CA1161577A - Process and apparatus for utilization of products of vital activity of animals - Google Patents

Process and apparatus for utilization of products of vital activity of animals

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Publication number
CA1161577A
CA1161577A CA000368108A CA368108A CA1161577A CA 1161577 A CA1161577 A CA 1161577A CA 000368108 A CA000368108 A CA 000368108A CA 368108 A CA368108 A CA 368108A CA 1161577 A CA1161577 A CA 1161577A
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Prior art keywords
manure
fermentation
biogas
pressure
anaerobic
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
Application number
CA000368108A
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Ivan F. Vasilenko
Vyacheslav D. Shepovalov
Ivan Z. Metelsky
Anatoly G. Puzankov
Karen V. Alexandrian
Stepan E. Markarian
Evgeny V. Degtyarev
Vyacheslav K. Alexeev
Vitaly V. Lalov
Alexandr A. Shmushkin
Albert F. Sholin
Viktor I. Borodin
Pavel P. Bushtets
Alfred N. Grigorian
Vladimir P. Dibtsov
Konstantin I. Bitrikh
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ARMYANSKY NAUCHNO-ISSLEDOVATELSKY INSTITUT MEKHANIZATSII I ELEKTRIFIKATSII SELSKOGO KHOZYAISTVA
TSENTRALNAYA EXPERIMENTALNO-ISSLEDOVATELSKAYA I KONSTRUKTORSKO-TEKHNOLOGICHESKAYA LABORATORIA KHIMIZATSII SELSKOGO KHOZYAISTVA
VSESOJUZNY NAUCHNO-ISSLEDOVATELSKY INSTITUT BIOSINTEZA BELKOVYKH VESCHESTV
VSESOJUZNY NAUCHNO-ISSLEDOVATELSKY INSTITUT GENETIKI I SELEKTSII MIKROORGANIZMOV (VNIIGENETIKA)
VSESOJUZNY NAUCHNO-ISSLEDOVATELSKY INSTITUT KOMPLEXNYKH PROBLEM MASHINOSTROENIA DLYA ZHIVOTNOVODSTVA I KORMOPROIZVODSTVA
Original Assignee
ARMYANSKY NAUCHNO-ISSLEDOVATELSKY INSTITUT MEKHANIZATSII I ELEKTRIFIKATSII SELSKOGO KHOZYAISTVA
TSENTRALNAYA EXPERIMENTALNO-ISSLEDOVATELSKAYA I KONSTRUKTORSKO-TEKHNOLOGICHESKAYA LABORATORIA KHIMIZATSII SELSKOGO KHOZYAISTVA
VSESOJUZNY NAUCHNO-ISSLEDOVATELSKY INSTITUT BIOSINTEZA BELKOVYKH VESCHESTV
VSESOJUZNY NAUCHNO-ISSLEDOVATELSKY INSTITUT GENETIKI I SELEKTSII MIKROORGANIZMOV (VNIIGENETIKA)
VSESOJUZNY NAUCHNO-ISSLEDOVATELSKY INSTITUT KOMPLEXNYKH PROBLEM MASHINOSTROENIA DLYA ZHIVOTNOVODSTVA I KORMOPROIZVODSTVA
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Priority to DE19803049302 priority Critical patent/DE3049302C2/de
Application filed by ARMYANSKY NAUCHNO-ISSLEDOVATELSKY INSTITUT MEKHANIZATSII I ELEKTRIFIKATSII SELSKOGO KHOZYAISTVA, TSENTRALNAYA EXPERIMENTALNO-ISSLEDOVATELSKAYA I KONSTRUKTORSKO-TEKHNOLOGICHESKAYA LABORATORIA KHIMIZATSII SELSKOGO KHOZYAISTVA, VSESOJUZNY NAUCHNO-ISSLEDOVATELSKY INSTITUT BIOSINTEZA BELKOVYKH VESCHESTV, VSESOJUZNY NAUCHNO-ISSLEDOVATELSKY INSTITUT GENETIKI I SELEKTSII MIKROORGANIZMOV (VNIIGENETIKA), VSESOJUZNY NAUCHNO-ISSLEDOVATELSKY INSTITUT KOMPLEXNYKH PROBLEM MASHINOSTROENIA DLYA ZHIVOTNOVODSTVA I KORMOPROIZVODSTVA filed Critical ARMYANSKY NAUCHNO-ISSLEDOVATELSKY INSTITUT MEKHANIZATSII I ELEKTRIFIKATSII SELSKOGO KHOZYAISTVA
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Publication of CA1161577A publication Critical patent/CA1161577A/en
Expired legal-status Critical Current

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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING, OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N1/00Microorganisms, e.g. protozoa; Compositions thereof; Processes of propagating, maintaining or preserving microorganisms or compositions thereof; Processes of preparing or isolating a composition containing a microorganism; Culture media therefor
    • C12N1/26Processes using, or culture media containing, hydrocarbons
    • C12N1/28Processes using, or culture media containing, hydrocarbons aliphatic
    • C12N1/30Processes using, or culture media containing, hydrocarbons aliphatic having five or less carbon atoms
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C3/00Treating manure; Manuring
    • A01C3/02Storage places for manure, e.g. cisterns for liquid manure; Installations for fermenting manure
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F3/00Fertilisers from human or animal excrements, e.g. manure
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12MAPPARATUS FOR ENZYMOLOGY OR MICROBIOLOGY; APPARATUS FOR CULTURING MICROORGANISMS FOR PRODUCING BIOMASS, FOR GROWING CELLS OR FOR OBTAINING FERMENTATION OR METABOLIC PRODUCTS, i.e. BIOREACTORS OR FERMENTERS
    • C12M21/00Bioreactors or fermenters specially adapted for specific uses
    • C12M21/04Bioreactors or fermenters specially adapted for specific uses for producing gas, e.g. biogas
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12MAPPARATUS FOR ENZYMOLOGY OR MICROBIOLOGY; APPARATUS FOR CULTURING MICROORGANISMS FOR PRODUCING BIOMASS, FOR GROWING CELLS OR FOR OBTAINING FERMENTATION OR METABOLIC PRODUCTS, i.e. BIOREACTORS OR FERMENTERS
    • C12M23/00Constructional details, e.g. recesses, hinges
    • C12M23/58Reaction vessels connected in series or in parallel
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12MAPPARATUS FOR ENZYMOLOGY OR MICROBIOLOGY; APPARATUS FOR CULTURING MICROORGANISMS FOR PRODUCING BIOMASS, FOR GROWING CELLS OR FOR OBTAINING FERMENTATION OR METABOLIC PRODUCTS, i.e. BIOREACTORS OR FERMENTERS
    • C12M41/00Means for regulation, monitoring, measurement or control, e.g. flow regulation
    • C12M41/12Means for regulation, monitoring, measurement or control, e.g. flow regulation of temperature
    • C12M41/18Heat exchange systems, e.g. heat jackets or outer envelopes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12MAPPARATUS FOR ENZYMOLOGY OR MICROBIOLOGY; APPARATUS FOR CULTURING MICROORGANISMS FOR PRODUCING BIOMASS, FOR GROWING CELLS OR FOR OBTAINING FERMENTATION OR METABOLIC PRODUCTS, i.e. BIOREACTORS OR FERMENTERS
    • C12M47/00Means for after-treatment of the produced biomass or of the fermentation or metabolic products, e.g. storage of biomass
    • C12M47/02Separating microorganisms from the culture medium; Concentration of biomass
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12MAPPARATUS FOR ENZYMOLOGY OR MICROBIOLOGY; APPARATUS FOR CULTURING MICROORGANISMS FOR PRODUCING BIOMASS, FOR GROWING CELLS OR FOR OBTAINING FERMENTATION OR METABOLIC PRODUCTS, i.e. BIOREACTORS OR FERMENTERS
    • C12M47/00Means for after-treatment of the produced biomass or of the fermentation or metabolic products, e.g. storage of biomass
    • C12M47/18Gas cleaning, e.g. scrubbers; Separation of different gases
    • Y02A40/205
    • Y02E50/343
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/141Feedstock
    • Y02P20/145Feedstock the feedstock being materials of biological origin
    • Y02W30/47

Abstract

PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR UTILIZATION OF PRODUCTS
OF VITAL ACTIVITY OF ANIMALS

Abstract of the Disclosure The process according to the present invention comprises a decompression treatment of manure prior to anaerobic fer-mentation carried out under conditions of a controlled reduced pressure; the evolving biogas and other nitrogen- and carbon-containing components, after separation thereof from air ex-hausts from the cattle house and from the liquid fraction of manure are employed as trophic elements of the culture medium in an aerobic process for the treatment with prototrophic bacteria. The biomass of the latter is disintegrated and used as a feedstuff component; the gas mixture resulting from the treatment with prototrophic bacteria is used as a heat-trans-fer agent in the system of anaerobic fermentation, while the fermented mass is precipitated by means of an organo-mineral suspension prior to separation into fractions.
An apparatus for the treatment of manure comprises an anaerobic microbiological reactor with fermentation and accu-mulation vessels provided with a heating system, as well as means for supply of manure and withdrawal of the fermented mass, the latter means being connected with the means for separation of the fermented mass into the solid and liquid fractions, the accumulation vessel has means for withdrawal and purification of the biogas; the accumulation vessel is connected, through the means for withdrawal of the biogas, with the aerobic microbiological reactor having a disintegra-tor of the biomass, a concentrator, an outlet pipe for with-drawal of the spent biogas into the system of preheating of the fermentation vessel, and the anaerobic microbiological re-actor has a device for automatic control and monitoring of the fermentation process intensity.

