels 12 are inserted through the web 13 in this insulation board, because otherwise no mechanical connection. Then, a second plate-like core 1 is inserted from said homogeneous, cured mixture on this dowel 12 and pressed in the box. Finally, it may be sealed at the top with another reinforcing layer 15. For this purpose, a reinforcing layer 15 made of a lime mortar or a cementitious mortar is suitable.
From Fig. 6 it is now shown how such a dimensionally stable plate is used as a thermal insulation board for the equipment of an inner wall 3. The same applies to an outer wall. First, the old plaster 4 of an inner wall 3 is removed from the same, and the substrate 5 is cleaned and dried so that a dust-free surface is present. Then, as shown in Fig. 7, the exposed brickwork leveled with a plaster 6, so that a perfectly flat surface is prepared for the next step and laying the thermal insulation panels. In a next step, as shown in Fig. 8, an adhesive mortar 7 is applied to this plaster base 6. This adhesive mortar 7 may be a lime mortar or a cementitious mortar or cementitious lime mortar. He is just profiled to create a perfectly flat surface for the snugly receiving the thermal insulation panels 8. Next, the laying of the thermal insulation panels 8 follows as shown. Ideally, the thermal insulation panels 8 measure approx. 40 cm x 60 cm, making them easy to handle and transport. They are simply pressed onto the still soft adhesive mortar 7 on the wall and then adhere to the same, because they are so unusually light. It is advantageous started down in a corner, and the thermal insulation panels 8 can then be piled up against the wall piled up. It is ensured that no cavities are formed behind the plates 8 by the pad is prepared as even as possible. If particularly thick or multi-layered thermal insulation panels 8 of, for example, 30 mm thick or more are used, they can be anchored with additional fastening systems in a known manner in the base, as has long been practiced for conventional polystyrene thermal insulation panels.
As a next step, as shown in Fig. 9, first flush 9 applied to the lime or cement base on the thermal insulation panels 8, and in these a reinforcing fabric 10 is incorporated glass-based with alkali-resistant coating. After curing of this flush 9 with the support fabric 10 in the interior, as shown in Fig. 10, a top coat 11 is applied. This can be used afterwards as desired as a support for wallpapering or be provided with a structure for the desired room ambience or else obtain an open-pored paint with preferably a silicate color. In any case, the whole structure remains vapor-permeable on the wall. It is thus an exceptionally good thermal insulation produced with excellent λ value.
The primary task of a heat insulation plaster is just the thermal insulation. A traditional thermal insulation plaster based on pearlite or styrofoam has a thermal conductivity or a lambda value of approx. 70-120 mW / mK. However, the thermal insulation board with the presented glazed expanded perlite core has a λ value of only 35-50 mW / mK. This means that it takes about 3 times less layer thickness compared to a conventional thermal insulation plaster to achieve an identical thermal insulation. Traditional thermal insulation plasters are usually applied in practice in layer thicknesses of 30 mm to 80 mm as internal or external plasters. In the new system, the total thickness of the wall structure is significantly reduced by means of the la-minat- or sandwich-type thermal insulation panels 8. Such a thermal insulation panel of 10 mm thickness brings namely the same thermal resistance as a 30 mm thick thermal insulation plaster of the latest generation. Added to this is the enormous advantage of the super-light weight of these thermal insulation panels, which makes their handling and installation a real pleasure. Due to the threefold lower wall thickness, there is definitely more usable space available on the inside of the building. The rooms will be 4 cm longer. In addition, the thermal insulation work with these thermal insulation panels 8 can be mastered in a very short time. A drying time of about 30 days - as required for conventional wall constructions with thermal insulation plaster of 30 mm thickness - does not have to wait.
Another use of these stable moldings and plates is to be seen in lightweight, where the special properties of this material come into play, namely: - very low density - high stability, highly stable with additional internal or external reinforcement - hardly permeable to water or if hydrophobic completely durably water- and vapor-proof - low production costs - can be cut with milling blades - can be cast or pressed into any shape - several moldings or plates can be glued to form stable structures or mechanically joined

Claims (15)

