WO2013149599A1 - Deep softrock geostress test method and device based on flow stress recovery principle - Google Patents

Deep softrock geostress test method and device based on flow stress recovery principle Download PDF

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WO2013149599A1
WO2013149599A1 PCT/CN2013/075686 CN2013075686W WO2013149599A1 WO 2013149599 A1 WO2013149599 A1 WO 2013149599A1 CN 2013075686 W CN2013075686 W CN 2013075686W WO 2013149599 A1 WO2013149599 A1 WO 2013149599A1
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way pressure
stress
working
test
boxes
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PCT/CN2013/075686
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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刘泉声
卫修君
张程远
郭建伟
郭春生
杨战标
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中国科学院武汉岩土力学研究所
中国平煤神马能源化工集团有限责任公司技术中心
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Priority to CN2012100966446A priority Critical patent/CN102628716B/en
Priority to CN201210096644.6 priority
Application filed by 中国科学院武汉岩土力学研究所, 中国平煤神马能源化工集团有限责任公司技术中心 filed Critical 中国科学院武汉岩土力学研究所
Publication of WO2013149599A1 publication Critical patent/WO2013149599A1/en

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C39/00Devices for testing in situ the hardness or other properties of minerals, e.g. for giving information as to the selection of suitable mining tools
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01LMEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, OR FLUID PRESSURE
    • G01L1/00Measuring force or stress, in general
    • G01L1/10Measuring force or stress, in general by measuring variations of frequency of stressed vibrating elements, e.g. of stressed strings
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01LMEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, OR FLUID PRESSURE
    • G01L5/00Apparatus for, or methods of, measuring force, work, mechanical power, or torque, specially adapted for specific purposes
    • G01L5/0004Force transducers adapted for mounting in a bore of the force receiving structure
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01LMEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, OR FLUID PRESSURE
    • G01L5/00Apparatus for, or methods of, measuring force, work, mechanical power, or torque, specially adapted for specific purposes
    • G01L5/16Apparatus for, or methods of, measuring force, work, mechanical power, or torque, specially adapted for specific purposes for measuring several components of force
    • G01L5/161Apparatus for, or methods of, measuring force, work, mechanical power, or torque, specially adapted for specific purposes for measuring several components of force using variations in ohmic resistance
    • G01L5/1627Apparatus for, or methods of, measuring force, work, mechanical power, or torque, specially adapted for specific purposes for measuring several components of force using variations in ohmic resistance of strain gauges

Abstract

A deep softrock geostress test method and device. The test device comprises a connecting rod (3), and two three-directional pressure boxes (1, 2) adjacently fixed on the connecting rod (3); the three-directional pressure boxes (1, 2) are provided with three mutually perpendicular working faces, the direction cosine between any two working faces of the two three-directional pressure boxes (1, 2) not equaling to 1; a normal pressure stress test device is installed on each working face of the two three-directional pressure boxes (1, 2); and the device is connected to a readout unit (5) outside a drilled hole via a data wire. The geostress measuring method comprises: drilling a hole and conveying the two three-directional pressure boxes (1, 2) to a test site; grouting the drilled hole and sealing the drilled hole after being fully grouted; and after the slurry is solidified and the data is stable, substituting the six pressure data measured by the two three-directional pressure boxes (1, 2) into a geostress test principle formula, so as to obtain the geostress at the test site. The present method can directly observe the stress value inside a surrounding rock, and can acquire the observation data over an extended period of time, thus facilitating study on the stability of the surrounding rock and the geostress of a softrock in the depth of a coal mine.

