AU2013235426B2 - Routing a data packet in a communication network - Google Patents

Routing a data packet in a communication network Download PDF

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AU2013235426B2
AU2013235426B2 AU2013235426A AU2013235426A AU2013235426B2 AU 2013235426 B2 AU2013235426 B2 AU 2013235426B2 AU 2013235426 A AU2013235426 A AU 2013235426A AU 2013235426 A AU2013235426 A AU 2013235426A AU 2013235426 B2 AU2013235426 B2 AU 2013235426B2
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Prior art keywords
data packet
value
routing
circuitry
machine
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AU2013235426A1 (en
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Yi-Chao S. Chuang
Steven A. Davidson
Mu-cheng WANG
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Raytheon Co
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Raytheon Co
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Priority to US61/613,131 priority
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Priority to PCT/US2013/031714 priority patent/WO2013142282A1/en
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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L45/00Routing or path finding of packets in data switching networks
    • H04L45/74Address processing for routing
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L45/00Routing or path finding of packets in data switching networks
    • H04L45/12Shortest path evaluation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L45/00Routing or path finding of packets in data switching networks
    • H04L45/54Organization of routing tables

Abstract

In one aspect, a method includes receiving a data packet at a routing node that includes a processor. The method also includes determining at least one value for the data packet, selecting a routing table from a plurality of routing tables stored at the routing node in response to the at least one value for the packet and forwarding the data packet in response to the routing table selected. Each routing table is associated with a respective one cost function.

Description

BACKGROUND A communication network includes multiple routers. The routers are located at subnet boundaries that are located between a sender and a receiver. The routers transfer data packets originating from the sender to the intended receiver. Often a 5 communication network has multiple possible paths between the sender and the receiver, but only one single path is chosen to send data between the sender and the receiver. It is desired to address or ameliorate one or more disadvantages or limitations associated with the prior art (not all of which is described by the preceding paragraph), or to at least provide a useful alternative. 10 SUMMARY In one aspect, a method includes receiving a data packet at a routing node that includes a processor. The method also includes determining at least one value for the data packet, selecting a routing table from a plurality of routing tables stored at the 15 routing node in response to the at least one value for the packet and forwarding the data packet in response to the routing table selected. Each routing table is associated with a respective one cost function. Each cost function is a function of respective parameters, comprising a utilization, a bandwidth, a latency and a bit error rate (BER), as weighted by a respective K-vector. 20 In another aspect, a routing node includes electronic hardware circuitry configured to receive a data packet at a routing node, determine at least one value for the data packet; select a routing table from a plurality of routing tables stored at the routing node in response to the at least one value for the packet and forward the data packet in response to the routing table selected. Each routing table is associated with a respective 25 one cost function. Each cost function is a function of respective parameters, comprising - 1 a utilization, a bandwidth, a latency and a bit error rate (BER), as weighted by a respective K-vector. In a further aspect, an article includes a non-transitory computer-readable medium that stores computer-executable instructions. The instructions causing a 5 machine to receive a data packet at a routing node, determine at least one value for the data packet, select a routing table from a plurality of routing tables stored at the routing node in response to the at least one value for the packet and forward the data packet in response to the routing table selected. Each routing table is associated with a respective one cost function. Each cost function is a function of respective parameters, comprising 10 a utilization, a bandwidth, a latency and a bit error rate (BER), as weighted by a respective K-vector. One or more of the aspects above may include one or more of the following features. Receiving a data packet at a routing node may include receiving the data packet at the routing node from a first link and forwarding the data packet in response the value 15 of the data packet may include forwarding the data packet to a second link. The plurality of routing tables may be combined into a combined table incorporating value-to route associations and selecting a routing table from a plurality of routing tables may include selecting the combined table. Determining the at least one value of the data packet may include determining at least one value located in a header of the data packet. 