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CA2219785A1 - Arrangement for damping sound and a method for manufacturing the arrangement - Google Patents

Arrangement for damping sound and a method for manufacturing the arrangement

Info

Publication number
CA2219785A1
CA2219785A1 CA 2219785 CA2219785A CA2219785A1 CA 2219785 A1 CA2219785 A1 CA 2219785A1 CA 2219785 CA2219785 CA 2219785 CA 2219785 A CA2219785 A CA 2219785A CA 2219785 A1 CA2219785 A1 CA 2219785A1
Authority
CA
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
damping
arrangement
sheet
elastic
visco
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
CA 2219785
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Ingvar Aremyr
Goran Falk
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Mitek Corp
Original Assignee
Ingvar Aremyr
Goran Falk
Audioform Ab
Esoteric Audio Usa Inc
Mitek Corporation
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10KSOUND-PRODUCING DEVICES; ACOUSTICS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10K11/00Methods or devices for transmitting, conducting or directing sound in general; Methods or devices for protecting against, or for damping, noise or other acoustic waves in general
    • G10K11/16Methods or devices for protecting against, or damping of, acoustic waves, e.g. sound
    • G10K11/162Selection of materials
    • G10K11/168Plural layers of different materials, e.g. sandwiches
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R11/00Arrangements for holding or mounting articles, not otherwise provided for
    • B60R11/02Arrangements for holding or mounting articles, not otherwise provided for for radio sets, television sets, telephones, or the like; Arrangements of controls thereof
    • B60R11/0217Arrangements for holding or mounting articles, not otherwise provided for for radio sets, television sets, telephones, or the like; Arrangements of controls thereof for loud-speakers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R13/00Elements for body-finishing, identifying, or decorating; Arrangements or adaptations for advertising purposes
    • B60R13/08Insulating elements, e.g. for sound insulation
    • B60R13/0815Acoustic or thermal insulation of passenger compartments
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04RLOUDSPEAKERS, MICROPHONES, GRAMOPHONE PICK-UPS OR LIKE ACOUSTIC ELECTROMECHANICAL TRANSDUCERS; DEAF-AID SETS; PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEMS
    • H04R1/00Details of transducers, loudspeakers or microphones
    • H04R1/20Arrangements for obtaining desired frequency or directional characteristics
    • H04R1/22Arrangements for obtaining desired frequency or directional characteristics for obtaining desired frequency characteristic only
    • H04R1/28Transducer mountings or enclosures modified by provision of mechanical or acoustic impedances, e.g. resonator, damping means
    • H04R1/2869Reduction of undesired resonances, i.e. standing waves within enclosure, or of undesired vibrations, i.e. of the enclosure itself
    • H04R1/2876Reduction of undesired resonances, i.e. standing waves within enclosure, or of undesired vibrations, i.e. of the enclosure itself by means of damping material, e.g. as cladding
    • H04R1/288Reduction of undesired resonances, i.e. standing waves within enclosure, or of undesired vibrations, i.e. of the enclosure itself by means of damping material, e.g. as cladding for loudspeaker transducers

Abstract

The present invention relates to an arrangement (1) for achieving a sound-damping absorbent effect in structures containing car stereo loudspeakers. A
visco-elastic polymer (2) exhibiting an adhesive function is applied by spraying, brushing, rolling or spreading between two sheet-formed elements (3, 4) to form a composite sheet which, through the absorbent effect of the visco-elastic polymer on the resulting sandwich structure when the damping layer is subjected to shear deformation during oscillation, brings about a reduction in unwanted vibrations, resonances and reverberations in the structure formed by the sheet. The invention also relates to a method for manufacturing the arrangement.