Description

基于流变应力恢复原理的深部软岩地应力测试方法和装置 技术领域  Deep soft rock ground stress testing method and device based on flow stress recovery principle
本发明属于岩土测量技术领域,具体地涉及一种适用于深部软岩的地应力 测试方法, 同时还涉及一种用于该测试方法的观测装置。 背景技术  The invention belongs to the technical field of geotechnical measurement, in particular to a method for testing ground stress suitable for deep soft rock, and also relates to an observation device for the test method. Background technique
煤矿深部围岩大多破碎软弱, 力学强度低。 在这样的松软围岩中采用目前 常用的测试方法进行地应力的有效测试是非常困难的,存在很大的局限性和测 量误差。 以水利水电和交通隧道工程中广泛采用的水压致裂法为例, 其钻孔封 隔器需要在高水压下具备良好的水密封性, 对岩体的完整性提出了苛刻的要 求, 不适用于煤矿深部节理裂隙发育的破碎软弱岩体。而且该方法只能确定垂 直于钻孔平面内的最大主应力和最小主应力,本质上为二维应力测量方法,难 以获得测点的三向应力状态。  Most of the surrounding rock in the coal mine is broken and weak, and the mechanical strength is low. It is very difficult to effectively test the ground stress using such commonly used test methods in such soft surrounding rock, which has great limitations and measurement errors. Taking the hydraulic fracturing method widely used in water conservancy and hydropower and traffic tunnel engineering as an example, the drilling packer needs to have good water sealing under high water pressure, and imposes stringent requirements on the integrity of the rock mass. It is not suitable for the broken soft rock mass developed by deep joints and fissures in coal mines. Moreover, the method can only determine the maximum principal stress and the minimum principal stress perpendicular to the plane of the borehole. In essence, it is a two-dimensional stress measurement method, and it is difficult to obtain the three-direction stress state of the measuring point.
另一种常用测试方法为应力解除法。 为了计算应力值, 首先必须确定岩体 的力学性质参数 (如弹性模量 E 和泊松比 μ等) 以及所测物理量 (应变) 和 应力的相互关系。 对含有大量裂隙的松软岩体而言, 其弹性模量 Ε、 泊松比 μ 等力学性质参数与岩体所受的应力状态、岩体试件大小及形状密切相关, 不同 的应力状态、 不同大小的岩体试件, 试验得出的弹性模量 Ε和泊松比 μ的数 值可相差数倍甚至十倍以上。这就要求采用应力解除法测试地应力时,必须取 得超过传感器长度 (至少大于 30cm) 的完整岩芯, 和厚壁圆筒外壁均匀受压 的应力状态下获取岩芯的弹性模量。煤矿深部松软岩体多为泥质胶结,经受了 高地应力的作用, 取芯过程中受水流冲刷和应力强卸荷作用,多数情况下连长 度达到 10cm的短岩芯也难以获取,因而很难通过单轴压缩实验得到力学参数。 因此,在煤矿深部松软围岩中应力解除法难以实施。其他的岩体地应力测试方 法, 比如声发射法等, 不仅无法胜任松软围岩的地应力测试, 而且从原理上讲 无法测得原岩应力。  Another common test method is the stress relieving method. In order to calculate the stress value, it is first necessary to determine the mechanical properties of the rock mass (such as elastic modulus E and Poisson's ratio μ) and the relationship between the measured physical quantity (strain) and stress. For soft rock masses with a large number of cracks, the mechanical properties such as elastic modulus 泊 and Poisson's ratio μ are closely related to the stress state of the rock mass and the size and shape of the rock specimen. Different stress states and different For rock specimens of different sizes, the values of elastic modulus 泊 and Poisson's ratio μ obtained by the test may differ by several times or even ten times. This requires that when using the stress-relief method to test the in-situ stress, it is necessary to obtain a complete core that exceeds the length of the sensor (at least greater than 30 cm), and the elastic modulus of the core is obtained under stress conditions in which the outer wall of the thick-walled cylinder is uniformly pressed. The deep soft rock mass in the deep coal mine is mostly muddy cemented and subjected to high geostress. During the coring process, it is washed by water flow and unloaded by stress. In most cases, short cores with a length of 10 cm are difficult to obtain, which is difficult. Mechanical parameters were obtained by uniaxial compression experiments. Therefore, it is difficult to implement the stress relieving method in the soft surrounding rock of the deep coal mine. Other rock mass in situ stress testing methods, such as acoustic emission methods, are not only incapable of testing the in-situ stress of soft surrounding rock, and in principle cannot measure the original rock stress.
