WO2021109329A1 - Micro-water quantity backwashing variable-speed upward-flow lightweight-filtering-material filter, and method thereof - Google Patents

Micro-water quantity backwashing variable-speed upward-flow lightweight-filtering-material filter, and method thereof Download PDF

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WO2021109329A1
WO2021109329A1 PCT/CN2020/072602 CN2020072602W WO2021109329A1 WO 2021109329 A1 WO2021109329 A1 WO 2021109329A1 CN 2020072602 W CN2020072602 W CN 2020072602W WO 2021109329 A1 WO2021109329 A1 WO 2021109329A1
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water
filter
valve
backwash
zone
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PCT/CN2020/072602
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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夏文香
石志慧
李金成
宋双
越楚遥
赵宝秀
刘杰
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青岛理工大学
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Publication of WO2021109329A1 publication Critical patent/WO2021109329A1/en

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D24/00Filters comprising loose filtering material, i.e. filtering material without any binder between the individual particles or fibres thereof
    • B01D24/02Filters comprising loose filtering material, i.e. filtering material without any binder between the individual particles or fibres thereof with the filter bed stationary during the filtration
    • B01D24/10Filters comprising loose filtering material, i.e. filtering material without any binder between the individual particles or fibres thereof with the filter bed stationary during the filtration the filtering material being held in a closed container
    • B01D24/16Upward filtration
    • B01D24/165Upward filtration the filtering material being supported by pervious surfaces
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D24/00Filters comprising loose filtering material, i.e. filtering material without any binder between the individual particles or fibres thereof
    • B01D24/38Feed or discharge devices
    • B01D24/40Feed or discharge devices for feeding
    • B01D24/402Feed or discharge devices for feeding containing fixed liquid displacement elements or cores
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D24/00Filters comprising loose filtering material, i.e. filtering material without any binder between the individual particles or fibres thereof
    • B01D24/46Regenerating the filtering material in the filter
    • B01D24/4631Counter-current flushing, e.g. by air
    • B01D24/4636Counter-current flushing, e.g. by air with backwash shoes; with nozzles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D24/00Filters comprising loose filtering material, i.e. filtering material without any binder between the individual particles or fibres thereof
    • B01D24/46Regenerating the filtering material in the filter
    • B01D24/4668Regenerating the filtering material in the filter by moving the filtering element
    • B01D24/4673Regenerating the filtering material in the filter by moving the filtering element using rotary devices or vibration mechanisms, e.g. stirrers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D24/00Filters comprising loose filtering material, i.e. filtering material without any binder between the individual particles or fibres thereof
    • B01D24/48Filters comprising loose filtering material, i.e. filtering material without any binder between the individual particles or fibres thereof integrally combined with devices for controlling the filtration
    • B01D24/4869Filters comprising loose filtering material, i.e. filtering material without any binder between the individual particles or fibres thereof integrally combined with devices for controlling the filtration by level measuring

Abstract

Provided are a micro-water quantity backwashing variable-speed upward-flow lightweight-filtering-material filter, and a running operation method thereof. The filter comprises a reactor (1), a water intaking and distributing system, a gas backwashing system, a micro-water backwashing spraying system, a water collecting system and a water discharging/sludge discharging system; the interior of the reactor (1) is divided into a water intaking/sludge discharging area (2), a backwashing stripping area (3), a variable-speed filtering area (4), a compaction filtering area (5) and a water collecting area (6); an anti-floating filtering plate (12) is arranged on the upper part of the compaction filtering area (5), the anti-floating filtering plate (12) is provided with a filter head (13), a cover plate (14) is arranged directly above the anti-floating filtering plate (12), a flow guide plate is arranged at the periphery of the cover plate (14), and an exhaust valve (9) is arranged on the cover plate (14); the water intaking/sludge discharging area (2) is located at the bottom of the reactor (1), the backwashing stripping area (3) is located at the upper part of the water intaking area (2), the backwashing stripping area (3) is of a cylindrical shape, and the volume of the backwashing stripping area (3) is equal to the sum of the volume of the variable-speed filtering area (4) and the volume of the compaction filtering area (5); the variable-speed filtering area (4) is located at the upper part of the backwashing stripping area (3), and the cross-sectional area of the area gradually decreases from bottom to top and is in the shape of a truncated cone; and the compaction filtering area (5) is located at the upper part of the variable-speed filtering area (4) and is cylindrical, and the cross-sectional area of the compaction filtering area is the same as the cross-sectional area of the upper part of the variable-speed filtering area (4).

Description

一种微水量反冲变速上向流轻质滤料过滤器及其方法Micro-water backwash variable-speed upward-flow lightweight filter material filter and method thereof 技术领域Technical field
本发明属于水处理技术领域,适用于中小型给水处理、污水深度处理以及工业回用水处理,涉及一种上向变速流轻质悬浮滤料过滤器。特别是一种节水型微水量反冲洗的变速上向流轻质滤料过滤器及其方法。The invention belongs to the technical field of water treatment, and is suitable for small and medium-sized water supply treatment, advanced sewage treatment and industrial reuse water treatment, and relates to an upward variable-speed flow light suspension filter material filter. In particular, it is a water-saving type micro-water backwashing variable-speed upward-flow lightweight filter material filter and its method.
背景技术Background technique
滤层过滤技术是水和废水处理过程中的重要工艺单元,一般通过选用不同材质的粒状滤料构建一定厚度的过滤层,利用颗粒之间的空隙形成过滤通道,从而截留水中的悬浮杂质。目前常用的过滤器主要有普通压滤器、无阀滤池、纤维滤料过滤罐等过滤器。普通快滤池是最传统的过滤器,一般采用石英砂作为过滤滤料,过滤方式采用下向流,由于过滤过程中截留的污染物,需要用水反向冲洗,才能与滤层剥离,从而恢复滤层的截污能力,所以反冲洗需采用高速水流反向将滤层托起,一方面会消耗大量的净水,另一方面也造成能耗的提高。无阀滤池采用了水力原理形成了自动反冲洗的特点,但无阀滤池的反冲洗水量也较高,并且反冲洗不彻底。在污水过滤的研究中,纤维滤料过滤器也是一种常见的过滤器形式,通常滤料可采用纤维球和纤维束,这种形式的过滤器具有过滤速度高,不易污堵的特点,但存在着反冲耗水量大,滤料宜板结的问题。Filter layer filtration technology is an important process unit in the water and wastewater treatment process. Generally, a certain thickness of filter layer is constructed by selecting granular filter materials of different materials, and the gap between the particles is used to form a filter channel to intercept suspended impurities in the water. At present, the commonly used filters mainly include ordinary pressure filters, valveless filters, fiber filter media filter tanks and other filters. Ordinary fast filter is the most traditional filter. Generally, quartz sand is used as the filter material, and the filtering method adopts downward flow. Because of the pollutants trapped in the filtration process, it needs to be backwashed with water to peel off the filter layer and recover. The filter layer has the ability to intercept dirt, so backwashing needs to use high-speed water flow to reverse the filter layer. On the one hand, it will consume a lot of purified water, and on the other hand, it will also cause an increase in energy consumption. The valveless filter adopts the hydraulic principle to form the characteristics of automatic backwashing, but the backwashing water volume of the valveless filter is also high, and the backwashing is not thorough. In the research of sewage filtration, fiber filter media filter is also a common filter form. Usually the filter material can be fiber balls and fiber bundles. This form of filter has the characteristics of high filtration speed and not easy to foul, but There is a problem that the water consumption of recoil is large, and the filter material should be compacted.