Description

CA 0221978~ 1997-10-24 , ~VO96~4261 PCT/SE96/00538 Arrangement for damping sound and a method for manufacturing ~he arrangement The present invention relates to an-arrangement ~or achieving a sound-damping absorbent effect in structures, especially those containing car stereo loudspeakers.
An arrangement of this kind is characterized in that a damping mass consisting of a visco-elastic polymer is capable of application to one side of a structure by spraying or coating, thereby achieving damping of vibrations and resonances in the structure.
The present invention also relates to an arrangement for achieving a sound-damping absorbent effect in structures cont~;n;ng car stereo loudspeakers.
It is customary in the manufacture of bass reflex cabinets, interior door trim panels and other panels intended for the installation of loudspeaker units to make use of so-called MDF board or particle board of a certain thickness, for example up to approx. 25 mm, in order to achieve a sufficiently stable resonance chamber that is as resonal-lce-free as possible. Heav~- interndl bracing ol the structure is also frequently used in addition in order to reduce reverberation inside the cabinet.
Bitumen matting and various forms of expanded polyethylene sheeting are commonly used in the c~nventional damping of vibrations, resonances and ~ise in vehicle bodywork. These are normally installed by applying adhesive on one side and then shaping them piece by piece and gluing thcm sccur~ly to thc insldc o~ the body~ork.
However, the aforementioned previously disclosed method is not associated with a very high dissipation factor in the materials used, in addition to which the strUCtUreS are heavy and complicated to produce-CA 0221978~ 1997-10-24 W O96134261 , PCT/SE96/00538 The principal object of the present invention is thus, in the ~irst instance, to make available an arrangement which, amongst other things, solves the afor~.cntioncd probl~ms.
The aforementioned object is achieved by means of an arrangement in accordance with the present invention, which is characterized essentially in that a visco-elastic polymer exhibiting an adhesive function is applied by spraying, brushing, rolling or spreading between two sheet-formed elements to form a composite sheet which, through the absorbent effect of the visco-elastic polymer on the resulting sandwich structure when the damping layer is subjected to shear deformation during oscillation, brings about a reduction in unwanted vibrations, resonances and reverberations in the structure formed by the sheet.
An alternative arrangement is characterized in that a damping mass consisting of a visco-elastic polymer is capable of application to the inside of a vehicle body by spraying or coating, whereby damping of vibrations and resonances in the body is achieved.
The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing an arrangement for achieving a sound-damping absorbent effect in structures, e~pecially those contailling car stereo loudspeakers. Such a method is characterized in that one side of the surface of a structure or vehicle body in question is sprayed or coated by means of a visco-elastic polymer so that damping is achieved of vibrations and resonances in the structure or vehicle body in question.
The methods for producing the previously disclosed structures containing car stereo loudspeakers in ordcr to achicvc a sound-d~.ping ~bsorb~nt cffcct arc complicated and time-consuming and are not so effective.
A further object of the invention is thus, in the first instance, to make available a method which, amongst CA 0221978~ 1997-10-24 w~s6/34261 PCT/S~96/00538 other things, solves the aforementioned problems simply and effectively.
Said object is achieved by means of an arrang~...cnt in accord-ncc wlth th~ fcregoirg, whlch is characterized essentially in that two sheet-formed elements are glued together by means of a visco-elastic polymer that is applied by spraying, brushing, rolling or spreading to produce a smooth layer, whereupon the sheet elements are pressed together by exerting uniform pressure in conjunction with drying of said layer, whereupon the resulting sandwich sheet is used for the installation of car loudspeaker units.
An alternative method is characterized in that the inside surface of a vehicle body of the kind in question is sprayed or coated by means of a visco-elastic polymer to achieve damping of vibrations and resonances in the bodywork.
The invention is described below as a number of preferred illustrative embodiments, in conjunction with which re~erence is made to the accompanying drawings, where:
Fig. 1 shows a sectional view of a sandwich sheet Produced in accordance with the invention, and Fig. 2 shows a sectional view of a vehicle body with damping mass applied.
T~le fullction of the invel-ltion is ~s follows: A body in e~uilibrium requires the input of very little energy to bring it into resonant oscillation and, as such, to radiate unwanted noise. The amplitude of the oscillation is dependent on the dissipation factor of the material (= the ability to transform oscillation energy into heat). Structural materials such as MDF and particle board have a dissipation factor of 0.01-0.03, i.e. very low dissipation. The application of the invcntion ircrcascs thc dissipation ~actor by ~ factor of '5 to 20, which gives reduced radiation of unwanted noise by approx 15 dB. The reverberation periQd of the ch~mber is also reduced considerably. When working with car audio, it is important to damp any resonances. The invention reduces the CA 0221978~ 1997-10-24 W O96/34261 PCT/SE96/00~38 resonances in the chamber structure in a previously entirely unachievable ~ashion by the simple expedient of reducing the vibrations where they are at their strongest - in the actual matcrial of thc chzm~bcr. Thc result is z complctcly "dcad"
