AU2013101531A4 - Deep softrock geostress test method and device based on flow stress recovery principle - Google Patents

Deep softrock geostress test method and device based on flow stress recovery principle Download PDF

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AU2013101531A4
AU2013101531A4 AU2013101531A AU2013101531A AU2013101531A4 AU 2013101531 A4 AU2013101531 A4 AU 2013101531A4 AU 2013101531 A AU2013101531 A AU 2013101531A AU 2013101531 A AU2013101531 A AU 2013101531A AU 2013101531 A4 AU2013101531 A4 AU 2013101531A4
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pressure
stress
geo
working
boxes
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AU2013101531A
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Chunsheng Guo
Jianwei Guo
Quansheng LIU
Xiujun WEI
Zhanbiao YANG
Chengyuan ZHANG
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CHINA PINGMEI SHENMA ENERGY CHEMICAL GROUP Co Ltd TECHNOLOGY CENTER
Wuhan Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics of CAS
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China Pingmei Shenma Energy Chemical Group Co Ltd Technology Center
Wuhan Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics of CAS
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Priority to CN201210096644.6 priority
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C39/00Devices for testing in situ the hardness or other properties of minerals, e.g. for giving information as to the selection of suitable mining tools
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01LMEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, OR FLUID PRESSURE
    • G01L1/00Measuring force or stress, in general
    • G01L1/10Measuring force or stress, in general by measuring variations of frequency of stressed vibrating elements, e.g. of stressed strings
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01LMEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, OR FLUID PRESSURE
    • G01L5/00Apparatus for, or methods of, measuring force, work, mechanical power, or torque, specially adapted for specific purposes
    • G01L5/0004Force transducers adapted for mounting in a bore of the force receiving structure
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01LMEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, OR FLUID PRESSURE
    • G01L5/00Apparatus for, or methods of, measuring force, work, mechanical power, or torque, specially adapted for specific purposes
    • G01L5/16Apparatus for, or methods of, measuring force, work, mechanical power, or torque, specially adapted for specific purposes for measuring several components of force
    • G01L5/161Apparatus for, or methods of, measuring force, work, mechanical power, or torque, specially adapted for specific purposes for measuring several components of force using variations in ohmic resistance
    • G01L5/1627Apparatus for, or methods of, measuring force, work, mechanical power, or torque, specially adapted for specific purposes for measuring several components of force using variations in ohmic resistance of strain gauges

Abstract

Abstract The invention discloses a method and a device for testing a geo-stress of a deep soft rock. The device comprises a connecting rod; two three-direction pressure boxes are adjacently fixed on the connecting rod; the three-direction pressure box is provided with three vertical working surfaces; a direction cosine of any two working surfaces among the two three-direction pressure boxes is not 1; a device for measuring a normal pressure stress is mounted on each working surface of the two three-direction pressure boxes; and the device is connected with a reading instrument outside a drilling hole through a data wire. The geo-stress testing method comprises the following steps of: sending the two three-direction pressure boxes to a test point after drilling; grouting the drilling hole and sealing the drilling hole after the drilling hole is entirely filled; and after grout is solidified, and substituting six pressure data measured by the two three-direction pressure boxes into a geo-stress testing principle formula after the data is stable, so asto obtain the geo-stress at the test position. With the adoption of the method, a stress value inside surrounding rocks can be directly observed, and observation data can be obtained for a long time. Therefore, the method and device provided by the invention are good for research on the geo-stress of soft rocks in a deep coal mine and the stability of a surrounding rock.

