CA2737100A1 - Systems and methods for collecting solar energy for conversion to electrical energy - Google PatentsSystems and methods for collecting solar energy for conversion to electrical energy Download PDF
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- CA2737100A1 CA2737100A1 CA 2737100 CA2737100A CA2737100A1 CA 2737100 A1 CA2737100 A1 CA 2737100A1 CA 2737100 CA2737100 CA 2737100 CA 2737100 A CA2737100 A CA 2737100A CA 2737100 A1 CA2737100 A1 CA 2737100A1
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- solar energy
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- F—MECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
- F03—MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
- F03G—SPRING, WEIGHT, INERTIA OR LIKE MOTORS; MECHANICAL-POWER PRODUCING DEVICES OR MECHANISMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR OR USING ENERGY SOURCES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
- F03G6/00—Devices for producing mechanical power from solar energy
- Y—GENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
- Y02—TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
- Y02E—REDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
- Y02E10/00—Energy generation through renewable energy sources
- Y02E10/40—Solar thermal energy, e.g. solar towers
- Y02E10/46—Conversion of thermal power into mechanical power, e.g. Rankine, Stirling or solar thermal engines
SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR COLLECTING SOLAR ENERGY FOR
CONVERSION TO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION(S)  The present patent application is a continuation-in-part of co-pending U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/212,249, filed September 17, 2008, and entitled "SYSTEMS AND
METHODS FOR COLLECTING SOLAR ENERGY FOR CONVERSION TO ELECTRICAL
ENERGY," and co-pending U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/212,408, filed September 17, 2008, and entitled "APPARATUS FOR COLLECTING SOLAR ENERGY FOR
CONVERSION TO ELECTRICAL ENERGY," all of which are incorporated in full by reference herein. The present patent application is also a continuation-in-part of co-pending U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/355,390, filed January 16, 2009, and entitled "SYSTEMS
AND METHODS FOR COLLECTING SOLAR ENERGY FOR CONVERSION TO
ELECTRICAL ENERGY WITH PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATORS," which ise incorporated in full by reference herein. The present patent application is also a continuation-in-part of co-pending U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/365,753, filed February 4, 2009, entitled "SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR COLLECTING SOLAR ENERGY FOR CONVERSION
TO ELECTRICAL ENERGY WITH MULTIPLE THERMODYNAMIC ENGINES AND
PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATORS," which is incorporated in full by reference herein.
The present patent application is also a continuation-in-part of co-pending U.S.
Patent Application Serial No. 12/390,159 filed March 27, 2009, entitled "CLOSED-CYCLE
ENGINE FOR GENERATING ELECTRICAL ENERGY FROM SOLAR ENERGY AND
ASSOCIATED METHOD OF OPERATION," which is incorporated in full by reference herein.
The present patent application is also a continuation-in-part of co-pending U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/477,423 filed June 3, 2009, entitled "HEAT REMOVAL
AND METHODS FOR THERMODYNAMIC ENGINES," which is incorporated in full by reference herein.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention relates generally to solar energy. More particularly, the present invention provides systems and methods for collecting and converting solar energy into electrical energy through solar collectors and one or more thermodynamic closed-cycle heat engines.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 Solar energy is one of the renewable energy sources that does not pollute, it is free, and available virtually everywhere in the world. For these reasons, over the years there have been many systems and methods that attempted to utilize solar energy and convert it into other usable forms of energy such as electricity. More recently, due to perceived shortages and higher prices of fossil fuels and due to pollution concerns, the interest has increased and the pace of development of technologies that utilize alternative energy sources (such as solar) has accelerated.
 There are two main techniques developed to harvest solar energy. The first technique utilizes photovoltaic solar cells to directly convert solar energy into electricity. The photovoltaic solar cells have the advantage of small size, but are expensive to manufacture and the price per watt has leveled due to the high cost of the semiconductor substrate utilized to construct the photovoltaic solar cells. There are many types of designs and materials used to make photovoltaic solar cells which affect their cost and conversion efficiency.
Current commercially available solar cells typically reach a starting efficiency around 18% which drops over time.
The cells produce direct current (DC) that needs to be regulated, and for higher power applications typically the DC current also needs to be converted to AC
 The second technique utilizes the heat (infrared radiation) associated with the solar energy. Assuming that the goal is to generate electrical energy, the solar radiation gets collected, concentrated, and utilized as a heat source for various systems that convert the heat into mechanical energy, which is then converted into electrical energy.
Successful machines developed to convert heat into mechanical energy can be based on thermodynamic cycles.
Mechanical energy produced by these machines is further converted into electrical energy by using rotating generators or linear generators. For example, in the case of a Stirling engine, heat (which can come from any heat source) is applied at one end of the engine and cooling is provided at a different location. The working fluid (gas), which is sealed inside the engine, goes through a cycle of heating (expansion) and cooling (contraction). The cycle forces a piston inside the engine to move and produce mechanical energy. When the heat source is solar, successful engine designs use an intermediate medium such as molten salt to more uniformly distribute the heat around the outside surface of the heating end of the engine.
 With respect to the second technique, problems arise when the surface of the engine is exposed to large temperature gradients due to close proximity of the heat and cooling sources on the surface of the engine. For example, conventional engines can see extreme temperatures from day to night and along the length of the engine body with temperatures ranging from over 1000 degrees Fahrenheit to room temperature across the engine body.
Disadvantageously, these types of engines face difficult material problems such as weld joint cracking and loss of material properties due to thermal cycling over time. Also, there are losses associated with heat radiation from the hot end of these types of engines leading to inefficiency.
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 In an exemplary embodiment, a system for collecting solar energy for one or more of thermodynamic engines includes one or more thermodynamic engines each including one or more chambers; a solar collector configured to concentrate solar energy; and a distribution mechanism configured to distribute the concentrated solar energy to the one or more chambers in each of the one or more thermodynamic engines for a predetermined period of time. In another exemplary embodiment, a method for collecting and distributing solar energy to thermodynamic engines includes receiving collected and concentrated solar energy; directing the concentrated solar energy into a first heat chamber of each of one or more thermodynamic engines for a first predetermined time period; and directing the concentrated solar energy into a second heat chamber of each of one or more thermodynamic engines for a second predetermined time period. In yet another exemplary embodiment, a solar energy collection and distribution system includes one or more solar collector elements; light guides disposed to each of the one or more solar collector elements; a switching element disposed to the light guides, wherein the switching element is configured to distribute solar energy collected by the one or more solar collector elements into a plurality of heat chambers.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 The present invention is illustrated and described herein with reference to the various drawings, in which like reference numbers denote like system components and/or method steps, respectively, and in which:
 FIG. I is system schematic including a dual-surface reflector for collecting and concentrating solar energy according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
 FIG. 2 are multiple low-profile solar collectors for providing a flatter and compact low-profile arrangement according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
 FIG. 3 is a mechanism for combining solar radiation from multiple low-profile solar collectors through light guides according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
 FIG. 4 is a diagram of various designs for a focusing/collimating element according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
 FIGS. 5A and 5B are partial cross-sectional views of a piezoelectric generator according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
 FIGS. 6A and 6B are partial cross-sectional views of a thermodynamic closed-cycle based engine according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
 FIG. 7 is a diagram of an energy distribution and delivery system for concentrated solar energy directly into thermodynamic closed-cycle based engines and/or piezoelectric generators according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
 FIGS. 8 and 9 are diagrams of a solar array utilizing optical switches and reflective surfaces with the solar collectors of FIG. 2 according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
 FIGS. 10 and 11 are diagrams of a solar array utilizing optical switches and reflective surfaces with the dual-surface reflector of FIG. I according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
 FIGS. 12 - 15 are diagrams of solar arrays utilizing the distribution mechanism of FIG. 3 with the solar collectors of FIG. 2 and the dual-surface reflector of FIG. 1 according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
 FIG. 16 is a flowchart of an energy distribution and delivery mechanism for concentrating and releasing solar energy in a pulsating manner directly into multiple systems according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
 FIG. 17 is a flowchart of a mechanism to convert solar energy into electric energy according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
 FIG. 18 is a block diagram of a controller for controlling the pulsating manner of solar energy distribution according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
 FIGS. 19A and 19B are diagrams of a closed-cycle thermodynamic engine with an integrated electric generator according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
 FIGS. 20A and 20B are diagrams of a closed-cycle thermodynamic engine with an external electric generator according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
 FIG. 21 is a flowchart of engine operation of the closed-cycle thermodynamic engines of FIGS. 19 and 20;
 FIG. 22 is a diagram of a closed-cycle thermodynamic engine with a heat exchange mechanism according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
 FIG. 23 is a diagram of the closed-cycle thermodynamic engine of FIG.
22 with another heat exchange mechanism according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention; and  FIG. 24 is a flowchart of heat removal for a closed-cycle thermodynamic engine according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
 In various exemplary embodiments, the present invention provides systems and methods for collecting and converting solar energy into electrical energy. The present invention includes solar collectors that concentrate solar energy and mechanisms for transporting and transferring the concentrated solar energy directly into closed cycle thermodynamic engines without heating the outside surface of the engines. Additionally, the present invention includes multiple thermodynamic engines and mechanisms to direct solar energy into each of the thermodynamic engines to increase overall system efficiency by maximizing the use of collected solar energy. Advantageously, the delivery system of the present invention avoids heating an outside surface of the engine as is done in conventional designs, provides a closed design to protect the collectors, and maximizes efficiency through multiple engines and optical splitters.
