WO2023178908A1 - 一种高压预填充溶洞桩基施工方法 - Google Patents

一种高压预填充溶洞桩基施工方法 Download PDF

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WO2023178908A1
WO2023178908A1 PCT/CN2022/110470 CN2022110470W WO2023178908A1 WO 2023178908 A1 WO2023178908 A1 WO 2023178908A1 CN 2022110470 W CN2022110470 W CN 2022110470W WO 2023178908 A1 WO2023178908 A1 WO 2023178908A1
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filling
cave
construction method
pile foundation
karst cave
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PCT/CN2022/110470
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English (en)
French (fr)
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刘永锋
荣劲松
肖承辉
王远哲
曾飞
黄国忠
单良
周翰斌
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中交第四航务工程局有限公司
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Publication of WO2023178908A1 publication Critical patent/WO2023178908A1/zh

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D15/00Handling building or like materials for hydraulic engineering or foundations
    • E02D15/02Handling of bulk concrete specially for foundation or hydraulic engineering purposes
    • E02D15/04Placing concrete in mould-pipes, pile tubes, bore-holes or narrow shafts
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D3/00Improving or preserving soil or rock, e.g. preserving permafrost soil
    • E02D3/12Consolidating by placing solidifying or pore-filling substances in the soil

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  • the invention belongs to the field of pit foundation karst cave construction, and specifically relates to a high-pressure pre-filled karst cave pile foundation construction method.
  • Karst caves are underground channels formed by the dissolution and erosion of groundwater along the layers, joints or faults of soluble rocks.
  • Underground caves in karst areas are unfavorable geological conditions for dams, transportation lines, factory and mine construction and other projects.
  • foundation reinforcement is often required, or cast-in-place piles need to pass through karst cave sections, all of which require filling of karst caves.
  • Traditional cave treatment methods generally include backfill wall-building method, sleeve valve tube grouting method and high-pressure rotary jet grouting method:
  • Backfill wall-making method first use impact drilling to make a hole, then use the impact drill to squeeze the material into the cave, and fill it repeatedly until a seal and a hole wall with a certain strength are formed, and then proceed to the next step of construction.
  • This method is simple, mature and easy to operate. It is the traditional construction method of cast-in-place piles in karst areas. However, its filling time is long and the cost is high. Moreover, during the construction process, the mud will flow into the cave, causing the mud level to suddenly drop, thus causing Ground collapse can easily pose a safety threat to ground construction personnel and equipment.
  • Sleeve valve pipe grouting method first use a drill to drill to the bottom of the cave, use high-pressure wind to fill and throw sand into the cave, then lower the sleeve valve pipe, and grout the casing material, and then use a double plug core pipe to grout. When a certain pressure is reached Stop grouting at this time to fill the cave completely, and then proceed to the next process.
  • This method fills the cement and water glass mixed slurry into the caves, soil caves or soil gaps that need to be reinforced at one time, and uses the characteristics of cement to solidify rapidly to block the connecting channels of the karst and achieve the purpose of sealing the caves.
  • this method cannot control the filling sand and filling range, and the grouting range of each sleeve valve pipe is limited, resulting in too many grouting holes and a large amount of construction.
  • High-pressure jet grouting method First use high-pressure cutting with clean water to clean the loose filling in the cavity. The pressure is not less than 10MPa until clean water returns from the hole. Then use high-strength cement (42.5R) to prepare cement slurry. The water-cement ratio is 1:1. Use high-pressure rotary jetting to press into the cleaned cavity from one borehole until anti-slurry is made in the other borehole. When the anti-slurry is consistent with the prepared cement slurry, the grouting can be stopped. Form cement solid in the cave.
  • the high-pressure jet grouting method cannot control the flow range of mortar. It is only suitable for small caves and is not suitable for large-sized caves and connected caves.
  • the space inside the cave is large, sometimes up to tens of meters long.
  • the range that affects the pile foundation in the cave is 5 times the pile diameter, that is, the filling volume of the cave is about 5 times the pile diameter.
