BE1016015A5 - Installation of treatment of exhaust gases for combustion engines and method for cleaning exhaust gases. - Google Patents

Installation of treatment of exhaust gases for combustion engines and method for cleaning exhaust gases. Download PDF

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Publication number
BE1016015A5
BE1016015A5 BE2004/0236A BE200400236A BE1016015A5 BE 1016015 A5 BE1016015 A5 BE 1016015A5 BE 2004/0236 A BE2004/0236 A BE 2004/0236A BE 200400236 A BE200400236 A BE 200400236A BE 1016015 A5 BE1016015 A5 BE 1016015A5
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BE
Belgium
Prior art keywords
exhaust gas
catalyst
exhaust
internal combustion
nox
Prior art date
Application number
BE2004/0236A
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French (fr)
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Mann Naturenergie Gmbh & Co Kg
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Priority to BE2004/0236A priority Critical patent/BE1016015A5/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of BE1016015A5 publication Critical patent/BE1016015A5/en

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N3/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust
    • F01N3/08Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous
    • F01N3/10Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust
    • F01N3/18Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust characterised by methods of operation; Control
    • F01N3/20Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust characterised by methods of operation; Control specially adapted for catalytic conversion ; Methods of operation or control of catalytic converters
    • F01N3/2066Selective catalytic reduction [SCR]
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N13/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus characterised by constructional features ; Exhaust or silencing apparatus, or parts thereof, having pertinent characteristics not provided for in, or of interest apart from, groups F01N1/00 - F01N5/00, F01N9/00, F01N11/00
    • F01N13/009Exhaust or silencing apparatus characterised by constructional features ; Exhaust or silencing apparatus, or parts thereof, having pertinent characteristics not provided for in, or of interest apart from, groups F01N1/00 - F01N5/00, F01N9/00, F01N11/00 having two or more separate purifying devices arranged in series
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N3/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust
    • F01N3/01Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust by means of electric or electrostatic separators
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2240/00Combination or association of two or more different exhaust treating devices, or of at least one such device with an auxiliary device, not covered by indexing codes F01N2230/00 or F01N2250/00, one of the devices being
    • F01N2240/04Combination or association of two or more different exhaust treating devices, or of at least one such device with an auxiliary device, not covered by indexing codes F01N2230/00 or F01N2250/00, one of the devices being an electric, e.g. electrostatic, device other than a heater
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2240/00Combination or association of two or more different exhaust treating devices, or of at least one such device with an auxiliary device, not covered by indexing codes F01N2230/00 or F01N2250/00, one of the devices being
    • F01N2240/28Combination or association of two or more different exhaust treating devices, or of at least one such device with an auxiliary device, not covered by indexing codes F01N2230/00 or F01N2250/00, one of the devices being a plasma reactor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2610/00Adding substances to exhaust gases
    • F01N2610/02Adding substances to exhaust gases the substance being ammonia or urea
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2610/00Adding substances to exhaust gases
    • F01N2610/14Arrangements for the supply of substances, e.g. conduits
    • F01N2610/1473Overflow or return means for the substances, e.g. conduits or valves for the return path
    • Y02T10/24

Abstract

The invention relates to an exhaust gas purification plant for the purification of the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines (1), the installation comprising a gas intake port for the passage of the exhaust gases. exhaust of an internal combustion engine and a NOx catalyst for the catalytic conversion of NOx gas and a soot filter. In order to obtain an efficient purification of the exhaust gas even in the case of very low temperatures of the engine exhaust gas, a soot filter in the form of an electrostatic precipitator (8) is mounted upstream or downstream of the catalyst of the engine. NOx (5). In particular, it is possible to provide a NOx catalyst (5), an oxidation catalyst (6), a heat exchanger (7) and an electrostatic precipitator (8) which are arranged one behind the other in the order mentioned in the direction of gas flow and are connected to each other by guiding the exhaust gas.