针对以上问题,轻质悬浮滤料在国内近年来逐渐受到关注,可发性聚苯乙烯颗粒(EPS)轻质悬浮滤料作为新型滤料,具有机械强度高,脱污能力强,化学性质稳定,比重比水小,过滤方式简单,应用范围广等优点,并且与传统的石英砂过滤相比,轻质悬浮滤料过滤具有较大的经济优势,即可以利用进水缓冲段进行沉淀,不需要承托层,构造简单,减少了基建费用。法国得利满公司利用轻质滤料开发出了一种新型上向流悬浮滤池,它具有独具特色的反冲洗方式。但由于其形式仅是常规滤池的反转,并且需要 安装大面积抗浮滤板和滤头,增加了结构的复杂程度。而在滤池的反冲节水和滤速上与传统过滤滤速也相差不大,因此目前这种上向流滤池得到了一定的应用,但未能有效推广。In response to the above problems, lightweight suspension filter media has gradually attracted attention in China in recent years. As a new type of filter material, expandable polystyrene particles (EPS) lightweight suspension filter media have high mechanical strength, strong decontamination ability, and stable chemical properties. , The specific gravity is smaller than that of water, the filtering method is simple, and the application range is wide. Compared with the traditional quartz sand filter, the lightweight suspension filter has a greater economic advantage, that is, the influent buffer section can be used for precipitation. The supporting layer is needed, the structure is simple, and the infrastructure cost is reduced. The French Deliman Company has developed a new type of upward flow suspension filter by using lightweight filter media, which has a unique backwashing method. However, because its form is only the reversal of the conventional filter, and a large-area anti-floating filter plate and filter head need to be installed, the complexity of the structure is increased. The recoil water saving and filtration rate of the filter are also not much different from the traditional filtration rate. Therefore, the current upflow filter has been used to a certain extent, but it has not been effectively promoted.
目前,节能降耗是水处理的一个发展方向,传统的过滤设备通常需要消耗大量的反冲洗水,一方面增加了水量和能耗,另一方面也增加了反冲洗废水的处理难度。在反冲过程中通过增加气冲方式可以减少耗水量,但常规滤池的单一气冲又不能将剥离的污染物冲出滤层,必须与水冲配合,所以不能根本解决能耗和水耗的问题。上向流轻质滤料过滤器的开发可以对以上问题提供一个解决途径。At present, energy saving and consumption reduction is a development direction of water treatment. Traditional filtration equipment usually needs to consume a large amount of backwash water. On the one hand, it increases water volume and energy consumption, and on the other hand, it also increases the difficulty of backwashing wastewater treatment. In the backflushing process, the water consumption can be reduced by increasing the air flushing method, but the single air flushing of the conventional filter cannot flush the stripped pollutants out of the filter layer. It must be matched with the water flushing, so it cannot fundamentally solve the energy consumption and water consumption. The problem. The development of upflow lightweight filter media can provide a solution to the above problems.
发明内容Summary of the invention
本发明的目的是克服现有上向流过滤器技术存在的缺点,通过创造性改变过滤器形状及组成,实现优化过滤器结构,降低过滤阻力,同时利用变速流的压力变化形成自压紧功能,达到提高过滤精度的目的,反冲洗过程巧妙利用截留污物的重力作用,依靠气洗将杂物与滤料自然分离,实现微水量反冲,大幅降低了反冲水耗和能耗。由此建立一种新型的微水量反冲变速上向流轻质悬浮滤料过滤器及其方法。The purpose of the present invention is to overcome the shortcomings of the existing upflow filter technology, by creatively changing the shape and composition of the filter, to optimize the filter structure and reduce the filtering resistance, and at the same time use the pressure change of the variable flow to form a self-compression function. To achieve the purpose of improving filtration accuracy, the backwashing process cleverly uses the gravity of the trapped dirt, and relies on air washing to naturally separate the debris from the filter material, realizes a micro-water backwash, and greatly reduces the water consumption and energy consumption of the backwash. As a result, a new type of micro-water recoil variable-speed upward-flow lightweight suspended filter material filter and its method are established.
为了实现以上目的,本发明采用如下技术方案:In order to achieve the above objectives, the present invention adopts the following technical solutions:
一种微水量反冲变速上向流轻质滤料过滤器,包括:反应器1、进水配水系统、气反冲洗系统、微水反洗喷淋系统、集水系统、排水/排泥系统;A micro-water backflush variable-speed upward-flow lightweight filter material filter, including: reactor 1, water inlet water distribution system, gas backwash system, micro-water backwash spray system, water collection system, drainage/sludge discharge system ;
反应器1内部分为进水/排泥区2、反冲洗剥离区3、变速过滤区4、压实过滤区5、集水区6;在压实过滤区5的上部安装有抗浮滤板12,抗浮滤板12上安装有滤头13,抗浮滤板12正上方装有盖板14,盖板14周边设置有导流板,盖板14上设有排气阀9;The inside of reactor 1 is divided into water inlet/sludge discharge area 2, backwash stripping area 3, variable speed filter area 4, compaction filter area 5, water collection area 6; an anti-floating filter plate is installed on the upper part of compaction filter area 5 12. A filter head 13 is installed on the anti-floating filter plate 12, a cover plate 14 is installed directly above the anti-floating filter plate 12, a deflector is provided around the cover plate 14, and an exhaust valve 9 is provided on the cover plate 14;
进水/排泥区2位于反应器1的底部,反冲洗剥离区3位于进水区2的上部,反冲洗剥离区3为圆筒状,反冲洗剥离区3容积与变速过滤区4和压实过滤区5容积之和相等,待处理水中的污物最先会被变速过滤区滤料滤层拦截;The water inlet/sludge discharge zone 2 is located at the bottom of the reactor 1, the backwash stripping zone 3 is located on the upper part of the water inlet zone 2, and the backwash stripping zone 3 is cylindrical. The volume of the backwash stripping zone 3 and the variable speed filter zone 4 and pressure The total volume of the actual filter zone 5 is equal, and the dirt in the water to be treated will first be intercepted by the filter layer of the variable-speed filter zone;
变速过滤区4位于反冲洗剥离区3上部,该区域横截面面积由下到上逐渐减小,呈圆台状,因进水流量不变,横截面面积减小,该区域滤料滤层所受到向上的滤速压力也 逐渐增大;The variable-speed filter zone 4 is located at the upper part of the backwash stripping zone 3. The cross-sectional area of this zone gradually decreases from bottom to top, and is in the shape of a truncated cone. Because the water flow rate is constant, the cross-sectional area decreases, and the filter layer in this area is affected by the The upward filtration rate pressure also gradually increases;
压实过滤区5位于变速过滤区4上部,该区域为圆筒状,其横截面积和变速过滤区4上部的横截面积相同,压实过滤区5的初始水流速度为变速过滤区4的最大水流速度,其中的滤料滤层所受压力最大,滤层最为密实。The compaction filter zone 5 is located in the upper part of the variable-speed filter zone 4, which is cylindrical, and its cross-sectional area is the same as that of the upper part of the variable-speed filter zone 4. The initial water flow velocity of the compacted filter zone 5 is that of the variable-speed filter zone 4. The maximum water flow rate, the filter layer of which is subjected to the greatest pressure, and the filter layer is the densest.