目前尚未见到公开的能在煤矿深部松散围岩中进行有效测试的观测方法 与装置。 已有的直接测量设备主要是应用在土体中的压力盒, 比如中国实用新 型专利 (申请号 03212896 ) 公开的一种电阻应变压轴式土压力盒, 利用环形 弹性膜片敷有的电阻应变片记录弹性膜片的受压变形,达到测量垂直于膜片方 向压力的目的。 中国实用新型专利(申请号 201120082368.9)公开的一种冲气 式双膜防水压力盒,在压力的传力膜与受力膜之间设置防水密封圈,达到防水、 稳定测试压力的目的。这些观测装置和方法仅仅可以测量单方向的压力, 因此 均不能有效测试某一测点的地应力。 发明内容 At present, there are no publicly available observation methods and devices that can effectively test in the loose surrounding rock of deep coal mines. The existing direct measuring equipment is mainly used in a pressure box in a soil, such as a resistance strained shaft type earth pressure box disclosed in the Chinese utility model patent (Application No. 03212896), which utilizes a ring. The strain gauges coated on the elastic diaphragm record the compression deformation of the elastic diaphragm to achieve the purpose of measuring the pressure perpendicular to the diaphragm direction. A utility model patent (Application No. 201120082368.9) discloses an air-type double-film waterproof pressure box, which is provided with a waterproof sealing ring between the pressure transmitting film and the force-receiving film to achieve the purpose of waterproofing and stabilizing the testing pressure. These observation devices and methods can only measure the pressure in one direction, and therefore cannot effectively test the ground stress of a certain measurement point. Summary of the invention
本发明所要解决的技术问题在于提供了一种适用于软岩的地应力测量方 法。通过该方法, 可以直接测量获取围岩内部的应力值, 并可长期获取观测数 据, 用于煤矿深部软岩地应力分布和围岩稳定性的研究。 一种基于流变应力恢复原理的深部软岩地应力测试方法, 包括以下步骤: The technical problem to be solved by the present invention is to provide a method for measuring the in-situ stress suitable for soft rock. Through this method, the stress value inside the surrounding rock can be directly measured, and the observation data can be obtained for a long time, which is used for the study of the stress distribution and surrounding rock stability of the soft rock in the deep coal mine. A deep soft rock ground stress test method based on the principle of flow stress recovery, comprising the following steps:
( 1 ) 在软岩巷道围岩体内钻孔至测试点处; (1) drilling holes in the surrounding rock of soft rock roadway to the test point;
(2)将两个三向压力盒相邻地固定在连接杆上,送到测试点处; 所述三向压 力盒具有互相垂直的三个工作面,记录下两个三向压力盒之间任意两个工作面 法线方向之间的方向余弦, 并且该值都不得为 1 ; 两个三向压力盒每个工作面 上安装有测量法向压应力的装置, 该装置通过数据线和钻孔外的读数仪连接; (2) Fixing the two three-way pressure boxes adjacently on the connecting rod and sending them to the test point; the three-way pressure box has three working faces perpendicular to each other, and recording between the three three-way pressure boxes The cosine of the direction between the normal directions of any two working faces, and the value must not be 1; two three-way pressure boxes are equipped with a device for measuring normal compressive stress on each working surface, the device passes the data line and the drill a reader outside the hole is connected;
(3 ) 对钻孔实施注浆, 填满后将钻孔封口; (3) grouting the borehole and sealing the borehole after filling;
(4)浆液凝固后, 从读数仪上不断读取压力值, 待数据稳定后, 把两个三 向压力盒所测六个压力数据代入地应力测试原理公式中,得出该测试点处的地 应力。  (4) After the slurry solidifies, the pressure value is continuously read from the reader. After the data is stabilized, the six pressure data measured by the two three-way pressure boxes are substituted into the ground stress test principle formula, and the test point is obtained. Ground stress.
采过上述方法长时间内实施多次测量, 就可以得到该测试点的地应力演化 数据。  The above-mentioned method is used to perform multiple measurements for a long time, and the ground stress evolution data of the test point can be obtained.
上面所述的两个三向压力盒之间任两个工作面的方向余弦都不得为 1, 是 指两个三向压力盒之间任两个工作面的法线方向都不重合, 或者说不平行。  The direction cosine of any two working faces between the two three-way pressure boxes mentioned above shall not be 1, which means that the normal directions of any two working faces between the two three-way pressure boxes are not coincident, or Not parallel.
本发明实质上还提供了一种地应力测量装置, 包括连接杆, 两个三向压力 盒相邻地固定在连接杆上; 所述三向压力盒具有互相垂直的三个工作面, 两个 三向压力盒之间任意两个工作面的方向余弦都不为 1 ; 两个三向压力盒每个工 作面上安装有测量法向压应力的装置,该装置通过数据线和钻孔外的读数仪连 接。  The invention also substantially provides an in-situ stress measuring device, comprising a connecting rod, two three-way pressure boxes are fixed adjacent to the connecting rod; the three-way pressure box has three working faces perpendicular to each other, two The direction cosine of any two working faces between the three-way pressure boxes is not 1; two working devices on the three three-way pressure box are equipped with a device for measuring normal compressive stress, which passes through the data line and the outside of the borehole. The reader is connected.