Description


   <Desc / Clms Page number 1>
 



   EXHAUST GAS PURIFYING INSTALLATION FOR
COMBUSTION ENGINES AND PROCESS FOR PURIFYING GASES
EXHAUST
The present invention relates to an exhaust gas purification plant for the purification of exhaust gas from internal combustion engines, the exhaust gas purification system comprising an intake port of exhaust gas for introducing the exhaust gases of an internal combustion engine and a NOx catalyst for the catalytic conversion of NOx gas and a soot filter. The invention further relates to an exhaust gas purification plant with a soot filter in combination with an internal combustion engine and an exhaust gas cleaning method.



   A multitude of exhaust gas purification plants of this type are known for internal combustion engines. In this regard, the internal combustion engines most often exhaust exhaust at a temperature at the outlet of the internal combustion engine, less than or equal to 400 C, so at comparatively low temperatures. Such internal combustion engines operate most often with organic fuels such as vegetable oils, which also include used food oils.



  Such used food oils are produced during the manufacture of foodstuffs such as during frying, for example.

 <Desc / Clms Page number 2>

 



   Increasing demands are being made from such exhaust cleaning plants for the levels of harmful substances, particularly with regard to the dust or particulate content of the exhaust gas. As particulate or soot filters, conventional particle filters with filter elements which have a sufficient pore size for the separation of the soot have been used until now, since regeneration occurs. filter by free burning where the soot is heated to such high temperatures that it is converted into carbon monoxide and / or carbon dioxide. The action of such filters is however limited.

   In particular, it is not possible to operate such filters without taking into account the temperature of the exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine, since, at a temperature of exhaust gas that is too low, a regeneration of the filter n is no longer possible or is only possible by means of additional energy-consuming heating.



   It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an exhaust gas purification plant for the purification of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, which can considerably reduce the content of particles or particles. exhaust gas, even for low exhaust gas temperatures of the internal combustion engine. The present invention furthermore

 <Desc / Clms Page number 3>

 for the purpose of providing a corresponding process for cleaning the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines.



   The object is achieved according to the invention by an exhaust purification plant in which a particulate filter or in soot, in the form of an electrostatic filter by means of which it is possible to eliminate the particulate components of at least partially or as completely as possible, is placed upstream or downstream of a NOx catalyst. Such an electric filter makes it possible to reduce the soot content of the combustion gases emitted with respect to conventional particulate filters with porous filter elements, and the mode of action of the electrostatic precipitator is essentially independent of the temperature of the gases. exhaust of the internal combustion engine and thus the temperature of the exhaust gas at the inlet of the soot filter.

   In this way, regardless of the operating mode of the internal combustion engine, a very efficient purification of the exhaust gas is possible from the point of view of the entrained particles, in particular soot. The operating conditions of the engine can thus be modulated over wide ranges compared to conventional exhaust purification plants comprising pore filters, for example with regard to the maximum efficiency of the engine, since, for the pore filters, the highest possible exhaust gas temperature is desired, at least for the free burning of the filter.

   In addition, on the

 <Desc / Clms Page number 4>

 base of the electrofilter used according to the invention, it is possible to use with flexibility the other devices of the exhaust gas cleaning plant, such as other catalysts or heat exchangers, independently of the soot filter and thus optimize the exhaust gas purification plant with regard to its performance or operating conditions, such as energy consumption or the need for maintenance of the installation. In addition, only a very low exhaust gas pressure is produced by the electric filter, compared to soot filters traditionally used in corresponding systems, particularly in connection with diesel engines.

   The installation according to the invention or the combination of the internal combustion engine with electric filter thus also has advantages at higher temperatures, for example> 400 C.



   If the electrostatic precipitator is placed downstream of the NOx catalyst, a smaller dimensioning of the exhaust gas purification plant is possible. If the electrofilter is placed upstream of the NOx catalyst, for example if it is arranged directly behind the internal combustion engine, that is to say placed upstream of all the other components of the purification plant the following components, in particular the catalysts, are less affected by the dust and soot of the exhaust gases. The components, in particular the catalysts, can thus have a shelf life

 <Desc / Clms Page number 5>

 or much higher use. In addition, the electrostatic precipitator simultaneously eliminates catalyst inhibitors out of the exhaust gas.