所述的过滤器,待处理原水经过进水/排泥区2进入反应器1底部,依次经过反冲洗剥离区3、变速过滤区4和压实过滤区5的滤料滤层拦截过滤,过滤水通过滤头会遇到盖板14,经过盖板14的导流板流入清水槽15,再经过溢流堰16进入集水区6,最后由出水管17将水收集进清水箱38。In the filter, the raw water to be treated enters the bottom of the reactor 1 through the water inlet/sludge discharge zone 2, and then passes through the backwash stripping zone 3, the variable speed filter zone 4, and the compaction filter zone 5 for interception and filtration. The water passes through the filter head and meets the cover plate 14, passes through the deflector of the cover plate 14 and flows into the clear water tank 15, and then enters the catchment area 6 through the overflow weir 16, and finally the water is collected into the clear water tank 38 by the outlet pipe 17.
所述的过滤器,反应器内填充的滤料为可发性聚苯乙烯颗粒(EPS)36,粒径规格为0.5~1mm。In the filter, the filter material filled in the reactor is expandable polystyrene particles (EPS) 36, and the particle size specification is 0.5-1 mm.
所述的过滤器,进水配水系统包括:原水箱37、水泵18、原水进水管10、进水阀门25和反射板11;原水进水管10上安装进水阀门25,反射板11位于进水管口的正下方,用以均匀布水;原水箱37连接水泵18进水口,水泵18出水口连接原水进水管10和进水阀门25,反射板11位于原水进水管10管口的正下方。待处理水通过水泵加压经原水进水管输送进反应器1底部的进水/排泥区2,进水通过反射板11进行均匀布水。The filter, the inlet water distribution system includes: a raw water tank 37, a water pump 18, a raw water inlet pipe 10, an inlet valve 25 and a reflector 11; the raw water inlet pipe 10 is equipped with an inlet valve 25, and the reflector 11 is located in the inlet pipe The raw water tank 37 is connected to the inlet of the water pump 18, the outlet of the pump 18 is connected to the raw water inlet pipe 10 and the inlet valve 25, and the reflector 11 is located directly below the raw water inlet pipe 10. The water to be treated is pressurized by a water pump and transported into the water inlet/sludge discharge area 2 at the bottom of the reactor 1 through the raw water inlet pipe, and the inlet water is uniformly distributed through the reflector 11.
所述的过滤器,集水系统包括清水出水管17和清水箱38,清水出水管17一端连接到集水区6,另一端通到清水箱38,集水区和清水箱38之间存在落差,利用落差清水自动流入清水箱。The filter, the water collection system includes a clean water outlet pipe 17 and a clean water tank 38. One end of the clean water outlet pipe 17 is connected to the water collection area 6, and the other end is connected to the clean water tank 38. There is a gap between the water collection area and the clean water tank 38. , The clear water automatically flows into the clear water tank by using the drop.
所述的过滤器,微水反冲洗喷淋系统包括清水泵19、微水反冲主管23、微水反冲阀门30和阀门31、微水反冲喷淋支管8和滤料助洗喷头24、液位感应器35和液位检测仪表34;清水泵19连接到清水箱38,清水泵19通过微水反冲主管23、微水反冲阀门30、阀门31连接微水反冲喷淋支管8,微水反冲喷淋支管8周向设置在压实过滤区5和变速过滤区4的外部,每个微水反冲喷淋支管8上设置多个滤料助洗喷头24将水通入压实过滤区5和变速过滤区4的内部;液位感应器35设置在反冲洗剥离区3的顶部,并与液位检测仪表34通过数据线相连接,在反冲洗过程中用于根据液位感应器35的水位感应结果将水位控制在反冲洗剥离区3的顶部。The filter, the micro-water backwash spray system includes a clean water pump 19, a micro-water backwash main pipe 23, a micro-water backwash valve 30 and a valve 31, a micro-water backwash spray branch 8 and a filter aid spray head 24 , Liquid level sensor 35 and liquid level detection instrument 34; clean water pump 19 is connected to clean water tank 38, clean water pump 19 is connected to micro water backwash spray branch pipe through micro water recoil main pipe 23, micro water recoil valve 30, valve 31 8. Micro-water recoil spray branch pipes 8 are circumferentially arranged outside the compaction filter zone 5 and the variable-speed filter zone 4. Each micro-water recoil spray branch pipe 8 is provided with a plurality of filter aid washing nozzles 24 to pass the water Into the compaction filter zone 5 and the variable speed filter zone 4; the liquid level sensor 35 is set on the top of the backwash stripping zone 3, and is connected with the liquid level detection instrument 34 through the data line, and is used for the basis of the backwashing process. The water level sensing result of the liquid level sensor 35 controls the water level at the top of the backwash stripping zone 3.
所述的过滤器,气反冲洗系统包括空气压缩机20、反冲洗气管22、反冲洗气管喷头7、反冲洗气阀28和逆止阀26、反冲洗放气阀9。反应器1的排水管21上安装有排水/排泥阀27;反应器1内的反冲洗气管22在位于反冲洗剥离区3底部的管段上设置有均匀分布的反冲洗气管喷头7,且反冲洗气管22上安装有反冲洗气阀28和防止倒水的逆止阀26;反应器1的顶部盖板上有排气阀9;The filter and air backwash system includes an air compressor 20, a backwash air pipe 22, a backwash air pipe nozzle 7, a backwash air valve 28 and a check valve 26, and a backwash air release valve 9. The drain pipe 21 of the reactor 1 is equipped with a drain/sludge valve 27; the backwash gas pipe 22 in the reactor 1 is provided with evenly distributed backwash gas pipe nozzles 7 on the pipe section at the bottom of the backwash stripping zone 3. A backwash gas valve 28 and a check valve 26 to prevent water pouring are installed on the flushing gas pipe 22; an exhaust valve 9 is provided on the top cover of the reactor 1;
所述的过滤器,排水/排泥系统包括排水/排泥管21、排水/排泥阀27,排水/排泥管21设置在进水/排泥区2的底部,排水/排泥管21上设置有排水/排泥阀27。The filter, the drainage/sludge system includes a drainage/sludge pipe 21, a drainage/sludge valve 27, a drainage/sludge pipe 21 is arranged at the bottom of the water/sludge area 2, and a drainage/sludge pipe 21 A drain/sludge valve 27 is provided on it.