Description

i77 P:ROCESS AND APPA.RAqUS FOR U~ILIZA~ION O~` PRODUCTS
OF VITAL AC~IVI~Y OF ANIMA3~S

~ he present invention relates to the process of treat-ment of ~astes resulting from a~imal ~reeding such as m~nure, vege-table remnants and mixtures thereof, as ~ell as to an apparatus for performin~ this process~
'rhe process according to the present invention c~n be used fOI- processing of` organic wastes resul-ting ~rom agricul-tural producticn, mainly in animal breeding farms and in other artificial ecological sys-tems with a closed circu.it of ~i.oconversion of nutrient subst~nces ~nd energy.
Known in the ar-t are a number of processes associated with the -treatrnent of orga~ic wastes. These processes are exempli~ied by such processes as manure compos~ing, aerobic microbiological treatment, use of liquid manure lor irrigation of ields, metl~ne fermen-tation; treatment by fly larvae, uti-lization for fertilizers and/or as a ~eed stuf after a spe-cial biochemical processing, alld the like The basic requirement imposed on these processes under commercial production conditions is -the possiblity of ob taining the processing products (fertilizers or feedstuffs) ~,Ji~ ~,~jjt~D7 of a required quality at minimal losses of nutrient proper-ties of manure, minimal rate of time- and money consumption per unit of the final product.
Quality of the resulting products of such treatment is defined b~ the degree of retention of that fertilizing ca-pacity or protein content v~hich is characteristic o~ the start-ing marlure1 and by the fulness of conversion of the nutrient sub-stances contained therein to a feedstuff product ~egetable~
microbial or other protein-containing biomass).
To achieve the maximum value of this characteristic at required process speed, it is necessary, first of all, to nimize losses o-f ni-trogen and organic matter inavoidable upon its uncontrollable decomposition v~hich is acco~panied by an intensive dissipation of the volatile matters result-ing frorn the decomposition of organics in the form of nitro-en- and carbon-containing gases, as well as to ensure a ra-id and e~ficient (from the economic standpoint) conversion of the organic mass of manure to a feedstuff Known process for treatment of products of vital activity of animals feature different limiting speed and efficienc~
while the resulting products feature a aifferent degree of compliance with the sanitary and zootechnical norms~ Ho~ever, by the present moment none of these prior art pr~cesses satis~
fies adequately the requirements of intensified animal breed-ing~ economic efficienc~ and environment protection. In this respect, manure and manure liquids still remain one the main sources of pollution of soil9 air and water basins in thearea of location of large-size animal-breeding farms and enterprises~
~ he absence of suitable technological innovations in the art of manure processing hampers a co~mercial-scale anlmal breeding development and does not make it possible to intensify the manufacture of animal-breeding products in compliance with the modern requirements of economic ef~iciency, zoo-hygiene and protection of the environments.
Particular advantages and drawbacks of the prior art pro-cesses are demonstra-ted by modern technologies for processing of animal-breeding wastes employed in large-size animal-breed-ing farms and enterprises.
'~he principal process for treatment of liquid manure is its utilization as an organic fertilizer. ~he most wide-spread operation for its preconditioning before application employed hitherto is keeping thereof in a system of basins and a subsequent application onto soil by sprin~ling or spraying. ~he basins are mainly arranged in the form of open-settling ponds, wherein a biological degradation of a portion of liquid manure and stall dung runoff ta~es place with the formation of an organic fert~i~er sui~able ~or application.
In these ponds liquid manure is kept for quite a long time (abou~ 100 days), aerated by means of statio~ary or floating turbins; the solid fraction of manure settling onto the pond bottom is cleaned-out once in two or three years~

r~his simple 3 th-~ugh extensive, method for m~nure processing features considerable losses of nu~rient mattersO Losses of ammonium nitrogen in a conventional aerobic pond are as high as 90% of its initial content.
The aerobic fermentation stops at a temperature of e~en ~18~, wherefore during winter time such basins are mere dung storesO They are unsatisfac-tory as regards -the sani-tary and hygienic conditions due to the survival of salmonellae therein at the above-mentioned temperature during the entire storage period~
~ he basin-storage method is sometimes combined wi-th the processing in a system of oxidation trenches. In oxida-tion t'enches located under slit-perf'ora~ed floors of cattle houses aerators are provided made as rota-ting wheels with vanes ensuring agi-tation of the manure mass, saturation there-of with oxygen and transpor-tation along a manure cha~lel. In this method of manure processing an aerobic degradation occurs even in the winter period~ though the speed of the process is not high; the system of oxidation trenches necessitates high capital investment and features great losses of nutrien-t mat-ters f'rom manure. Among operation disadvantages of -this method are: ~apid wear of the a~ration means and abundant foaming which may even break through into the premises. ~his disadvantage, in view of lack of adequately reliable modes of control under these conditions, constitutes a serious technical problem.
It should be also noted that taking in~o consideration a high - 6 - !

density of population in industrially developed countries7 an essential disadvantage of all modifications of the basin-type method of manure processing resides in the risk o~ pollution of underground waters especially in the case of light soils, an intensive odour evolu-tion, especially in spring~ as well as -the necessity o~ using large areas o~ soil ~or the arrange-ment of such basin~ or ponds.
Other methods for manure processing contemplating u~i-lization thereof only for fex-tilizers are based on separation of manure to the li~uid and solid fractions. ~he solid frac-tion enriched with nutrient substances is stacked into stor-age piles, -then dried or compos-ted and afterwards applied onto the soil~
In general, separation into fractions makes it possib-le to reduce the size and urli-t capacity of the equipment, to shorten the duration of the subsequent processing of the liquid phase; makes it also possible to use it in the return cycle~ thus lowering the total wat_er consumption. ~owever, this process has but a limited application, since it necessi-tates vast soil area to ensure a harmless u-tilization o~ con-siderable amounts of liquid manure by way of a direct i~t-roduction thereof into the soil.
~ urthermore, as it is demonstrated by the available data of agrochemical investigations, losses o~ ni-trogen and orga-~ic compounds during the bio-thermal treatment upon compost-ing axe ve~y high and in certain cases exceed 30% of their con-tent in the solid fraction. ~osses of nitrogen upon the di~
rect application of the liquid phase of manure in-to soil are as high as 95% of its initial content.
Recently a method of aerobic -treatment o~ manure to obtain fertilizers in sllo-type storage houses has acQuired a large scale application In contrast -to the basin-type pro-cess 9 liquid ~anure from the cattle house is no-t immedia-tely pumped to the storage. ~irst of all, it is delivered into one or several -tanks provided with aerators, wherein it is kept for several days,gellerally 7-10 days. ~nder -the condi-tions of aeration microorganism intensively degrade organic co-mpounds and, as a result, the product temperature is increased-to 42-65C. This causes desinfection of the mixture, whereaf-ter liquid manure is pumped to the storage.
Transportation of manure to the field and application onto the soil is effected by means of lar~e-size truck-tanks provided with means for under-soil introduc-tion of man~e and pumps ~his method makes it possible to reduce the -time of treatment of manure to 7 days, i.e. it is the most intensive among -the above-described prior art methodsO However, losses o~ nutrient substances from manure still remain high (ammonia nitrogen even at the sta~e o~ aeration is lost substantially completely, while the content of organic compounds is reduced by 50-55~0 due to biothermal degradation). ~he most efficient irom the economic standpoint, as regards the conservation of the fertilizing capaci-t~ of manure and a re~uired degree o~
its desinfection, is the method of anaerobic (methane) fer-mentation of manure in closed vessels.
In kno~un methane t~lks manure is kept at the temperature of 56C for 25-28 days, ~hereafter it is transported to the Yield or delivered to storage.
~ his method, however, features a disadvantage residing in a high rate of power consum~tion associated with the ne-cessity of maintaining thermophilic conditions in the reactor, 'lS causing, under -the above-mentioned ~ermentation condi-ons and process duration, considerable power consump-tion or necessitating consumption of a substan-tial portion of -the evolving metharle-containing gas for heating of the methane tank. As a result, at substantially total conservation of ammonium ni-trogen, losses of the organic mat-ters in the form of -the combusted bio-gas are as high as 30 '~0~0~
Furthermore, this process necessi-tates for its realiza-tion considerable initial investments of capital and, for this reason~ at low rates of anaerobic treatment it is genera-lly non-profitable.
Another group of processes for utiliza-tion of wastes resulting from animal breeding stipulates treatment thereof with the production of not only organic fertilizers, but a feedstuff protein as well. Direct processing of manure to a feedstuff avoiding plant-growing makes it possible to sub-_ g _ stantially reduce -the traditional cycle of bioconversion of nutrient substances (constituting 3-4 years under natural conditions) and ensures their return to the ~eedstuff within several days~
Due to biological specificity of the alimentary tract of animals, up to 40% of protein from the feedstuff pass to manuxe;
in cattle's manure there is presen-t a so-called "single-cell"
protein from ~icroorganisms of rumen containing aminoacids, i.e.
more valuable protein, than vegetable protein contained in ~the feedstuff.
Consequently, a number of rnethods f'or processing manure are directed to the provision OI' a protein component direct-1~ from manure for the utilization thereof in an animal feed-stuf'f~ As to the type of processes on which said methods of manure treatment are based, they may 'be classified into ermophysical, thermochemical and biochemical processes with a single-stage or multi-stage biochemical filtration of harful substances. ~he most popular process based on thermophysical technology for recover~ of non-digested proteins from manure is a so-called "Cereco"-process.
This process consists in the following: the manure collected from a farm is diluted with water to the moisture content of 80% and, after passing a number of separators, is divided into three fractions. ~he fibrous fraction (product Cl -non-digested vegetable remnants) is ensilaged and fed to feeder bulls. The liquid fraction is e~aporated7 dried and granulated.