   The engine fuel can be any liquid or gaseous fuel.



   The NOx catalyst can be directly placed downstream of the internal combustion engine, it is particularly preferably an injection of a reactive product for the transformation of nitrogen oxides directly behind the internal combustion engine, knowing that between the nozzle of the reactive product and the NOx catalyst, preferably at least one mixer is provided for mixing the reactive product with the exhaust gas to be purified. The mixer can be configured as a static mixer. Alternatively, the NOx catalyst can be directly placed downstream of the electrofilter.



   Preferably, an oxidation catalyst is placed between the NOx catalyst and the electrofilter so that the exhaust gases to be purified are fed to the electrofilter from the internal combustion engine via the NOx catalyst. and the oxidation catalyst. It is understood that, if necessary, other devices can be arranged between the various devices mentioned. Preferably, the NOx catalyst and the oxidation catalyst are mounted directly one behind the other, where appropriate, they can also be arranged in a common housing.



   Alternatively, it is possible to place the electrofilter downstream of the internal combustion engine,

 <Desc / Clms Page number 6>

 to mount it directly downstream preferably, and to place it upstream of the NOx catalyst, knowing that the oxidation catalyst is placed downstream of the NOx catalyst, mounted directly downstream preferably.



   With the oxidation catalyst it is possible to oxidize oxidizable components of the exhaust gas leaving the NOx catalyst. It may be in particular an excess reactive product or a component thereof or an intermediate product of the reaction of the product reactive with nitrogen dioxides. When using ammonia or urea as a reactive product, it is possible to avoid emissions of unprocessed ammonia.



  Other components of the exhaust gas, such as non-fully burned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide or similar materials, can be further oxidized.



   Preferably, a heat exchanger is placed between the NOx catalyst and the electrostatic precipitator to reduce the temperature of the exhaust gas. Preferably, the heat exchanger is disposed between the oxidation catalyst and the electrofilter and connected thereto by the fluid technique. In a particularly preferred manner, the heat exchanger is placed directly upstream of the electrofilter such that the exhaust gases leaving the heat exchanger are directly led to the gas inlet of the electrofilter. An operation of the exhaust gas cleaning plant with a particularly low energy input and a

 <Desc / Clms Page number 7>

 Exhaust gas cleaning is particularly effective.



   Alternatively, the electrofilter is placed upstream of the NOx catalyst in the flow direction and the heat exchanger downstream of the NOx catalyst.



   In a particularly preferred manner, the electrofilter, the NOx catalyst, the oxidation catalyst and the heat exchanger are mounted one behind the other in the order mentioned, in the direction of flow of the exhaust gas, arranged preferably always directly behind each other so that the exhaust gas to be purified is fed to the devices listed one after the other directly.



   According to a preferred alternative embodiment, the NOx catalyst, the oxidation catalyst, the heat exchanger and the electrostatic precipitator are mounted one behind the other in the order cited, in the direction of flow of the gas. exhaust, preferably always arranged directly behind each other so that the exhaust gas to be purified is brought to the devices mentioned one after the other directly.



   An exhaust gas purification plant with electric filter, also, already brings specific advantages, installation which, starting from the embodiments described, does not include any NOx catalyst and / or oxidation catalyst.



  In this regard, the electrofilter can be placed upstream or downstream of a heat exchanger in the direction of flow of the exhaust gas. Where appropriate,

 <Desc / Clms Page number 8>

 for each of the variants mentioned, it is possible to have an oxidation catalyst upstream of the heat exchanger in the direction of flow.



  The electrostatic filter can be arranged here also directly behind the internal combustion engine.