所述的过滤器,微水量反冲变速上向流轻质滤料过滤器的运行操作过程分为:(1)过滤过程;(2)反冲洗过程;(3)轻质滤料层复位过程;三个过程循环进行;In the filter, the operation process of the micro-water backflush, variable-speed upward-flow lightweight filter material filter is divided into: (1) filtration process; (2) backwash process; (3) light filter material layer reset process ; Three processes are carried out in cycles;
(1)过滤过程:关闭排水/排泥阀27、反冲洗进气阀28和连通阀29,打开进水阀门25和排气阀门9,启动进水泵18,由水泵18将原水箱37中待处理水经进水管10输送进入反应器1,待处理水从进水管10流经反射板11进行均匀布水,过滤水流向上依次通过反冲洗剥离区3、变速过滤区4、压实过滤区5,最后水流通过滤头进入清水区,上升水流遇到盖板14时,出水先由排气管排出,这时关闭排气阀9,让水流通过导流板流入清水槽15,再经溢流堰16流入集水区6,最后通过出水管17进入清水箱38。(1) Filtration process: Close the drain/sludge valve 27, the backwash intake valve 28 and the connecting valve 29, open the water inlet valve 25 and the exhaust valve 9, start the water inlet pump 18, and the raw water tank 37 will be placed in the raw water tank 37 by the water pump 18 The treated water is transported into the reactor 1 through the water inlet pipe 10, and the water to be treated flows from the water inlet pipe 10 through the reflector 11 for uniform water distribution. The filtered water flows upward through the backwash stripping zone 3, the variable speed filter zone 4, and the compaction filter zone 5 in turn. Finally, the water flow filter head enters the clean water area. When the rising water flow meets the cover plate 14, the effluent is first discharged from the exhaust pipe. At this time, the exhaust valve 9 is closed, and the water flows into the clean water tank 15 through the deflector, and then passes through the overflow. The weir 16 flows into the water collection area 6 and finally enters the clean water tank 38 through the outlet pipe 17.
(2)反冲洗过程:关闭进水阀门25,打开排水/排泥阀27,反应器1内的水位随着水从排水/排泥阀27的排出逐渐下降,滤料也随之下降,这时打开连通阀29、微水量进水调节阀30和阀门31,启动微水量喷淋水泵19,借助滤料助洗喷孔24的喷淋作用促使压实过滤区5的滤料分散下移,最终利用液位感应器35和液位检测仪表34将水位控制在反冲洗剥离区3的顶部。这时关闭连通阀29、微水量进水调节阀30和阀门31,关闭微水量喷淋水泵19,打开气反冲洗阀28,排气阀9,启动气泵20,气体经空气压缩机20加压后,由气管20,气量调节阀28,逆止阀26进入反应器,再通过反冲洗气管喷头7鼓出,对轻质滤料进行搅拌,搅拌时间5-10min,使滤料滤层截留的污物受气体的剪切作用和自身重力作用与滤料剥离,然后关闭空气压缩机20和阀门28,利用沉淀作用使剥离下来的杂质汇集在排水/排泥区2,沉淀时间20-30min,然后打开排水/排泥阀27,使污泥通过排泥管21随水流排出,完成反冲洗过程。(2) Backwashing process: close the water inlet valve 25, open the drain/sludge valve 27, the water level in the reactor 1 gradually drops as the water is discharged from the drain/sludge valve 27, and the filter material also drops. Open the communication valve 29, the micro-water inlet regulating valve 30 and the valve 31 at the time, start the micro-water spray pump 19, and use the spray effect of the filter aid nozzle 24 to promote the dispersion of the filter material in the compacted filter zone 5 downward. Finally, the liquid level sensor 35 and the liquid level detecting instrument 34 are used to control the water level at the top of the backwash stripping zone 3. At this time, close the communication valve 29, the micro water inlet regulating valve 30 and the valve 31, close the micro water spray pump 19, open the air backwash valve 28, the exhaust valve 9, start the air pump 20, and the gas is pressurized by the air compressor 20 After that, enter the reactor from the gas pipe 20, the gas volume regulating valve 28, and the check valve 26, and then blow out through the backwashing gas pipe nozzle 7 to stir the light filter material for 5-10 minutes, so that the filter material is trapped by the filter layer. The dirt is stripped from the filter material by the shearing action of the gas and its own gravity, and then the air compressor 20 and the valve 28 are closed, and the stripped impurities are collected in the drainage/sludge zone 2 by the sedimentation effect, and the sedimentation time is 20-30min. Then, the drain/sludge valve 27 is opened, and the sludge is discharged with the water flow through the sludge pipe 21 to complete the backwashing process.
(3)轻质滤料层复位过程:反冲洗结束并排泥之后,转入下一个过滤过程前,需要进行轻质滤料层复位。首先关闭排水/排泥阀27和反冲洗气阀28,打开微水量喷淋进水阀30和阀门31,打开连通阀29和排气阀门9,启动微水量喷淋水泵19,在微水量喷淋水泵19冲洗水作用下,水流从滤料助洗喷孔24中喷淋到反应器1内,反应器1内水位逐渐上升,可发性聚苯乙烯颗粒(EPS)滤料36因为比重比水小,在这种上升水流的顶托下实现自动复位,同时微水量喷淋对上升过程中的轻质滤料分布进行辅助调整,上升滤料在抗浮滤板的阻挡和水流向上的作用力下,滤层逐渐被压实,这时关闭微水量喷淋进水阀30和阀门31,继续保持微水量喷淋水泵19运行5-10min后,关闭微水量喷淋水泵19和连通阀29,完成滤料层的复位过程。(3) The reset process of the light filter material layer: After the backwashing is completed and the mud is discharged, the light filter material layer needs to be reset before the next filtration process. First, close the drain/sludge valve 27 and the backwash air valve 28, open the micro-water spray inlet valve 30 and valve 31, open the connecting valve 29 and the exhaust valve 9, start the micro-water spray pump 19, and start the micro-water spray pump 19 Under the action of the washing water of the shower pump 19, the water flow is sprayed from the filter aid nozzle 24 into the reactor 1. The water level in the reactor 1 gradually rises, and the expandable polystyrene particle (EPS) filter material 36 is because of the specific gravity ratio. The water is small, and the automatic reset is realized under the support of this rising water flow. At the same time, the micro-water spray assists in the adjustment of the distribution of the lightweight filter material during the ascending process, and the effect of the rising filter material on the anti-floating filter plate and the water flow upward Under the pressure, the filter layer is gradually compacted. At this time, close the micro-water spray inlet valve 30 and valve 31, continue to keep the micro-water spray pump 19 running for 5-10 minutes, then close the micro-water spray pump 19 and the connecting valve 29 , Complete the reset process of the filter layer.