The resulting product (C2) contains up to 30% of proteins, 4%
of fats, 25% of ash; the product in the form of granules lS
employed for feeding pigs and poultry.
~ he ash residues and non-assimilated feedstuff components recovered upon separation are employed as a fertilizer tproduct C3). The process makes it possible to recover, within a short period (up -to 6 ~ays), non-di,gested nutrient subs-tances from manure on a commercial production scale at a high degree of the product sterilization~ relatively low power consumption and reauced degree of the environment pollution. However~ the thus-obtained products have no-t been approved by national medical control authorities of any country for their extensive utiliza-tion as an animal feedstuff. This is due to the fact that ha~mful substances (mycotoxins, heavy metals, pes-ticides and the llke) in such treatment process are not fully withdrawn from the feeding cycle and accumulated in the animal organism As a result, after 3-4 recirculations this causes ca-ttle di-seases (hepatocirrhosis) and, accordingly, affects quali-ty characteris-tics of meat products.
~ urthermore, in the product C~ employed as a fertilizer the organic mat-ter is absent almost completely, wherefore the fertilizing capacity of` manure is substantially fully lost for field-crop cultivation.
~ hermochemical processes for recovering feedstuffs from manure may be exemplified by so-called t'Witingham process'l.
In this process, the manure collected from an open feeding '7~7 ground is dilu-ted with water to a 85% moisture content. Hav-ing passed a~set-tling aerator, wherein heavy sedi~ents are separated (sand ar1d the like) 7 the manure runoff is separated in a centrifuge, the main portion of the nutrient substances (especially Yat~ and proteins) still remains in the liquid frac-tion which is then treated vrith ferric chloride to form a ~ellow precipitate. 'rhe resulting precipitate is reco~ered, dried and granulated to particles containing 30 to 50% of crude protein. The solid fraction of the manure is l~ydrolyzed by means of a~ alkali to give a product corresponding, as to its energy pote~ial, to molasses.
'~he advc~ntages of this method, in addition to those of thermophysical treatment methods, include the possibility of ~-ln accelerated incorpora-tion, into the feeding cycle o~
nimals, of addition~l mineral elements from manure (apart from non-digested components).
The thermochemical "Witingham process" has not enjoyed a wide application due to the same disadva~tages as those in-herent in the thermophysical "Cereco-process".
The single-stage bioche~ical filtration of manure may be exempli~ied by the "Bellami process" contempla-ting treat-ment of manure for the production of a feedstuff comprising a biomass of thermophylic bacteria on the manure substrate.
The process is based on an aerobic degradation of che-mically treated manure cell-ulose t~sue and soluble nutrient mat-ter by means of special bacteria capable of splitting cel-lulose and lignin The process is effected in a series-connec-ted fermenters, whereinto oxygen is fed to intensi~y the pro-cess and a constant te~perature is maintained.
~ he resulting biomass slurry is collected, fil-tered and dried to a consistence of a soft powder.
~ he product contains up to 55% of crude protein; the process en_ahles utiliza-tion of up 9 % of the initial amount of the manure e~ployedO
The use of processes of manure treatment by way of a single-s-tage filtration of harmful substances makes it possible to obtain a high yield of protein-containing products from manu-re at a hi~h protein content.
However, the protein product obtained from the single-stage -treatlnent of manure with bacteria incorporates al] the harmful subs-ta~lces which have been present in -the star-ting manure (myco-toxins, pesticides, heavy metals and the like).
In addition, the process of treatment using thermophilic bacteria is rather power-consuming, ~ he fines-t biological ~iltration of harm~ul subs-tances in processing of manure to a ~eedstuf~ is ensured by biologi-cal processes such as traditional field-crop cultivation, biological ponds, piscicultural ponds and the like.
Eowéver, hitherto known processes of biological puri~i cation are substantially uncontrollableg necessitate large areas (fields, ponds, basins), depend to a considerable ex-tent on weather-climate conditions; they can be a source o~