   As NOx catalysts, various known catalysts can be used, for example storage NOx catalysts in which, starting from the nitrogen oxides, by catalytic conversion with an accumulation material, such as, for example, hydrogen carbonate. barium, nitrogen oxides are combined by transformation into other combinations such as nitrates, for example. Other absorbing substances may be, for example, oxides of calcium, magnesium, barium or zirconium. The accumulating fluid must be regularly regenerated at higher temperatures, for example at more than 650 ° C. Precious metals such as platinum or rhodium can be used as the catalytic component.



   Preferably, the NOx catalyst is an SCR catalyst in which the conversion of nitrogen oxides to other less ecologically disturbing materials takes place in a selective catalytic reduction. The nitrogen oxides contained in the exhaust gas may, for example, be converted to suitable catalysts by the addition of ammonia in the presence of oxygen with formation of nitrogen oxide and water. As a means of reduction, it is also possible to use urea, in particular in the form of a uric solution.

 <Desc / Clms Page number 9>

 aqueous (for example with a urea content ranging from 20 to 60% by weight or from 30 to 50% by weight, in particular about 40% by weight) or in solid form also or, where appropriate, also from hydrocarbon place or in addition to ammonia.

   Such hydrocarbons may optionally also be provided by the fuel of the internal combustion engine, for example diesel or a vegetable oil.



  Various types of catalyst can be used, for example catalysts with a substrate coated with a catalytic material. SCR full contact catalysts are preferably used in which the catalyst consists entirely of an active material. The active components may be, for example, TiO 2, WO 3, V 2 O 5 or other materials which contain, for example, CuO or MnO 2. The materials are then processed in a known manner into an extrudable molding material from which the catalyst element is made. The reactive product for the conversion of nitrogen oxides can, at an exhaust gas temperature of between 230 and 250 C or higher, be injected into the hot exhaust gas.



   When using an aqueous uric solution as a reactive product, the urea decomposes into ammonia and carbon dioxide, partially reacting with water vapor, forming intermediates. Intermediates, such as cyanic acid or produced ammonia, can react with NOx to form nitrogen and water vapor. The

 <Desc / Clms Page number 10>

 The most favorable working temperature of the SCR catalyst is between about 375 ° C. and about 475 ° C. The SCR catalyst can, for example, operate in a temperature range between about 375 ° C. and about 425 ° C.



   The exhaust gas purification plant according to the invention can, in particular with the use of the electrostatic precipitator, be designed in such a way that the exhaust gases are purified to a lower particulate content or equal to 25 mg / Nm3 sec for 5% by volume of oxygen (Nm3 standard cubic meter under standard conditions (NTP)), preferably less than or equal to 15 or less than or equal to 10 mg / Nm3sec .



   The exhaust gas purification system according to the invention can be designed in particular for a quantity of exhaust gas operating at nominal load ranging from 500 to 50,000, for example ranging from 1000 to 30,000 Bm3. or wet (Bm3 cubic meter of service) or operate with such an amount of exhaust gas without being limited thereto. In particular, the exhaust gas purification system may be designed for an amount of exhaust gas ranging from 3000 to 10,000 Bm3 / wet, in particular approximately 10,000 Bm3 / wet, or operate therewith, which relates respectively to the exploitation in average nominal load.

   However, the system may also be designed for higher or lower amounts of exhaust gas, if applicable.

 <Desc / Clms Page number 11>

 



   It is understood that internal combustion engines may also be automobile engines or other diesel engines for example, in particular boat engines, including engines on boats.



   Such an exhaust purification plant has proved particularly advantageous in combination with an internal combustion engine, for example with a diesel engine, which operates with a vegetable oil, a vegetable fat and / or an animal fat, including used greases or oils respectively. At the same time or independently of this, the engine can also operate using a fossil fuel liquid. It is understood that the respective fuel, in particular oil or grease, is conducted in a liquid form to the internal combustion engine and may also be wholly or partially solid at ambient temperature or at lower temperatures.



  The exhaust gas purification plant according to the invention has been particularly proven for such fuels.