两个三向压力盒每个工作面上安装的测量法向压应力的装置, 可以采用任 何一种本领域已知的设备, 比如背景技术所提供的, 还可以为测量仪器领域中 共知的振弦式结构,包括位于工作面的钢制弹性膜片,钢制弹性膜片下面固定 有两个钢制柱体, 两个柱体之间固定有钢弦, 钢弦上套有线圈, 线圈连接数据 线。  The apparatus for measuring the normal compressive stress installed on each working surface of the two three-way pressure boxes may be any equipment known in the art, such as those provided by the background art, and may also be a well-known vibration in the field of measuring instruments. The string structure comprises a steel elastic diaphragm on the working surface, two steel cylinders are fixed under the steel elastic diaphragm, a steel string is fixed between the two cylinders, a coil is arranged on the steel string, and the coil is connected Data line.
还可以为电阻应变式结构。 包括位于工作面的弹性膜片, 弹性膜片下面中 央固定有电阻应变片, 电阻应变片通过数据线与读数仪相连。 It can also be a resistance strain type structure. Including the elastic diaphragm on the working surface, under the elastic diaphragm The central fixed fixed strain gauge, and the strain gauge is connected to the reader through the data line.
上面提到两个三向压力盒相邻地固定在连接杆上, 这两个三向压力盒为一 组三向压力盒。实际上连接杆上还可以连接多组三向压力盒,这样可以同时给 多个测试点测量地应力。  It is mentioned above that two three-way pressure boxes are adjacently fixed to the connecting rods, and the two three-way pressure boxes are a set of three-way pressure boxes. In fact, multiple sets of three-way pressure boxes can be connected to the connecting rod, so that the ground stress can be measured for multiple test points at the same time.
作为一种优选, 所述连接杆可以为空心的, 所述的数据线经由连接杆的空 腔和钻孔外的读数仪连接。 地应力测试原理公式描述如下:  Preferably, the connecting rod may be hollow, and the data line is connected via a cavity of the connecting rod and a reader outside the bore. The principle of the ground stress test principle is described as follows:
两个三向压力盒分别记为 A、 B, 以三向压力盒 A工作面法向方向为坐 标轴方向建立空间坐标系 ojc ; 以三向压力盒 B工作面法向方向为坐标轴方 向建立空间坐标系 oxj , 如图 2所示。  The two three-way pressure boxes are respectively recorded as A and B, and the space coordinate system ojc is established in the normal direction of the working direction of the three-way pressure box A; the normal direction of the three-way pressure box B working surface is established as the coordinate axis direction. The space coordinate system oxj is shown in Figure 2.
三向压力盒 A所测法向压力数据设为 σχ、 σγ, σζ; 三向压力盒 Β所测法 向压力数据设为 σ;;、 σ;、 σζ' -, 并设 Α、 /2、 /3分别为 x'、 y ζ'轴与 x轴之间的 方向余弦; 》 m23分别为 x、 y z轴与 _y轴之间的方向余弦; 、 n2、 n3 分别为 x、 y z'轴与 z轴之间的方向余弦。 将上述已知量代入下式, 建立方 程组 , 求解计算得到测试 点 处 坐标系 下 的地应力状态 ( σχγζχγγζζχ ) , 禾 Π oxyz 坐 标 系 下 的 地 应 力 状 态 ( σ ,σ^σ,,τ^,τ^τ 其中, τ 、 τ 、 τζχ为坐标系 ox_yz下的剪切应力分量, 、 、 ^为坐标系 ox_y 下的剪切应力分量。 The normal pressure data measured by the three-way pressure box A is set to σ χ , σ γ , σ ζ ; the normal pressure data measured by the three-way pressure box 设为 is set to σ;; σ; σ ζ ' -, and is set , / 2 , / 3 are the cosines of the direction between x', y ζ 'axis and the x-axis; 》 m 2 and 3 are the cosines of the direction between x, yz and _y, respectively; n 2 , n 3 is the cosine of the direction between the x, y z' axis and the z axis, respectively. The above-described known amount into the following equation, to establish equations, solving the calculated stress state (σ χ, σ γ, σ ζ, τ χγ, τ γζ, τ ζχ) at the test point coordinates, Wo Π oxyz coordinates In-situ stress state ( σ , σ ^ σ , , τ ^ , τ ^ τ where τ , τ , τ ζχ are the shear stress components under the coordinate system ox_yz , , , ^ is the shear under the coordinate system ox_y Stress component.