The present invention includes solar collectors that concentrate solar energy and mechanisms for transporting and transferring the concentrated solar energy directly into multiple engines and/or generators without heating the outside surface of the engines and/or generators. Additionally, the present invention includes mechanisms to direct solar energy into each of the multiple engines and/or generators to increase overall system efficiency by maximizing the use of collected solar energy. Advantageously, the delivery system of the present invention avoids heating an outside surface of the multiple engines and/or generators as is done in conventional designs, provides a closed design to protect the collectors, and maximizes efficiency through multiple engines and/or generators and optical splitters.
 Referring to FIG. 1, a dual-surface reflector 100 is illustrated for collecting and concentrating solar energy 102 according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
The dual-surfaces on the dual-surface reflector 100 include a primary reflector 104 and a secondary reflector 106. The reflectors 104, 106 can be in a parabolic shape, a spherical shape, and the like. Also, the secondary reflector 106 can be concave or convex depending on the positioning of the secondary reflector 106 relative to the primary reflector 104. The primary reflector 104 is pointed towards the solar energy 102, and the secondary reflector 106 is located above the primary reflector 104. The primary reflector 104 is configured to reflect the solar energy 102 to the secondary reflector 106 which in turn concentrates the solar energy 102 through an opening 108 at a center of the primary reflector 104.
 An outer perimeter support ring 110 is disposed around the edges of the primary reflector 104 to maintain the shape of the primary reflector 104 and to anchor in place the primary reflector 104. A transparent and flexible material 112 connects to the primary reflector 104 and to the support ring 110 to hold the secondary reflector 106 in place.
The transparent and flexible material 112 is configured to allow the solar energy 102 to pass through, and can be constructed from a material that is optically transparent in the infrared region, such as a material in the Teflon family of products, for example, fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) or the like. The transparent and flexible material 112 provides a closed design of the dual-surface reflector 100. Advantageously, the transparent and flexible material 112 can seal the dual-surface reflector 100 from the elements, i.e. wind, airborne particles, dirt, bird droppings, etc.
This prevents deterioration of the reflectors 104, 106 and reduces maintenance with respect to cleaning the reflectors 104, 106.
 A support member 114 can be disposed to the outer perimeter support ring 110 and a base 116. The base 116 can connect to a tracking mechanism 118 through a rotatable member 120. The tracking mechanism 118 is configured to continuously point the reflectors 104, 106 towards the sun by initiating a rotation of the rotatable member 120 to rotate the base 116, the support member 114 and the support ring 110. For example, the tracking mechanism 118 can include a microcontroller or the like can rotate according to location (e.g., an integrated Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) receiver, preprogrammed location, or the like), date, and time or the like. Additionally, the tracking mechanism 118 can include feedback from sensors that detect the position of the sun.
 The base 116 can include one or more motors and electric generators 122, 124. The opening 108 is connected to the base 116 to provide concentrated solar energy from the reflectors 104, 106 to the one or more motors and electric generators 122, 124. For a single motor and electric generator 122, the motor and electric generator 122 is positioned to allow the concentrated solar energy to enter working fluid (e.g., a liquid, a gas, or a phase change substance) without heating an outside surface of the single motor and electric generator 122.
The one or more motors and electric generators 122, 124 can include piezoelectric generators, closed-cycle thermodynamic engines, or variations of these.
 FIG. 1 illustrates an exemplary embodiment with two of the motors and electric generators 122, 124. This exemplary embodiment includes an optical switch 126 and reflecting surfaces 128 to direct the concentrated solar energy into each of the motors and electric generators 122, 124. Those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the base l l6 can include more than two of the motors and electric generators 122, 124 with a corresponding optical switch 126 and reflecting surfaces 128 to concentrate solar energy into each of the more than two of the motors and electric generators 122, 124. The optical switch 126 is configured to provide concentrated solar energy for predetermined intervals into each of the motors and electric generators 122, 124.
[00341 Advantageously, the optical switch 126 enables the dual-surface reflector 100 to input energy into each of the motors and electric generators 122, 124 in a pulsating manner only when needed and for a duration of time that is completely controllable. This enables the dual-surface reflector 100 to avoid wasting collected solar energy, i.e. the optical switch 126 enables the collected energy to be used in each of the motors and electric generators 122, 124 as needed.
For example, the optical switch 126 can be configured to direct collected solar energy into a heating chamber of each of the motors and electric generators 122, 124 only during a heating cycle. The motors and electric generators 122, 124 each have offset heating cycles to allow all collected solar energy to be used, i.e. the optical switch 126 cycles between each of the motors and electric generators 122, 124 for their individual heating cycles.
[00351 In an exemplary embodiment, the dual-surface reflector 100 can include inflatable components, such as an inflatable portion 130 between the primary reflector 104 and the secondary reflector 106 and in the outer perimeter support ring 110. Air lines 132, 134 can be connected to the inflatable portion 130 and the outer perimeter support ring 110, respectively, to allow inflation through a valve 136, a pressure monitor 138, and an air pump 140. Additionally, a microcontroller 142 can be operably connected to the air pump 140, the pressure monitor 138, the valve 136, the tracking mechanism 118, etc. The microcontroller 142 can provide various control and monitoring functions of the dual-surface reflector 100.
Collectively, the components 136, 138, 140, 142 can be located within the base 116, attached to the base 116, in the tracking mechanism 118, external to the base 116 and the tracking mechanism 118, etc.
The valve 136 can include multiple valves, such as, for example, an OFF valve, an ON/OFF
line 132/134 valve, an OFF/ON ON/OFF line 132/134 valve, and so on for additional lines as needed, or the valve 136 can include multiple individual ON/OFF valves controlled by the microcontroller 142.
[00361 The inflatable components can be deflated and stored, such as in a compartment of the base 114. For example, the inflatable components could be stored in inclement weather, high winds, and the like to protect the inflatable components from damage. The microcontroller 142 can be connected to sensors which provide various feedback regarding current conditions, such as wind speed and the like. The microcontroller 142 can be configured to automatically deflate the inflatable components responsive to high winds, for example. The support member 114 and the outer perimeter support ring 110, collectively, are configured to maintain the desired shape of the primary reflector 104, the secondary reflector 106, and the transparent and flexible material 112. The pressure monitor 138 is configured to provide feedback to the microcontroller 142 about the air pressure in the inflatable portion 130 and the outer perimeter support ring 110.
The dual-surface reflector 100 can also include controllable relief pressure valves (not shown) to enable the release of air to deflate the dual-surface reflector 100. The transparent and flexible material 112 can form a closed space 130 which is inflated through the air line 132 to provide a shape of the secondary reflector 106, i.e. air is included in the interior of the dual-surface reflector 100 formed by the transparent and flexible material 112, the secondary reflector 106 and the primary reflector 104. Advantageously, the inflatable components provide low cost and low weight. For example, the inflatable components can reduce the load requirements to support the dual-surface reflector 100, such as on a roof, for example. Also, the inflatable components can be transported more efficiently (due to the low cost and ability to deflate) and stored when not in use (in inclement weather, for example).
 In another exemplary embodiment, the primary reflector 104, the support member 114, the outer perimeter support ring 110, the transparent and flexible material 112, etc. could be constructed through rigid materials which maintain shape. In this configuration, the components 136, 138, 140 are not required. The microcontroller 142 could be used in this configuration for control of the tracking mechanism 118 and general operations of the dual-surface reflector 100.
In both exemplary embodiments of the dual-surface reflector 100, the microcontroller 142 can include an external interface, such as through a network connection or direct connection, to enable user control of the dual-surface reflector 100. For example, the microcontroller 142 can include a user interface (UI) to enable custom settings.
 The primary reflector 104 can be made from a flexible material such as a polymer (FEP) that is metalized with a thin, highly reflective metal layer that can be followed by additional coatings that protect and create high reflectance in the infrared region. Some of the metals that can be used for depositing a thin reflector layer on the polymer substrate material of the inflatable collector can include gold, aluminum, silver, or dielectric materials. Preferably, the surface of the primary reflector 104 is metalized and coated such that it is protected from contamination, scratching, weather, or other potentially damaging elements.
The secondary reflector 106 surface can be made in the same manner as the primary reflector 104 with the reflecting metal layer being deposited onto the inside surface of the secondary reflector 106. For improved performance, the secondary reflector 106 can be made out of a rigid material with a high precision reflective surface shape. In this case the, the secondary reflector can be directly attached to the transparent and flexible material 112 or be sealed to it (impermeable to air) around the perimeter of the secondary reflector 106. Both the primary reflector 104 and the secondary reflector 106 can utilize techniques to increase surface reflectivity (such as multi-layers) to almost 100%.