  1. Given these characteristics, a wide field of possible applications opens up. Thus, water channels can be built, buoys, floating bridges or fin, dry docks, hulls, quickly erected emergency structures such as barracks and huts. For example, these structures can be braced by wire ropes so that they are highly earthquake-proof. Another use of these dimensionally stable plates is to be seen in fire protection, where they essentially consist of the same components, but are introduced in a different mixing ratio. A fire protection panel is concerned with keeping high heat - high temperatures - away from the side of the fire protection panel away from the fire for as long as possible. For this purpose, the density of the plate should be high, so that the plate has endothermic properties due to their material and mass, that is, can absorb large amounts of energy when exposed to heat and due to the elimination of large amounts of water this is evaporated, and favorable reaction products for fire protection be generated. A cooling effect of the system is the result. Traditionally, the base material used for this purpose is, for example, materials based on gypsum, cement, calcium silicate, expanded mica, expanded clay. The binding agents used are water glass, gypsum, phosphates and cement, in particular magnesium cement or glass cement. A fire protection board should be as light as possible and as hard as necessary, with the best possible fire protection properties. The present dimensionally stable plate is for this purpose preferably composed as follows: A proportion in turn consists of air-filled balls of expanded, closed-cell silica sands, which balls have a compressive strength of at least 0.4 N / mm2. The residual volume consists of at least one mineral binder. In addition, a foaming agent can be added to the mineral binder so that the panel as a whole has a density of, for example, 400 kg / m 3 to 1200 kg / m 3 for fire protection purposes due to the specific composition of all components. Mineral binders may be water glass, phosphates, cements such as magnesium cement or glass cement, gypsum, etc. Nonetheless, a dimensionally stable plate for use as a fire-resistant board should be as light as possible, yet necessarily as heavy as necessary to provide the best possible fire protection properties. Such panels are used as fire protection in doors or in ventilation ducts, etc. All of these dimensionally stable shaped bodies and plates, whether for lightweight construction, thermal insulation or fire protection, can be additionally equipped with reinforcing fibers by these fibers are mixed, for example, as loose filaments in the material, after which the plate is then pressed or is poured and then hardens. Such reinforcing fibers may be, for example, staple fibers or short cut fibers, such as fibers of glass, acrylic or other plastic fibers, or they may be metallic fibers. claims
    1. A stable molded body for use as a thermal insulation and / or fire protection, made on the basis of expanded perlite as an essential component, characterized in that the used expanded perlite is a closed-cell perlite, that is, from air-filled balls of expanded, closed-cell Silica sols, and wherein these pearlite spheres have a compressive strength of at least 0.4 N / mm 2 and in the dry state have a bulk density of 50 to 400 grams / liter, and the remainder of the shaped body consists of at least one binder.
  2. 2. Stable molded article according to claim 1, characterized in that the binder is mixed with a foaming agent, so that the shaped body as a whole, depending on the specific composition of all components due to the air in the expanded perlites and the air from the foaming a density of between 120 kg / m3 to 1200 kg / m3.
  3. 3. Stable molding according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the binder for pure fire protection purposes is a mineral binder, and for pure thermal insulation purposes either a) a mineral binder or b) is an organic binder, or c) a mixture of mineral and organic binders.
  4. 4. Stable shaped body according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least one of its surfaces is impregnated with a hydrophobing agent.
  5. 5. Stable molding according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that it contains a the closed-cell pearlite and the binder mixed with water repellents and reinforcing fibers to increase its mechanical strength.
  6. 6. Stable molding according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that for its use as a thermal insulation, the binder is a mineral, an organic or a mixture of a mineral and organic binder, which exhibits a hydrophobic effect.
  7. 7. lightweight building board for use in construction, with a stable molded body according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least one flat side of this lightweight building board (1) is equipped with a grid structure as reinforcing reinforcing layer (2) of one or more of the following substances: a) cellulose, b) glass, c) natural fibers, e) synthetic fibers and these fabrics are mechanically fastened or laminated as a scrim, knit or fleece, or as an alternative to these fabrics, an airgel nonwoven fabric is mechanically fastened or laminated as an insulating layer is.
  8. 8. lightweight building board for use in construction according to claim 7, characterized in that it comprises a layer structure and each a heat-insulating intermediate layer of airgel-fiber fleece between the superimposed layers is laminated, wherein the individual layers are pressed together and secured with them passing dowels.
  9. 9. A method for producing a stable shaped article according to one of claims 1 to 6 or a lightweight board for use in construction according to claim 7 to 8, characterized in that glazed, that is closed on its surface cellulite perlite and thus filled with air balls from expanded Silica sands having a bulk density of 50 to 400 grams / liter in the dry state are mixed with a binder and the mixture is pressed or cast into a mold and then cured with or without heat input.
  10. 10. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the binder is a mineral or organic and is mixed with a foaming agent and mixed with the expanded silicate sands, so that depending on the proportion of the foaming agent in the binder of the shaped body as a whole after its curing a density of 120 kg / m3 to 1200 kg / m3.
  11. 11. A method for producing a lightweight board for use in construction, comprising a stable molded body according to claim 1 to 6, characterized in that a mineral binder is used as the binder and after its curing at least one flat side of the plate with a lattice structure as reinforcing reinforcing layer (2) is mechanically reinforced from natural fibers or from synthetic fibers or from a combination of these fabrics as a scrim, knit or non-woven by attaching or laminating this scrim, knit or web to the board.
  12. 12. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that expanded, closed-cell perlite is used in the form of glazed balls with different diameters, namely in the following composition, by weight: 30-60% with a diameter of 0.1 mm to 0.5 mm, 20- 50% with diameter 0.5 mm to 0.8 mm, 10-30% with diameter 0.8 mm to 1.0 mm, 0 to 10% with diameter 1.0 mm to 2.0 mm.
  13. 13. Use of lightweight panels according to one of claims 7 to 8 for creating wall structures inside or outside of buildings by the lightweight panels (8) on a cleaned, with a plaster (6) leveled and afterwards with adhesive mortar (7) provided inside or Exterior wall (3) of a building to be applied, if necessary mechanically fixed to the building wall (3) and then a flush (9) with reinforcing mesh grating (10) is applied to glass and finally a top coat (11) is applied with optional a paint is provided.
  14. 14th building, characterized in that it has inside or outside for thermal insulation and / or fire protection at least one wall structure, which contains stable lightweight panels (8) according to one of claims 7 to 8.
  15. 15. Building, consisting of or containing one or more moldings according to one of claims 1 to 6, designed as a water channel, buoy, floating dock or float, as a dry dock, as hull or emergency structures such as a barrack or hut.
CH01150/14A 2013-10-14 2014-07-26 Stable molded body as fire protection and / or thermal insulation and lightweight board with such, manufacturing process and use thereof and building containing a stable molded body or a lightweight board. CH708688B1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CH01751/13A CH708678A2 (en) 2013-10-14 2013-10-14 Insulation for the interior and exterior insulation of buildings, the process for their preparation, their use and thus insulated building.
CH00141/14A CH709259A2 (en) 2014-02-04 2014-02-04 Insulation boards for interior and exterior insulation of buildings, the process for their preparation, their use and thus insulated building.
CH01150/14A CH708688B1 (en) 2013-10-14 2014-07-26 Stable molded body as fire protection and / or thermal insulation and lightweight board with such, manufacturing process and use thereof and building containing a stable molded body or a lightweight board.