   The cited internal combustion engine can, with the use of an exhaust gas purification plant according to the invention, operate in particular at an exhaust gas temperature, at the outlet orifice of the internal combustion engine, less than or equal to 400 ° C., in particular less than or equal to 390 ° C. or 380 ° C., and also to an exhaust gas temperature of less than or equal to 360 ° C., preferably at least

 <Desc / Clms Page number 12>

 temperature above 360 C but also at a temperature above 400 C.

   Due to the comparatively low exhaust gas temperatures, the use of conventional soot filters with porous filter elements is difficult or not possible since, in particular, regeneration of the filters by a filter is difficult. free burning is made difficult.



   The invention is described below by way of example and explained by means of the figure by way of example.



   In the figure, an exhaust gas purification plant according to the invention is shown in combination with an internal combustion engine 1. The exhaust gas purification system 2 comprises an intake port of the exhaust gas 3 connected to the exhaust port of the exhaust of the internal combustion engine, knowing that the exhaust gas is conducted via a flow line 4 to a NOx catalyst 5 and a catalyst of oxidation 6 placed downstream thereof in the direction of flow (arrows). The NOx catalyst 5 and the oxidation catalyst 6 are directly arranged one behind the other and can be arranged in the same housing or in different housings.



  Furthermore, in the direction of flow, after the oxidation catalyst 6 is provided a heat exchanger 7, knowing that it is arranged, according to the embodiment, directly behind the oxidation catalyst. The exhaust gases (arrow) cooled leaving the heat exchanger 7 are then led to an electrostatic precipitator 8 which can in particular

 <Desc / Clms Page number 13>

 be placed directly behind the heat exchanger.



  The electrostatic precipitator is actuated by a high voltage component 9. Then, the exhaust gases are discharged into the environment via a silencer 10 and a chimney 11.



   Thanks to the arrangement of the electrostatic precipitator, the exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine are very efficiently freed of particles, in particular soot, knowing that the operating conditions of the fuel engine are selected substantially independently of the electrofilter and can, for example, be exploited with regard to the efficiency of the engine. In addition, the electrofilter is placed downstream of the heat exchanger so that heat losses can be minimized and the purification plant can be operated with a low energy input. The temperature of the exhaust gas to the filter should no longer be adapted as is the case for traditional installations with regard to regeneration of the filter by free burning.



   According to the exemplary embodiment, the NOx catalyst is an SCR catalyst, with the use of an aqueous uric solution (40% by weight) as a reactive product for the conversion of nitrogen oxides. The uric solution is injected into the exhaust stream by means of a reagent nozzle 12 and a metering system 13.



  The injection of the reactive product can be regulated by definition of the characteristic networks according to the existing power of the combustion engine

 <Desc / Clms Page number 14>

 internal and / or NOx emission or generally depending on the composition of the exhaust gas or depending on other parameters. The metering system removes the reagent product from a storage tank of the reagent product 14 via a pump 15, knowing that the storage tank can be fed with reagent product through a larger container. storage (not shown).



   The injected reactive product is then homogeneously mixed with the exhaust gas via one or more mixers 16 which may be in the form of static mixers. The pipes carrying the exhaust gases of the exhaust gas purification system, which are placed after the nozzle of the reactive product in the direction of flow, can also be used as a thermolysis section in which the reactive product , for example urea, is partially or completely thermolysed and, on this occasion, the reactive component is released for the transformation of nitrogen oxides in the NOx catalyst. In the case of urea, this reactive component is ammonia.

   The gaseous mixture of the exhaust gas with the reactive product then enters the NOx catalyst whose most favorable working temperature can be between 375 C and 475 C, also below 375 C, as appropriate. The maximum continuous operating temperature of the catalyst can be up to 500 ° C., short peak temperatures above 500 ° C. are possible.

 <Desc / Clms Page number 15>

 



   The injection of the reactive product, such as for example a uric solution, takes place under compressed air, whereby the reaction product is distributed in an aerosol, which preferably occurs in the center of the exhaust gas flue. The compressed air furthermore makes it possible to cool the supply duct of the reactive product, which prevents evaporation of the solution and thus obstruction of the pipe. More accurate dosing, especially for lower NOx or SO2 levels, is possible by measuring NOx emissions after the catalyst, for example in the stack, and using the value measured as a regulated quantity in an associated control device.