Description

- 1 Method and device for testing geo-stress in deep soft rock based on rheological stress restoration principle Description Technical Field [0001] The invention belongs to the technical field of rock soil measurement, especially to a method suitable for testing a geo-stress of a deep soft rock, as well as an observation device thereof Background Art [0002] Deep surrounding rocks of coal mines tend to be fragmentized and soft, i.e., low in mechanical strength. In the prior art, limitations and measurement errors exist in common methods for testing a geo-stress of the soft surrounding rocks, and effective testing is very difficult. Taking a hydraulic fracturing method, which is widely applied to hydropower and traffic tunnel engineering, as an example, a borehole packer thereof is required to possess excellent water tightness under high hydraulic pressure, wherein completeness of rocks is strictly required, and the hydraulic fracturing method is not suitable for fragmentized soft rocks developed in joint fractures in the deep coal mine. In addition, the hydraulic fracturing method can only determine the maximal principle stress and the minimal principle stress of a plane vertical to a borehole, which is basically a two-dimensional stress testing method, and has difficulty in obtaining a three-dimensional stress state of a test point. [0003] Another is a borehole relief method, in which it is necessary to determine mechanical parameters such as an elastic modulus E and a Poisson's ratio P as well as relationship between a tested physical quantity (strain) and the stress to calculate a stress value. However, the mechanical parameters as the elastic modulus E and the Poisson's ratio p of the soft rocks consisting of lots of fractures are closely related to stress state and size and shape of a rock specimen, wherein the obtained elastic modulus E and Poisson's ratio p may vary for several times due to difference in -2 stress states and sizes of rock specimens. When the borehole relief method is used to test the geo-stress, it is essential to get an integral rock core whose length is at least 30cm, greater than that of a sensor, and acquire the elastic modulus E of the obtained rock core in the stress state that compression of the outer thick wall of a cylinder is uniform. Mostly, short rock cores in the length of 10cm are hard to obtain due to the facts that the soft rocks in deep coal mines are usually argillaceous cements and bear high geo-stress, and current scour and stress decompression occur in the core obtaining process. Thus, the mechanical parameters are hard to obtain via a uniaxial compression test, and the stress relief method is difficult to implement in the soft rocks in the deep coal mines. According to other geo-stress testing methods for the rocks, as an acoustic emission method, not only can geo stress tests for the soft surrounding rocks be unsatisfied, but also in-situ stress cannot be obtained in principle. [0004] The prior art lacks effective testing methods and observation devices for the deep soft surrounding rocks of the coal mines. Existing direct measurement equipment mainly includes a pressure box applied to the soil body, such as a resistance strain pressure-axle type soil pressure box (application No.03212898) disclosed in the Chinese utility model which uses resistance stain gauges laid on a circular elastic film to record compressive deformation of the elastic film to measure pressure in the direction vertical to the film, and an inflatable double-film waterproof pressure box (application No. 201120082368.9) disclosed in the Chinese utility model in which a waterproof sealing ring is arranged between a stress transfer film and a stressed film to realize waterproof performance and stable pressure testing. However, said observation devices and methods can only measure pressure in a single direction instead of effectively testing the geo-stress in a certain point. Summary of the Invention [0005) The invention aims at providing a geo-stress testing method suitable for a soft rock. Via the method, inner stress values of the surrounding rock can be directly -3 measured, and observation data can be obtained for a long time; and thus the method can be used for research on geo-stress distribution and surrounding-rock stability for the deep soft rock of a coal mine. [0006] The method for testing the geo-stress in the deep soft rock based on a rheological stress restoration principle comprises the following steps that: 1) A hole is bored till a test point in a surrounding rock body of a soft rock tunnel; 2) Two three-direction pressure boxes are adjacently fixed on a connecting rod, and sent to the test point; each three-direction pressure box is provided with three working surfaces vertical to each other, and a direction cosine of any two working surfaces among the two three-direction pressure boxes in the normal direction is recorded and is not 1; and a normal pressure stress measuring device is mounted on each working surface of the two three-direction pressure boxes, and connected with a reading instrument outside the drilling hole through a data wire; 3) Grouting is carried out on the drilling hole, and the drilling hole is sealed after being entirely filled; and 4) After grout is solidified, pressure values are continually read from the reading instrument; and six pressure values measured by the two three-direction pressure boxes are substituted into a geo-stress testing principle formula after the values are stable, so as to obtain the geo-stress at the test point. [0007] Evolutional geo-stress data of the test point can be also obtained by implementing