 The dual-surface reflector 100 operates by receiving the solar energy 102 through solar radiation through the transparent and flexible material 112, the solar radiation reflects from the primary reflector 104 onto the secondary reflector 106 which collimates or slightly focuses the solar radiation towards the opening 108. One or more engines (described in FIG. 5) can be located at the opening 108 to receive the concentrated solar radiation (i.e., using the optical switch 126 and the reflectors 128 to enable multiple engines). The collimated or focused solar radiation from the secondary reflector 106 enters through optically transparent window on the engines towards a hot end (solar energy absorber) of a thermodynamic engine.
 Advantageously, the dual-surface reflector 100 focuses the solar energy 102 and directs it into each of the motors and electric generators 122, 124 for their individual heating cycles in a manner that avoids heating engine components other than the solar energy absorber element in the heating chamber of the motors and electric generators 122, 124.
Specifically, the opening 108 extends to the optical switch 126 which directs the concentrated solar energy directly into each of the motors and electric generators 122, 124 through a transparent window of the heating chamber. The materials forming the opening 108 and the transparent window include materials with absorption substantially close to zero for infrared radiation. The dual-surface reflector 100 includes a large volume, and is preferably suitable for open spaces. For example, the dual-surface reflector 100 could be utilized in open-space solar farms for power plants, farms, etc. In an exemplary embodiment, the dual-surface reflector 100 could be four to six meters in diameter. Alternatively, the dual-surface reflector 100 could be a reduced size for individual home-use. Advantageously, the light weight of the inflatable components could enable use of the dual-surface reflector 100 on a roof. For example, a home-based dual-surface reflector 100 could be 0.1 to one meters in diameter. Also, the reduced cost could enable the use of the dual-surface reflector 100 as a backup generator, for example.
 Referring to FIG. 2, multiple solar collectors 200 are illustrated for providing a flatter and compact arrangement, i.e. a low-profile design, according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 2 illustrates a top view and a side view of the multiple solar collectors 200. In the top view, the multiple solar collectors 200 can be arranged side-by-side along an x- and y- axis. Each of the solar collectors 200 includes a focusing/collimating element 202 which is configured to concentrate solar radiation 102 into a corresponding light guide 204.
The focusing/collimating element 202 is illustrated in FIG. 2 with an exemplary profile, and additional exemplary profile shapes are illustrated in FIG. 4. The focusing/collimating element 202 focuses the solar radiation 102 into a cone of light with a numerical aperture smaller than the numerical aperture of the light guide 204. The focusing/collimating element 202 can be made out of a material transparent to infrared solar radiation, such as FEP.
The focusing/collimating element 202 can be a solid material or hollow with a flexible skin that allows the element 202 to be formed by inflating it with a gas. Forming the element though inflation provides weight and material costs advantages.
 The light guides 204 can be constructed out of a material that is optically transparent in the infrared region, such as FEP, glass, or other fluorinated polymers in the Teflon family, or the light guides 204 can be made out of a thin tube (e.g., FEP) filled with a fluid, such as Germanium tetrachloride or Carbon tetrachloride, that is transparent to infrared radiation.
Advantageously, the light guides 204 include a material selected so that it has close to zero absorption in the wavelengths of the solar energy 102. The tube material must have a higher index of refraction than the fluid inside it in order to create a step index light guide that allows propagation of the concentrated solar radiation. The array of the multiple solar collectors 200 can extend in the X and Y direction as needed to collect more solar energy.
The focusing/collimating element 202, the light guide 204 and the interface 206 can be rotatably attached to a solar tracking mechanism (not shown). The tracking mechanism is configured to ensure the focusing/collimating element 202 continuously points toward the sun. A
microcontroller (not shown) similar to the microcontroller 142 in FIG. 1 can control the tracking mechanism along with other functions of the multiple solar collectors 200. The tracking mechanism can individually point each of the focusing/collimating elements 202 towards the Sun, or alternatively, a group tracking mechanism (not shown) can align a group of elements 202 together.
 Referring to FIG. 3, a mechanism 300 is illustrated for combining solar radiation 102 from the multiple light guides 204 in FIG. 2 according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. The multiple light guides 204 are configured to receive concentrated solar radiation from the focusing/collimating elements 202 and to guide it and release it inside a hot end of multiple engines and/or generators. Optical couplers 302 can be utilized to combine multiple light guides 204 into a single output 304. For example, FIG. 3 illustrates four total light guides 204 combined into a single output 306 through a total of three cascaded optical couplers 302. Those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that various configurations of optical couplers 302 can be utilized to combine an arbitrary number of light guides 204. The optical couplers 204 which are deployed in a tree configuration in FIG. 3 reduce the number of light 204 guides reaching the engines and/or generators. Alternatively, each light guide 204 could be directed separately into the engines and/or generators.
 An optical splitter 308 and an optical switch 310 can also be included in the optical path (illustrated connected to a light guide 312 which includes a combination of all of the light guides 204) at an optimum location along each light guide 204 leading to the engines and/or generators. The optical splitter 308 and optical switch 310 permit pulsation of the concentrated solar energy into one or more piezoelectric generators. Each branch (e.g., two or more branches) of the optical splitter 308 leads to a different engine or generator. The optical switch 310 sequentially directs the concentrated solar energy traveling along the light guide 312 into different arms of the optical splitter 308. For example, the engines and/or generators can include offset heating cycles with the optical splitter 308 and the optical switch 310 directing solar energy 102 into each engine/generator at its corresponding heating cycle.
Advantageously, this improves efficiency ensuring that collected solar energy 102 is not wasted (as would occur if there was a single engine because the single engine only requires the energy during the heating cycle). The optical switch 310 can be integrated into the optical splitter 308 as indicated in FIG.
3 or it can exist independently in which case the optical splitter 308 could be eliminated and the optical switch 310 can have the configuration presented in FIG. 1 (i.e., optical switch 126 and reflecting surfaces 128). In the case where the optical switch 310 is independent of the light guide 312, the light guide termination is designed to collimate the light directed towards the optical switch 310. The selection of the optimum points where the optical splitters 308 are inserted depends on the power handling ability of the optical switch 310 and on economic factors. For example, if the optical switch 310 is inserted in the optical path closer to the engines and/or generators, then fewer switches 310 and shorter light guides 204 are needed, but the optical switches 310 need to be able to handle higher light intensities.
 Referring to FIG. 4, various designs are illustrated for the focusing/collimating element 202a - 202e according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. The focusing/collimating element 202a, 202b, 202c each include an optically transparent solid material 402 shaped in either a bi-convex (202a), a piano-convex (202b), and a meniscus form (202c), all of which have the purpose to focus the incoming solar energy 102.
Additionally, each of the elements 202a, 202b, 202c also include a flexible "skin" material 404 that together with the optically transparent solid material 402 form an inflatable structure 406 which can be inflated with air or a different gas. The air/gas pressure in the inflatable structure 406 can be dynamically controlled to maintain an optimum focal distance between the solid material 402 and the engines and/or generators. The optically transparent solid material 402 and the flexible skin material 404 are made out of a material transparent to visible and infrared solar radiation, such as FEP, for example. The focusing/collimating element 202d is a solid convex focusing element constructed entirely of the optically transparent solid material 402.
 The focusing/collimating element 202e includes an inflatable dual reflector including a primary reflecting surface 408 and a smaller secondary reflecting surface 410 inside an inflatable structure 406. The primary reflecting surface 408 and the secondary reflecting surface 410 are configured to collectively concentrate the solar radiation 102 into an opening 412 that leads to the light guide 204. Both reflecting surfaces 408, 410 can be rigid or flexible such as metalized films or only the secondary reflector 410 can be made out of a rigid material with a high precision reflective surface shape. In this case, the secondary reflector 410 can be directly attached to the transparent material 404 or can be sealed to it (impermeable to air) around the perimeter of the secondary reflector 410. Some of the metals that can be used for metalizing a thin reflector layer on the polymer substrate material of the inflatable collector can include gold, aluminum, silver, or dielectric materials. The preferred surface to be metalized is the inside of the inflatable solar collector such that it is protected from contamination, scratching, weather, or other potentially damaging elements.
 Techniques to increase surface reflectivity (such as multi layer dielectric coatings) to almost 100% can be utilized. Again, the air/gas pressure can be dynamically controlled, based on feedback from pressure sensors monitoring the inside pressure of the inflatable focusing element, to maintain the optimum focal distance. All transparent materials through which solar radiation and concentrated solar radiation passes through can have their surfaces covered with broad band anti-reflective coatings in order to maximize light transmission.
The designs of the focusing elements 202 presented in FIG. 3 are for illustration purposes and those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize other designs are possible that would meet the purpose and functionality of the focusing elements 202. The multiple solar collectors 200 can be utilized in buildings, such as office buildings, homes, etc. For example, multiple focusing/collimating elements 202 can be placed on a roof with the light guides 204 extending into the building towards a service area, basement, etc. to the engines and/or generators.
Additionally, the light guides 204 heat up very little based upon their material construction.
Advantageously, the low profile design of the solar collectors 200 enables roof placement and the light guides enable a separate engine location within a building.