   The components of the oxidizable exhaust gas leaving the NOx catalyst are completely oxidized by the oxidation catalyst 6. This concerns in particular the ammonia leaving the NOx catalyst due to an overdose of the reactive product, which can be ammonia gas or urea. It is thus possible to operate the plant with a high feed ratio (molar ratio of the reactive product flowing into the NOx catalyst relative to NOx) amounting to approximately 1. It is thus possible, for example, to use ammonia as a reactive product. In the case of urea, the feed ratio is usually 0.5.



   The injection of the reactive product (for example, an aqueous uric solution) can take place with definition of the characteristic networks. The injection can be done especially when the temperature of the gases

 <Desc / Clms Page number 16>

 Exhaust, behind the catalyst, is 250 C or higher.



   The exhaust gas is cooled in the heat exchanger placed downstream of the oxidation catalyst, for example at an exhaust gas temperature of up to 200 ° C. or up to 150 ° C., preferably up to 200 ° C. 100 C or always lower, for example up to 75 C without being limited. The heat produced in the heat exchanger can be used in another way.



   Reference numerals 8a, 9a indicate an alternative embodiment, particularly preferred, wherein the electrostatic filter 8a with the high voltage component 9a is disposed between the internal combustion engine 1 and the NOx catalyst 5, instead of Be behind the oxidation catalyst, as shown in the figure. Thus, the catalysts will be much less loaded with particles, soot and catalyst inhibitors. The arrangement of the components of the purification plant may remain unchanged or be modified according to the various modifications described here. The electrostatic filter can in particular be arranged directly behind the engine.



   Cooled exhaust gas is thus led to the electrofilter 8, knowing that the particles contained in the exhaust gas, such as following, in particular, are removed. As electrostatic precipitator, any suitable conventional electrofilter can be used. The electrostatic charge of the particles contained in the exhaust gas can be done by means of electrodes

 <Desc / Clms Page number 17>

 special emissions, which produce a corona discharge for the ionization of the gas and for the electrostatic charging of the dust particles.

   The negatively charged particles can be separated on the positively polarized deposition electrodes and grounded, knowing that the particles are removed from the electrodes from the traversing separation chamber by means of suitable devices such as, for example, for example, by means of small hammers and can be removed from the filter by suitable devices such as evacuation screws.



  The particulate or dust content in the exhaust gas stream leaving the electrostatic precipitator can be as high as about 10 mg / Nm3 sec for 5 vol.% Oxygen.



   The exhaust gas purification plant can be designed for a quantity of combustion gas of 10 000 Bm3 / wet for example.



   In particular, when burning vegetable oils, such as waste oils for example, for their use, the exhaust gases can be very efficiently freed of particles such as soot by means of the gas cleaning plant. according to the invention but also for vegetable or animal fats or fossil liquid fuels or similar materials.

 <Desc / Clms Page number 18>

 



   LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS 1 Internal combustion engine 2 Exhaust gas cleaning system 3 Exhaust gas inlet 4 Flow pipe 5 NOx catalyst 6 Oxidation catalyst 7 Heat exchanger 8 Electric filter 8a Electrical filter (variant) 9 High-voltage component 9a High-voltage component (variant) 10 Silencer 11 Chimney 12 Reagent nozzle 13 Dosing system 14 Reagent tank 15 Pump 16 Mixer

Claims (18)