pollution Df the envirDnments and ground waters. The dura-t!ioa of the process required ~or obtaining Df the prDtein prDduct is substantiallg increased (in field-crDp cultiva-tion the yield is prnduced, as a rula, once a year; fish breeding alsD lasts fDr several mDnths). Therei`ore, m~dern prDcess Df multi-stage biDlogical filtration are least suitable fDr the use thereof in the system of an intensive animal--breeding.
Apart from tb~ abDve-described methDds there have been efforts tD prDduce a prDtein feedstuff Dn the basis Df products from manure prDce~sing bD wa~ Df an aerobic puriLicatiDn nvt in-tended specifically to the production of feedstuf~s from ma-nure.
It is well known that durin~r aerDbic microbiDlogical processing oY manure ~he nutrient substances there~f are cDn-verted tD protein of single-cell bacteria and infusoria which precipitate, after death, Dnto the bDtt~m Df aerotanks in the fDrm Df a sD-called active DDze. It has been found in the course of investigations that the cDntent Df protein in the active ooze does not exceed 42%. The dry sDlids concentra-tion in the active oDze dDes nDt exceed 6%. The prvcess ~f treatment of the active DDze tD Dbtain prDtein feed additives comprises cDncentratiDn Df the active DDze, its disintegra-tiont tbermal sterilizatiDn and drying.
The use of this process fDr the prDduction Df proteins frDm manure makes it possible to somewhat increase the pro-fitability of such expensive purifica~ion systems as aero-tankS. However, this process feature essential disadvc~ltages, namely:
1. Since the content o~ dry solids in -the starting ac-tive ooæe is at most 6~ot a complicated, power-consuming equipTnent is necessary for its thickenin~.
2~ The process of ther'nal s-terilization can be carried out at a very small e~posure (of the order of some decimal l`ractions of a second) simu]ualeousl~ v~ith R hlgh concen-tra--tion of -tnerlnal energy (so-called ~Iheat shockl') 9 otherwise ar.~inoacids ~ld single-cell proteins contained in the ac-tive ooze are (3ecomposed alol~ wi-th k~lminth eg~s .~1d o-ther patho~e:rls to be killed, whereby -the feeding capaci-ty OI -the active ooze is decreased. ~he process equipment employed for sucll operations is ra-tker e~pensive and unreliable in opera-tion.
3. The protein product ob-tained by this process is IlOt exempted of the harmful substances present in -the s-tarting manure.
It is an object of the present invention to overcome the above-mentioned disadvantages.
It is -the main object of the present invention to pro-vide a process ~or an intensive treatment and utilization of animal~breeding wastes which would ensure, along with the production of organic fertilizers, also a feedstuff protein complying with the modern requirements of medicine and zoo-techny at the highest possible level of implication of the nutrient substances contained in the wastes into the feeding cycle of the agricultural production and at a full-fledged pro-tection o~ the environments from pollution with animal-breeding refusals both at the site of their processing and d~ing use thereof in the plant growing.
I-t is another object of the preseMt invention to provide a process ~or treatment o~ other organic wastes resulting from agriculture and industry.
Still another object o~ -the present invention is to provide a con-tinuous-action apparatus which would ensure an intensive carrying-out of microbiolgical processes and a quick separation o~ the fermented mass into the liquid and solid frac-tions simultaneousl~ with the conversion of the latter ~raction to a complex organo-mineral fertilizer.
~ hese and ~ther objects o~ the present inven-tion are ac-complished b~ that in a process ~or utilization of the pro-ducts of vital activity of animals comprising anaerobic fer-menta-tion of manure under continuous stirring, separation o~
the fermented mass into the liquid and solid fractions empl-oyed for fertilizing and separation of a biogas, in accord-ance with the present invention, manure prior to the anaero-bic ~ermentation is subjected to the treatment by decompression and the anaerobic fermentation is conducted under the con-ditions of controllable decompression and the resulting bio-gas and other ni-tr~gen- and carbon-containing components after -their evolution from air exhausts from the cattle hous-es and from the liquid fraction o~ manure are employed as trophic elements o~ the culture ~edium in the aerobic pro cess~ wherein they are subJected to t~e ~reatmen-t with proto-trophic bacteria; the biomass of the latter is disintegrated and used as a feed component; the gas mixture effluent from the treatmerlt \~ith prototrophic bacteria is used as a heat-transfer agent in the system of the anaerobic fermentation, while the fermented mass is precipitated by means o~ a m:lne-ral-organic suspension prior to separation into fractions~
~ o improve disintegration and dispersing of mallure, as well as to accelerate the beginning of the process of anaero-bic fermentation of manure and subsequently intensify the same, said decompression treatment of manure should be pre-ferably e~fected by way of saturation thereof with a gas under pressure of from 50 to 120 kg/cm2, followed by decomp-ression (or pressure rlease) to 0 - ~-1,200 mm H20).
~ o prevent the manure mass subjected to the decompres-sion treatment, from saturation with oxygen which is an inhibitor of the anaerobic process, it is advisable to use biogas as a gas for saturatio~ of the manure mass.
~ o accelerate withdrawal of gaseous products of metabo-lism from the culture medium containing methane bacteria7 it is advisable that the decompression in the fermentation cham ber be maintained within the range of from 0 to (-1,200) mm E20 along with cyclic agitationj each agitation c~cle being started upon the achievement of the decompression of -100 ~o (-900) mm H20.
~ o ensure the biosynthesis of protein, in the process use may be made of methane-oxidizin$ microorganisms of the following species, predominantly:
Methilococcus capsulatus;
Methilosinus trichosporium;
.
Me-thilosinus sporium.
~o intensify the process oI protein biosynthesis, it is advisable ~hat the aerobic process be conducted under an over-atrnospheric pressure of the gas mixture; the following process conditions for cul-turing are preferred:
culture medium temperature 30 -to 45C;
acidity (pH) 5~5 to 7~o;
pressure of oxygen-containing gas. 101-40 kg/cm2 (abs);
content of carbon dioxide up to 30%.
To intensi-fy the process of separation of the fermellted mass into the liquid and solid fractions, as well as to ba-lance the composition of the resulting organic fertilizer as to the principal fertilizing comp~nents (~itrogen9 phosphor-us, calciu~), it is possible to use, as the precipitating agent, a suspension of the following composition:
_ 18 -t/~7 monoammonium phosphate (N~4H2P04) 5 -to 15~;
calcium chloride (CaCl~) 5 to 15%;
dilue~t (liquid fraction of manure~ the balance, the volume ratio between the suspension ~nd the mass being precipitated is varied within the range of from 1:1 to 2:2.
~ he object of the present invention is also accomplish-:~d by that in an apparatus for utilization of the wastes resulting from animal breeding and comprising an anaerobic microbiological reactor having a fermentation and accumula-tion vessels provided wi-th a heating system, as well as with means for supplying ma~ure and withdrawing the fermented mass, -the lat-ter means being communicated to the means for separation of the fermented mass into -the liquid and solid fractions 7 and the accumu].ation vessel has the means for withdrawal and purification o~ the biogas, in accordance with the present invention, the accumulation vessel is con-nected, through ~eans for withdrawal of the biogas and puri-fication unit, with an aerobic microbiological reactor pro-vided with a biomass disintegrator, concentrator~ a piping for the removal of the spent biogas to the heating system of the fermentation vessel, while the anaerobic microbiological reactor is equipped with means for automatic control and moni-toring of intensity of the fermentation process.
It is advisable tha-t said means for automatic control and monitoring of the fermentation process in-tensity be pro-vided with me~ns for maintaining a predetermined decompressi-on (reduced pressure) inside the accumulation vessel and a flow meter of the biogas quantity interconnected during the adjustment of the pred.etermined fermentation in-tensity.
The means for ~aintaining a predetermined reduced pres--sure should be preferabl~ made in the form of a bellow pump consisting of a pressure chamber, bellows, generator of cyc-les, pressure presetting means, pneumatic comparison eleT~ent and pneumatic valves, two of which are comlected with -the bellows, accumulation vessel and gas chamber, while the other valves are connected wi-th the pressure chamber, pressure se-t-ter and pneumatic comparison element one input of which is cor.~ected to the bellows and the other - to the pressure set-ter; the flow meter of the biogas aulount is connected wi-th the cycle generator connected ~ith the pneumatic valves.
~ o increase reliability of operation and ensure a simple structural arrangement at a required accurac~ of dispensing of the manure supplied into the reactor, the means for supply-ing -the manure and withdrawal of the ~ermented mass should be preferabl~ made in the form of at least three non-commu-nicating pneumatic chambers with ~uilt-in inlet, intermediate and outlet insertions of a resilient ma-terial.connected with socket pipes and be provided with a pneumatic pulse genera-tor with its input directly connected to the chamber of the outlet section, ~hile with the chambers of the inlet and in-termediate sections it is connected through time delay elemen-tsO
_ 20 -The present invention consists in the followings On the ba~is of extensive studies and theoretical analy-sis of regularities of processes of microbiological process-ing of organic substrates it has been found that their in-tensity d~pends on the accessibility of the substrate to a microbiological degradation (homogenous character, absence of competitive ~icroflora, low leve~ of a reduction-oxidation potential), as well as on the conditions of supply of trophic ele~ents into the culturi~g medium and with-drawal of the metabolism products -therefrom.
It is known that in every cubic centimeter of manure supplied for the treatment -there is about 6 bln of various microorganisms among which, in addition to methane bac-teria effectuating the process of anaerobic fermentation, there are considerable amounts of microbes useless for the process and competing with the working population for the common substrate. ~or this reason, there takes place a susbstantial delay in the normal process of methane fe~mentation of about 2-3 days as compared to the control (no competition).
~ 'he effect of the competing popula~ion on the process pace is cl~aracterized by the following equation describing the variation in quantity of the working population (y) with time (t):
(l/y) (dy/dt) = r - ky - pz (1) wherein r, k and p are positive constants corresponding to specific conditions of growth of the population habitant in a given medium;

z is the quantity of the competing population.
It follows from equa-tion (I) that elimination of the com-petitive population ~z = O), all other factors being equal, increases the pace o~ increasing the quantity of methane-orming bacteria and, hence, the rate of the process of methane :~ermen-tation.
It has been found in the course of experimen~al in-vesti-ga-tiolls that the decompression treatment of the material en-suring its sterilization prior to the supply into the cultur-ing medium can reduce the process duration of methane-fermenta-tion of manure by at least two da~s.
It has been also found that the rate of the process of anaerobic decomposition o:f organic refusals can ~e restricted not only by -the presence o~ competing populations of micro-organisms, but by accumulation o~ the metabolism product i.
the culturing medium as well.
In this case such products are methane and carbon di-oxide. It has been theoretically proven that the character of the inhibiting effect of products of metabolism on -the growth rate (M) of the working population is defined by the expressi on M = Mmax kp. S
(ks + S~ (kp~Pe) (2) herein P is the concentration of the inhibiting metabolism products in the medium;
kpis a constant characterizing the concentration o metabolism products at M~p) = Mo/2 ks is a constant characterizing the substrate con-cen-tration at ~(s) = Mo~2;
S is the concentration o~ the organic portion of the substrate (manure or other wastes).
From this equation it follows that to increase the pro-cess intensity, it is necessary (all other factors being equal) to lower -the expression (~ + Pe) in the denominator of the ri~ht part, i.e. to ensure a continuous withdrawal of the metabolism produc-ts from the culturing medium.
It has been found by investigations that this can be ensured by carrying-out the process under a reduced pressure in the gas collector within the ran$e of ~rom 100 to 900 mm H20 in combination with -the bulk agitation of the entire mass being fermented.
Since the fermen~ed mass produced in the anaerobic ~ic-robiological treatment of manure comprises a stable colloidal solution ~`or a subsequent separation into the solid and li-quid fractions~ it is advisable precipitate this massO
In the course of investigatior~ it has been found that the most efficient for -this prupose is coagulation of the fermented mass by means of electrolytes which do not stain soil, are good precipitating agents and add to the fertilizing capacity of manure. For electrolyte coagulation it is necessa-ry that concentration of electrolytes be above a certain value (coagulation treshould, mmol in g/l) defined by the expression:

~ = G ~2~kT)z5 (3 wherein C is proportionality coefficient;
D is dielectric cons-tant of the precipitated medium (40 to 80 for -the fermented mass);
k ls Boltzmann constant;
e i~ electron charge;
T - te~perature, K
A Van der Vaals at-traction constant;
z - charge value of the dominating ion.
Therefore, pressure elevation in -the culturing system is one of the me-thods for increasing the substrate concent-ration (CH49 2) in the culture liquid. Since the process in~
tensity depends on the substrate (CH~ 2) concentration, a higher pressure in the cul-turing system is one of the effi-cient ways of increasing the process productivity.
In accordance with the present invention, the biogas evolving in the anaerobic fermenta-tion of manure should be utilized in the bacterial biomass in the aerobic process of intensive fermentation.
~ ccording to Henry's law, Pa = ~ x, where y is Henry con-stant, Pa - partial vapour tension above the liquid, x lS the concentratio~ of a me-tha~e-containing gas in the liquid. ~he concentra-tion of dry solids in the culturing medium and the process productivity depend, substantially linearily, on the pressure under which the culturing process is effected. In view of this fact it has been experimentally shown that the aerobic process of a microbiological oxidation of the biogas should bepreferably carried ou-t under a pressure of the gas phase in the fermenter vJithin the range of fro~ 1~1 to 40 kg/cm~
(absol. atm.).
~ he above-mentioned principal relationships (1), (2) and (3) have been chosen as the basis for the provision of a process for treating the products of vital ac-tivity o~ animals ~o give organo-mineral fertilizers and a feedstuff protein, as well as for designil~ large-capacity ~mits ~or anaerobic pro-cessing of or~anic refusals on a commercial scale.
In accordance with the present invention, for precipi-tation of a ~ermented mass use is made of` a suspension con-SiStillg of 5 to 15% o-f monoammonium phosphate~ 5 to 15~ of calcium chloride and a solven-t; as the latter use is made of the liquid fraction of manure introduced illtO the preci-pita-ted mass in the volume ratio thereto of 1:1 to 2:2.
The above-specified operations are combined by the pro-cess for utilization of wastes resulting from animal breed-i~g which is efficien-tly performed on the basis of controlled microbiological processes occurring at a higher speed and ensuring a hIgher efficiency of utilization of refusals o the vital activity of animals as cornpared to the prior art processes.
~ he process according to the present invention can be performed only in an apparatus ensuring maintaining -the re-quired process parameters. The coefficient of transformation of the product~ of vital activity of animals to a feedstuff actually attained in practice of the present invention ~this coefficient means the ratio of the amount of nutrient sub-stances and the products o~ their decomposition con-tained in wastes resulting from the vital activity of ani~als to -the amo~t of these substances transformed into a feedstu~f complying with all zoo-sanitary requirements) is e~ual to 0.9 for plants with a working chamber volume of above 20 m3.
~ he experiments have shown that the use of the process for utilization o-f-` the products resul-ting from the vital ac-tivity of ani~als according to the present invention ensures the produc-tion of concentrated org~lo-mineral fertilizers without losses of nutrient substances. At the same time, a higher level of involvement of nutrient subs-tances contained in the products of the vital activity of animals is ensured in the feeding cycle o~ the agricultural produc-tion.
The tr~lsformation of nutrien substances ~rom manure to a feedstuff by mears of utilization thereof in ~ield-crop cultivation proceeds but very slowly (within 2-3 years from the moment of manure application onto soil~. The process accor-ding to the present invention makes it possible to produce a protein-rich feedstuff already a-fter 1-2 days since the sup-ply of manure to processing.
From the products of the anaerobic treatment there can be obtained more than 60 kg o-f proteins per every ton of absolu-tely dry solids of manure. ~his means that from man~re ob-tained from a feeding cat-tle enterprise per 10,000 capitae -there can be produced about 600 tons of pro-tein annually (about 1,7 -ton o-f protein daily) without lowering the ou-~put of pro-duc-tion of organic fertilizers and impairing their quality.
The experiments performea for feeding, to ~ni~alsg o~
a protein-vitamirl concentrate produced from the biomass ol me-thane-oxidation bacteria pro~ed to cause no ~egative con-sequences of a feed~s-tuff use of this product.
~ he effec-t obtained from -the use of the protein-vitarmin concentrate of the microbial orgin as a feedstuff ~dditive is similar to the effect ob-tained from the use, for the same purpose, of conventional vitamin-protein ad~itives of the same concentration.
~ 'he process according -to the present invention rn~es it possible to accelerate, in an animal-breeding enterprise, the cycle of bioconversion of feeding substances in parallel to the traditional way of regeneration thereof in the field-crop cultiva~tion, thus providing real opportunities for maintaining animal-breeding enterprises as waste-free produc-tio~ meeting all the requirements imposed by the environ-ment protection control..
~ or a better understanding of the present inven-tion, a further detailed description thereof is given ~Tith referen-ce to the accompanying drawin~s sho~ing a process flow-sheet and specific embodiments o~ certain indi~idual means, wherein Fig.l is ~ schematlc ~lo~:-sheet of the process ~or uti-lization of the products of the vi~al activi-ty of animals according -to the present invention;
~ ig.2 is a diagra~ illustrating the arr~ngement of -the appara-tus for dispensin~ ~anure;
~ 1~.3 is a schematic viev~ of the arrangement of the appa-ratus ~or decompression treatment OI manure;
~ ig.4 is a schematic vie1.~ o~ the device for automatic control and moni-tori.ng of lntensity of the manule ~ermen~a-tion prGcess;
~ ig.5 is Q schematic vie~ of ~ ~oduclion line -for de-hy-dra-tion o~ the fer1nel1ted m~nure mass;
Fig.6 illustrates in-tensit~ o~ precipita-tion of -the fermented mass without treatmen~ (curves 1, 2 and 3) and with the trea-tmen-t ol the fermented mass with a N, P, and Ca-con-taining suspension (curves 1, 2 and 3).
'~he apparatus shown in the accompanying drawi~$ (~ig~2, 3, 5, 6 and 7) are incorporated in the plant (Fig l) ~or per-i`orming the process according -to the present invention. '~his plan~t incorporates an apparatus 1 for dispensing manure, a disintegrator-homogenizer 2, an apparatus 3 ~or decompression processing, an anaerobic microbiological reactor 4 comprising a fermentation vessel 5 provided with a heating system 6, a withdrawal 7 and recirculation means 8 for the fermented mass and an accumula-tion vessel 9 provided ~ith means 10 for wlth-drawal of the biogas and a devlce 11 for automatic con-trol and monitoring of` the fermentation process intensity and a purificatlon unit 12. 'rhe lat-ter is con~1ected with an aerobic microbiologlcal reactor 13 ~Jith its inlet connec-ted, through a concentrator-s-terilizer 14, with a ven-tilation sys-tem 15 of the cattle house 16 and provided ~ith a feeder 17 supplying mineral components. 'rhe outlet of the aerobic microbiolo-gical reactor 13 is connec-ted with a concen-tra-tor 24 of -the biomass, while the latter is communicating with an appara-tus for i-ts disintegra-tion 25. A pipe 2~ for the off-gases effluen-t ~rom the aerobic microbilogical reactor 13 is con-nected with the heating system 6 of -the anaerobic reactor 4 through a purification unit 27~ while a pipe 28 for the sup ply of the oxidizing agent is connected with a source of an oxygen-containing gas; as the latter gas use is made of air from an air-blower 29 or oxygen from a cylinder 30.
'rhe appara-tus 1 for dispensing manure is schematicall~
shown in ~ig.2~
According to this ~igure, apparatus 1 consists of a tight housing incorpora-ting sections of a resilien-t duct: inlet section 31, intermediate section 32 and outlet section 33 made, for example, of a rubber pipe or hose. 'rhe air--tigh-t housing is par-titioned, by means of mebranes 35 with socket pipes, into three pneumatic chambers corresponding to -the above-mentioned sections of the material duct.
These pneumatic chambers are connected through dela~
lines 34 and 35 consisting of rela~s formin$ a repetition circuit and a cho~e 37 with a pulse generator 38. ~he variable choke 37 ensures frequenc~ variation of the pulse sequence.
The apparatus 3 along ll~ith the anaerobic microbiological reactor 4 iS schematically shown in Fig.3. It consists of an inlet valve 39, a decompression cha~ber 40 provided with a pressure indicator 41, an outlet valve 42 connected with an injector 43.
A gas line 44 of the decompression chamber 40 iS connec-ted, by means of valves 45 and 46, with a source 47 of comp-ressed gas (at the moment of` start-up of -the apparatus) or with means for compression of the gas 48 during normal opera-tion~
~ he device 11 for auto~atic control and monitoring of the intensity of the manure fermentation process is schematic-ally shown in Fig~4 and comprises means 49 for maintaining a predetermined reduced pressure in the accumulation vessel 9 by means of a forced withdrawal of the biogas formed during fer-mentation fro~ the accumulation vessel 9, said means having form of a controlled bellows-type pump consisting of bello~s 509 pressure chamber 51, pressure se~ter 52, pneumovalves 53, 54, 55 and 56 and a pulse generator 57 ~ith a trigger 58; a con-s~