本发明与现有过滤器相比,具有以下优点:Compared with the existing filter, the present invention has the following advantages:
一是采用变过滤截面设计,形成滤速的由慢变快,同时压力由低变高的过滤状态,不仅可以实现过滤时滤层靠水力自动压紧的目的,也相应解决了以往轻质滤料滤层本身无法压实,孔隙松散较大的不足;The first is to adopt a variable filter cross-section design to form a filter state where the filter speed is changed from slow to fast, and the pressure is changed from low to high. It can not only achieve the purpose of automatic compression of the filter layer by hydraulic pressure during filtration, but also solve the previous light filter. The material filter layer itself cannot be compacted and the pores are loose;
二是反冲洗时,利用截留泥渣的重力作用,通过气冲搅拌使其与滤料实现分离,并靠重力沉降与轻质滤料分离,不需要反冲洗水,节水降耗;The second is to use the gravity of the trapped sludge during backwashing to separate it from the filter material through air flushing and stirring, and to separate it from the light filter material by gravity sedimentation, eliminating the need for backwashing water, saving water and reducing consumption;
三是首次在轻质滤料区设置了滤料助洗喷孔,既可以反冲开始时帮助压实的滤料下移,也可以在反洗后滤料复位时进一步用微水量冲洗滤料残余的杂质,提高滤层的清洁效果;Thirdly, it is the first time to set up the filter material washing spray hole in the lightweight filter material area, which can help the compacted filter material move down at the beginning of backwashing, or further rinse the filter material with a small amount of water when the filter material is reset after backwashing. Residual impurities improve the cleaning effect of the filter layer;
四是上向流依靠水力压实作用自动形成孔隙的由大到小分布,符合过滤过程的级配原则,因此过滤阻力小,节能。The fourth is that the upward flow relies on hydraulic compaction to automatically form a large to small distribution of pores, which conforms to the grading principle of the filtration process, so the filtration resistance is small and energy saving.
附图说明Description of the drawings
图1过滤时的工作原理图;Figure 1 Working principle diagram when filtering;
图2反冲洗时的工作原理图;Figure 2 Working principle diagram during backwashing;
具体实施方式Detailed ways
以下结合具体实施例,对本发明进行详细说明。The present invention will be described in detail below in conjunction with specific embodiments.
本实施例微水量反冲变速上向流轻质滤料过滤器,包括:反应器1、进水配水系统、气反冲洗系统、微水反洗喷淋系统、集水系统、排水/排泥系统。The micro-water backflushing variable-speed upward-flow lightweight filter material of this embodiment includes: reactor 1, inlet water distribution system, gas backwashing system, micro-water backwashing spray system, water collection system, drainage/sludge removal system.
反应器1采用不锈钢材质,反应器1内部分为进水/排泥区2、反冲洗剥离区3、变速过滤区4、压实过滤区5、集水区6,其中变速过滤区4和压实过滤区5填充的滤料为可发性聚苯乙烯颗粒(EPS)36,粒径规格为0.5~1mm;在压实过滤区5的上部安装有抗浮滤板12,抗浮滤板12上安装有滤头13,抗浮滤板12正上方装有盖板14,盖板14周边设置有导流板,盖板14上设有排气阀9;Reactor 1 is made of stainless steel. The interior of reactor 1 is divided into water inlet/sludge discharge zone 2, backwash stripping zone 3, variable-speed filtration zone 4, compaction filtration zone 5, and water collection zone 6, of which variable-speed filtration zone 4 and pressure The filter material filled in the solid filter zone 5 is expandable polystyrene particles (EPS) 36 with a particle size of 0.5 to 1 mm; an anti-floating filter plate 12 and an anti-floating filter plate 12 are installed on the upper part of the compacted filter zone 5 A filter head 13 is installed on it, a cover plate 14 is installed directly above the anti-floating filter plate 12, a baffle plate is provided around the cover plate 14, and an exhaust valve 9 is provided on the cover plate 14;
进水/排泥区2位于反应器1的底部,反冲洗剥离区3位于进水区2的上部,反冲洗剥离区3为圆筒状,体积与变速过滤区4和压实过滤区5容积之和相等,过滤区填充的滤料为可发性聚苯乙烯颗粒(EPS),滤料粒径规格可选用0.5~1mm,待处理水中的污物最先会被变速过滤区滤料滤层拦截;The water inlet/sludge discharge zone 2 is located at the bottom of the reactor 1, the backwash stripping zone 3 is located on the upper part of the water inlet zone 2, and the backwash stripping zone 3 is cylindrical, and the volume is the same as the volume of the variable speed filter zone 4 and the compaction filter zone 5. The sum is equal, the filter material filled in the filter area is expandable polystyrene particles (EPS), and the size of the filter material can be 0.5~1mm. The dirt in the water to be treated will be the first filter layer of the variable speed filter area. Intercept
变速过滤区4位于反冲洗剥离区3上部,该区域横截面面积由下到上逐渐减小,呈圆台状,因进水流量不变,横截面面积减小,根据公式Q=A·υ可知,水流速度逐渐变大,该区域滤料滤层所受到向上的滤速压力也逐渐增大。变速过滤区4所填充的滤料为可发性聚苯乙烯颗粒(EPS),滤料粒径规格可选用0.5~1mm。The variable-speed filter zone 4 is located in the upper part of the backwash stripping zone 3. The cross-sectional area of this zone gradually decreases from bottom to top, and is in the shape of a truncated cone. Because of the constant water flow rate, the cross-sectional area decreases. According to the formula Q=A·υ. , The water flow rate gradually increases, and the upward pressure on the filter layer of the filter material in this area also gradually increases. The filter material filled in the variable-speed filter zone 4 is expandable polystyrene particles (EPS), and the particle size of the filter material can be selected from 0.5 to 1 mm.
压实过滤区5位于变速过滤区4上部,该区域为圆筒状,其横截面积和变速过滤区4上部的横截面积相同,压实过滤区5的初始水流速度为变速过滤区4的最大水流速度,其中的滤料滤层所受压力最大,滤层最为密实,所填充的滤料为可发性聚苯乙烯颗粒(EPS),滤料粒径规格可选用0.5~1mm。The compaction filter zone 5 is located in the upper part of the variable-speed filter zone 4, which is cylindrical, and its cross-sectional area is the same as that of the upper part of the variable-speed filter zone 4. The initial water flow velocity of the compacted filter zone 5 is that of the variable-speed filter zone 4. The maximum water flow rate, the filter layer of which is the most stressed, the filter layer is the densest, the filled filter material is expandable polystyrene particles (EPS), the particle size of the filter material can be selected from 0.5 to 1mm.
待处理原水经过进水/排泥区2进入反应器1底部,依次经过反冲洗剥离区3、变速过滤区4和压实过滤区5的滤料滤层拦截过滤,过滤水通过滤头会遇到盖板14,经过盖板14的导流板流入清水槽15,再经过溢流堰16进入集水区6,最后由出水管17将水收集进清水箱38。The raw water to be treated enters the bottom of the reactor 1 through the water inlet/sludge discharging zone 2, and then passes through the backwash stripping zone 3, the variable speed filter zone 4, and the compaction filter zone 5 to intercept and filter. The filtered water will encounter To the cover plate 14, the flow deflector of the cover plate 14 flows into the clean water tank 15, and then enters the water collection area 6 through the overflow weir 16, and finally the water is collected into the clean water tank 38 by the outlet pipe 17.