  • the filling volume of the cave is about 5 times the pile diameter.
  • the present invention provides a high-pressure pre-filled karst cave pile foundation construction method.
  • This construction method first pre-fills the karst cave, and then punches holes to make cast-in-place concrete piles. During the pre-filling process, the diffusion range of the filler is controlled.
  • a high-pressure pre-filled cave pile foundation construction method includes the following steps:
  • S2 Survey the internal conditions of the cave: lower the detection instrument into the cave through the filling hole to detect the size and scope of the cavity inside the cave;
  • S5 Backfilling: Inject the filling material into the filling tube, and fill the bottom of the cave with the filling material. As the filling material is injected, the height of the filling tube is continuously raised to control the diffusion range of the filling material;
  • the present invention at least has the following technical effects:
  • the invention provides a high-pressure pre-filled karst cave pile foundation construction method.
  • the filling material discharging process is controlled, so that the filling material is limited to a local range, and the karst cave is locally filled, thereby meeting the pile foundation construction requirements and at the same time. Save filling materials, thereby improving construction efficiency and speeding up construction progress.
  • the invention is easy to operate, can greatly reduce construction costs, has no requirements on equipment, and is suitable for most karst cave pile foundation construction projects.
  • step S3 one end of the filling pipe is lowered to a position 200 to 300 mm away from the bottom of the cave.
  • the initial height of the filling tube in the cave is not high, so that the filling material will not have a large diffusion range when it falls.
  • step S5 a concrete pump is used to pump the filling material into the filling pipe, and pumping pressure is provided during the filling process.
  • a certain pressure needs to be applied to the filler to spread the filler to the required range.
  • the components of the filler in step S4 include cement, gravel, sand, clay, lime and water. During mixing, the water content is controlled to control the consistency and fluidity, thereby controlling the flow range of the filler.
  • the slump of the filler shall not exceed 100mm.
  • the pumping pressure of the concrete pump is 1 ⁇ 10MPa.
  • the specific filling pressure of the concrete pump can be determined through experiments.
  • step S1 the filling hole is opened on the central axis of the preset cast-in-place pile position.
  • step S1 an observation hole is opened around the filling hole.
  • the detection instrument is moved to the observation hole to facilitate monitoring of the position of the filling material diffusion during the filling process. Furthermore, Learn about the progress of the filling.
  • the distance between the observation hole and the filling hole is 4 to 5 times the diameter of the cast-in-place pile.
  • Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the construction of drilling in a single-layer karst cave according to the present invention.
  • Figure 2 is a schematic diagram of the construction of lowering an observation tube in a single-layer karst cave according to the present invention.
  • Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of the construction of lowering the filling pipe in a single-layer cave according to the present invention.
  • Figure 4 is a construction schematic diagram of filling material being injected into a single-layer cave according to the present invention.
  • Figure 5 is a schematic diagram of the construction of concrete pumping and pressurizing in a single-layer cave according to the present invention.
  • Figure 6 is a schematic diagram of the construction of lifting the filling pipe in a single-layer cave according to the present invention.
  • Figure 7 is a construction schematic diagram of the present invention in which the filling pipe is lifted up and then the filling material is continued to be injected into the single-layer cave.
  • Figure 8 is a schematic diagram of the construction of a concrete pump to continue filling materials in a single-layer cave according to the present invention.
  • Figure 9 is a schematic diagram of the construction of removing the filling pipe in a single-layer cave according to the present invention.
  • Figure 10 is a schematic diagram of the construction of drilling holes in a double-layer karst cave according to the present invention.
  • Figure 11 is a schematic diagram of the construction of lowering the observation tube in the double-layer cave according to the present invention.
  • Figure 12 is a schematic diagram of the construction of lowering the filling pipe in the double-layer cave according to the present invention.
  • Figure 13 is a construction schematic diagram of filling material being injected into a double-layered cave according to the present invention.