  1.  EXHAUST GAS PURIFICATION SYSTEM FOR MOTORS A COMBUSTION AND METHOD FOR EXHAUST GAS PURIFICATION CLAIMS 1. Exhaust gas cleaning plant for exhaust gas cleaning of internal combustion engines, the exhaust gas cleaning installation comprising an exhaust gas inlet for passing the exhaust gases of an internal combustion engine and a NOx catalyst for the catalytic conversion of NOx gases and a soot filter, characterized in that the NOx catalyst (5) is designed as an SCR catalyst operating the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen dioxides or as a NOx absorption catalyst and a soot filter in the form of an electrostatic precipitator (8) is mounted downstream of the NOx catalyst (5) .
  2.  Exhaust purification plant according to Claim 1, characterized in that an oxidation catalyst (6) is arranged in the direction of flow of the exhaust gas at the rear of the NOx catalyst. (5), which oxidation catalyst is mounted upstream of an electrofilter optionally disposed downstream of the NOx catalyst.
  3.  3. Exhaust purification plant according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that a heat exchanger  <Desc / Clms Page number 20>  (7) for reducing the temperature of the exhaust gas is mounted downstream of the NOx catalyst (5) in the direction of flow of the exhaust gas, which exchanger is mounted upstream of an electrofilter optionally disposed in downstream of the NOx catalyst.
  4.  Exhaust purification plant according to Claim 2 or 3, characterized in that the electrofilter (8) is mounted downstream of the NOx catalyst (5) in the direction of flow of the exhaust gases. and in that the oxidation catalyst (6) and / or the heat exchanger (7) are mounted upstream of the electrofilter in the direction of flow.
  5.  Exhaust gas cleaning plant according to one of Claims 1 to 4, characterized in that a NOx catalyst (5), an oxidation catalyst (6), a heat exchanger (7) and an electrostatic precipitator (8) are arranged one behind the other in the order mentioned in the flow direction of the exhaust gas and are connected to one another by guiding the exhaust gas.
  6.  6. Exhaust purification plant in combination with an internal combustion engine, which is connected by guiding the exhaust gas to the purification plant for purifying the engine exhaust gas, purification plant comprising a soot filter, characterized in that the soot filter is designed as an electrostatic precipitator (8) and a NOx catalyst (5), placed upstream of the electrostatic precipitator, in the form of an SCR catalyst or a NOx absorption catalyst is provided, or the soot filter is designed as an electrostatic precipitator (8) and mounted directly downstream of the internal combustion engine and a NOx catalyst (5) , mounted downstream of the electrostatic precipitator, in the form of an SCR catalyst or a NOx absorption catalyst is provided.  <Desc / Clms Page number 21>  
  7.  Exhaust gas cleaning plant with an internal combustion engine according to claim 6, characterized in that the exhaust gas cleaning system (2) is designed according to one of claims 1 to 5. and in that the internal combustion engine is connected by driving the exhaust gases to the NOx catalyst (5) of the exhaust gas cleaning plant, catalyst upstream or downstream of which is mounted an electrostatic precipitator (8) in the flow direction of the exhaust gas.
  8.  Exhaust purification plant in combination with an internal combustion engine according to claim 7, characterized in that an electrostatic precipitator (8), a NOx catalyst (5), an oxidation catalyst ( 6) and a heat exchanger (7) are arranged one behind the other in the order mentioned in the flow direction of the exhaust gas and are connected to each other by guiding the exhaust gas.
  9.  An exhaust gas cleaning plant with an internal combustion engine according to claim 6, characterized in that the exhaust gas cleaning system (2) comprises a heat exchanger (7) for cooling the exhaust gases. exhaust gas of the internal combustion engine, and that the electrofilter (8) is mounted upstream or downstream of the heat exchanger in the direction of flow of the exhaust gas.
  10.  Exhaust gas cleaning plant with an internal combustion engine according to one of claims 6 to 9, characterized in that the internal combustion engine (1) is operable with one or more materials belonging to the group of vegetable oils, vegetable fats, animal fats and / or with liquid fossil fuels.  <Desc / Clms Page number 22>  
  11.  Exhaust gas cleaning system with an internal combustion engine according to one of claims 6 to 10, characterized in that the internal combustion engine (1) is operable at a lower exhaust gas temperature or equal to 400 C.
  12.  12. Process for purifying the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, the engine exhaust gases being supplied to an intake port of an exhaust gas purification plant and the installation of exhaust gas cleaning comprising a soot filter for purifying the exhaust gas, characterized in that the soot filter is designed as an electrostatic precipitator (8) and the exhaust gas is supplied to a catalyst NOx (5), placed upstream of the electrostatic precipitator, in the form of an SCR catalyst or a NOx absorption catalyst, or that the soot filter is designed as an electrostatic precipitator (8) and is placed directly downstream of the internal combustion engine and that the exhaust gases are fed to a NOx catalyst (5), placed downstream of the electrofilter,
     in the form of an SCR catalyst or a NOx absorption catalyst.
  13.  13. Process for purifying the exhaust gas according to claim 12, characterized in that an exhaust gas purification system (2) according to one of claims 1 to 6 is used for the purification of the exhaust gases. exhaust gas.
  14.  An exhaust gas cleaning method according to claim 12, characterized in that an exhaust gas purification plant (2) is used for the purification of the exhaust gases, which installation comprises heat exchanger (7) for cooling the exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine, in which an electrostatic precipitator (8) is mounted upstream or downstream of the exchanger  <Desc / Clms Page number 23>  thermal in the direction of flow of the exhaust gas.
  15.  Exhaust gas cleaning method according to one of claims 12 to 14, characterized in that the internal combustion engine (1) is operated with one or more materials forming part of the oil group. vegetable fat, vegetable fat, animal fat and / or with liquid fossil fuels.
  16.  16. Process for purifying exhaust gas according to one of claims 12 to 15, characterized in that the engine (1) operates with an exhaust gas temperature of less than or equal to 400 C.
  17.  Exhaust purification process according to one of Claims 12 to 16, characterized in that the exhaust gases are purified to a particle content of 25 mg / Nm3sec or less for 5%. in volume of oxygen relative to an exhaust port of the exhaust gas of the electrostatic precipitator (8).
  18.  An exhaust gas cleaning method according to one of claims 12 to 17, characterized in that the exhaust gas purification system (2) operates with an amount of exhaust gas ranging from in the case of a nominal load, 500 to 50000 Bm3 / wet.
BE2004/0236A 2004-05-11 2004-05-11 Installation of treatment of exhaust gases for combustion engines and method for cleaning exhaust gases. BE1016015A5 (en)