measurement for several times in a long term via the method. [0008] The direction cosine of any two working surfaces among the two three direction pressure boxes in the normal direction is not 1 means that normal directions of any two working surfaces among the two three-direction pressure boxes are not coincident or parallel. [0009] The invention also discloses a geo-stress testing device, which comprises the connecting rod and the two three-direction boxes adjacently fixed on the -4 connecting rod, wherein each three-direction pressure box is provided with three vertical working surfaces; the direction cosine of any two working surfaces among the two three-direction pressure boxes is not 1; and the device for measuring the normal pressure stress is mounted on each working face of the two three-direction pressure boxes, and connected with the reading instrument outside the drilling hole through the data wire. [0010] The normal pressure stress measuring device mounted on each working surface of the two three-direction pressure boxes can be any existing equipment in the field of rock soil measurement as provided in the background art, or a common vibrating string structure in the field of measuring instruments. The vibrating string structure comprises a steel elastic membrane positioned at the working surface, two steel columns fixed under the steel elastic membrane, a steel string fixed between the two columns, a coil sleeved on the steel string and a data wire connected with the coil. [0011] The normal pressure stress measuring device can be also a resistance strain structure, which comprises an elastic film positioned at the working surface and resistance strain gauges fixed in a central position under the elastic film, wherein the resistance strain gauges are connected with the reading instrument via a data wire. [0012] The two three-direction pressure boxes adjacently fixed on the connecting rod form a group of three-direction pressure boxes. Practically, multiple groups of three-direction pressure boxes can be connected through the connecting rod to simultaneously measure geo-stresses of multiple test points. [0013] Preferably, the connecting rod is hollow, and the data wire is connected with the reading instrument outside the drilling hole by passing through a cavity of the connecting rod. [0014] The geo-stress testing principle formula is described as: The two three-direction pressure boxes are respectively marked with A, B, a spatial coordinate system oxyz is established by taking normal directions of the -5 working surfaces of the three-direction pressure box A as directions of coordinate axes, and a spatial coordinate system ox y z is established by taking normal directions of the working surfaces of the three-direction pressure box B as directions of coordinate axes, as in Fig. 2. [0015] Normal pressure data measured by the three-direction pressure box A is set as ax , a, , o ; normal pressure data measured by the three-direction pressure box B is set as o, a' o ; 1. l2 %3 respectively represent direction cosines between x , y , z axes and x axis; m, , m 2 , n 3 respectively represent direction cosines between x', y', z axes and y axis; and n, , n2 n 3 respectively represent direction cosines between x y', z axes and z axis. Said given quantities are substituted into the following equations to establish an equation set, and geo-stress states o~,, o,, Uz, T,y, r,, z, ) under the coordinate system oxyz and ( ao ,, - , Y r , r ) under the coordinate system oxyz of the test point are solved and calculated, wherein r.,, T, rz, are shear stress components under the coordinate system oxyz, and r , , r are shear stress components under the coordinate system ox y z o = o-,l + Um2 + uon + 2r,l,m, + 2r m n + 2rn1,, I= + m+o + r I m22r mn2+2rn2i 3' ~ ~ 2 z22 z2 a2 =o- +2 m +2 n +2r ,1m 3 +2r imn 3 +2r ni z 3 3 xy 3 3 yz 3 3 x 313 r =g2-11 2 +umm + -znin 2 + T, +1 2 m,)+ r,(min 2 + m 2 n,) + r7(n2I, +n 2 1 ) r = OV2 3 +am 2 m 3 +-n 2 n 3 +r.,(l 2 m 3 +1 3 m 2 )+rz(m 2 n 3 +m 3 n 2 )+rz(n2l +n 3 1 2 ) r- = o/ 1 +o-,m 3 m 1 + on 3 n +r,( 1 3 m, +1Im 3 )+r+,(mAn, +m n)+, (nl 1 +n,1 3
)
-6 [0016] After the hole is bored in the soft rock, self-deformation of the soft rock tends to enclose the drilling hole under the effect of geo-stress. The three-direction pressure boxes are placed in the drilling hole, the grout is solidified, and inner pressure of the soft rock is transmitted to the working surfaces of the three-direction pressure boxes via the grout, so that inner pressure stress of the soft rock is measured. The grout can be prepared by concrete mortar. [0017] The method and device for testing the geo-stress in deep soft rock based on the rheological stress restoration principle have the advantages that 1) geo-stress value of a certain point in the deep soft rock can be directly tested, which is helpful for research on surrounding-rock stability; 2) the lead is connected with external equipment, so that the tested value can be obtained in real time, which provides convenience for in-situ application; and 3) stress monitoring of surrounding rocks can be carried out for a long term. Brief Description of the Drawing [0018] Fig. 1 shows structure of the soft rock geo-stress testing device. 1, a three-direction pressure box; 2, a three-direction pressure box; 3, a connecting rod; 4, a data wire; 5, a reading instrument [0019] Fig. 2 shows a coordinate system of the soft rock geo-stress testing method. [0020] Fig. 3 shows a vibrating string type pressure testing device of the three direction pressure box. 5, the reading instrument; 6, a steel column; 7, a steel string; 8, a coil; 9, an elastic membrane [0021] Fig. 4 shows a resistance strain type pressure testing device of the three direction pressure box. 5, the reading instrument; 10, an elastic film; 11, a resistance strain gauge Detailed Description [0022] The invention is further described in accordance with the drawings.