chamber.
It is possible to stick two sheets together with damping mass instead of using a single thick sheet, and still to obtain a stable sound without reverberation in the chamber disturbing the sound picture.
An arrangement 1 for obtaining a sound-damping absorbent effect in structures containing car stereo loudspeakers comprises a sandwich structure formed by a visco-elastic polymer 2 exhibiting an adhesive function which is applied by spraying, brushing, rolling or spreading ~etween two sheet-formed elements 3, 4 to form a composite sheet. The sheet 1 brings about a reduction in unwanted vibrations, resonances and reverberations in the structure ~ormed ~rom the sheet l through the absorbent e~ect o~ the visco-elastic polymer on the sandwich structure ~ormed when the dampinq layer is exposed to shear deformation during oscillation.
The visco-elastic damping mass 2 exhibiting an a~-lesive fur,ctiorl consists of an acrylic polyn~er.
The sheet-formed elements 3, 4 exhibit essentially identical thicknesses T, for example 12 mm.
A distinctly increased dissipation factor is achieved in this way in the material used, which also leads to improved acoustic functions for the structures in which the damping adhesive 2 is used. Signi~icant reductions in resonances and vibrations are also achieved, as well as rcduccd wcight for thc finishcd structurc through z ~cduccd requirement for structural stiffening.
An arrangement 5 for obtaining a sound-damping absorbent effect in structures containing car stereo loudspeakers involves a damping mass 6, in the form of a CA 0221978~ 1997-10-24 wos6/34261 pcTlsEs6t visco-elastiC polymer, being capable of application to the inside 7A of a vehicle body 7 by spraying or coating, whereby damping of vibrations and resonances in the body 7 is achicvcd. Thc d~mping mass ~ in thi~ casc consists of a plastic dispersion with inorganic filling agents, preferably polyvinyl propionate.
The effect achieved through the aforementioned arrangement 5 with the visco-elastic damping mass 6 corresponds to the effect achieved with conventional bitumen matting of up to about lO times the thickness. The mass 6 is also applied in a signi~icantly shorter time than when installing bitumen matting on a corresponding surface.
The cost of the damping mass 6 is also considerably lower than for conventional damping with bitumen matting. Increased fire protection and a lower overall weight are also achieved.
The method for manufacturing an arrangement l which exhibits a sandwich construction in order to obtain a sound-damping absorbent effect in structures containing car stereo loudspeakers involves gluing together two sheet-formed elements 3, 4, e.g. MDF sheets, by means of a visco-elastic polymer 2 which is applied by spraying, brushing, rolling or ~preading on at least one sheet eleme1-lt 3 or ~ to produce-~smoot~ layer. The sheet elements 3, 4 are then pressed together by exerting uniform pressure in conjunction with drying of said layer 2, for approx. 6-8 hours, whereupon the resulting sandwich sheet l is used for the installation of car loudspeaker units.
It is preferable to glue together two sheets 3, 4 which exhibit identical thickness T by means of an acrylic pol ~.cr.
The layer thickness t can be varied, although an appropriate value is preferablY approx. l mm.
The drying time may vary, although an appropriate time is approx. 6-8 hours at room temperature-CA 0221978~ 1997-10-24 A considerable reduction in the reverberation periods of the finished structure is achieved th~nks to the absorbent effect of the damping adhesive. Measurements have shown that an unda~.ped shcct has a rcvcrbcration period up to approx. 300% longer than the damped version in accordance with the present invention. A resonance-free loudspeaker chamber is thus obtained simply and effectively.
A method for manufacturing an arrangement 5 intended to achieve a sound-damping absorbent effect in structures cont~ining car stereo loudspeakers in the case of body-mounting involves spraying or coating the inside surface 7A of a vehicle body 7 ~y means of a visco-elastic polymer, so that damping is achieved of vibrations and resonances in the body 7.
A damping mass 6 of the intended kind consisting of a plastic dispersion containing inorganic filling agents, namely polyvinyl propionate, is appropriately applied by spraying or brushing to a desired thickness X, preferably approx. 1 mm. Said damping mass 6 is then allowed to dry at room temperature.
More specifically the intended damping mass 6 is applied by spraying with a low-pressure sprayer or compressed ai-r- or by ~rushirlg onto the surface 7A of the body or other vehicle panel components 7 that have been previously cleaned of grease and dirt.
Drying can continue ~or 8-12 hours, depending on the temperature, and also following application on vertical surfaces.
The damping mass 6 can be finished, once it has dried, by both sanding and painting.
Thc invcnticn is not rcstricted tc thc illustrative examples described above and shown in the drawing, but may be modified within the scope of the Patent Claims without departing from the idea of invention.