+ 2τζχη212 σζ
Figure imgf000005_0001
+ 2τζ ι313
+ 2τ ζχ η 2 1 2 σ ζ
Figure imgf000005_0001
+ 2τ ζ ι 3 1 3
= a σ ymxm1 + σ +Txy(lxm2 +l2n ) +Tyz(mln2 + m2nx) +τζχλ1221λ) - χ/2/3 + oym2m3ζ"2"3 + (l2m3 +l3m2) +T}Z(m2n3 +m3n2) +Tzx("2/3 +"3/2) τζ -
Figure imgf000005_0002
+Tz_r("3/1 + "!/3) 软岩岩体在钻孔后,在地应力的作用下有倾向于通过自身变形封闭钻孔的 现象。钻孔中放入三向压力盒, 注浆凝固后, 软岩岩体内部的压力通过注浆材 料传递到三向压力盒工作面上,使得软岩岩体内部压应力的测量得以实现。注 浆材料可以采用混凝土砂浆。
= a σ y m x m 1 + σ + T xy (l x m 2 + l 2 n ) + T yz (m l n 2 + m 2 n x ) + τ ζχλ 1 2 + η 2 1 λ ) - χ / 2 / 3 + o y m 2 m 3 + σ ζ " 2 " 3 + (l 2 m 3 + l 3 m 2 ) + T } Z (m 2 n 3 + m 3 n 2 ) + T Zx (" 2 / 3 +" 3 / 2 ) τ ζ -
Figure imgf000005_0002
+T z _ r (" 3 / 1 + "!/ 3 ) After drilling, the soft rock mass tends to close the borehole by its own deformation under the action of ground stress. A three-way pressure box is placed in the borehole. After the grouting is solidified, the pressure inside the soft rock mass is transferred to the working surface of the three-way pressure box through the grouting material, so that the measurement of the internal compressive stress of the soft rock mass is realized. The grouting material can be made of concrete mortar.
本发明具有以下的优点和有益效果: ①可直接测量深部软岩中某一测试点 的地应力值,有利于围岩稳定性的研究; ②由于采用了导线外接测量, 可以方 便实时地获取测量值, 易于现场实施。 ③可以进行长期的围岩应力监测。 附图说明 The invention has the following advantages and beneficial effects: 1 It can directly measure the ground stress value of a certain test point in deep soft rock, which is beneficial to the study of surrounding rock stability; 2 Because the external measurement of the wire is adopted, the measurement can be conveniently obtained in real time. Value, easy to implement on site. 3 Long-term monitoring of surrounding rock stress can be carried out. DRAWINGS
图 1 为软岩地应力测量装置结构示意图, Figure 1 is a schematic view showing the structure of a soft rock ground stress measuring device.
1-三向压力盒, 2-三向压力盒, 3-连接杆, 4-数据线, 5-读数仪。  1-3-way pressure box, 2-way pressure box, 3-connector, 4-data line, 5-reader.
图 2 为软岩地应力测量方法的坐标系示意图。 Figure 2 is a schematic diagram of the coordinate system of the soft rock ground stress measurement method.
图 3 为三向压力盒振弦式压力测试装置示意图, Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of a three-way pressure box vibrating wire pressure test device,
5-读数仪, 6-钢柱体, 7-钢弦, 8-线圈, 9-弹性膜片。  5-reader, 6-steel cylinder, 7-steel string, 8-coil, 9-elastic diaphragm.
图 4 为三向压力盒电阻应变式压力测试装置示意图, Figure 4 is a schematic diagram of a three-way pressure box resistance strain type pressure test device,
5-读数仪, 10-弹性膜片, 11-电阻应变片。 具体实施方式  5-reader, 10-elastic diaphragm, 11-resistance strain gauge. detailed description
下面结合附图对本发明作进一步详细的说明。  The invention will now be described in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.