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CH01150/14A CH708688B1 (en) 2013-10-14 2014-07-26 Stable molded body as fire protection and / or thermal insulation and lightweight board with such, manufacturing process and use thereof and building containing a stable molded body or a lightweight board.
EP14796286.4A EP3057917A1 (en) 2013-10-14 2014-10-10 Stable molded bodies or plates made of lightweight material for thermal insulation and for use as fire protection, method for the production thereof, use thereof, and building equipped therewith
PCT/IB2014/065200 WO2015056138A1 (en) 2013-10-14 2014-10-10 Stable molded bodies or plates made of lightweight material for thermal insulation and for use as fire protection, method for the production thereof, use thereof, and building equipped therewith

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KR20190030738A (en) 2016-08-19 2019-03-22 와커 헤미 아게 A porous formed body in the form of an insulating plaster layer or an insulating panel
CN108129135B (en) * 2018-01-12 2021-03-02 山西晟科微生物建材科技有限公司 Sintering engineering waste soil expanded perlite heat-preservation and decoration integrated plate and preparation method thereof
CN108129132B (en) * 2018-01-12 2021-03-09 山西晟科微生物建材科技有限公司 Sintered coal waste expanded perlite heat-insulation and decoration integrated plate and preparation method thereof
CN108147800A (en) * 2018-01-12 2018-06-12 李珠 Sintering grow crushed crude pearlite fly ash foaming insulation and decoration integrated plate and preparation method
CN109053098A (en) * 2018-11-01 2018-12-21 董佑军 A kind of high-efficiency compound environment-protection building thermal insulation material

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CH708688A2 (en) 2015-04-15

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