进水配水系统包括:原水箱37、水泵18、原水进水管10、进水阀门25和反射板11;原水进水管10上安装进水阀门25,反射板11位于进水管口的正下方,用以均匀布 水;原水箱37连接水泵18进水口,水泵18出水口连接原水进水管10和进水阀门25,反射板11位于原水进水管10管口的正下方。待处理水通过水泵加压经原水进水管输送进反应器1底部的进水/排泥区2,进水通过反射板11进行均匀布水。The inlet water distribution system includes: a raw water tank 37, a water pump 18, a raw water inlet pipe 10, an inlet valve 25 and a reflector 11; the raw water inlet pipe 10 is equipped with an inlet valve 25, and the reflector 11 is located directly below the inlet of the water pipe. The water is distributed evenly; the raw water tank 37 is connected to the water inlet of the water pump 18, the outlet of the water pump 18 is connected to the raw water inlet pipe 10 and the water inlet valve 25, and the reflector 11 is located directly below the nozzle of the raw water inlet pipe 10. The water to be treated is pressurized by a water pump and transported into the water inlet/sludge discharge area 2 at the bottom of the reactor 1 through the raw water inlet pipe, and the inlet water is uniformly distributed through the reflector 11.
集水系统包括清水出水管17和清水箱38,清水出水管17一端连接到集水区6,另一端通到清水箱38,集水区和清水箱38之间存在落差,利用落差清水自动流入清水箱。The water collection system includes a clean water outlet pipe 17 and a clean water tank 38. One end of the clean water outlet pipe 17 is connected to the water collection area 6, and the other end is connected to the clean water tank 38. There is a gap between the water collection area and the clean water tank 38, and the clean water automatically flows in by using the gap. Clean water tank.
微水反冲洗喷淋系统包括清水泵19、微水反冲主管23、微水反冲阀门30和阀门31、微水反冲喷淋支管8和滤料助洗喷头24、液位感应器35和液位检测仪表34;清水泵19连接到清水箱38,清水泵19通过微水反冲主管23、微水反冲阀门30、阀门31连接微水反冲喷淋支管8,微水反冲喷淋支管8周向设置在压实过滤区5和变速过滤区4的外部,每个微水反冲喷淋支管8上设置多个滤料助洗喷头24将水通入压实过滤区5和变速过滤区4的内部;液位感应器35设置在反冲洗剥离区3的顶部,并与液位检测仪表34通过数据线相连接,在反冲洗过程中用于根据液位感应器35的水位感应结果将水位控制在反冲洗剥离区3的顶部;The micro-water backwashing spray system includes a clean water pump 19, a micro-water back-flushing main pipe 23, a micro-water back-flushing valve 30 and valve 31, a micro-water back-flushing spray branch pipe 8 and a filter aid nozzle 24, and a liquid level sensor 35 And liquid level detection instrument 34; the clean water pump 19 is connected to the clean water tank 38, the clean water pump 19 is connected to the micro water backwash spray branch pipe 8 through the micro water backwash main pipe 23, the micro water backwash valve 30, and the valve 31. The spray branch pipe 8 is circumferentially arranged outside the compaction filter zone 5 and the variable-speed filter zone 4, and each micro-water backwash spray branch pipe 8 is provided with a plurality of filter aid washing nozzles 24 to pass water into the compaction filter zone 5 And the inside of the variable-speed filter zone 4; the liquid level sensor 35 is arranged on the top of the backwash stripping zone 3, and is connected with the liquid level detection instrument 34 through a data line, and is used to adjust the liquid level sensor 35 during the backwashing process. The water level sensing result controls the water level at the top of the backwash stripping zone 3;
微水反冲洗系统有两个功能,一是在过滤结束后,进入反冲阶段过程中,通过反冲喷淋作用,促使压紧的轻质滤料36分散,并回落到反冲洗剥离区3。二是在反冲洗结束后滤料复位过程中,利用反冲喷淋作用进一步对轻质滤料36表面进行冲洗,同时起到促进滤料排列均匀的作用。The micro-water backwashing system has two functions. One is that after the filtration is completed, when entering the backwashing stage, the backwashing spray action is used to promote the compacted lightweight filter material 36 to disperse and fall back to the backwashing stripping zone 3. . Second, during the resetting process of the filter material after the backwashing is completed, the surface of the light filter material 36 is further washed by the backwash spray effect, and at the same time it plays a role in promoting the uniform arrangement of the filter material.
气反冲洗系统包括空气压缩机20、反冲洗气管22、反冲洗气管喷头7、反冲洗气阀28和逆止阀26、反冲洗放气阀9。反应器1的排水管21上安装有排水/排泥阀27;反应器1内的反冲洗气管22在位于反冲洗剥离区3底部的管段上设置有均匀分布的反冲洗气管喷头7,且反冲洗气管22上安装有反冲洗气阀28和防止倒水的逆止阀26;反应器1的顶部盖板上有排气阀9;The air backwash system includes an air compressor 20, a backwash air pipe 22, a backwash air pipe nozzle 7, a backwash air valve 28 and a check valve 26, and a backwash air release valve 9. The drain pipe 21 of the reactor 1 is equipped with a drain/sludge valve 27; the backwash gas pipe 22 in the reactor 1 is provided with evenly distributed backwash gas pipe nozzles 7 on the pipe section at the bottom of the backwash stripping zone 3. A backwash gas valve 28 and a check valve 26 to prevent water pouring are installed on the flushing gas pipe 22; an exhaust valve 9 is provided on the top cover of the reactor 1;
排水/排泥系统包括排水/排泥管21、排水/排泥阀27,排水/排泥管21设置在进水/排泥区2的底部,排水/排泥管21上设置有排水/排泥阀27。The drainage/sludge system includes a drainage/sludge pipe 21, a drainage/sludge valve 27. The drainage/sludge pipe 21 is set at the bottom of the water/sludge area 2, and the drainage/sludge pipe 21 is equipped with a drainage/drainage pipe. Mud valve 27.
具体运行过程为:The specific operation process is:
微水量反冲变速上向流轻质滤料过滤器的运行操作过程分为:(1)过滤过程;(2) 反冲洗过程;(3)轻质滤料层复位过程;上述三个过程循环进行。The operation process of the micro-water backflush variable-speed upward-flow lightweight filter material filter is divided into: (1) filtration process; (2) backwash process; (3) light filter material layer reset process; the above three process cycles get on.
(1)过滤过程:关闭排水/排泥阀27、反冲洗进气阀28和连通阀29,打开进水阀门25和排气阀门9,启动进水泵18,由水泵18将原水箱37中待处理水经进水管10输送进入反应器1,待处理水从进水管10流经反射板11进行均匀布水,过滤水流向上依次通过反冲洗剥离区3、变速过滤区4、压实过滤区5,最后水流通过滤头进入清水区,上升水流遇到盖板14时,出水先由排气管排出,这时关闭排气阀9,让水流通过导流板流入清水槽15,再经溢流堰16流入集水区6,最后通过出水管17进入清水箱38。(1) Filtration process: Close the drain/sludge valve 27, the backwash intake valve 28 and the connecting valve 29, open the water inlet valve 25 and the exhaust valve 9, start the water inlet pump 18, and the raw water tank 37 will be placed in the raw water tank 37 by the water pump 18 The treated water is transported into the reactor 1 through the water inlet pipe 10, and the water to be treated flows from the water inlet pipe 10 through the reflector 11 for uniform water distribution. The filtered water flows upward through the backwash stripping zone 3, the variable speed filter zone 4, and the compaction filter zone 5 in turn. Finally, the water flow filter head enters the clean water area. When the rising water flow meets the cover plate 14, the effluent is first discharged from the exhaust pipe. At this time, the exhaust valve 9 is closed, and the water flows into the clean water tank 15 through the deflector, and then passes through the overflow. The weir 16 flows into the water collection area 6 and finally enters the clean water tank 38 through the outlet pipe 17.