本发明公开了一种地应力测量装置, 包括连接杆 3, 两个三向压力盒 1,2 相邻地固定在连接杆 3上; 所述三向压力盒 1,2具有互相垂直的三个工作面, 两个三向压力盒之间任意两个工作面的方向余弦都不为 1 ; 两个三向压力盒每 个工作面上安装有测量法向压应力的装置,该装置通过数据线 4和钻孔外的读 数仪 5连接。  The invention discloses an in-situ stress measuring device, comprising a connecting rod 3, two three-way pressure boxes 1, 2 are fixed adjacent to the connecting rod 3; the three-way pressure boxes 1, 2 have three perpendicular to each other Working face, the direction cosine of any two working faces between two three-way pressure boxes is not 1; two three-way pressure boxes are equipped with devices for measuring normal compressive stress on each working surface, the device passes the data line 4 Connect to the reader 5 outside the borehole.
应用上述装置进行软岩的地应力测试方法, 包括以下步骤:  The method for testing the in-situ stress of soft rock using the above device includes the following steps:
( 1 ) 在软岩巷道围岩体内钻孔至测试点处;  (1) drilling holes in the surrounding rock of soft rock roadway to the test point;
(2) 将两个三向压力盒送到测试点处;  (2) Send two three-way pressure boxes to the test point;
( 3 ) 对钻孔实施注浆, 填满后将钻孔封口;  (3) grouting the borehole and sealing the borehole after filling;
(4)浆液凝固后, 从读数仪上不断读取压力值, 待数据稳定后, 把两个三 向压力盒所测六个压力数据代入地应力测试原理公式中,得出该测试点处的地 应力。  (4) After the slurry solidifies, the pressure value is continuously read from the reader. After the data is stabilized, the six pressure data measured by the two three-way pressure boxes are substituted into the ground stress test principle formula, and the test point is obtained. Ground stress.
三向压力盒 1和三向压力盒 2形状可以为长方体, 每个端面受压变形时, 可以通过读数仪 5测量外界施加在端面的压力。  The three-way pressure box 1 and the three-way pressure box 2 may be in the shape of a rectangular parallelepiped, and each of the end faces may be subjected to pressure deformation, and the pressure applied to the end faces by the external measuring device 5 may be measured.
实施例 1, 三向压力盒 1, 2为正方体, 其边棱为高强度的钢材制成, 端面 为可以变形的钢制弹性膜片 9, 如图 3所示, 弹性膜片 9下面(即三向压力盒 1,2内部一侧) 固定有两个钢柱体 6, 两个钢柱体 6之间固定有钢弦 7, 钢弦 7 上套有线圈 8, 线圈 8连接导线 4。导线 4与读数仪 5相连。 所述结构为测量 仪器领域中共知的振弦式结构, 当弹性膜片 9 受到压力弯曲时, 带动柱体 6 位移, 使得钢弦 7伸长或者缩短, 改变其自振频率。 读数仪 5为频率计, 通过 测量钢弦 7的自振频率,得到弹性膜片 9的变形量值, 从而通过对比事先标定 的压力-频率数据曲线, 得到施加在三向压力盒端面上的压力。  Embodiment 1, the three-way pressure box 1, 2 is a square body, the edge is made of high-strength steel, and the end surface is a deformable steel elastic diaphragm 9, as shown in FIG. 3, below the elastic diaphragm 9 (ie, The inner side of the three-way pressure box 1, 2 is fixed with two steel cylinders 6, a steel string 7 is fixed between the two steel cylinders 6, a coil 8 is sleeved on the steel string 7, and the coil 8 is connected to the wire 4. Wire 4 is connected to reader 5. The structure is a vibrating wire structure well known in the field of measuring instruments. When the elastic diaphragm 9 is subjected to pressure bending, the column 6 is displaced, so that the steel string 7 is elongated or shortened, and the natural frequency is changed. The reader 5 is a frequency meter. By measuring the natural frequency of the steel string 7, the deformation amount of the elastic diaphragm 9 is obtained, thereby obtaining the pressure applied to the end face of the three-way pressure box by comparing the previously-calibrated pressure-frequency data curve. .