Claims (11)

1. Arrangement for achieving a sound-damping absorbent effect in structures, especially those containing car stereo loudspeakers, characterized in that a damping mass (6) consisting of a visco-elastic polymer is capable of application to one side (7A) of a structure (7) by spraying or coating, thereby achieving damping of vibrations and resonances in the structure (7).
2. Arrangement in accordance with Patent Claim 1, characterized in that the damping mass (6) consists of a plastic dispersion with inorganic filling agents.
3. Arrangement in accordance with Patent Claim 2, characterized in that the damping mass (6) consists of polyvinyl propionate.
4. Arrangement for achieving a sound-damping absorbent effect in structures containing car stereo loudspeakers, characterized in that a visco-elastic polymer (20) exhibiting an adhesive function is applied by spraying, brushing, rolling or spreading between two sheet-formed elements (3, 4) to form a composite sheet (1) which, through the absorbent effect of the visco-elastic polymer on the resulting sandwich structure when the damping layer (2) is subjected to shear deformation during oscillation, brings about a reduction in unwanted vibrations, resonances and reverberations in the structure formed by the sheet.
5. Arrangement in accordance with Patent Claim 4, characterized in that the visco-elastic damping mass (2) exhibiting an adhesive function consists of an acrylic polymer.
6. Arrangement in accordance with one or other of Patent Claims 4-5, characterized in that the sheet-formed elements (3, 4) exhibit essentially identical thicknesses (T), for example 12 mm.
7. Arrangement for achieving a sound-damping absorbent effect in structures containing car stereo loudspeakers, characterized in that a damping mass (6) consisting of a visco-elastic polymer is capable of application to the inside (7A) of a vehicle body (7) by spraying or coating, thereby achieving damping of vibrations and resonances in the body (7).
8. Method for manufacturing an arrangement (5) for achieving a sound-damping absorbent effect in structures, especially those containing car stereo loudspeakers, in accordance with one or other of Patent Claims 1-3, characterized in that one side of the surface (7A) of a structure or vehicle body in question is sprayed or coated by means of a visco-elastic polymer (6) so that damping is achieved of vibrations and resonances in the structure or vehicle body (7) in question.
9. Method in accordance with Patent Claim 8, characterized in that a damping mass (6) consisting of a plastic dispersion containing inorganic filling agents, namely polyvinyl propionate, is applied by spraying or brushing to a desired thickness (X), preferably approx. 1 mm, which layer (6) is then allowed to dry at room temperature, for example.
10. Method for manufacturing an arrangement (1) for achieving a sound-damping absorbent effect in structures containing car stereo loudspeakers in accordance with one or other of Patent Claims 4-6, characterized in that two sheet-formed elements (3, 4) are glued together by means of a visco-elastic polymer (2) that is applied by spraying, brushing, rolling or spreading to produce a smooth layer, whereupon the sheet elements (3, 4) are pressed together by exerting uniform pressure in conjunction with drying of said layer, whereupon the resulting sandwich sheet (1) is used for the installation of car loudspeaker units.
11. Method in accordance with Patent Claim 10, characterized in that two sheets (3, 4) which exhibit identical thickness (T) are glued together by means of an acrylic polymer.
CA 2219785 1995-04-26 1996-04-24 Arrangement for damping sound and a method for manufacturing the arrangement Abandoned CA2219785A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
SE9501555-8 1995-04-26
SE9501555 1995-04-26
SE9501754 1995-05-11
SE9501754-7 1995-05-11