20 Determining at least one value located in a header of the data packet may include determining a Differentiated Services (DiffServ) code point (DSCP) value in the data packet. Determining at least one value located in a header of the data packet may include determining at least one of a port number value or ID, or a source-destination pair value. -2- BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Preferred embodiments of the present invention are hereinafter described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which: FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an example of a communication network. 5 FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a routing node. FIG. 3 is a flowchart of an example of a process to forward a data packet. FIG. 4 is a block diagram of a computer on the process of FIG. 3 may be implemented. - 2a - WO 2013/142282 PCT/US2013/031714 DETAILED DESCRIPTION Described herein is a preach that enablesa' "routing node, - toorward a data ,packet based on the- data packet. itself that.,1for exam-ple, ]has the added benefit of ;e spreadi". ng the traffic load arsthmuipctyof pos sible pahs I hi ivnton ruignode in cludes' a plur-ality of routin-g tables wt each -routing tablecoesndg to a rs"ective cos nn (versus conventional routing wher onlyone routing ta'bl~e' is ,,,sed). Batsedf on a value in N he $ data packet a routing table is selecte-d' thaa n'trnni nes whr them data packet is routed, 10 Referring to FIQ 1, a cmuiaonetrk100 includes nodes 102A12, file transfers protocol (FIT) tr~ansceiverzs 108a-108b and voice trncies110a-1 10b, The FT "trans+c ver 108a, an t' voice trnlsceieN..r 1 Oa ae'- co-xupled to tJh e nodeo 1 02,a The node 102a is coupled to the node 102b by a link 1 18a, oad is coupleod to te nos- de 10 Y2c by a link 1.18b, The node 102b is coupled to the node 102,d by a lin6k18 and is 15 coupled to the node -102e by a link 11 The node 1.02c is coup t1 a lI 118f aund is coupled to th~e node 102e by a 1i4k 11 8e. Tenode 1 02d is coupled'1 to the n-ode 102f 1by a 'Hink 11I8h and is coupled to the node 10:2,g by a 'Link I118i, T1he inod'e 102e is coupled to the node 1 02f by a link 11I8g and is -o-upled tao tuhe n~ode 102h by a lk 118j. The ndei 102f is coupled to the FTP trn er 1b and the voice 20 110 b,. Each of the lin ks 118 a-118j may be one of wired liriks, fiber zoptic links, ,wireless liriks or 'a onao ofe three (or any other media that c'a carry IP traffic), As,, can be observed in, FIG, 1, there are a numaber- , of paths between the nodes 102a and 102f that data packets can travel, Inpior approache re would be a s, ingl e "best" path chosen reg'ardls, of whether the p s voidata or FTP data, WO 2013/142282 PCT/US2013/031714 However, as described hereindr, a route is chosen for ewach data packet based onthe chaactrisics(de,-livery needs) of the data packet. Rferring to FIG. 2., in one example of how it m-ay be i e a ruling no'de 200 in-ue cst f ts 202a-202N, a routing engine 212, rouing tables 2a 216N. forwarding egns202,,,-a-202b and egress ports 226a-226b, Eachrouting taOble 216a-216N corresponds to a respective one of the cost functin N 22a-)202N (e-g, the routing table 216a co, responds to the cost fuction 202a; thie routing table 216N correpondsto the cost function 202N). I oe example, the ro eC.ngine 212 geneate a outing table 216a-216N reach cost function 202a-202N', 10 For example, once allthe cost functions are defied, the router builds the routing tables 216a-216N For every given cost function 202aei-202N, each, one corsponin to one (each) of the data chaaristics to be ao t o t network, the Routing Engine 212 cculates the ostmetric for each candidate route. Then, the Routing Engine 212 builds a routing table by s t the best paths' intaeor the data 15 acet'es destination, Thi's procss repets until all routine g tables are built. To 'erfor thep pAkeorwrig tlhe routing nd 0 is eet h ruigtbeb sn h value detennin- 1 ed, for the paket.'- by mCA et&hods& ' thluat include one ofvarious packet classificationschenes available (e.g, Differentiated Services (Dif vCode Poi nt, (DSCP), port number or ID, souce-destintinpair, and so foth). hen, the rou"'ing 20 noe 200 selects a fradnpth(interf'ace o.r eg-ress port) based1 on the ruigtable and ,on the destination address, If multiple pathns exist f'or the targjete,-d address, thle routing node 200 supportseulcs or unequal-cost load balawncing. The routing nuode 200 distribu tes trafi e ly or proportionallywith' respet toC the 'os-tmetric among those routes, maaking thm qual. in cases whereb themtics are of equivaen value. -4- WO 2013/142282 PCT/US2013/031714 The routing engine 212 recive topology. a~n~d link sdtte updates thouh h conntons 242a, 242b and 'pat es the routin blues 216a-216 based on curren ~~t''N) 'N"N"*N'-"'si''' N'(0S' i\~'tyN lN( 3 ylN"Nil.'N network condition (g loadingcapaitdea and so fr Iother exapls th cst f unction os 202a-20.2-N canvo (optionally) b stored ini a central location for case of network management a provided to the node 200() fMor local Storage and A cost funtion is thus provided by a u'N"ser