 Referring to FIGS. 5A and 5B, a partial cross-sectional view illustrates a piezoelectric generator 500 according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 5A illustrates an exemplary embodiment where concentrated solar energy 102 travels through free space to enter the generator 500 through an optically transparent window 502.
Also, multiple optically transparent windows 502 could be utilized. The optically transparent window 502 is made out of a material transparent to infrared radiation, such as sapphire, fused silica or the like. The shape of the optically transparent window 502 is such that it facilitates sealing of working fluid inside the generator 500 and reduction of back reflection. FIG. 5A
shows a trapezoidal cross section of the optically transparent window 502 as an exemplary embodiment. The optically transparent window 502 can be disposed at an end of the opening 108 or placed adjacent to the reflecting surfaces 128 of the dual-surface reflector 100 in FIG. 1.
 FIG. 5B illustrates an exemplary embodiment where concentrated solar radiation enters the generator 500 through a plurality of light guides 504. Each of the light guides 504 includes a termination 506 that is made out of material transparent to infrared radiation and that is also resistant to the high temperatures inside the generator 500. The shape of termination 506 facilitates sealing of working fluid inside the generator 506. FIG. 5B shows a trapezoidal cross section of the termination 506. The termination 506 has an angled tip inside the generator 500 that minimizes back reflection inside the light guide 504 and also minimizes coupling back into the light guide 506 of radiation from the generator 500. The termination 506 includes a very hard material with good optical properties able to withstand high temperatures. The plurality of light guides 504 can connect to the solar collectors 200 in FIGS. 2 - 4.
Additionally, the generator 500 can include fewer light guides 504 than solar collectors 200 utilizing the mechanism 300 in FIG. 3 to combine light guides 204. In both FIGS. 5A and 513, the optically transparent window 502 and the plurality of light guides 504 transfer concentrated solar energy directly into a heat chamber 508 of the generator 500. Advantageously, this direct transfer provides a lower temperature of the generator 500 and reduced thermal stress on a generator body 510 of the generator 500. This leads to longer generator 500 life, better reliability, increased efficiency, and the like.
 Additionally, the optically transparent window 502 and the plurality of light guides 504 can be configured to transfer the solar energy in a pulsating manner. The pulsating manner means that the solar energy is allowed to enter into the chamber 508 of the generator 500 periodically, for a predetermined period of time, similar to turning a switch ON and OFF.
During the OFF period for a particular generator 500, the solar energy is directed into a second, or third, or other generator 500 in a rotating, periodical fashion. In this way, all the energy from the collector is utilized. Also, during the OFF period for a particular generator 500, heat is removed from working fluid 510 as part of the thermodynamic cycle. An advantage of pulsating the energy is that solar energy is added to the working fluid 510 in a controlled manner only at the desired time. Transferring the concentrated solar energy directly into the heat chamber 508 of the generator 500 provides great benefits. The generator body 510 has a lower temperature and the thermal stress and thermal aging in the body 510 is reduced. The chamber 508 can be surrounded by heat removing elements 512 such as any type of heat exchanger.
The heat exchanger can actually be located inside the chamber 508 to maximize the rate of heat transfer and prevent the walls of the generator 500 from heating up excessively. In an exemplary embodiment, the heat removing elements 512 can include tubes with circulating water being used to remove heat. The heat extracted into the cooling water can be dissipated into the air through another heat exchanger or can be used as a heat source for heating, for example, household water.
 Advantageously, inserting the solar energy directly into the working fluid 510 in a pulsating manner can improve the efficiency of the generator 500 because the outside temperature of the hot end of the generator 500 can be greatly reduced and therefore the radiated heat loss is decreased. The working fluid 510 can be a gas, typically pressurized, steam, a phase change material, or any other working fluid utilized in closed-cycle thermodynamic engines.
The working fluid 510 can include an energy absorbing material that is designed to have a large surface area and is made out of a material that absorbs infrared radiation and that can efficiently release it to the working fluid. Such materials include graphite or other type of carbon based material, a suitable metal, or a metal oxide. The energy absorber can be also carbon nano particles or other nano particles uniformly distributed and suspended in the working fluid 510.
 A bottom portion 514 of the generator 500 and the heat chamber 510 are attached in a sealed manner through a flexible bellow section 516 that allows the bottom portion 514 to move when the pressure in the heat chamber 510 increases. As a result, the stacks of piezoelectric elements 518 are compressed and a voltage is generated. The piezoelectric elements 518 can be connected in series or parallel (or combination of series and parallel) to generate the desired voltage and current. The electrical energy can be distributed for use or stored for future use. The generator 500 is shown for illustration purposes.
Those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the dual-surface reflector 100 and the multiple solar collectors 200 can be utilized to concentrate and directly deliver solar energy into any type of generator.
 Advantageously, the designs described herein enable distributed electrical energy generation from a few kWs to 10's of kW per unit at a low cost. The present invention can directly generate Alternating Current (AC) electricity without a need for inverters. Also, the present invention can provide heat output which can be used, for example, for space heating, water heating, air conditioning, micro desalination plants, and the like. The present invention provides low installation costs and low overall maintenance costs.
Additionally, the present invention can enable a modular design, such as adding additional solar collectors as needed to scale energy generation.
 Referring to FIGS. 6A and 6B, a partial cross-sectional view illustrates a closed-cycle thermodynamic based engine 600 according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 6A illustrates an exemplary embodiment where concentrated solar energy 102 travels through free space to enter the engine 600 through an optically transparent window 602.
Also, multiple optically transparent windows 602 could be utilized. The optically transparent window 602 is made out of a material transparent to infrared radiation, such as sapphire, fused silica or the like. The shape of the optically transparent window 602 is such that it facilitates sealing of working fluid inside the engine 600 and reduction of back reflection. FIG. 6A shows a trapezoidal cross section of the optically transparent window 602 as an exemplary embodiment. The optically transparent window 602 can be disposed at an end of the opening 108 or placed adjacent to the reflecting surfaces 128 of the dual-surface reflector 100 in FIG. 1.
[00551 FIG. 6B illustrates an exemplary embodiment where concentrated solar radiation enters the engine 600 through a plurality of light guides 604. Each of the light guides 604 includes a termination 606 that is made out of material transparent to infrared radiation and that is also resistant to the high temperatures inside the engine 600. The shape of termination 606 facilitates sealing of working fluid inside the engine 606. FIG. 6B shows a trapezoidal cross section of the termination 606. The termination 606 has an angled tip inside the engine 600 that minimizes back reflection inside the light guide 604 and also minimizes coupling back into the light guide 606 of radiation from the engine 600. The termination 606 includes a very hard material with good optical properties able to withstand high temperatures. The plurality of light guides 604 can connect to the solar collectors 200 in FIGS. 2 - 4.
Additionally, the engine can include fewer light guides 604 than solar collectors 200 utilizing the mechanism 300 in FIG. 3 to combine light guides 204. The engine 600 can include a Stirling-type engine, a Rankine-type engine, or the like. A Stirling engine is a closed-cycle regenerative heat engine with a gaseous working fluid. The Stirling engine is closed-cycle because the working fluid, i.e., the gas in a heat chamber 608 which pushes on a piston 610, is permanently contained within the engine 600. This also categorizes it as an external heat engine which means it can be driven by any convenient source of heat. "Regenerative" refers to the use of an internal heat exchanger called a 'regenerator' which increases the engine's thermal efficiency compared to the similar but simpler hot air engine.
 In both FIGS. 6A and 6B, the optically transparent window 602 and the plurality of light guides 604 transfer concentrated solar energy directly into the heat chamber 608 of the engine 600. Advantageously, this direct transfer provides a lower temperature of the engine 600 and reduced thermal stress on a body 612 of the engine 600. The engine 600 can include a liner 614 made out of a material that is a reflector of infrared radiation and at the same time has poor thermal conductivity (thermal insulator). Advantageously, the liner 614 keeps heat inside the engine 600 avoiding excessive heating of the engine body. This leads to longer engine life, better reliability, increased efficiency, and the like.
 The heat chamber 608 is delimited at one end by the piston 610 which moves in a reciprocating manner inside the engine 600. The efficiency of the engine 600 is improved in the present invention because the outside temperature of the hot end of the engine 600 is greatly reduced (compared to conventional designs) and therefore the radiated heat loss is decreased.
Inside the heat chamber 608, the concentrated solar radiation is absorbed and the energy heats up the working fluid in the chamber. The working fluid can be a gas (typically pressurized), steam, a phase change material, or any other working fluid utilized in closed-cycle thermodynamic engines. The optically transparent window 602 can be shaped in a trapezoidal shape or the like to seal the heat chamber 608, i.e. through the pressurized gas. Alternatively, seals can be located on the optically transparent window 602 or around the plurality of light guides 604. The heat chamber 608 includes an energy absorber and gas heater 616 which is designed to have a large surface area. The energy absorber and gas heater 616 is made out of a material that absorbs infrared radiation and can efficiently release it to the working fluid such as graphite or other type of carbon-based material, a suitable metal, a metal oxide, or the like. The energy absorber and gas heater 616 can include carbon nano particles or other nano size particles uniformly distributed and suspended in the working fluid.