trolled throt-tle valve 59, pneumatic vessel 60, pneumofvalve 61, comparison element 62 with one of its inputs connected with a setter 63 of the extreme reduced pressure and the other --to the bellows 50 connected, through valve 55 with a gas vessel 64, while the output is connected, through pneumovalve 56, to the pressure chamber 51; a meter 65 for recording qu-antity of the withdrawn biogas consisting of a magne-t~controlled contact 66, electropneumatic transducer 67 and a digital in-dica-tor 68.
~ he apparatus for precipitation of the fermen-ted mass is schematically shown in Fig.5~ It consists of a unit 69 for preparation of the settling susper-sion with a con-troller 70 for feeding -the suspension, means 22 for recycling the liquid fraction of manure, coagulator 71 provided with an impeller 72, a se-ttling chamber 73, a separa-tor-granulator 74 and metering means 21 and 23.
'rhe above-described plant and appara-tus inc~rporated therein operate in -the following manner.
Manure from the cattle house 16 (Fig.l) is supplied by means of apparatus 1 for dispensing (Figs 1-2) to disinteg-rator-homogenizer 2, ~herein it is finely divided to partic-les with a size not exceeding 1-2 mm and homogenized to a uniform mass. After the disintegrator-homogeniæer the m~nure is fed to apparatus 3 for the treatment by decompression re~
sulting in beaking of shells of the competing microorganisms _ 31 5~

and helminth eggs. The biologically active substances evolv-ing during this treatment into the manure mass accelerate the process of metha~e fermen-tation in the fermentation vessel 5 of the anaerobic reactor 4, whereinto manure after the decomp-ression -treatment is injected along v~ith an active leaven containing the working association of methane bacteria. ~he process is carried out at a tel~perature wi-thin the range of from 50 to 56C, pH - 6.5 -to 7 a-t a reduced pressure in cha~-ber 9 maintained within the range of from O to -1,200 mm H20.
Durir~ methane fermentation in the fermentation vessel 5 there occurs an intensive transforma-tion of -the organic pcr--tion of manure accompanied by conversion of vola-tile (mainly ammoniacal) forrns of nitro~en to the stable (upon storage and applica-tion) ammonium L orm and evolution of -the biogas con-sisting of 65% CH4 (methane) and 35% C02 (carbon dioxide).
~ he fermented mass is withdrawn from the fermen-tation vessel 5 by means of apparatus 7 for its withdrawal and deli-vered to separator 18, whereinto the precipitating suspension is also fed consisting of the liquid fraction 19 of manure and coagulant~ i.e. mineral components having fertilizing propelties, namely: 5 to 15% of monoammonium phosphate ~H4H2P04 and the same amount of calcium chloride CaCl20 ~he precipita-ting suspenslon is mixed with the precipita-ted fer-mented mass in the ratio therebe-tween of from 1~1 to 2:2.
Owing thereto, the precipitation rate is increased by doze~