  • Figure 14 is a schematic diagram of the construction of concrete pumping and pressurizing in a double-layer cave according to the present invention.
  • Figure 15 is a schematic diagram of the construction of lifting the filling pipe in the double-layer cave according to the present invention.
  • Figure 16 is a construction schematic diagram of the present invention in which the filling pipe is lifted and then the filling material is continued to be injected into the double-layer cave.
  • Figure 17 is a schematic diagram of the construction of a concrete pump to continue filling material in a double-layer cave according to the present invention.
  • Figure 18 is a schematic diagram of the construction of removing the filling pipe in the double-layer cave according to the present invention.
  • 1-covering soil layer 2-karst cave; 3-cave bottom bedrock; 4-filling hole; 5-observation hole; 6-observation tube; 7-observation probe; 8-filling tube; 9-filling material; 10 -Concrete pump.
  • this embodiment provides a high-pressure pre-filled karst cave pile foundation construction method, which includes the following steps:
  • S1 Ground drilling: First use ultrasonic equipment to survey the underground, construct the geological structure of the cave, and drill holes in places with suitable bearing capacity; as shown in Figure 1, pre-drill 300mm at the designated location to reach the top of the cave to form a filling hole and also drill a viewing hole at a certain distance from the filling hole. The distance between the observation hole and the filling hole is 4 to 5 times the diameter of the cast-in-place pile. In order to avoid collapse after drilling, a 300mm casing is lowered into the filling hole after drilling.
  • S2 Exploring the internal conditions of the cave: As shown in Figure 2, an observation tube is placed under the filling hole to understand the internal conditions of the cave. An observation probe is installed at the bottom of the observation tube. The size and scope of the cave are determined through the observation probe.