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CA2219785A1 true true CA2219785A1 (en) 1996-10-31

Family

ID=26662284

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CA 2219785 Abandoned CA2219785A1 (en) 1995-04-26 1996-04-24 Arrangement for damping sound and a method for manufacturing the arrangement

Country Status (4)

Country Link
EP (1) EP0823043A1 (en)
JP (1) JPH11504135A (en)
CA (1) CA2219785A1 (en)
WO (1) WO1996034261A1 (en)

Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7745005B2 (en) 2007-06-30 2010-06-29 Serious Materials, Inc. Acoustical sound proofing material
US7798287B1 (en) 2005-01-20 2010-09-21 Serious Materials, Inc. Acoustical ceiling panels
US7799410B2 (en) 2007-06-30 2010-09-21 Serious Materials, Inc. Acoustical sound proofing material with improved damping at select frequencies and methods for manufacturing same
US7883763B2 (en) 2007-04-12 2011-02-08 Serious Materials, Inc. Acoustical sound proofing material with controlled water-vapor permeability and methods for manufacturing same
US7908818B2 (en) 2008-05-08 2011-03-22 Serious Materials, Inc. Methods of manufacturing acoustical sound proofing materials with optimized fracture characteristics
US7909136B2 (en) 2004-11-24 2011-03-22 Serious Materials, Inc. Soundproof assembly
US7914914B2 (en) 2007-06-30 2011-03-29 Serious Materials, Inc. Low embodied energy sheathing panels with optimal water vapor permeance and methods of making same
US7921965B1 (en) 2004-10-27 2011-04-12 Serious Materials, Inc. Soundproof assembly and methods for manufacturing same
US7987645B2 (en) 2007-03-29 2011-08-02 Serious Materials, Inc. Noise isolating underlayment
US8029881B2 (en) 2005-11-04 2011-10-04 Serious Energy, Inc. Radio frequency wave reducing material and methods for manufacturing same
US8181738B2 (en) 2007-04-24 2012-05-22 Serious Energy, Inc. Acoustical sound proofing material with improved damping at select frequencies and methods for manufacturing same
US8181417B2 (en) 2003-09-08 2012-05-22 Serious Energy, Inc. Acoustical sound proofing material and methods for manufacturing same
US8337993B2 (en) 2007-11-16 2012-12-25 Serious Energy, Inc. Low embodied energy wallboards and methods of making same
US8397864B2 (en) 2007-04-24 2013-03-19 Serious Energy, Inc. Acoustical sound proofing material with improved fire resistance and methods for manufacturing same
US8424251B2 (en) 2007-04-12 2013-04-23 Serious Energy, Inc. Sound Proofing material with improved damping and structural integrity
US8495851B2 (en) 2004-09-10 2013-07-30 Serious Energy, Inc. Acoustical sound proofing material and methods for manufacturing same
US9387649B2 (en) 2007-06-28 2016-07-12 Pacific Coast Building Products, Inc. Methods of manufacturing acoustical sound proofing materials with optimized fracture characteristics
US9388568B2 (en) 2007-04-06 2016-07-12 Pacific Coast Building Products, Inc. Acoustical sound proofing material with improved fracture characteristics and methods for manufacturing same