 The engine 600 also includes one or more heat exchangers for cooling the gas inside the heat chamber 608 at an appropriate time during the thermodynamic cycle.
One or more linear generators or the like (not shown) can be coupled to a rod 618 of the pistons 610.
Generally, the generators are configured to convert mechanical energy from the pistons 610 into electrical energy. The electrical energy can be distributed for use or stored for future use. The engine 600 is shown for illustration purposes. Those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the dual-surface reflector 100 and the multiple solar collectors 200 can be utilized to concentrate and directly deliver solar energy into any type of engine. Of note, the present invention delivers concentrated solar energy directly into the heat chamber 608 to avoid heating the engine body.
 Advantageously, the designs described herein enable distributed electrical energy generation from a few kWs to 10's of kW per unit at a low cost. The present invention can directly generate Alternating Current (AC) electricity without a need for inverters. Also, the present invention can provide heat output which can be used, for example, for space heating, water heating, air conditioning, micro desalination plants, and the like. The present invention provides low installation costs and low overall maintenance costs.
Additionally, the present invention can enable a modular design, such as adding additional solar collectors as needed to scale energy generation.
 Referring to FIG. 7, an energy distribution and delivery system 700 is illustrated for concentrated solar energy that allows the release of the concentrated solar energy in a pulsating manner directly into one or more engines and/or generators according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. The energy distribution and delivery system 700 is illustrated with two exemplary engines/generators 702a, 702b, and those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize the energy distribution and delivery system 700 could use additional engines/generators 702 or the like. Each of the engines/generators 702a, 702b includes a first heating chamber 704a, 704b and a second heating chamber 706a, 706b. The energy distribution and delivery system 700 is configured to maximize usage of collected solar energy 102 by distributing the solar energy 102 to each heating chamber 704a, 704b, 706a, 706b at appropriate times in their respective cycles. For example, the solar energy 102 can be collected utilizing the dual-surface reflector 100 and/or the multiple solar collectors 200 described herein.
 The energy distribution and delivery system 700 includes multiple reflective disks 710, 712, 714, 716 for distributing the collected solar energy 102. Note, these reflective disks 710, 712, 714, 716 could be included within a light guide, for example.
Additionally, the optical switch and splitter described herein could provide similar functionality to the reflective disks 710, 712, 714, 716. The reflective disks 710, 712, 714, 716 are configured to either reflect or pass through the collected solar energy 102. Additionally, each of the reflective disks 710, 712, 714, 716 is configured to rotate to either reflect or pass through the collected solar energy 102.
 FIG. 7 illustrates an exemplary operation of the energy distribution and delivery system 700. The collected solar energy 102, during a time period 720 (following a dashed line A), passes through an opening of the first disk 710 and enters the heating chamber 704a of the engine/generator 702a. During a time period 722 (following a dashed line B), the concentrated solar energy 102 is reflected off the first disk 710, passes through the second disk 712, and reflects off the third disk 716 to enter the heating chamber 704b of the engine/generator 702b.
During a time period 724 (following a dashed line C), the concentrated solar energy 102 reflects off the first disk 710, reflects off the second disk 712, and reflects off reflectors 730, 732 to enter the heating chamber 706a of the engine/generator 702a. The reflectors 730, 732 are positioned to direct the concentrated solar energy 102, and light guides could also be utilized. During a time period 734 (following a dashed line D), the concentrated solar energy 102 reflects off the first disk 710, passes through the second disk 712 and the third disk 714, and reflects off the fourth disk 716 and reflective surfaces 740, 742 to enter the heating chamber 706b of the engine/generator 702b.
 The cycle can then start all over again. The energy distribution and delivery system 700 can be used for one, two, or more generator chained in a similar fashion.
The size and shape of the reflecting surfaces on each individual disk can be tailored for obtaining optimum performance. For example, the duration of the energy input in any chamber 704a, 704b, 706a, 706b can be adjusted by varying the size of the reflecting surface (or a combination of multiple reflecting surfaces) and the rotational speed of the disk 710, 712, 714, 716.
The energy distribution and delivery system 700 can include motors (not shown) configured to rotate the disks 710, 712, 714, 716. The pulsating manner of energy transfer allows the solar energy to enter into the chamber of the generator periodically, for a controllable period of time, similar to turning a switch ON and OFF. Also, the energy distribution and delivery system 600 can utilize the optical splitter 308 and the optical switch 310 in a similar fashion as the reflective disks 710, 712, 714, 716 to distribute the solar energy 102.
 Referring to FIGS. 8 and 9, a solar array 800 is illustrated in a schematic top and cross-sectional view according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. As illustrated in the top view, the solar array 800 includes a plurality of solar collectors 200 such as described herein. The present invention utilizes various distribution mechanisms to distribute collected solar energy from the solar collectors 200 to multiple engines/generators. Specifically, these mechanisms enable more engine/generators than corresponding solar collectors 200.
Advantageously, the solar array 800 utilizes these distribution mechanisms to more efficiently use collected solar energy. The -solar array 800 includes multiple generators 500 (FIG. 8) or engines 600 (FIG. 9). Those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the solar array 800 can be utilized with any device adapted to receive concentrated solar radiation. The solar array 800 directs concentrated solar energy through free space to enter the generator 500 or engine 600 through an optically transparent window 502, 602.
 In the examples of FIGS. 8 and 9, the solar array 800 includes four solar collectors 200 with each solar collector 200 providing concentrated solar energy to two generators/engines 500, 600. Each solar collector 200 directs concentrated solar energy in free space to an optical switch 802. The optical switch 802 is configured to direct the concentrated solar energy to a reflective surface 804. The optical switch 802 can include oscillating (vibrating) reflective surface or surfaces (such as MEMS), or a refractive switch. The reflective surfaces 804 can be fixed with a flat or curved surface (such that to minimize the loss of solar energy during the transient part of the switch 802 movement) or can move in sync with the optical switch 802 in such a way to minimize the loss of solar energy during the transient part of the switch movement. Other designs, such as based on refractive optical elements, are possible that distribute the light to the desired locations. In this example, there are two reflective surfaces 804, one for each generator/engine 500, 600. The present invention contemplates additional reflective surfaces 804 as required for additional generators/engines 500, 600.
 Both the optical switch 802 and the reflective surfaces 804 are configured to rotate to enable concentrated solar energy to be transferred in a pulsating manner directly into the working fluid inside the chamber of the generator/engine 500, 600. The pulsating manner of energy transfer means that the solar energy is allowed to enter into the chamber of the generator/engine 500, 600 periodically, for a predetermined period of time, similar to turning a switch ON and OFF. When a particular engine 600 or generator 500 is in the OFF
period, the solar energy is directed into the next engine 600 or generator 500 (of the same solar collector 200) and so on in a cyclical fashion. In this way, almost all the energy from the solar collector 200 is utilized. Clearly, multiple (more than three) closed-cycle thermodynamic engines 600 and piezo-electric generators 500 can be made to belong to the same solar array 800 and correspond to the same solar collector 200. For example in FIG. 8, an output 810 of the generators 600 from multiple cells can be connected in series, in parallel, or a combination of series and parallel connections in order to optimize the desired overall output. The output 810 of the generators 600 can also be connected in configurations that result in single phase, two phases, or three phases overall outputs. The output 810 is connected to plates at the end of piezo-electric stacks 812. The cyclical distribution of solar energy into multiple engine-generator combination can be made to match the desired number of output phases. Multiple phase outputs can be generated either from phase shifting outputs from multiple groups of cells, or by having multiple phases coming out of each cell (from multiple generators).
 During the OFF period of a particular generator/engine 500, 600, heat 820 is removed from the working fluid of that generator/engine 500, 600 as part of the thermodynamic cycle, such as the heat exchange mechanisms described herein in FIGS. 5 and 6.
An advantage of pulsating the energy is that solar energy is added to the working fluid in a controlled manner only at the desired time and for the desired duration. That also allows for a dynamic control scheme of the output power (switches can reconfigure the connection among the outputs from individual generators/engines 500, 600) for cases when solar energy varies (such as due to clouds). In this way, the output power can change while the voltage and the AC
current frequency can stay essentially constant.
 Referring to FIGS. 10 and 11, a solar array 1000 is illustrated in a schematic cross-sectional view according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
The solar array 1000 includes a dual-surface reflector 100 or the like configured to collect and concentrate solar energy. The solar array 1000 utilizes similar distribution mechanisms as described in FIGS. 8 and 9 to distribute collected solar energy from the dual-surface reflector 100 to multiple generators/engines 500, 600 thereby enabling more efficient use of collected solar energy.
Specifically, these mechanisms enable multiple engine/generators 500, 600 for the corresponding dual-surface reflector 100. Advantageously, the solar array 1000 utilizes these distribution mechanisms to more efficiently use collected solar energy. FIG.
10 illustrates the solar array 1000 with multiple piezoelectric generators 500, and FIG. 11 illustrates the solar array 1000 with multiple closed-cycle thermodynamic based engines 600.