  • S4 Ready-mixed filler: Mix clay, gravel, cement, sand and lime, add a certain amount of water during the mixing process, and put the filler into the concrete pump after the mixing is completed; the mix ratio of each component of the filler is based on Field tests determined that by controlling the moisture content of the filler and controlling the consistency and fluidity of the filler, the slump of the filler will not exceed 100mm. Manual mixing or mechanical mixing is used at the construction site.
  • this embodiment takes a double-layered cave as an example.
  • the filling method is similar to that of Embodiment 1, but when drilling, it is necessary to drill to the deepest cave. Then it is filled one by one from bottom to top.
  • the filling pipe is continuously lifted and the filling material is pumped and spread to the specified range through the concrete pump. After filling the bottom layer of caves, lift the filling pipe and fill the upper layer of caves in sequence until all the caves are filled to the specified square meter, that is, the filling of the multi-layer caves is completed.

Abstract

一种高压预填充溶洞桩基施工方法,包括如下步骤:S1:地面钻孔:在地面钻取填充孔(4)和观察孔(5);S2:勘察溶洞内部情况,确定溶洞内部大小;S3:下放管道:填充管(8)通过填充孔(4)下放到溶洞底部,观测管(6)通过观察孔(5)下放到溶洞中;S4:预拌填充料(9);S5:回填填充料(9):将填充料(9)注入填充管(8)中,填充料(9)填入溶洞底部,且随着填充料(9)的注入,不断抬高填充管(8)的高度;S6:停止填充,拔出填充管(8),静待填充料(9)硬化。本施工方法简单方便,能对多层溶洞进行预填充处理,改善不良地质条件,使溶洞(2)满足灌注桩施工要求,提高后期桩基础施工效率,降低施工成本。

Description

一种高压预填充溶洞桩基施工方法 技术领域
本发明属于坑基溶洞施工领域,具体涉及一种高压预填充溶洞桩基施工方法。
背景技术
溶洞是喀斯特地貌的一种,其是地下水沿着可溶性岩石的层面、节理或断层进行溶蚀和侵蚀而形成的地下孔道。喀斯特地区的地下溶洞,对坝体、交通线和厂矿建筑等工程来说是一种不良地质条件。在岩溶地区进行桥梁、道路、隧道、铁路和工民建施工时,经常需要进行地基加固处理,或采用灌注桩时需要穿过溶洞段,都需要对溶洞进行填充。
传统的溶洞处理方法一般有回填造壁法、袖阀管灌浆法和高压旋喷注浆法:
1)回填造壁法:先采用冲击钻成孔,再采用冲击钻挤压材料到溶洞中,反复充填,直至形成密封和具有一定强度的孔壁,然后再进行下一步的施工。此方法简易成熟,易于操作,是喀斯特地区灌注桩传统的施工方法,但其冲填时间较长,成本较高,而且在施工过程中,泥浆会流入溶洞中,造成泥浆面突然下降,从而造成地面塌陷,容易对地面施工人员和设备造成安全威胁。