to estaKblish N ir a of parametersn. naothe e.xamle co's"t nioNn4'S'N. nay be based atleast one. of ii omNn"t -s N, "-z a badidtha, load, delay, reliabflity and so forth parmtr and t uemay we"iht thOlese parameters in a cost function. P 'wevor, different types of data parts may not fonction 10 eiiciently in a communication network using onY one particLiar cost timetion. Foi example, one cns conrzuct a gneric cost timtion for mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET), such as: L -------- "I"Il"l'l 1,1,1,1 ----------- -- x ---------- 100000000 -latenr'~ BE'R+4' 15 Then!, user will seet a 'uieofKhneot described as a "vector") ta applies differently dNep.'ndig on traffic lass of the packet being rout. For exam..ple, considr two traffic streams, i.., FTP an voice, For FIT traffico, theiuse-r sets FTP's EK-vector to (2,0, 1,51) twegtbn idhanad load. Thus, 2N0 F ==[-------- ---- x Forvoice trauft fi th kIcr canl be set to (0, 1, 1) to, weightit's de"lay se WO 2013/142282 PCT/US2013/031714 TheP values ofo tr' naffic ztype woul compromise the of the other traffic type because these ifern tafi t'ypews warrant different K-vector. As will beshw further herein, different types of data. packts may function more n a using a different cost timection, The ln252a, 252b provide data packets to a resp g engine 222a, 222b. The o warding engi 222""a, 2sedz on3one or more values in a daa pa termines' the appropriate routing table tou (i.e., the appropriate cost fucinto use) and provides thle data packet to the ap:propriate egress pot226a, 2261b. Th ersspot 226a, 22 6lb prov ,ide data pacts to a respective lik 262a, 262b, 1 0 Referriang to FIG,- 3, an e'xam-ple of a process to route data pa-ckets is a process 300, Process "300 receives a data packet (302). For example, the routeur 200 receives a pa ck et f,,r one o f thne lIn-zk s 2 52 a, 2 52 b. Process, 30() deter-nin.es a valu"e(s) fromrn the daa packet (308), For enxmple, tlhe fowarding engine 222a determnres a value(s) itm th1:e data packet In,,, onew exiaple, thae 15value corrYesponds to al traffic class in the header of the data pac--.ketInon prtcua example, the value is a:Direntiated Services (Diff"\erv) code jpo~intr (DSCP) vsaluec Differv uses a. 6-bit Differbentiated Servi ,ces Field (DS field) in tlhe IP heakder fort pac-ket classification purposes wihgenerates iup to 64 (2 ) values. Thster aybe upt 64 routing tales uiga 6-b it Diff'erentiated Se--rvices Field as th au.Other values 2 may include, but are not united to, a port nme or IDsource-deinain pia Process 300selects a rting table based on the valu e 1s) f'he data p "ket (314)1 For example, the forwarding engine 2:22a selects a routin'g tale based on the DSCP value in t data packet, Eah ouing table corresponds to one cost 25 each entry inthe table de bs route for a gi ven destination addresss. (tfor tlhat -6- WO 2013/142282 PCT/US2013/031714 particular traffic type). In some ea les,' t ray exist mlAtijple best routes in the table fobr an if there are equally good. Prtoess 3,0 deernes a dest'natn ao a header ofthe data ake (322)1 For examunple, thkowrigengine 222a detenni-"mnes a destination address by V 'u-sing the dsiaonaddrss in the IPE. theater of the data pack'e, process 300 select's he egre Port m he selected outing table basedon the dest'ination, add,"ress (3,30), For example, "'he fo~rwvarding enjgi~ne 222a selects one kofthe egress potsz 226a, 226b by looking up the dsiaondresin the select routiig table. Process 300 forwards the daa packet to the seected egress port (338)1 For example, theforwarn engi 222a frwards the -a packet the sected egress ports, Ref.erng to FIG, 4, in one example, a routing node 200' includes a processor 402, a volatile meoy404, a no-vaie emory, 4.06 (e.g., hard disk) and lthe user interIfawce (UI1) 408 (e,g, a grxsAhiCal user interfatce, a mouse, a keybhoard, a display, touch 15screen and s~o forthh)" T he non-vol'atie m-nemnory 406 stores cmpute intucin 41,a operating systems 416 and data 418 such as Cost fiunctions 422 and routing table 428. I'n One example, t"he computer instruction s 412 aeexecuted by the pro-,ce-ssor 402 ou-tt of volatile memory 404 to perfonon aill or Part of the process,,es de,-scrilbed herei (e.g., process 300)e 20 The- presses dcribed h-en (e.g,, prices 30) are not limited to usc witlthe hardware and software of FC], 4; they may find applica'"Obility inN N nn' C compung'or process ionmt and with any type of mahine or set ofb l m e that is capable of running acmpte program" Tlheprocesses, de"ie eenmybe ipeetdi hardware, sotwar, or a cmbination of 'he two. The processes described herein may be 25 implernnted in co(mputerk projgrams executed onpr'ogrammableI,- compuer/mchne that NNN''N't ''N'N"'N""C )'>N'"'"''''N"N +-- iN* lNN-N4"' NaA-Nf WO 2013/142282 PCT/US2013/031714 each inclds a k A~i' l n machine-eadab. medin or other of manufacturers' that is readable byt te processor (nldgvoaieand nnvltl maemory and,,/or storage eements), at least one input, device, aind one or more output devi.6ces. Programwn code mauy be appl,-ied to data e-nterued using an iptdevice to perlforma E any of the processes described herein andto generate outputif aton The system may be imaplemented, at least in part, via a cmue rga product, (e.g., in a