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FR2770364B3 (en) * 1997-10-28 2000-04-07 Frederic Ivaldi tubular speaker
DE19909046B4 (en) * 1999-03-02 2005-04-14 Faist Automotive Gmbh & Co. Kg Acoustic multilayer absorber, a process for its preparation and its use
US8590272B2 (en) 2010-06-07 2013-11-26 Georgia-Pacific Gypsum Llc Acoustical sound proofing materials and methods of making the same

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US3110369A (en) * 1959-05-22 1963-11-12 Wright Barry Corp Self-damped laminar structure
US3215225A (en) * 1961-11-29 1965-11-02 Korfund Dynamics Corp Laminated acoustic panels with outer metal layers, fibrous core and viscoelastic damping layer
DE1201083B (en) * 1962-04-12 1965-09-16 Alois Stankiewicz Chemische Er A method for producing a multi-layer provided with a covering for damping component Koerperschallschwingungen
US3424270A (en) * 1965-05-12 1969-01-28 Us Plywood Champ Papers Inc Viscoelastic sound-blocking material with filler of high density particles

Cited By (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8181417B2 (en) 2003-09-08 2012-05-22 Serious Energy, Inc. Acoustical sound proofing material and methods for manufacturing same
US8495851B2 (en) 2004-09-10 2013-07-30 Serious Energy, Inc. Acoustical sound proofing material and methods for manufacturing same
US7921965B1 (en) 2004-10-27 2011-04-12 Serious Materials, Inc. Soundproof assembly and methods for manufacturing same
US7909136B2 (en) 2004-11-24 2011-03-22 Serious Materials, Inc. Soundproof assembly
US7798287B1 (en) 2005-01-20 2010-09-21 Serious Materials, Inc. Acoustical ceiling panels
US8029881B2 (en) 2005-11-04 2011-10-04 Serious Energy, Inc. Radio frequency wave reducing material and methods for manufacturing same
US7987645B2 (en) 2007-03-29 2011-08-02 Serious Materials, Inc. Noise isolating underlayment
US9388568B2 (en) 2007-04-06 2016-07-12 Pacific Coast Building Products, Inc. Acoustical sound proofing material with improved fracture characteristics and methods for manufacturing same
US8424251B2 (en) 2007-04-12 2013-04-23 Serious Energy, Inc. Sound Proofing material with improved damping and structural integrity
US7883763B2 (en) 2007-04-12 2011-02-08 Serious Materials, Inc. Acoustical sound proofing material with controlled water-vapor permeability and methods for manufacturing same
US8181738B2 (en) 2007-04-24 2012-05-22 Serious Energy, Inc. Acoustical sound proofing material with improved damping at select frequencies and methods for manufacturing same
US8397864B2 (en) 2007-04-24 2013-03-19 Serious Energy, Inc. Acoustical sound proofing material with improved fire resistance and methods for manufacturing same
US9387649B2 (en) 2007-06-28 2016-07-12 Pacific Coast Building Products, Inc. Methods of manufacturing acoustical sound proofing materials with optimized fracture characteristics
US7799410B2 (en) 2007-06-30 2010-09-21 Serious Materials, Inc. Acoustical sound proofing material with improved damping at select frequencies and methods for manufacturing same
US7745005B2 (en) 2007-06-30 2010-06-29 Serious Materials, Inc. Acoustical sound proofing material
US7914914B2 (en) 2007-06-30 2011-03-29 Serious Materials, Inc. Low embodied energy sheathing panels with optimal water vapor permeance and methods of making same
US8916277B2 (en) 2007-11-16 2014-12-23 Serious Energy, Inc. Low embodied energy wallboards and methods of making same
US8337993B2 (en) 2007-11-16 2012-12-25 Serious Energy, Inc. Low embodied energy wallboards and methods of making same
US7908818B2 (en) 2008-05-08 2011-03-22 Serious Materials, Inc. Methods of manufacturing acoustical sound proofing materials with optimized fracture characteristics

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
WO1996034261A1 (en) 1996-10-31 application
JPH11504135A (en) 1999-04-06 application
EP0823043A1 (en) 1998-02-11 application

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