2)袖阀管灌浆法:先采用钻机钻孔到溶洞底部,利用高压风填充投砂到溶洞,随后下放袖阀管,并灌浆套壳料,再采用双塞芯管灌浆,在达到一定压力时停止灌浆,就可以把溶洞填充满,然后进行下一道工序。此方法通过将水泥、水玻璃混合浆液一次性填充到所需要加固的溶洞、土洞或土体间隙中,利用水泥迅速凝固的特点,从而阻断岩溶的连通通道,达到封堵溶洞的目的。但是此方法无法控制充填砂和充填范围,而且每个袖阀管的灌浆范围有限,导致灌浆孔太多,施工量大。
3)高压旋喷注浆法:先采用清水高压切割,清洗空洞内的松散充填物,压力不低于10MPa,直至孔内返出清水为止,然后采用高强度水泥(42.5R)配制水泥浆,水灰比1:1, 采用高压旋喷从一个钻孔中压入已清洗过的空洞内,直至另一个钻孔中反浆,反浆与配制的水泥浆一致时,即可停止压浆,使溶洞内形成水泥固体。高压旋喷灌浆法无法控制砂浆的流量范围,只适用于小溶洞,不适用大尺寸溶洞和连通溶洞。
溶洞内部的空间较大,有时可达到几十米长,对于灌注桩施工工程来说,溶洞中对桩基有影响的范围是桩径的5倍,即溶洞的填充方量大约是5倍桩径内的溶洞,只要把这部分溶洞填满即可。对溶洞内的部分空间进行填充,需要控制填充料的扩散范围,而现有的溶洞处理方法还无法处理此情况。
发明内容
有鉴于此,本发明提供一种高压预填充溶洞桩基施工方法,该施工方法先对溶洞进行预填充,然后再冲孔做灌注混凝土桩,在预填充过程中控制填充料的扩散范围。
本发明是由以下技术方案实现:
一种高压预填充溶洞桩基施工方法,包括以下步骤:
S1:地面钻孔:在地面钻取填充孔;
S2:勘察溶洞内部情况:通过填充孔下放检测仪器到溶洞中,检测溶洞内部空腔大小和范围;
S3:下放管道:填充管通过填充孔下放到溶洞底部;
S4:预拌填充料;
S5:回填填充料:将填充料注入填充管中,填充料填入溶洞底部,且随着填充料的注入,不断抬高填充管的高度,控制填充料的扩散范围;
S6:停止填充,拔出填充管。
与现有技术对比,本发明至少具有以下技术效果:
本发明提供一种高压预填充溶洞桩基施工方法,其通过提升填料管的位置,控制填充料下料过程,使填充料局限在一个局部范围,局部填充溶洞,满足桩基施工要求的同时,节省填充料,从而提高施工效率,加快施工进度。本发明操作简便,可很好地降低施工成本,且 对设备无要求,适合大多数溶洞桩基础施工工程。
进一步地,步骤S3中,所述填充管的一端下放至距离溶洞底部200~300mm的位置。填充管在溶洞内的初始高度不高,使填充料在下落时不会有很大的扩散范围。
进一步地,步骤S5中,采用混凝土泵将填充料泵送注入填充管中,且在填充过程中提供泵送压力。为了使填充料在溶洞扩散到一定的范围,需要对填充料施加一定的压力,从而使填充料扩散到要求的范围内。进一步地,步骤S4中填充料的组分包括有水泥、石子、砂、粘土、石灰和水。在搅拌时,控制含水量,从而控制稠度和流动性,从而控制填充料的流动范围。
进一步地,填充料的塌落度不超过100mm。
进一步地,混凝土泵的泵送压力为1~10MPa。在实际施工中,混凝土泵的具体填充压力可以通过试验确定。
进一步地,步骤S1中,填充孔开设在预设灌注桩位置的中轴线上。
进一步地,步骤S1中,在填充孔的周围开设一观察孔,在步骤S2完成对溶洞的检测后将检测仪器移至所述观察孔中,方便监测填充过程中填充料扩散的位置,更进一步了解填充的进展。
进一步地,观察孔离填充孔的距离为灌注桩桩径的4~5倍。
附图说明
图1为本发明在单层溶洞中钻孔的施工示意图。
图2为本发明在单层溶洞中下放观测管的施工示意图。
图3为本发明在单层溶洞中下放填充管的施工示意图。
图4为本发明在单层溶洞中填充料注入溶洞的施工示意图。
图5为本发明在单层溶洞中混凝土泵泵送加压的施工示意图。
图6为本发明在单层溶洞中提升填充管的施工示意图。
图7为本发明在单层溶洞中提升填充管后继续注入填充料的施工示意图。
图8为本发明在单层溶洞中混凝土泵继续填充料的施工示意图。
图9为本发明在单层溶洞中填充管拔除的施工示意图。
图10为本发明在双层溶洞中钻孔的施工示意图。
图11为本发明在双层溶洞中下放观测管的施工示意图。
图12为本发明在双层溶洞中下放填充管的施工示意图。
图13为本发明在双层溶洞中填充料注入溶洞的施工示意图。
图14为本发明在双层溶洞中混凝土泵泵送加压的施工示意图。
图15为本发明在双层溶洞中提升填充管的施工示意图。
图16为本发明在双层溶洞中提升填充管后继续注入填充料的施工示意图。
图17为本发明在双层溶洞中混凝土泵继续填充料的施工示意图。
图18为本发明在双层溶洞中填充管拔除的施工示意图。
其中,1-覆盖土层;2-溶洞;3-溶洞底基岩;4-填充孔;5-观测孔;6-观测管;7-观测探头;8-填充管;9-填充料;10-混凝土泵。
具体实施方式
下面将结合说明书附图,对本发明实施例中的技术方案进行清楚、完整地描述,但所描述的实施例仅仅是本发明一部分实施例,并不是全部的实施例,本发明的保护范围不限于此。