iFP7 times as compared to natural sedimentation and, consequently, power consumption for the recovery of the solid fraction 20 is reduced~
The biogas evolving during fermentation o~ manure is removed from the accumulation vessel 9 by means of apparatus 10 for withdrawal of the biogas operated by means o~ a cont-rol unit 11 i~corporated into the device for control and mo-nitoring of the process OI methane fermentation. (~igs 1, 4).
~ hen the biogas passes through the purification unit 12 and further to the aerobic microbiological reactor 13, whereinto wa-ter, sources of nitrogen~phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and txace elements are fed by means of feeder 17 along with an oxygen-containing gas (air ~ and/or o~ygen from cylinder 2~ or compressor 29, as well as nitrogen- and carbon-containing gases adsorbed in apparatus 14 from the vent exhausts from the cattle house 16.
As the strain producing protein substances use is made o~ a mixed culture of microorganisms of the species:
Methilococcus capSulatus, Methilosinus trichosporium, Methilosinus sporium.
Op-tional methylotrophics incorporated in the mixed cul ture of microorganisms and capable of assimilating methane homologues pertain to the species Flavobacterium ~asotypicum.
~ he aerobic process of culturing is carried out at a temperature within the range of from 36 to 50C; pH of the - 3~ -culture medium is kep-t within the range of from 4.0 to 6,0, concentration of ammonia nitrogen - of ~rom 50 to 150 mg/l, concentration of phosphorus - of from 50 to 100 mg~l.
~ he culturing process is carried out under an over-atmospheric pressure of the gas within the range of from 1.1 to 40 kg/cm2. The recycled gas mixture is passed throuOh the purification ~7nit 27, wherein it is e~empted from the excess-ive a~oun-t of gaseous carbon dioxide, maintaining its con-tent at a constant level. The continuous fermentation by means o~
the mixed culture is carried out a-t a dilution coe~ficient of from 0~15 to 0.25 hr 1. The suspension o~ microorganisms from the culturing stage in the aerobic reactor 13 is fed to apparatus 24 for preliminar~ thickening, v~herein the strea;m pressure is released, wherefore the gases dissolved in -the cul-ture medium are desorbed from the liquid phase ~nd partly from microorganism per seO Due to a high rate of pressure release, shells of a certain portion o~ the cul-tured bacteria get broken. As a resul-t, biologically active substances con-tained inside the cells pass into the cult~lre medium; a por-tion thereof, after said preliminary thickening in apparatus 24, is recycled to the aerobic reactor 13 and used for promo-tion of the growth of microorganisms.
Carbon dioxide absorbed in the stage of purification (in unit 27) evolved during biosynthesis and accompanying componen-ts o~ the spent gas phase ~rom the cul-turin~ stage in reactor 13, as well as the gas desorbed in thick~ener 24, are ~i1l5~7 mixed with atmospheric air and combusted in the heating system of heat-exchange.r 6 through which heat-exchanger the fermen-ted mass is passe~ by recirculating means 8 at i~tervals de-pending on varia-tion of teMpera-ture iQ the fermentation vessel 5.
~ he resulting biomass of methane-oxidizing bacteria thick_ened to a concen-tration of from 180 to 200 kg AC~/m3 is delivered to disintegra-tor 25, wherein bacteria shells are broken, whereafter the thus-obtained concentrate is d.elivered to feedstu.~ production shop 75, wherein it is admixed to a feedstuff as a pro-tein additive, mainly in the liquid form.
'~he princi.ple of operation of the apparatus incorporated in the plant scheme is illustrated by Figs 2,314 and 5.
Shown in ~ig.2 is the apparatus for dispensing manure.
It is employed both for the supply of manure into the fermenta-tion vessel 5 and for withdrawal of the fermented mass there-from, feeding the filtrate into the precipitation apparatus 18 and pumping the mass being fermented through heat-exchanger 6 ~ he apparatus operates in the followqng manner.
~ he metered or dispensed medium (liquid manure, cul-ture li~uid or filtrate) fills sectio~l3 31, 32 and 33 of the ma-terial duct, whereafter under the effect of pnuma-tic pres-sure form.ed at the ou-tlet of pulse generator 38 the final section 33 of the material duct is compressed thus closing the outlet of the me-tered medium ~ 35 -At the nex* moment the inlet section 31 of the material duc-t is closed under the e~fect of pneumatic pressure at the outlet o~ the delay line 35 and the entire volume of the medium being -transfexred aild filling ~he resilient material ~uct becomes enclosed in the intermediate sec-tion 32. ~here-a~terq the output of pulse generator 38 is zero, the ter-minal section 33 ls opened, while the i~termediate section 32 controlled through line 36 is compressed, thus expelling the medium enclosed therein towards the terminal section 33, which af-terwards îs compressed under the effect of -the nex-t pneumatic pulse as -the output o~ genera-tor 38, -thus with-drawi.ng this particular por-tion of the medium ou-t of the appa-ratus. Since, a~`terwards, pressure in pneuma-tic chambers of sec-tions 31, 32 and 33 is again released, these sections become opened and are prepared for the following cycle o~ filling of -the resilien-t material duct with the medium to be metered (or dispensed) Prior to supply into the anaerobic microbiological reac-tor 4, manure, accordin~ to the present invention, is sub-jected to the treatment by decompression with the view to enhance accessibility of this coarsely dispersed medium to ~icrobial degradation and suppress the accompanying micro-flora inhibi~ing the gro~th o~ the working population of methane-oxidizing bacteria.
According to the diagra.m shown in Fig.3, m~ure is ~ed ~L~ 7 through the inlet valve 39 i~to the decompression chamber 40;
biogas is delivered through line 44. The biogas is formed during methane fermentation in vessel 5 and is pumped~ by means of the high-pressure pump 48, through valve 45 to line 44, or through valve 46 to the accumulation receiver 47 re-quired :Eor storage of the excessive biogas and for operation of -the decompression chamber ~0 during the start-up of the anaerobic reactor when no biogas is evolved yet~
When the biogas pressure in the decompression chamber reaches 50 to 120 kg/cm2, valve 40 is closed, ou~let valve 42 is opened, whereby the gas-liquid mix~ure is injected into -the fermentation vessel of the anaerobic reactor through the injector 43.
Due to a sharp pressure drop, the microor~anisms,and vegetable particles are broken at the moment of discharge from the ~leco~pression chamber thus subs-tantially enhancing the access'ibility of the s-tarting substrate (manure) ~or the treatment by microorganisms of the working population.
Control and monitoring of the anaerobic fermentation process is ef~ected by means of device 11 schematically shown in ~ig.4. ~his device ensures automatis adjustment of such a reduced pressure in the anaerobic reactor under which the pro-cess intensity is maximal. ~he amount of biogas evol~ing per unit time corresponds to the process intensity.
The device operates in the following manner. The ferment-ed mass is discontinuously fed to the fermentation vessel 5, ~ 37 -wherein condi~io~s required for the normal vital activity ofmethane bacteria are provided. As ~he biogas produced by these bacteria evolves from the mass being fermented, -this gas passes~
through pneumovalve 54, to the variable-volume pneumatic vessel 50 con~ected wi-th a controlled actuator. ~wing thereto, simultaneously with intermixing of the fermented mass there occurs an intensive re~oval of the gaseous products of meta-bolism of methane bacteria in -the form of a methane-containing gas at a pressure drop in the fermentation vessel from 0 to (-1,20~) mm H20. 'rhis results in a substantially increased intensity of the fermenta-tion process. Vacuum over the fermented mass is preset by means of a vacuum setter 63 connected with one of -the chambers of the comparison element 62. In this manner a proportional flo~ rate of air frQm the pressure cha-mber 51 of apparatus 8 (Fi~.l) is ensured for a forced removal o~ the formed biogas from the fermentation vessel 5 under vacuum, at a given value of vacuum in bellows 50 depending on the supply oY the biogas.
When bellows 50 occupy their upper most position thus hinderin~ its full filling with the biogas, contacts of -the magnet-controlled sensor 66 are actuated, the supply circuit oY the electropneumotransducer 67 and digital indicator 68 is energized. At the same time, air pressure is admitted into trigger 58 oY the tact generator 57. ~ith air pressure incre-ased -to the value of pressure ol the highest headt the trigger (flip-flop) 58 is switched over. Simultaneously pneumovalves 53, 54~ 55~ 56 and 61 are also switched. A~ i pressure necessary for deformation o~ bellows 50 is admit-ted -to the pressure chamber 51 -throu~h the pressure set-ter 520 The blogas from bellows 50 -through pneumovalve 55 ls e~Ypelled to -the gas vessel 64. At this moment pneu~ovalve 56 prevents from the admission of excessive pressure to th~ comparison member 16, while pnellmovalve 54 excludes backward feed of the bio~as into the accumùlation vessel 9. ~hen the bello~i~rs 50 come ~rom -their uppermost position to the lowermost one, -the contacts of the magne-t-controlled transmitter 67 are opened; the elect,ropneumo-tra,lsducer 67 is swqtched to -the ini-tial pOSitiOIl and at i~s outpu-t the "zero" signal is produced.
The f`lip-flop 58 is s~itched to the normal position af-ter the time ;nterval equal to the time required I`or filling pneumo,vessel 60 and emptying bello~Js 50, -thus connecting the control chambers OL pneumovalves 53, 54, 55, 56 and 61 to the atmosphere. In the pressure chamber 51 the preset pressure is memorized, the accumulation vessel 9 is connect-ed with bellows 50, the pressure chamber 51 - ~ith the com parison element 62, and pheumovessel 60 - with -the atmosphere.
The line connecting bellow 50 with the gas vessel ~4 is dis-connected. ~hen the cycle is repeated.
The time of full emptying of bellows 50 is set by means of a controlled throttle val~e 59.
This device makes it possible to intensify the process of-anaerobic treatment of manure due to an intensive removal - 39 ~

of the product of bac-terial metabolism in the form of biogas bubbles evolving from the fe~mented liquid at a pressure drop over it from 0 to (-1,200) mm H20.
Furthermore, the device enables a strict automatic control of the fermentation process intensit~.
After anaerobic treatment of manure a fermented mass is obtained in the 1orm OI a colloidal solution. ~Q ensure its efficien-t dehydration, it is necessary to precipitate or~anic colloids, wherefor the use of conventional methods of precipita-tion using metal-containing coagulants is unde-sirable due to their high cost and danger of contamination o~ soil a~d ground water with harTnf`ul compounds.
In this connection, instead of a metal-containing co-agulant in the process according to the resen-t invention use is made o~ a precipitating suspension consisti~ of mi-neral fertilizers - monoammorlium phosphate ~H4H2P04) - 10 and calcium chloride (CaC12) or lime - l~/o~ As the liquid phase of the dispersing medium use is made o~ the liquid fraction of ma~ure obtained therefrom during separa-tion. ~he precipitating solution in the volume ratio of 1 1 or 2:2 is introduced into manure having temperature v/ithin the ra~ge of from 50 to 55C (-the manure temperature a-t the outle-t of the methane tank) and intensively stirred, ~hereafter it is subjected to settling for 10-15 minutes; during this time the mix-ture is rapidly separated into fractions in the ratio o~

y~

~ he liquid fraction is drained and the residue is ~ed to mechanical separation.
Af-ter treatment of manure b~ the process according to the present invention, the ~r`il-tration time is reauced `oy 10 times and more; as a result9 a complex organomineral fer-ti-lizer is produced which is balanced in respect of the con-tent of N, O and Ca. An example of the process according to the present invention is illustrated by the flo~r-sheet of one of its embodiments as shown in.~ig.5. According to thi.s flow~sheet, a fermented manure mass at the -temperature of 55C ~rom the fermentation vessel 5 is delivered to the coa-gula-tion chamber 71 provided v~ith stirrer 72; into said cham-ber a preliminarily prepared precipitating suspension i~ fed through the charging rneans 70 in the ra-tio of 1:1 -to 2:2 (two parts by volume of the solution per two parts by vo]ume o~ manure) and intensively mixed with manure. The thus-pre-pared liquid manure is charged into the sedimentation cham-ber 73, wherein it is intensively strati~ied to the liquid fraction and -the residue; the latter is ~ed to means 74 for dehydration an~ granulation, ~1ile a portion of the liquid fraction is passed, through line 22, -to chamber 69 for the preparation of the liquid pre.cipitating suspension, whereinto monoammonium phosphate (~H4~2P04) is fed through the metering device 21 ln an amount of from 5 -to 15~ and calcium chlorlde CaC12 or lime in an amount of from 5 to 15%.