nntastrmche-adbestorzage mredium such as, forw a ple, -a n -r execuion by, or to control the operation of, data processing apparatu (eSg, a progl p s a , 1U m'ultiple computer-s). Each suc'h Pprgram may be ipentdin a high level poeua or obec-oi programming an ae'to w lork with ithe rest of the compuAwtr-lbs ed systemc, H Iowever , the pwrograms may be implemented in assembly, machine langua ge, or Hardware Description Lan gage. T he language magy be a compiled orz an interpete language an it may be deployed-1 in an fonincludfin.g as a sadaoeprogramn or as a 15mdl,com-ponent, subroutine or other unit suiable fobr use in a compu ".ting evrnet. A compu k ,t er program mr4ia y b e decplIo yed to be execUte o'x.0 " n e compuk'ater or on multple coputers atonea site or distributed across m-ultiple sites, anditronce by a communication network A computer program may be stored on a non-tasor m r m uhat is redable by a genr a or special purpose p 2 coputer- for configuring and operati-ng thz optrwe th non-mrasitory machine readalek,- medium isrea by the,- computer to performn the processes described 'herein. For exmzple, th'e processes described herein m,~ay also be im plemnted aan-tnior mac1hine-readable-. storage medium, configured with a where upon execution, iin t'he computer program cause tne compute to opetrat in 2 accordanceN wi 'h the s Aediu ay i '''"',""N""'V ;''fb -'-~,Y 'N" 4'" ~N8~t but is not limited to a hard drive, compact disc, flash memory, non-volatile memory, volatile memory, magnetic diskette and so forth but does not include a transitory signal per se. The processes described herein are not limited to the specific examples described. 5 For example, the process 300 is not limited to the specific processing order of FIG. 3. Rather, any of the processing blocks of FIG. 3 may be re-ordered, combined or removed, performed in parallel or in serial, as necessary, to achieve the results set forth above. In some examples, multiple routing tables may be combined in to a single routing table. In these examples, value-to-route associations are incorporated (directly or 10 indirectly) into the combined routing table thereby enabling the appropriate route selection to be made. The processing blocks (for example, in the process 300) associated with implementing the system may be performed by one or more programmable processors executing one or more computer programs to perform the functions of the system. All or 15 part of the system may be implemented as, special purpose logic circuitry (e.g., an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) and/or an ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit)). All or part of the system may be implemented using electronic hardware circuitry that include electronic devices such as, for example, at least one of a processor, a memory, programmable logic devices or logic gates. 20 Elements of different embodiments described herein may be combined to form other embodiments not specifically set forth above. Other embodiments not specifically described herein are also within the scope of the following claims. Throughout this specification and the claims which follow, unless the context requires otherwise, the word "comprise", and variations such as "comprises" and 25 "comprising", will be understood to imply the inclusion of a stated integer or step or -9group of integers or steps but not the exclusion of any other integer or step or group of integers or steps. The reference in this specification to any prior publication (or information derived from it), or to any matter which is known, is not, and should not be taken as an 5 acknowledgment or admission or any form of suggestion that that prior publication (or information derived from it) or known matter forms part of the common general knowledge in the field of endeavour to which this specification relates. -9a-

Claims (19)

1. A method comprising: receiving a data packet at a routing node comprising a processor; 5 determining at least one value for the data packet; selecting a routing table from a plurality of routing tables stored at the routing node in response to the at least one value for the packet, each routing table associated with a respective one cost function; and forwarding the data packet in response to the routing table selected, 10 wherein each cost function is a function of respective parameters, comprising a utilization, a bandwidth, a latency and a bit error rate (BER), as weighted by a respective K-vector.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein receiving a data packet at a routing node 15 comprising a processor comprises receiving the data packet at the routing node from a first link, and wherein forwarding the data packet in response the value of the data packet comprises forwarding the data packet to a second link. 20
3. The method of claim 1, further comprising combining the plurality of routing tables into a combined table, the combined table incorporating value-to route associations, and wherein selecting a routing table from a plurality of routing tables comprises selecting the combined table. 25 -10-
4. The method of claim 1 wherein determining the at least one value of the data packet comprises determining at least one value located in a header of the data packet.