 Referring to FIGS. 12 - 15, solar arrays 1200, 1400 are illustrated in various schematic views according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
Each of the solar arrays 1200, 1400 utilize light guides 504, 604 with terminations 506, 606 directly in heating chambers of the generators 500 and engines 600. The light guides 504, 604 are used to direct the collected solar energy in lieu of free space transmission with optical switches and reflective surfaces. Specifically, the solar arrays 1200, 1400 utilize the distribution mechanism 300 described herein in FIG. 3.
 FIG. 12 illustrates the solar array 1200 with multiple piezo-electric generators 500 adapted to receive collected solar energy from multiple solar collectors 200.
In this example, there are two generators 500 for each solar collector 200. Accordingly, the light guide 504 includes a single switch 310 operable to split the light guide 504 into two directions into separate terminations 506 in each generator 500. Those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that each solar collector 200 could serve more than two generators 500 with the addition of splitters and optical switches. FIG. 13 illustrates the solar array 1200 with multiple closed-cycle thermodynamic engines 600 in a similar configuration.
 FIG. 14 illustrates the solar array 1400 with multiple piezo-electric generators 500 adapted to receive collected solar energy from a dual-surface reflector 100.
In this example, there are three generators 500 for the single dual-surface reflector 100.
Accordingly, the light guide 504 includes two optical switches 310, i.e. two switches enable two branches in the light guides 504 to allow a total of three terminations 506. Thus, the solar array 1400 provides three generators 500 for one dual-surface reflector 100. The present invention contemplates additional generators 500 with more splitters and optical switches. FIG. 15 illustrates the solar array 1400 with multiple closed-cycle thermodynamic engines 600 in a similar configuration.
 Referring to FIG. 16, a flowchart illustrates an energy distribution and delivery mechanism 1600 for concentrating and releasing solar energy in a pulsating manner directly into multiple systems according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. As described herein, each system can include a piezo-electric generator, a closed-cycle thermodynamic engine, or the like. The distribution and delivery mechanism 1600 collects solar energy (step 1602). The collection step can include the mechanisms described herein with respect to the dual-surface reflector 100 and/or the multiple solar collectors 200.
 Next, the distribution and delivery mechanism 1600 directs the collected solar energy to a first heat chamber in a first system for a predetermined time period (step 1604). The predetermined time period can correspond to a heating cycle for the first system. After the predetermined time period, the collected solar energy is directed to a next first heat chamber in a next system for another predetermined time period (step 1606). The distribution and delivery mechanism 1600 checks if there is another system (step 1608). Here, the distribution and delivery mechanism 1600 is configured to cycle through all of the system to provide collected solar energy into the associated first heat chambers of each system. If there is another system, the distribution and delivery mechanism 1600 returns to step 1606. If not, the distribution and delivery mechanism 1600 directs the collected solar energy to a second heat chamber in the first system for a predetermined time period (step 1610). Then, the distribution and delivery mechanism 1600 directs the collected solar energy to a next second heat chamber in the next system for a predetermined time period (step 1612). The distribution and delivery mechanism 1600 checks if there is another system (step 1614). Here, the distribution and delivery mechanism 1600 is configured to cycle through all of the systems to provide collected solar energy into the associated second heat chambers of each system. If there is another system, the distribution and delivery mechanism 1600 returns to step 1616. If not, the distribution and delivery mechanism 1600 can return to step 1604 for another cycle through each of the heat chambers.
 Referring to FIG. 17, a flow chart illustrates a mechanism 1700 to convert solar energy into electric energy according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
The mechanism 1700 includes: continuously positioning one or more solar collectors towards the sun (step 1702); collecting solar radiation at each of the one or more solar collectors (step 1704); directing the collected solar radiation to a heat chamber in a generator or an engine (step 1706); periodically and controllably heating a working fluid in the generator with the directed solar radiation (step 1708); reciprocating a piezoelectric generator or a closed-cycle thermodynamic engine responsive to pressure changes in the working fluid (step 1710);
collecting the generated electrical energy (step 1712); cooling the working fluid (step 1714), and repeating the mechanism 1700.
 Referring to FIG. 18, a block diagram illustrates a controller 1800 for controlling the pulsating manner of solar energy distribution according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. The controller 1800 can be a digital computer that, in tenns of hardware architecture, generally includes a processor 1802, input/output (I/O) interfaces 1804, network interfaces 1806, a data store 1808, and memory 1810. The components (1802, 1804, 1806, 1808, and 1810) are communicatively coupled via a local interface 1812. The local interface 1812 can be, for example but not limited to, one or more buses or other wired or wireless connections, as is known in the art. The local interface 1812 can have additional elements, which are omitted for simplicity, such as controllers, buffers (caches), drivers, repeaters, and receivers, among many others, to enable communications. Further, the local interface 1812 can include address, control, and/or data connections to enable appropriate communications among the aforementioned components.
[00761 The processor 1802 is a hardware device for executing software instructions. The processor 1802 can be any custom made or commercially available processor, a central processing unit (CPU), an auxiliary processor among several processors associated with the controller 1800, a semiconductor-based microprocessor (in the form of a microchip or chip set), or generally any device for executing software instructions. When the controller 1800 is in operation, the processor 1802 is configured to execute software stored within the memory 1810, to communicate data to and from the memory 1810, and to generally control operations of the controller 1800 pursuant to the software instructions. The I/O interfaces 1804 can be used to receive user input from and/or for providing system output to one or more devices or components. User input can be provided via, for example, a keyboard and/or a mouse. System output can be provided via a display device and a printer (not shown). I/O
interfaces 1804 can include, for example, a serial port, a parallel port, a small computer system interface (SCSI), an infrared (IR) interface, a radio frequency (RF) interface, and/or a universal serial bus (USB) interface. The network interfaces 1806 can be used to enable the controller 1800 to communicate on a network, such as to a client or the like. The network interfaces 1806 can include, for example, an Ethernet card (e.g., 10BaseT, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet) or a wireless local area network (WLAN) card (e.g., 802.11a/b/g/n). The network interfaces 8106 can include address, control, and/or data connections to enable appropriate communications on the network.
 A data store 1808 can be used to store data, such as configuration data and the like.
The data store 1808 can include any of volatile memory elements (e.g., random access memory (RAM, such as DRAM, SRAM, SDRAM, and the like)), nonvolatile memory elements (e.g., ROM, hard drive, tape, CDROM, and the like), and combinations thereof.
Moreover, the data store 1808 can incorporate electronic, magnetic, optical, and/or other types of storage media. In one example, the data store 1808 can be located internal to the controller 1800 such as, for example, an internal hard drive connected to the local interface 1812 in the controller 1800.
The memory 1810 can include any of volatile memory elements (e.g., random access memory (RAM, such as DRAM, SRAM, SDRAM, etc.)), nonvolatile memory elements (e.g., ROM, hard drive, tape, CDROM, etc.), and combinations thereof. Moreover, the memory 1810 may incorporate electronic, magnetic, optical, and/or other types of storage media. Note that the memory 1810 can have a distributed architecture, where various components are situated remotely from one another, but can be accessed by the processor 1802.
 The software in memory 1810 can include one or more software programs, each of which includes an ordered listing of executable instructions for implementing logical functions.
In the example of FIG. 18, the software in the memory system 1810 includes a suitable operating system (O/S) 1840 and a pulsation control program 1842. The operating system 1840 essentially controls the execution of other computer programs, such as the pulsation control program 1842, and provides scheduling, input-output control, file and data management, memory management, and communication control and related services. The operating system 1840 can be any of Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista (all available from Microsoft, Corp. of Redmond, WA), Solaris (available from Sun Microsystems, Inc. of Palo Alto, CA), LINUX (or another UNIX variant) (available from Red Hat of Raleigh, NC), or the like. The pulsation control program 1842 is configured to control the various distribution mechanisms described herein to enable distribution of collected solar energy from one or more solar collectors to multiple engines/generators in a pulsating manner.
Specifically, the controller 1800 can be internal or external to the various devices described herein. The controller 1800 is communicatively coupled, such as through the network interface 1806 or I/O
interfaces 1804, to the optical switches, splitters, reflective surfaces, etc. The pulsation control program 1842 is configured to control these devices to distribute energy as required to the multiple engines/generators. For example, the pulsation control program 1842 can perform the distribution based on preconfigured settings or based upon adaptive settings using feedback to determine optimal heating cycle lengths for each engine/generator. The engines/generators and solar collectors can further include embedded sensors which report operational data to the controller 1800. This operational data can be utilized in the adaptive settings to provide optimal energy generation.
 Referring to FIGS. 19A and 19B, a closed-cycle thermodynamic engine 1900 is illustrated with an integrated electric generator according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 19A illustrates a cross-sectional side view and FIG.
19B illustrates an end view. The closed-cycle thermodynamic engine 1900 includes a cylinder body 1902 with heat chambers 1904, 1906 located at each end of the cylinder body 1902.
Concentrated solar energy 1908 enters in an alternating or pulsating manner into the two heat chambers 1904, 1906 through the optically transparent ends 1910. For example, the optically transparent ends 1910 can include sapphire, fused silica, or other suitable material. Alternatively, the concentrated solar energy 1908 can enter through one or more light guides as described herein.