During the start-up period, until the liquid mamlre fil-trate is ob-tained, as the dispersing medium use is made of conventional process water~
'rhe process accQrding to the present inven~ion, due to a reduced -time required for separation of manure to fractions 7~akes i-t possible to increase, by more th~ 10 -times, the productivity o~ separating apparatus. Furthermore, in the liquid fraction of manure there are substa~tially no suspen-ded l~articles. In ~ig.6 curves 1, 2, 3 and 4 illustrate na-tu-ral precipitation of liquid manure: 1 - fresh manure; 2 -fer~nelted manure; 3 - fresh manure in combina-tion with the prGcipitating solution; 4 - fermented manure in comb.ination with -the precipitating solution.
~ o plot the curves, into measurin~ cylinders there are poured 60 ml of the test mallure and the vol.ume of -the preci-pitate is recorded after specified time periods (as percen-tage of the total volume). From the obtained relationships it is clear tha-t it takes about 50 hours to obtain 20% of precipitate in fresh manure, whereas ~ermented manure is substantially not stratifiedO A~ter mixing o fresh or fer-mented manure.with the precipitating solution 50% of preci-pitate are formed within 10-12 minu-tes, whereaf-ter volume increase is stopped, i.e. the rate of natural precipitation is increased by about 300 times; the liquid phase has a yel-lowish colour and contains no suspended particles, ~Ihereas in fresh manure the liquid phase has a dark colour an~ in its upper part a crust is present con~isting of suspendedparticles. Curves 1, 2, 3 and 4 illustrate relationships of the rate of filtra-tion of the same volume ~50 ml) of the test manure, all conditions being equal (temperature, reduced pressure, ~iltra-tion area, filtering paper); these curve~
demonstra-te that ferinen-ted manure is not filtered substantial-ly, while fresh manure is filtered by 60% within 14 minutes and the filtration is the~ stopped. Filtration of the total volume (60 ml) of the same kinds of manure ~ixed with the precipitating solution takes 50-60 seconds, i.e. the rate of filtration is increased proportionally to the rate of na-tu~
ral precipitation.
The filtrate of liquid manure produced from the feImen-t-ed mass ncessitates no desinfec~ion, thus making it posslble to apply it by means of sprinklin~ uni-ts or units for sub-soil application.
'~he solid fraction of manure produced in -this case in the form of ecapsulated granules with a shell of mineral compo-nents comprises a compleæ organo-mineral fertilizer which can be in~troduced into soil by e~isting sprayers or mineral ~ertilizers or locally for plaLlt nutrition The necessity of providing special ~achines for scattering organic fertilizers is thus avoided. ~he economic effect from t~e use of this process is obtained mainl-~- due to a considerabl-g increased crop yield, higher productivity of separa~ing apparatus (resulting in considerable savings in expenditures for processing of one ton of manure) and due to a reduced number of` machines required for scattering of organic fertilizers.

Claims (11)

The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows:
1. A process for utilization of the products of vital activity of animals comprising treatment of manure by decomp-ression prior to anaerobic fermentation under the conditions of controllably reduced pressure and continuous stirring; utili-zation of the biogas resulting from said anaerobic fermenta-tion and other nitrogen- and carbon-containing components after separation thereof from air exhausts from cattle hous-es and from the liquid fraction of manure as trophic elements of the culture medium in an aerobic process, wherein they are subjected to treatment with prototrophic bacteria; disinteg-ration of the biomass of said bacteria and utilization there-of as a feedstuff; the gas mixture effluent after said treat-ment with prototrophic bacteria is used as a heat-transfer agent in the system of said anaerobic fermentation, while the fermented mass is precipitated with a mineral-organic suspension prior to separation into the liquid and solid fractions.
2. A process as claimed in Claim 1, wherein said decomp-ression treatment of manure is carried out by saturation thereof with gas under a pressure of from 50 to 120 kg/cm2, followed by pressure drop to 0-(-1,200) mm of water column.
3. A process as claimed in Claim 2, wherein for satu-ration of manure mass use is made of the biogas evolving in the process of anaerobic treatment of manure.
4. A process as claimed in Claim 1, wherein said redu-ced pressure in the fermentation chamber is maintained within the range of from 0 to (-1,200) mm of water column and each agitation cycle is started at a reduced pressure of from (-100) to (-900) mm of water column.
5. A process as claimed in Claim 1, wherein prototroph-ic bacteria employed in the aerobic process consist of obli-gatory and optional microorganisms of the species:
Methilococcus capsulatu?s, Methilosinus trichosporium, Methilosinus sporium.
6. A process as claimed in Claim 1, wherein the aerobic production of the biomass is effected under an overatmospher-ic pressure of the gas mixture, while maintaining:
temperature of the culture medium 30-45°C;
acidity (pH) 5.5 _ 7.0;
pressure of oxygen-containing gas 1.1-40 kg/cm2 (abs.atm);
content of carbon dioxide up to 30%.
7. A process as claimed in Claim 1, therein for preci-pitation of the fermented mass use is made of a suspension having the following composition:
monoammonium phosphate (NH4H2PO4) 5 to 15%;
calcium chloride (CaC12) 5 to 15%;
solvent (liquid fraction of manure) - the balance, said mixing of the suspension with the precipitated mass is effected at a ratio of from 1:1 to 2-2.
8. A plant for the treatment of products of vital acti-vity of animals comprising: an anaerobic microbiological re-actor with manure dispensing means; fermentation and accumu-lation vessels provided with a heating system and located in-side said anaerobic reactor; an apparatus for withdrawal of the fermented mass from said fermentation vessel; apparatus for separation of the fermented mass into the liquid and solid fractions connected with said apparatus for withdrawal of the fermented mass; apparatus for withdrawal and purification of the biogas formed in said accumulation vessel; an aerobic microbiological reactor with a disintegrator of the biomass, a concentrator, outlet pipe for withdrawal of the spent biogas into said system of pre-heating of the fermentation vessel connected, through said apparatus for withdrawal and purifi-cation of the biogas, with said accumulation vessel; a device for automatic control and monitoring of the fermentation process intensity.
9. A plant as claimed in Claim 8, wherein said device for automatic control and monitoring of the fermentation process intensity is provided with means for maintaining a predetermined reduced pressure in the accumulation vessel and a flow meter for measurement of the quantity of the biogas interacting during maintenance of the predetermined fermentation intensity.
10. A plant as claimed in Claim 9, wherein said means for maintaining a predetermined reduced pressure is made as a bellows-type pump consisting of a pressure chamber, bellows tact generator, pressure setter, a pneumatic comparison element and pneumovalves, two of which being connected with the bellows, accumulation vessel and gas vessel, the others with the pressure chamber, pressure setter and pneumatic comparison element one input of which is connected to the bellows and the other to the pressure setter; the flow meter for measuring the quantity of the biogas is connected with the tact generator connected with the pneumovalves.
11. A plant according to Claim 8, wherein said apparatus for dispensing manure and withdrawal of the fermented mass comprises at least three non-communicating pneumatic chambers with built-in inlet, intermediate and outlet sections of a resilient material duct connected by means of socket pipes and a pneumatic pulse generator with its output connected to the chamber of the outlet section directly, and with the chambers of the inlet and intermediate sections through time delay elements.
CA000368108A 1980-12-29 1981-01-08 Process and apparatus for utilization of products of vital activity of animals Expired CA1161577A (en)

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CN101676381A (en) * 2008-09-16 2010-03-24 贝肯能源科技有限责任两合公司 Method for reducing the volume and mass of household waste
US8278081B2 (en) 2007-11-20 2012-10-02 Biosphere Technologies, Inc. Method for producing non-infectious products from infectious organic waste material
US8613894B2 (en) 2010-06-11 2013-12-24 Dvo, Inc. Nutrient recovery systems and methods
US9339760B2 (en) 2010-06-11 2016-05-17 Dvo, Inc. Methods and apparatuses for removal of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide from biogas

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US6197081B1 (en) 1998-03-18 2001-03-06 Erick Schmidt Method for bio-refining waste organic material to produce denatured and sterile nutrient products
US8278081B2 (en) 2007-11-20 2012-10-02 Biosphere Technologies, Inc. Method for producing non-infectious products from infectious organic waste material
CN101676381A (en) * 2008-09-16 2010-03-24 贝肯能源科技有限责任两合公司 Method for reducing the volume and mass of household waste
US8613894B2 (en) 2010-06-11 2013-12-24 Dvo, Inc. Nutrient recovery systems and methods
US9339760B2 (en) 2010-06-11 2016-05-17 Dvo, Inc. Methods and apparatuses for removal of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide from biogas
US10556804B2 (en) 2010-06-11 2020-02-11 Dvo, Inc. Nutrient recovery systems and methods

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FR2500990A1 (en) 1982-09-10
SE8100076L (en) 1982-07-09
DE3049302A1 (en) 1982-08-19
FR2500990B1 (en) 1983-04-29
CA1161577A1 (en)
SE450769B (en) 1987-07-27

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