实施例 2, 三向压力盒 1 ,2为正方体, 其边棱为高强度的钢材制成, 端面 为可以变形的弹性膜片 10, 如图 4所示, 弹性膜片 10下面 (即三向压力盒 1 内部一侧) 中央固定有电阻应变片 11。 电阻应变片 11通过数据线 4与读数仪 5相连。 所述电阻应变片 11 为测量仪器领域中共知, 当弹性膜片 10受到压 力弯曲时, 使得电阻应变片 11伸长或者缩短, 改变其电阻。 读数仪 5为电流 计, 通过测量电阻应变片 11的电阻, 得到弹性膜片 10的变形量值, 从而通过 事先标定的数据曲线, 计算得到施加在三向压力盒端面上的压力。 Embodiment 2, the three-way pressure boxes 1 and 2 are square bodies, and the edges thereof are made of high-strength steel, and the end faces are As the deformable elastic diaphragm 10, as shown in Fig. 4, a resistive strain gauge 11 is fixed at the center of the elastic diaphragm 10 (i.e., the inner side of the three-way pressure cell 1). The strain gauge 11 is connected to the reader 5 via a data line 4. The strain gauge 11 is well known in the art of measuring instruments. When the elastic diaphragm 10 is subjected to pressure bending, the strain gauge 11 is elongated or shortened to change its electrical resistance. The reader 5 is an ammeter. By measuring the resistance of the strain gauge 11, the deformation amount of the elastic diaphragm 10 is obtained, and the pressure applied to the end face of the three-way pressure cell is calculated by a previously calibrated data curve.
实施例 3, 利用本发明方法在平顶山一矿实施的三个测点地应力测试。 测 试的过程为: 在主巷道边墙处钻孔至约 10米深, 把固定有两个三向应力盒的 连接杆推至钻孔的孔底,三向压力盒测量部分采用振弦式压力测试结构, 导线 通过连接杆内部连接到钻孔外的频率计上。 对钻孔封口并对其注满标号 M25 的混凝土砂浆液。 24小时以后, 所注浆液凝固, 从频率计上每隔 1 小时读取 一次压力值, 约 12小时数据稳定后, 把两个三向压力盒所测得的六个压力数 据代入地应力测试原理公式中, 方程求解,得出该测试点处的地应力状态。在 -517石门维修巷道和三水平主运输巷实施的三个测试点测量结果见下表, 通过 地应力计算公式,得到最大主应力、中间主应力和最小主应力(剪切应力为 0)。  Example 3: Three geodesic stress tests performed at the Pingdingshan No. 1 Mine using the method of the present invention. The test process is as follows: Drill holes to the side wall of the main roadway to a depth of about 10 meters, push the connecting rods with two three-direction stress boxes to the bottom of the hole, and the vibrating wire pressure is used for the measurement part of the three-way pressure box. To test the structure, the wires are connected to the frequency meter outside the borehole through the inside of the connecting rod. Seal the hole and fill it with the concrete mortar of M25. After 24 hours, the grouted slurry solidified, and the pressure value was read every 1 hour from the frequency meter. After the data was stabilized for about 12 hours, the six pressure data measured by the two three-way pressure boxes were substituted into the ground stress test. In the principle formula, the equation is solved to obtain the state of the ground stress at the test point. The test results of the three test points implemented in the -517 Shimen maintenance roadway and the three-level main transportation lane are shown in the following table. The maximum principal stress, intermediate principal stress and minimum principal stress (shear stress is 0) are obtained by the ground stress calculation formula.
实测值 (MPa)  Measured value (MPa)
矿区 测点号  Mining area
最大主应力 中间主应力 最小主应力 Maximum principal stress intermediate principal stress minimum principal stress
-517石门 1# 31.70 27.50 23.70 -517石门 1# 31.70 27.50 23.70
巷道  Roadway
三水平主 2# 29.81 22.91 21.63 运输巷  Three horizontal main 2# 29.81 22.91 21.63 transport lane
三水平主 3# 28.89 24.35 21.89 运输巷  Three horizontal main 3# 28.89 24.35 21.89 transport lane

Claims

权 利 要 求 书 Claim
1、 一种软岩的地应力测量方法, 其特征在于, 包括以下步骤: A method for measuring the in-situ stress of a soft rock, comprising the steps of:
( 1 ) 在软岩巷道围岩体内钻孔至测试点处;  (1) drilling holes in the surrounding rock of soft rock roadway to the test point;
(2)将两个三向压力盒相邻地固定在连接杆上,送到测试点处; 所述三向压 力盒具有互相垂直的三个工作面,记录下两个三向压力盒之间任意两个工作面 法线方向之间的方向余弦, 并且该值都不得为 1 ; 两个三向压力盒每个工作面 上安装有测量法向压应力的装置, 该装置通过数据线和钻孔外的读数仪连接;  (2) Fixing the two three-way pressure boxes adjacently on the connecting rod and sending them to the test point; the three-way pressure box has three working faces perpendicular to each other, and recording between the three three-way pressure boxes The cosine of the direction between the normal directions of any two working faces, and the value must not be 1; two three-way pressure boxes are equipped with a device for measuring normal compressive stress on each working surface, the device passes the data line and the drill a reader outside the hole is connected;
(3 ) 对钻孔实施注浆, 填满后将钻孔封口;  (3) grouting the borehole and sealing the borehole after filling;
(4)浆液凝固后, 从读数仪上不断读取压力值, 待数据稳定后, 把两个三 向压力盒所测六个压力数据代入地应力测试原理公式中,得出该测试点处的地 应力。  (4) After the slurry solidifies, the pressure value is continuously read from the reader. After the data is stabilized, the six pressure data measured by the two three-way pressure boxes are substituted into the ground stress test principle formula, and the test point is obtained. Ground stress.