-7 [0023] The invention discloses a geo-stress testing device, which comprises a connecting rod (3) and two three-direction boxes (1, 2) adjacently fixed on the connecting rod (3), wherein each three-direction pressure box (1 or 2) is provided with three vertical working surfaces; the direction cosine of any two working surfaces among the two three-direction pressure boxes (1, 2) is not 1; and a normal pressure stress measuring device is mounted on each working surface of the two three direction pressure boxes, and connected with a reading instrument (5) outside the drilling hole through a data wire (4). [0024] A geo-stress testing method for a deep soft rock with application of said geo-stress testing device comprises the following steps that: 1) A hole is bored till a test point in a surrounding rock body of a soft rock tunnel; 2) The two three-direction pressure boxes are sent to the test point; 3) Grouting is carried out on the drilling hole, and the drilling hole is sealed after being entirely filled; and 4) After grout is solidified, pressure values are continually read from the reading instrument; and six pressure values measured by the two three-direction pressure boxes are substituted into a geo-stress testing principle formula after the values are stable, so as to obtain the geo-stress at the test point. [0025] The three-direction pressure box (1) and the three-direction pressure box (2) can be cuboid-shaped, and when each end surface is deformed due to pressure, the pressure applied to the end surface can be measured via the reading instrument (5). Embodiment 1 [0026] The three-direction pressure boxes (1, 2) are cubes, edges thereof are prepared by high-intensity steel materials, and an end surface thereof includes a deformable steel elastic membrane (9). As shown in Fig. 3, two steel columns (6) are fixed under the elastic membrane, i.e., at one inner side of one three-direction pressure boxes (1 or 2), a steel string (7) is fixed between the two columns (6), a coil -8 (8) is sleeved on the steel string (7), and a data wire (4) is connected with the coil (8). Said structure is a common vibrating string structure in the field of measuring instruments. When the elastic membrane (9) bends due to pressure, the columns (6) are driven to move, so that the steel string (7) is extended or shortened, and natural vibration frequency thereof is changed. A reading instrument (5) is a frequency meter, which obtains deformation value of the elastic membrane (9) via the natural vibration frequency of the steel string (7); and a pre-calibrated pressure-frequency data curve is compared to obtain pressure applied to end surface of the three direction pressure box. Embodiment 2 [0027] The three-direction pressure boxes (1, 2) are cubes, edges thereof are prepared by high-intensity steel materials, and an end surface thereof includes a deformable elastic film (10). As shown in Fig. 4, resistance strain gauges (11) are fixed under the elastic film (10) at a central position, i.e., at one inner side of one three-direction pressure boxes (1 or 2), and the resistance strain gauges (11) are connected with a reading instrument (5) via a data wire (4). The resistance strain gauge (11) is commonly known in the field of measuring instruments. When the elastic film (10) bends due to pressure, the resistance strain gauge (11) is extended or shortened, and resistance thereof is changed. The reading instrument (5) is a current meter which obtains deformation value of the elastic film (10) by measuring resistance of the resistance strain gauge (11); and pressure applied to end surface of the three-direction pressure box is obtained via a pre-calibrated data curve. Embodiment 3 [0028] Via the method of the invention, geo-stresses of three test points of the first mine of Pingdingshan are tested. Testing processes include that: a hole is bored as deep as about 10m in a side wall of a main tunnel, a connecting rod fixed with two three-direction pressure boxes are pushed to the bottom of the drilling hole, measuring parts of the three-direction pressure boxes consist of vibrating string type -9 pressure testing structures, and a lead is connected with a frequency meter outside the drilling hole by passing through the inner of the connecting rod. The drilling hole is sealed, and entirely filled with liquid concrete mortar graded as M25. After 24 hours, the injected liquid grout is solidified, and pressure values are read from the frequency meter every other hour; and when the values are stable about 12 hours later, six pressure values measured by the two three-direction pressure boxes are substituted into a geo-stress testing principle formula, and equations are solved, so as to obtain geo-stress states of the test points. Testing results of three test points of each of a -517 cross-hole maintenance tunnel and two tri-horizontal main transportation tunnels are shown in the following table, and a maximal principle stress, an intermediate principle stress and a minimal principle stress are obtained via a geo-stress formula (shear stress is 0). Measured Value (MPa) Mine Test Point Maximal Intermediate Minimal Principle Principle Principle Stress Stress Stress -517 Cross-Hole 1# 31.70 27.50 23.70 Tunnel Tri Horizontal Main 2# 29.81 22.91 21.63 Transporta tion Tunnel Tri Horizontal Main 3# 28.89 24.35 21.89 Transporta tion Tunnel