 The two optically transparent ends 1910 are disposed at opposite ends of the cylinder body 1902 thereby forming a sealed cylindrical shape with a hollow interior.
The hollow interior includes the two heat chambers 1904, 1906 at each end of the body 1902 with a reciprocating piston 1912 slidingly disposed with the interior of the hollow body. Each heat chamber 1904, 1906 includes an energy absorber 1914 that is configured to absorb the concentrated solar energy 1908 and release it into a working fluid (or gas) inside the heat chambers 1904, 1906. The gas or fluid in the heat chambers 1904, 1906 can be pressurized. For example, the working fluid can be a gas (typically pressurized, such as hydrogen, helium, air, etc.), steam, a phase change material, or any other working fluid utilized in closed-cycle thermodynamic engines.
 The cylinder body 1902 has two flat ends where the concentrated solar energy enters and is essentially transparent to visible and infra-red radiation.
Additionally, the piston 1912 can also be essentially transparent to visible and infra-red (IR) radiation.
The piston 1912 forms a tight fit is inside the hollow interior but it is free to move in a reciprocating manner without friction. For example, lubrication or the like can be utilized. There are one or more magnets (or electro-magnets) 1916 disposed to the piston 1912 that together with coils 1918 disposed to the cylinder body 1902 form a linear electric generator. The coils 1918 are static and are illustrated in a recessed area of the cylinder body 1902. Alternatively, the magnets' 1916 diameter can be smaller and the coils 1918 can be placed inside the cylinder body 1902 without the need of a recessed area. Other embodiments are also contemplated. In an exemplary embodiment, the coils 1918 can extend around a circumference of the hollow interior, and the magnets 1916 can extend around a circumference of the piston 1912.
 The linear electric generator can be wired to produce single or multi-phase voltage outputs. The cylinder body 1902 is surrounded, over substantially the entire surface, with a heat exchanger 1920. The heat extracted by the heat exchanger 1920 can be dissipated into the air or it can be used as a heat source for heating, for example, household water.
Also, one or more fiber optic bundles 1924 (FIG. 19B shows four fiber optic bundles) extend between the two heat chambers 1904, 1906 to transfer solar radiation between the chambers 1904, 1906. The fiber optic bundles 1924 provide bidirectional transfer of a portion of the hot gas energy between the engine chambers to provide cooling and to reuse energy.
 Referring to FIGS. 20A and 20B, a closed-cycle thermodynamic engine 2000 is illustrated with an external electric generator according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. The closed-cycle thermodynamic engine 2000 includes a similar structure as the closed-cycle thermodynamic engine 1900. Instead of an internal electric generator, the closed-cycle thermodynamic engine 2000 includes an external electric generator with a mechanism 2002 that converts reciprocal motion of the piston 1912 to rotational motion. The mechanism 2002 thereby rotates a magnetic disk 2004 insides the cylinder body 1902 and the magnetic disk 2004 is magnetically coupled to another magnetic disk 2006 located external to the cylinder body 1902. The magnetic disk 2006 is attached to a shaft 2008 that is connected to a rotating electric generator 2010 external to the closed-cycle thermodynamic engine 2000. The closed-cycle thermodynamic engines 1900, 2000 are configured to use any of the solar energy collection and distribution mechanisms described herein. This includes the pulsating distribution mechanisms described herein. Additionally, the present invention contemplates multiple closed-cycle thermodynamic engines 1900, 2000 configured in array.
[00841 Referring to FIG. 21, a flowchart illustrates engine operation 2100 of the closed-cycle thermodynamic engines 1900, 2000 according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. Concentrated solar energy enters a first chamber of a closed-cycle thermodynamic engine for a predetermined time period (step 2102). The concentrated solar energy is absorbed by an energy absorber and released into a working gas (step 2104). The gas heats up expanding to exert force through pressure on a piston (step 2106). The piston reciprocates thereby passing magnets attached to the piston by coils generating a voltage in the coils (step 2108).
Alternatively, the piston can include a mechanism to translate a reciprocating force to a rotational force to drive an external generator. While reciprocating, energy from the first chamber passes to a second chamber or vice versa through the piston's body and through a fiber optic bundle (step 2110). Also, the gas in the chamber (either the first or the second chamber) is further cooled by an attached heat exchanger (step 2112). Concentrated solar energy enters the second chamber for a predetermined time period (step 2114). The engine operation 2100 continues (back to step 2104) as long as energy is added to each chamber. The magnet can include an electro-magnet on the piston which can be modified in strength to accommodate for variations of the input solar energy (such as when clouds temporarily block the sun). Collected and concentrated solar energy can be split among multiple engines to utilize all the energy as described herein. For example, after energy is allowed into the first chamber of one engine, the energy can be directed to the first chamber of the second engine, and after that to the second chamber of the first engine, and so on.
[00851 Referring to FIG. 22, a closed-cycle thermodynamic engine 2200 is illustrated with a heat exchange mechanism according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. The closed-cycle thermodynamic engine 2200 includes two chambers 2202, 2204 that are separated by a reciprocating piston 2206 or the like. Each chamber 2202, 2204 includes a heat absorber 2208 that absorb concentrated solar energy received through an optically transparent window 2210 and release the heat energy into working fluid of each respective chamber 2202, 2204. As the working fluid heats up and expands, it exerts force against the piston 2206. The thermodynamic engine 2200 can use any of the various solar energy collection and distribution mechanisms described herein or the like to provide the concentrated solar energy to each chamber 2202, 2204. The piston 2206 includes one or more magnets or electro-magnets 2212 that pass by generator coils 2214 as the piston 2206 is reciprocated thereby generating electrical energy. The generator coils 2214 are disposed to a housing 2216 of the closed-cycle thermodynamic engine 2200.
 The heat exchange mechanism of the present invention increases the heat removal rate in each chamber 2202, 2204. The heat exchange mechanism includes openings 2220, 2222, 2224 in the piston 2206 and openings 2226, 2228 in the housing 2216 connected to pipes 2230, 2232. The opening 2220 is a hole located at opposite ends of the piston 2206 opening up to each chamber 2202, 2204. The opening 2220 connects to the openings 2222, 2224 which are each disposed at opposite ends of the piston 2206 facing the housing 2216. For example, the openings 2222, 2224 can be part of the same circular slot around the circumference of the piston 2206. Collectively, the openings 2220, 2222, 2224 define channels in the piston 2216 from each chamber 2202, 2204 to the housing 2216. Due to the reciprocation of the piston 2206 in operation, the openings 2222, 2224 reach and communicate to the openings 2226, 2228 at various points in the heat cycle. The pipes 2230, 2232 connect the openings 2226, 2228 to a heat exchanger 2240.
 As heat is introduced in each chamber 2202, 2204 during the heat cycle, the working fluid expands and pushes the piston 2206 producing work. The piston 2206 reciprocates in the housing 2216 and the openings 2220, 2222, 2224 connect with the openings 2226, 2228 at various points in the heat cycle. For example, assume the chamber 2202 is being heated and the piston 2206 is being reciprocated from the chamber 2202 to the chamber 2204.
Here, hot working fluid in the chamber 2202 is under higher pressure than a fluid in a sealed closed circuit formed by pipe 2232 and the heat exchanger 2240. As the piston 2206 reciprocates and connects the opening 2224 to the opening 2228, some of the heated working fluid exits from the chamber 2202 into the pipe 2232. As the piston 2206 continues to move in the same direction, the openings 2224, 2228 are closed by the piston side and the pressure decreases in the chamber 2202. The heated working fluid in the pipe 2232 is provided to the heat exchanger 2240.
[00881 When the opening 2222 reaches the opening 2226, cold fluid in the pipe returning from heat exchanger 2240 enters into chamber 2202. At this point, the chamber 2202 reaches half of a complete cycle and the same series of events start happening in chamber 2204 at the opposite end of the piston 2206. The hot fluid in chamber 2204 exits through the opening 2228 and cold fluid returning from heat exchanger 2240 enters the chamber 2204 through the opening 2226. This series of events continues alternately in the two chambers 2202, 2204 while the engine is in operation.
 Referring to FIG. 23, the closed-cycle thermodynamic engine 2200 is illustrated with another heat exchange mechanism according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. In FIG. 23, the closed-cycle thermodynamic engine 2200 utilizes a sealed plenum enclosure 2300 in placed of the pipes 2230, 2232 in FIG. 22. The sealed plenum enclosure 2300 is surrounded by a heat exchanger 2302 providing similar functionality as the heat exchanger 2240. Here, the method of operation is the same as described in FIG. 22. The efficiency of a closed-cycle thermodynamic engine is greatly influenced by the difference between the hot and the cold temperatures of the cycle. Assuming that the hot temperature remains the same, the heat exchange mechanism allows the engine 2200 to remove heat faster from the working fluid and therefore lowers the low temperature of the thermodynamic cycle resulting in better efficiency. The new design and improvements also allows the engine 2200 to operate at a faster cycle frequency.