由于地下溶洞形状多样,有可能是单层溶洞,也可能是多洞连通。因此本发明提供的施工方法分别应用不同的溶洞结构施工工程中。
实施例1
对于单层溶洞的处理,本实施例提供一种高压预填充溶洞桩基施工方法,其包括以下步骤:
S1:地面钻孔:先用超声波设备对地下进行勘测,构建溶洞的地质结构,在合适承载力的地方进行钻孔;如图1所示,在指定位置预钻孔300mm达到溶洞顶部,形成填充孔,同时在离填充孔一定距离处钻取观察孔。观察孔与填充孔的距离为灌注桩桩径的4~5倍。为避 免钻孔后出现塌陷现象,钻孔完成后在填充孔内下放300mm的护筒。
S2:勘察溶洞内部情况:如图2所示,在填充孔下放观测管了解溶洞内部情况,观测管底部安装有观测探头,通过观测探头确定溶洞的大小和范围。
S3:下放填充管:如图3所示,将观测管移至观察孔,然后将填充管通过填充孔下放至溶洞底部,此时填充管底部距离溶洞底部200~300mm,同时在填充孔附近的地面上安装固定混凝土泵,混凝土泵的压力在1~10MPa。填充管选用密封性良好和抗压强度高的钢管,且填充管的直径在250mm以上。
S4:预拌填充料:将粘土、片石、水泥、砂、石灰混合搅拌,在搅拌过程中加入定量的水,搅拌完成后将填充物放入混凝土泵中;填充料各组分的配合比根据现场试验确定,通过控制填充物的含水量,控制填充物的稠度和流动性,使得填充料的塌落度不超过100mm。施工现场采用人工搅拌或机械搅拌。
S5:注入填充料:请参考图4-图8,将填充料放入混凝土泵中,由混凝土泵输送至填充管中,从而注入溶洞中;开始灌注时,填充管的底部距离溶洞底部200~300mm,填充料下落到溶洞底部时不会有很大的扩散范围,随着填充料表面不断提升,填充管埋入填充料中,填充料达到一定高度后,混凝土泵加压使得填充料泵送扩散到指定的位置,再提升填充管,注入填充料,不断提高填充料的表面,且填充料扩散到指定的位置。
S6:如图9所示,待填充料全部注入到溶洞指定的位置后,拔出填充管,静待填充料硬化,即完成对单层溶洞的填充处理。
实施例2
请参考图10-图18,对于多层溶洞的处理,本实施例以双层溶洞为例,其填充的方法与实施例1类似,但进行钻孔时,需要钻孔到最深的一个溶洞,然后从下往上逐个填充,填充过程中不断提升填充管,并通过混凝土泵将填充料泵送扩散至指定的范围。当填满底层溶洞后,提升填充管,依序填充上层溶洞,直到所有的溶洞都填充到指定方量,即完成多层溶洞的填充。
以上所述仅为本发明的部分实施例,并非因此限定本发明的实施方式及保护范围,对于本领域技术人员而言,应当能够意识到凡运用本发明说明书内容所做出的等同替换和显而易见的变化所得到的方案,应当包含在本发明的保护范围内。

Claims (9)

  1. 一种高压预填充溶洞桩基施工方法,其特征在于,包括以下步骤:
    S1:地面钻孔:在地面钻取填充孔;
    S2:勘察溶洞内部情况:通过填充孔下放检测仪器到溶洞中,检测溶洞内部空腔大小和范围;
    S3:下放管道:填充管通过填充孔下放到溶洞底部;
    S4:预拌填充料;
    S5:回填填充料:将填充料注入填充管中,填充料填入溶洞底部,且随着填充料的注入,不断抬高填充管的高度,控制填充料的扩散范围;
    S6:停止填充,拔出填充管。
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的一种高压预填充溶洞桩基施工方法,其特征在于,步骤S3中,所述填充管的一端下放至距离溶洞底部200~300mm的位置。
  3. 根据权利要求1所述的一种高压预填充溶洞桩基施工方法,其特征在于,步骤S5中,采用混凝土泵将填充料泵送注入填充管中,且在填充过程中提供泵送压力。
  4. 根据权利要求1所述的一种高压预填充溶洞桩基施工方法,其特征在于,步骤S4中填充料的组分包括有水泥、石子、砂、粘土、石灰和水。
  5. 根据权利要求1所述的一种高压预填充溶洞桩基施工方法,其特征在于,填充料的塌落度不超过100mm。
  6. 根据权利要求3所述的一种高压预填充溶洞桩基施工方法,其特征在于,混凝土泵的泵送压力为1~10MPa。
  7. 根据权利要求1所述的一种高压预填充溶洞桩基施工方法,其特征在于,步骤S1中,填充孔开设在预设灌注桩位置的中轴线上。
  8. 根据权利要求1所述的一种高压预填充溶洞桩基施工方法,其特征在于,步骤S1中,在填充孔的周围开设一观察孔,在步骤S2完成对溶洞的检测后将检测仪器移至所述观察孔中。
  9. 根据权利要求8所述的一种高压预填充溶洞桩基施工方法,其特征在于,观察孔离填充孔的距离为灌注桩桩径的4~5倍。
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