2、根据权利要求 1所述的地应力测量方法,其特征在于,对钻孔实施注浆, 注浆材料采用混凝土砂浆。  2. The method of measuring ground stress according to claim 1, wherein the borehole is grouted, and the grouting material is made of concrete mortar.
3、 一种软岩地应力测量装置, 包括连接杆 (3 ), 两个三向压力盒 (1,2) 相邻地固定在连接杆 (3 )上; 所述三向压力盒(1,2 ) 具有互相垂直的三个工 作面, 两个三向压力盒之间任意两个工作面的方向余弦都不为 1 ; 两个三向压 力盒 (1,2 ) 每个工作面上安装有测量法线方向压应力的装置, 该装置通过数 据线 (4) 和钻孔外的读数仪 (5 ) 连接。  3. A soft rock in-situ stress measuring device comprising a connecting rod (3), two three-way pressure boxes (1, 2) being fixed adjacent to the connecting rod (3); the three-way pressure box (1, 2) There are three working faces perpendicular to each other. The direction cosine of any two working faces between the two three-way pressure boxes is not 1. Two three-way pressure boxes (1, 2) are installed on each working surface. A device for compressive stress in the normal direction, which is connected via a data line (4) to a reader (5) outside the borehole.
4、 根据权利要求 3所述的装置, 其特征在于, 两个三向压力盒每个工作 面上安装的测量法线方向压应力的装置,包括位于工作面的钢制弹性膜片(9), 钢制弹性膜片 (9 ) 下面固定有两个钢柱体 (6), 两个钢柱体之间固定有钢弦 4. The device according to claim 3, characterized in that the device for measuring the normal direction compressive stress on each working surface of the two three-way pressure boxes comprises a steel elastic diaphragm (9) on the working surface. , steel elastic diaphragm (9) is fixed with two steel cylinders (6), and steel strings are fixed between the two steel cylinders
(7), 钢弦 (7) 上套有线圈 (8), 线圈 (8 ) 连接数据线 (4 )。 (7), the steel string (7) is provided with a coil (8), and the coil (8) is connected to the data line (4).
5、 根据权利要求 3所述的装置, 其特征在于, 两个三向压力盒每个工作 面上安装的测量法线方向压应力的装置, 包括位于工作面的弹性膜片 (10), 弹性膜片 (10) 下面中央固定有电阻应变片 (11 ), 电阻应变片 (11 ) 通过数 据线 (4) 与读数仪 (5 ) 相连。  5. Apparatus according to claim 3, characterized in that the means for measuring the normal direction compressive stress mounted on each working surface of the two three-way pressure boxes comprises an elastic diaphragm (10) on the working surface, elastic A strain gauge (11) is fixed to the center of the diaphragm (10), and the strain gauge (11) is connected to the reader (5) through the data line (4).
6、根据权利要求 3所述的装置, 其特征在于, 所述连接杆(3 )为空心的, 所述的数据线 (4 ) 经由连接杆 (3 ) 的空腔和钻孔外的读数仪 (5 ) 连接。  6. Device according to claim 3, characterized in that the connecting rod (3) is hollow, the data line (4) is via a cavity of the connecting rod (3) and a reader outside the borehole (5) Connection.
PCT/CN2013/075686 2012-04-05 2013-05-16 Deep softrock geostress test method and device based on flow stress recovery principle WO2013149599A1 (en)

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