(2)反冲洗过程:关闭进水阀门25,打开排水/排泥阀27,反应器1内的水位随着水从排水/排泥阀27的排出逐渐下降,滤料也随之下降,这时打开连通阀29、微水量进水调节阀30和阀门31,启动微水量喷淋水泵19,借助滤料助洗喷孔24的喷淋作用促使压实过滤区5的滤料分散下移,最终利用液位感应器35和液位检测仪表34将水位控制在反冲洗剥离区3的顶部。这时关闭连通阀29、微水量进水调节阀30和阀门31,关闭微水量喷淋水泵19,打开气反冲洗阀28,排气阀9,启动气泵20,气体经空气压缩机20加压后,由气管20,气量调节阀28,逆止阀26进入反应器,再通过反冲洗气管喷头7鼓出,对轻质滤料进行搅拌,搅拌时间5-10min,使滤料滤层截留的污物受气体的剪切作用和自身重力作用与滤料剥离,然后关闭空气压缩机20和阀门28,利用沉淀作用使剥离下来的杂质汇集在排水/排泥区2,沉淀时间20-30min,然后打开排水/排泥阀27,使污泥通过排泥管21随水流排出,完成反冲洗过程。(2) Backwashing process: close the water inlet valve 25, open the drain/sludge valve 27, the water level in the reactor 1 gradually drops as the water is discharged from the drain/sludge valve 27, and the filter material also drops. Open the communication valve 29, the micro-water inlet regulating valve 30 and the valve 31 at the time, start the micro-water spray pump 19, and use the spray effect of the filter aid nozzle 24 to promote the dispersion of the filter material in the compacted filter zone 5 downward. Finally, the liquid level sensor 35 and the liquid level detecting instrument 34 are used to control the water level at the top of the backwash stripping zone 3. At this time, close the communication valve 29, the micro water inlet regulating valve 30 and the valve 31, close the micro water spray pump 19, open the air backwash valve 28, the exhaust valve 9, start the air pump 20, and the gas is pressurized by the air compressor 20 After that, enter the reactor from the gas pipe 20, the gas volume regulating valve 28, and the check valve 26, and then blow out through the backwashing gas pipe nozzle 7 to stir the light filter material for 5-10 minutes, so that the filter material is trapped by the filter layer. The dirt is stripped from the filter material by the shearing action of the gas and its own gravity, and then the air compressor 20 and the valve 28 are closed, and the stripped impurities are collected in the drainage/sludge zone 2 by the sedimentation effect, and the sedimentation time is 20-30min. Then the drain/sludge valve 27 is opened, and the sludge is discharged with the water flow through the sludge pipe 21 to complete the backwashing process.
(3)轻质滤料层复位过程:反冲洗结束并排泥之后,转入下一个过滤过程前,需要进行轻质滤料层复位。首先关闭排水/排泥阀27和反冲洗气阀28,打开微水量喷淋进水阀30和阀门31,打开连通阀29和排气阀门9,启动微水量喷淋水泵19,在微水量喷淋水泵19冲洗水作用下,水流从滤料助洗喷孔24中喷淋到反应器1内,反应器1内水位逐渐上升,可发性聚苯乙烯颗粒(EPS)滤料36因为比重比水小,在这种上升水流的顶托下实现自动复位,同时微水量喷淋对上升过程中的轻质滤料分布进行辅助调整,上升滤料在抗浮滤板的阻挡和水流向上的作用力下,滤层逐渐被压实,这时关闭微水量喷淋进水阀30和阀门31,继续保持微水量喷淋水泵19运行5min后,关闭微水量喷淋水 泵19和连通阀29,完成滤料层的复位过程。(3) The reset process of the light filter material layer: After the backwashing is completed and the mud is discharged, the light filter material layer needs to be reset before the next filtration process. First, close the drain/sludge valve 27 and the backwash air valve 28, open the micro-water spray inlet valve 30 and valve 31, open the connecting valve 29 and the exhaust valve 9, start the micro-water spray pump 19, and start the micro-water spray pump 19 Under the action of the washing water of the shower pump 19, the water flow is sprayed from the filter aid nozzle 24 into the reactor 1. The water level in the reactor 1 gradually rises, and the expandable polystyrene particle (EPS) filter material 36 is because of the specific gravity ratio. The water is small, and the automatic reset is realized under the support of this rising water flow. At the same time, the micro-water spray assists in the adjustment of the distribution of the lightweight filter material during the ascending process, and the effect of the rising filter material on the anti-floating filter plate and the water flow upward Under the pressure, the filter layer is gradually compacted. At this time, close the micro-water spray inlet valve 30 and valve 31, continue to keep the micro-water spray pump 19 running for 5 minutes, close the micro-water spray pump 19 and the connecting valve 29, complete The reset process of the filter layer.
(3)反应器的维护:反应器运行1年左右,需要补充或更换滤料。补充或更换滤料时,需打开排水/排泥阀27、反冲洗助洗阀门30和阀门31,关闭阀门25、反冲洗气阀28和连通阀29,滤料随水位下移,待液位检测仪表34显示水位降至滤料更换口下边缘以下位置时,关闭排水/排泥阀27、并停止运行反冲水泵19,打开滤料更换口33,补充或更换滤料;滤料投加完毕,关闭滤料更换口33,按过滤过程操作开始进行过滤。(3) Reactor maintenance: The reactor has been running for about 1 year, and the filter material needs to be supplemented or replaced. When replenishing or replacing the filter material, open the drain/sludge valve 27, the backwashing aid valve 30 and the valve 31, and close the valve 25, the backwash air valve 28 and the connecting valve 29. The filter material moves down with the water level and waits for the liquid level. When the detecting instrument 34 shows that the water level drops below the lower edge of the filter material replacement port, close the drain/sludge valve 27, stop the backflush water pump 19, open the filter material replacement port 33, and replenish or replace the filter material; add the filter material When finished, close the filter replacement port 33, and start filtering according to the filtering process operation.
本实施例采用所述过滤反应器对某污水处理厂二沉池之后出水进行深度处理。由表1可以看出,反应器对水中浊度有很好的去除效果。反应器的进水浊度为7.134~36.270NTU,反应器出水浊度能达到1NTU以下,浊度去除率在94.5%~97.7%间。In this embodiment, the filter reactor is used to perform advanced treatment on the effluent after the secondary settling tank of a sewage treatment plant. It can be seen from Table 1 that the reactor has a very good removal effect on turbidity in water. The turbidity of the influent water of the reactor is 7.134~36.270 NTU, the turbidity of the effluent of the reactor can reach below 1 NTU, and the turbidity removal rate is between 94.5% and 97.7%.
表1 不同进水浊度的水质处理效果Table 1 Water quality treatment effect of different influent turbidity
Figure PCTCN2020072602-appb-000001
Figure PCTCN2020072602-appb-000001
应当理解的是,对本领域普通技术人员来说,可以根据上述说明加以改进或变换,而所有这些改进和变换都应属于本发明所附权利要求的保护范围。It should be understood that those of ordinary skill in the art can make improvements or changes based on the above description, and all these improvements and changes should fall within the protection scope of the appended claims of the present invention.