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DE200510022046 DE102005022046A1 (en) 2004-05-11 2005-05-09 Device for purifying exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine comprises an electrostatic particulate filter up- or downstream from a catalyst for converting nitrogen oxides

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DE102009025136A1 (en) * 2009-06-17 2010-12-23 Emitec Gesellschaft Für Emissionstechnologie Mbh Apparatus and method for treating a particulate exhaust gas

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DE10020555A1 (en) * 2000-04-27 2001-10-31 Bosch Gmbh Robert Method and device for cleaning exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine
US20030086837A1 (en) * 2000-05-30 2003-05-08 Rolf Bruck Particle trap and assemblies and exhaust tracts having the particle trap
DE10259702A1 (en) * 2001-12-27 2003-07-17 Denso Corp Exhaust gas purification system for internal combustion engine of vehicle, recirculates portion of purified exhaust gas cooled by hydrothermal heat exchanger, to intake side
US20030233824A1 (en) * 2000-06-01 2003-12-25 Chun Kwang Min Apparatus for removing soot and NOx in exhaust gas from diesel engines

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DE10020555A1 (en) * 2000-04-27 2001-10-31 Bosch Gmbh Robert Method and device for cleaning exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine
US20030086837A1 (en) * 2000-05-30 2003-05-08 Rolf Bruck Particle trap and assemblies and exhaust tracts having the particle trap
US20030233824A1 (en) * 2000-06-01 2003-12-25 Chun Kwang Min Apparatus for removing soot and NOx in exhaust gas from diesel engines
DE10259702A1 (en) * 2001-12-27 2003-07-17 Denso Corp Exhaust gas purification system for internal combustion engine of vehicle, recirculates portion of purified exhaust gas cooled by hydrothermal heat exchanger, to intake side

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