 Referring to FIG. 24, a flowchart illustrates heat removal 2400 for a closed-cycle thermodynamic engine according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
Concentrated solar energy enters a first chamber of a closed-cycle thermodynamic engine for a predetermined time period (step 2402). The concentrated solar energy is absorbed by an energy absorber and released into a working fluid thereby heating up and expanding to exert force on a piston (step 2404). As the piston reciprocates due to the force, hot working fluid from the first chamber is provided to a heat exchanger for a period of time (step 2406). The hot working fluid can be provided through openings disposed in the piston and in a housing of the engine such as described herein in FIGS. 22 and 23. The piston continues to reciprocate and cool fluid returning from the heat exchanger is provided to the first chamber for a second period of time (step 2408). The cool fluid can be provided in a similar fashion as the hot working fluid. The piston reaches half a complete cycle and continues to generate electrical energy (step 2410).
Concentrated solar energy enters the second chamber for a predetermined time period (step 2412). The same process for the first chamber is repeated in the second chamber to exchange hot working fluid with cold fluid from the heat exchanger (step 2414).
 Although the present invention has been illustrated and described herein with reference to preferred embodiments and specific examples thereof, it will be readily apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art that other embodiments and examples may perform similar functions and/or achieve like results. All such equivalent embodiments and examples are within the spirit and scope of the present invention and are intended to be covered by the following claims.
one or more thermodynamic engines each comprising one or more chambers;
a solar collector configured to concentrate solar energy; and a distribution mechanism configured to distribute the concentrated solar energy to the one or more chambers in each of the one or more thermodynamic engines for a predetermined period of time.
an optically transparent window shaped to reduce optical back reflection and to seal working fluid in the heat chamber; and one or more light guides extending into and terminating in the one or more chambers, wherein the one or more light guides each comprise an angled tip shaped to reduce optical back reflection.
wherein the one or more light guides each comprise an angled tip shaped to reduce optical back reflection; and wherein the one or more light guides are configured to combine concentrated solar energy from a plurality of focusing/collimating elements of the solar collection.
wherein the one or more chambers comprise a first heat chamber and a second heat chamber; and wherein the distribution mechanism is further configured to distribute the concentrated solar energy to the second heat chamber in each of the one or more thermodynamic engines for another predetermined period of time.
one or more angled reflective surfaces;
one or more light guides comprising a material that is substantially optically transparent;
and one of an optical switch configured to switch the concentrated solar energy towards each of the one or more thermodynamic engines and rotatable reflective disks configured to either reflect or pass through the concentrated solar energy responsive to relative position of each of the rotatable reflective disks.
receiving collected and concentrated solar energy;
directing the concentrated solar energy into a first heat chamber of each of one or more thermodynamic engines for a first predetermined time period; and directing the concentrated solar energy into a second heat chamber of each of one or more thermodynamic engines for a second predetermined time period.
configuring a solar collector to point towards the sun, wherein the solar collector is configured to concentrate solar energy.
inflating a solar collector for concentrating solar energy.
receiving solar energy through a plurality of focusing/collimating elements;
and combining the received solar energy through a plurality of light guides, optical switches, and optical splitters/combiners.
one or more optically transparent window shaped to reduce optical back reflection and to seal working fluid in one of the first heat chamber and the second heat chamber; and one or more light guides extending into and terminating in one of the first heat chamber and the second heat chamber, wherein the one or more light guides each comprise an angled tip shaped to reduce optical back reflection.
wherein the heating cycles for each of the one or more thermodynamic engines are offset from one another; and wherein each of the one or more thermodynamic engines comprise a closed-cycle thermodynamic engine.
one or more solar collector elements;
light guides disposed to each of the one or more solar collector elements;
a switching element disposed to the light guides, wherein the switching element is configured to distribute solar energy collected by the one or more solar collector elements into a plurality of heat chambers.
wherein the termination end comprises an angled tip shaped to reduce optical back reflection; and wherein the termination end comprises a material capable of withstanding high temperatures associated with the plurality of heat chambers.
Priority Applications (13)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|US12/212,408 US8397505B2 (en)||2007-09-17||2008-09-17||Apparatus for collecting solar energy for conversion to electrical energy|
|US12/212,249 US8695341B2 (en)||2007-09-17||2008-09-17||Systems and methods for collecting solar energy for conversion to electrical energy|
|US12/355,390 US7876028B2 (en)||2007-09-17||2009-01-16||Systems and methods for collecting solar energy for conversion to electrical energy with piezoelectric generators|
|US12/365,753 US8112996B2 (en)||2007-09-17||2009-02-04||Systems and methods for collecting solar energy for conversion to electrical energy with multiple thermodynamic engines and piezoelectric generators|
|US12/390,159 US8209984B2 (en)||2007-09-17||2009-02-20||Closed-cycle thermodynamic engine for generating electrical energy from solar energy and associated method of operation|
|US12/477,423 US8397498B2 (en)||2007-09-17||2009-06-03||Heat removal systems and methods for thermodynamic engines|
|PCT/US2009/057104 WO2010033554A1 (en)||2008-09-17||2009-09-16||Systems and methods for collecting solar energy for conversion to electrical energy|
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|CA2737100A1 true CA2737100A1 (en)||2010-03-25|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|CA 2737100 Abandoned CA2737100A1 (en)||2007-09-17||2009-09-16||Systems and methods for collecting solar energy for conversion to electrical energy|
Country Status (5)
|EP (1)||EP2329143A1 (en)|
|CN (1)||CN102216612B (en)|
|AU (1)||AU2009293330B2 (en)|
|CA (1)||CA2737100A1 (en)|
|WO (1)||WO2010033554A1 (en)|
Families Citing this family (2)
|Publication number||Priority date||Publication date||Assignee||Title|
|BR112013017949A2 (en) *||2011-01-14||2016-11-01||Cewa Technologies Inc||fiber-based transmission system for a solar energy system and method for providing and using the same|
|CN104895750B (en) *||2014-03-03||2018-01-30||聂再安||Pulse water supply external-heat solar engine|
Family Cites Families (5)
|Publication number||Priority date||Publication date||Assignee||Title|
|US5089055A (en) *||1989-12-12||1992-02-18||Takashi Nakamura||Survivable solar power-generating systems for use with spacecraft|
|US5593549A (en) *||1993-06-02||1997-01-14||Stirbl; Robert C.||Method for changing solar energy distribution|
|US6700054B2 (en) *||1998-07-27||2004-03-02||Sunbear Technologies, Llc||Solar collector for solar energy systems|
|JP2002526741A (en) *||1998-10-05||2002-08-20||パワーパルス・ホールディング・アクチェンゲゼルシャフト||Optical element having light transmitting surface|
|US20060037606A1 (en) *||2004-08-21||2006-02-23||Amar Singh||Solar/electromagnetic energy collector, solar heating element, solar lamp|
- 2009-09-16 CN CN200980145874.3A patent/CN102216612B/en not_active IP Right Cessation
- 2009-09-16 WO PCT/US2009/057104 patent/WO2010033554A1/en active Application Filing
- 2009-09-16 CA CA 2737100 patent/CA2737100A1/en not_active Abandoned
- 2009-09-16 AU AU2009293330A patent/AU2009293330B2/en not_active Ceased
- 2009-09-16 EP EP20090815092 patent/EP2329143A1/en not_active Withdrawn
Also Published As
|Publication number||Publication date|
|ES2531451T3 (en)||Solar concentration plant|
|US8642880B2 (en)||Interchangeable and fully adjustable solar thermal-photovoltaic concentrator systems|
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|US20170204806A1 (en)||Hybrid Trigeneration System Microgrid Combined Cooling, Heat and Power Providing Heating, Cooling, Electrical Generation and Energy Storage Using an Integrated Automation System for Monitor, Analysis and Control|
|US9476612B2 (en)||Beam-forming concentrating solar thermal array power systems|
|ES2409264T3 (en)||Solar power device|
|AU2014286981B2 (en)||Photovoltaic-thermal solar energy collection system with energy storage|
|US9006560B2 (en)||Solar receiver|
|Karni et al.||The DIAPR: a high-pressure, high-temperature solar receiver|
|EP0516767B1 (en)||Solar roof collector|
|AU2005278448B2 (en)||Sunlight heat collector, sunlight collecting reflection device, sunlight collecting system, and sunlight energy utilizing system|
|US5575860A (en)||Fiber optic power-generation system|
|AU2008232716B2 (en)||Rankine-brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft|
|AU753000B2 (en)||Method and device for entropy transfer with a thermodynamic cyclic process|
|CN201345627Y (en)||Distributed solar energy photothermal electricity generating device|
|US20090322089A1 (en)||Integrated solar energy receiver-storage unit|
|US6895145B2 (en)||Apparatus and method for collecting light|
|EP2492609A1 (en)||Integrated solar energy receiver-storage unit|
|US8613278B2 (en)||Solar thermal receiver for medium- and high-temperature applications|
|US7558452B2 (en)||Apparatus and method for collecting energy|
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|US20080184989A1 (en)||Solar blackbody waveguide for high pressure and high temperature applications|
|US4719903A (en)||Variable aperture, variable flux density, aerospace solar collector|
|US8276379B2 (en)||Systems and apparatus relating to solar-thermal power generation|
|US7964787B2 (en)||Hybrid solar power generator|
Effective date: 20140620
Effective date: 20160916