Claims (6)

1. A geo-stress testing method for a soft rock, which is characterized by comprising the following steps that: 1) A hole is bored till a test point in a surrounding rock body of a soft rock tunnel; 2) Two three-direction pressure boxes are adjacently fixed on a connecting rod, and sent to the test point; each three-direction pressure box is provided with three working surfaces vertical to each other, and a normal direction cosine of any two working surfaces among the two three-direction pressure boxes in the normal direction is recorded and is not 1; and a normal pressure stress measuring device is mounted on each working surface of the two three-direction pressure boxes, and connected with a reading instrument outside the drilling hole through a data wire; 3) Grouting is carried out on the drilling hole, and the drilling hole is sealed after being entirely filled; and 4) After grout is solidified, pressure values are continually read from the reading instrument; and six pressure values measured by the two three-direction pressure boxes are substituted into a geo-stress testing principle formula after the values are stable, so as to obtain the geo-stress at the test point.
2. A geo-stress testing method as claimed in Claim 1, characterized by grouting the drilling hole and using concrete mortar as grouting material.
3. A geo-stress testing device for the soft rock, comprising the connecting rod (3) and the two three-direction boxes (1, 2) adjacently fixed on the connecting rod (3), wherein each three-direction pressure box (1 or 2) is provided with three working surfaces vertical to each other; the direction cosine of any two working surfaces among the two three-direction pressure boxes (1, 2) is not 1; and the device for measuring the normal pressure stress is mounted on each working face of the two - 11 three-direction pressure boxes, and connected with the reading instrument (5) outside the drilling hole through the data wire (4).
4. A geo-stress testing device as claimed in Claim 3, characterized in that the normal pressure stress measuring device mounted on each working face of the two three-direction pressure boxes comprises a steel elastic membrane (9) positioned at the working surface, two steel columns (6) fixed under the steel elastic membrane, a steel string (7) fixed between the two columns, a coil (8) sleeved on the steel string and a data wire (4) connected with the coil (8).
5. A geo-stress testing device as claimed in Claim 3, characterized in that the normal pressure stress measuring device mounted on each working surface of the two three-direction pressure boxes comprises an elastic film (10) positioned at the working surface and resistance strain gauges (11) fixed in the a central position under the elastic film, and the resistance strain gauges (11) are connected with the reading instrument (5) via a data wire (4).
6. A geo-stress testing device as claimed in Claim 3, characterized in that the connecting rod (3) is hollow, and the data wire (4) is connected with the reading instrument (5) outside the drilling hole by passing through a cavity of the connecting rod (3).
AU2013101531A 2012-04-05 2013-05-16 Deep softrock geostress test method and device based on flow stress recovery principle Active AU2013101531A4 (en)

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CN102628716B (en) * 2012-04-05 2013-02-13 中国科学院武汉岩土力学研究所 Method and device for testing geo-stress in deep soft rock based on flow stress restoration principle
CN103510951A (en) * 2013-10-21 2014-01-15 中国科学院武汉岩土力学研究所 Method for locating and installing deep soft rock geostatic stress testing device
CN103513016B (en) * 2013-10-21 2015-11-11 武汉大学 Adopt the soft rock multi-measuring point detecting earth stress method of sensing post
CN103538140B (en) * 2013-10-21 2016-03-30 中国科学院武汉岩土力学研究所 The preparation method of crustal stress sensing post and device
CN103528718B (en) * 2013-10-21 2016-04-27 武汉大学 Adopt the soft rock multi-measuring point detecting earth stress method of connecting link
CN103674347B (en) * 2013-12-10 2016-01-20 太原理工大学 A kind of hollow soft elasticity inductor drilling hole stress sensor and detection method
CN104048787B (en) * 2014-06-27 2016-01-06 西南交通大学 A kind of stationary installation of horizontally disposed soil pressure cell
CN107144380A (en) * 2016-08-25 2017-09-08 中国科学院武汉岩土力学研究所 The dynamic testing method of country rock disturbance stress field during constructing tunnel
CN107271089B (en) * 2017-06-25 2018-05-29 中国科学院武汉岩土力学研究所 A kind of erecting device of flow stress restoring method geostress survey
CN107063525B (en) * 2017-06-25 2018-04-20 中国科学院武汉岩土力学研究所 A kind of fiber Bragg grating type six for deep soft rock stress measurement is to pressure sensor
CN107588876B (en) * 2017-09-09 2020-04-28 核工业柳州工程勘察院 Soft rock ground stress testing method for geotechnical exploration engineering
CN107643139B (en) * 2017-09-09 2020-09-18 吉安县裕兴科技有限公司 Exploration engineering soft rock ground stress testing device
CN107817069B (en) * 2017-09-23 2020-05-22 广东建瀚工程管理有限公司 Exploration engineering soft rock ground stress testing device

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