5. The method of claim 4 wherein determining at least one value located in a 5 header of the data packet comprises determining a Differentiated Services (DiffServ) code point (DSCP) value in the data packet.
6. The method of claim 4 wherein determining at least one value located in a header of the data packet comprises determining at least one of a port number value or 10 ID, or a source-destination pair value.
7. A routing node, comprising: electronic hardware circuitry configured to: receive a data packet at a routing node; 15 determine at least one value for the data packet; select a routing table from a plurality of routing tables stored at the routing node in response to the at least one value for the packet, each routing table associated with a respective one cost function; and forward the data packet in response to the routing table selected, 20 wherein each cost function is a function of respective parameters, comprising a utilization, a bandwidth, a latency and a bit error rate (BER), as weighted by a respective K-vector.
8. The apparatus of claim 7 wherein the circuitry comprises at least one of a 25 processor, a memory, a programmable logic device or a logic gate. -11-
9. The apparatus of claim 7 wherein the circuitry to receive a data packet at a routing node comprising a processor comprises circuitry to receive the data packet at the routing node from a first link, and 5 wherein the circuitry to forward the data packet in response the value of the data packet comprises circuitry to forward the data packet to a second link.
10. The apparatus of claim 7, further comprising circuitry to combine the plurality of routing tables into a combined table, the combined table incorporating value 10 to route associations, and wherein the circuitry to select a routing table from a plurality of routing tables comprises circuitry to select the combined table.
11. The apparatus of claim 7 wherein the circuitry to determine the at least one 15 value of the data packet comprises circuitry to determine at least one value located in a header of the data packet.
12. The apparatus of claim 11 wherein the circuitry to determine the at least one value located in a header of the data packet comprises circuitry to determine a 20 Differentiated Services (DiffServ) code point (DSCP) value in the data packet.
13. The apparatus of claim 11 wherein the circuitry to determine at least one value located in a header of the data packet comprises circuitry to determine at least one of a port number value or ID, or a source-destination pair value. 25 -12-
14. An article comprising: a non-transitory computer-readable medium that stores computer-executable instructions, the instructions causing a machine to: receive a data packet at a routing node; 5 determine at least one value for the data packet; select a routing table from a plurality of routing tables stored at the routing node in response to the at least one value for the packet, each routing table associated with a respective one cost function; and forward the data packet in response to the routing table selected, 10 wherein each cost function is a function of respective parameters, comprising a utilization, a bandwidth, a latency and a bit error rate (BER), as weighted by a respective K-vector.
15. The article of claim 14 wherein the instructions causing the machine to 15 receive a data packet at a routing node comprising a processor comprises instructions causing the machine to receive the data packet at the routing node from a first link, and wherein the instructions causing the machine to forward the data packet in response the value of the data packet comprises instructions causing the machine to forward the data packet to a second link. 20
16. The article of claim 14, further comprising instructions causing the machine to combine the plurality of routing tables into a combined table, the combined table incorporating value-to route associations, and -13- wherein the instructions causing the machine to select a routing table from a plurality of routing tables comprises instructions causing the machine to select the combined table. 5
17. The article of claim 14 wherein the instructions causing the machine to determine the at least one value of the data packet comprises instructions causing the machine to determine at least one value located in a header of the data packet.
18. The apparatus of claim 17 wherein the instructions causing the machine to 10 determine the at least one value located in a header of the data packet comprises instructions causing the machine to determine a Differentiated Services (DiffServ) code point (DSCP) value in the data packet.
19. The apparatus of claim 17 wherein the instructions causing the machine to 15 determine at least one value located in a header of the data packet comprises instructions causing the machine to determine at least one of a port number value or ID, or a source destination pair value. -14-
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