Claims (9)

  1. 一种微水量反冲变速上向流轻质滤料过滤器,其特征在于,包括:反应器(1)、进水配水系统、气反冲洗系统、微水反洗喷淋系统、集水系统、排水/排泥系统;A micro-water backwash variable-speed upward-flow lightweight filter material, which is characterized by comprising: a reactor (1), an influent water distribution system, an air backwash system, a micro-water backwash spray system, and a water collection system , Drainage/sludge system;
    反应器(1)内部分为进水/排泥区(2)、反冲洗剥离区(3)、变速过滤区(4)、压实过滤区(5)、集水区(6);在压实过滤区(5)的上部安装有抗浮滤板(12),抗浮滤板(12)上安装有滤头(13),抗浮滤板(12)正上方装有盖板(14),盖板(14)周边设置有导流板,盖板(14)上设有排气阀(9);The inside of the reactor (1) is divided into water inlet/sludge discharge area (2), backwash stripping area (3), variable speed filter area (4), compaction filter area (5), water collection area (6); An anti-floating filter plate (12) is installed on the upper part of the solid filter area (5), a filter head (13) is installed on the anti-floating filter plate (12), and a cover plate (14) is installed directly above the anti-floating filter plate (12) , A deflector is arranged around the cover plate (14), and an exhaust valve (9) is arranged on the cover plate (14);
    进水/排泥区(2)位于反应器(1)的底部,反冲洗剥离区(3)位于进水区(2)的上部,反冲洗剥离区(3)为圆筒状,反冲洗剥离区(3)容积与变速过滤区(4)和压实过滤区(5)容积之和相等,待处理水中的污物最先会被变速过滤区滤料滤层拦截;The water inlet/sludge discharge zone (2) is located at the bottom of the reactor (1), the backwash stripping zone (3) is located on the upper part of the water inlet zone (2), the backwash stripping zone (3) is cylindrical, and the backwash stripping The volume of the zone (3) is equal to the sum of the volume of the variable-speed filter zone (4) and the compacted filter zone (5), and the dirt in the water to be treated will be intercepted by the filter layer of the variable-speed filter zone first;
    变速过滤区(4)位于反冲洗剥离区(3)上部,该区域横截面面积由下到上逐渐减小,呈圆台状,因进水流量不变,横截面面积减小,该区域滤料滤层所受到向上的滤速压力也逐渐增大;The variable-speed filter zone (4) is located in the upper part of the backwash stripping zone (3). The cross-sectional area of this zone gradually decreases from bottom to top, and it is in the shape of a truncated cone. Because the water flow rate is constant, the cross-sectional area decreases, and the filter material in this area The upward pressure on the filter layer also gradually increases;
    压实过滤区(5)位于变速过滤区(4)上部,该区域为圆筒状,其横截面积和变速过滤区(4)上部的横截面积相同,压实过滤区(5)的初始水流速度为变速过滤区(4)的最大水流速度,其中的滤料滤层所受压力最大,滤层最为密实。The compacted filter zone (5) is located in the upper part of the variable-speed filter zone (4). This area is cylindrical, and its cross-sectional area is the same as the cross-sectional area of the upper part of the variable-speed filter zone (4). The water flow speed is the maximum water flow speed of the variable-speed filter zone (4), in which the filter material filter layer is subjected to the greatest pressure and the filter layer is the densest.
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的过滤器,其特征在于,待处理原水经过进水/排泥区(2)进入反应器(1)底部,依次经过反冲洗剥离区(3)、变速过滤区(4)和压实过滤区(5)的滤料滤层拦截过滤,过滤水通过滤头会遇到盖板(14),经过盖板(14)的导流板流入清水槽(15),再经过溢流堰(16)进入集水区(6),最后由出水管(17)将水收集进清水箱(38)。The filter according to claim 1, characterized in that the raw water to be treated enters the bottom of the reactor (1) through the water inlet/sludge discharge zone (2), and sequentially passes through the backwash stripping zone (3) and the variable speed filter zone (4). ) And the filter layer of the compaction filter zone (5) intercept and filter, the filtered water will meet the cover plate (14) through the filter head, and flow into the clear water tank (15) through the deflector of the cover plate (14), and then pass through The overflow weir (16) enters the water collection area (6), and finally the water is collected into the clear water tank (38) by the outlet pipe (17).
  3. 根据权利要求1所述的过滤器,其特征在于,反应器内填充的滤料为可发性聚苯乙烯颗粒(36),粒径规格为0.5~1mm。The filter according to claim 1, wherein the filter material filled in the reactor is expandable polystyrene particles (36) with a particle size specification of 0.5 to 1 mm.
  4. 根据权利要求1所述的过滤器,其特征在于,进水配水系统包括:原水箱(37)、水泵(18)、原水进水管(10)、进水阀门(25)和反射板(11);原水进水管(10) 上安装进水阀门(25),反射板(11)位于进水管口的正下方,用以均匀布水;原水箱(37)连接水泵(18)进水口,水泵(18)出水口连接原水进水管(10)和进水阀门(25),反射板(11)位于原水进水管(10)管口的正下方。待处理水通过水泵加压经原水进水管输送进反应器(1)底部的进水/排泥区(2),进水通过反射板(11)进行均匀布水。The filter according to claim 1, wherein the inlet water distribution system comprises: a raw water tank (37), a water pump (18), a raw water inlet pipe (10), a water inlet valve (25) and a reflector (11) ; The water inlet valve (25) is installed on the raw water inlet pipe (10), and the reflector plate (11) is located directly under the inlet pipe to distribute water evenly; the raw water tank (37) is connected to the water inlet of the water pump (18), and the water pump ( 18) The water outlet is connected to the raw water inlet pipe (10) and the water inlet valve (25), and the reflector plate (11) is located directly below the nozzle of the raw water inlet pipe (10). The water to be treated is pressurized by a water pump and transported into the water inlet/sludge discharge area (2) at the bottom of the reactor (1) through the raw water inlet pipe, and the influent water is uniformly distributed through the reflector (11).
  5. 根据权利要求1所述的过滤器,其特征在于,集水系统包括清水出水管(17)和清水箱(38),清水出水管(17)一端连接到集水区(6),另一端通到清水箱(38),集水区和清水箱(38)之间存在落差,利用落差清水自动流入清水箱。The filter according to claim 1, wherein the water collection system includes a clear water outlet pipe (17) and a clear water tank (38), one end of the clear water outlet pipe (17) is connected to the water collection area (6), and the other end is connected to the water collection area (6). To the clear water tank (38), there is a gap between the catchment area and the clear water tank (38), and the clear water automatically flows into the clear water tank by using the gap.
  6. 根据权利要求1所述的过滤器,其特征在于,微水反冲洗喷淋系统包括清水泵(19)、微水反冲主管(23)、微水反冲阀门(30)和阀门(31)、微水反冲喷淋支管(8)和滤料助洗喷头(24)、液位感应器(35)和液位检测仪表(34);清水泵(19)连接到清水箱(38),清水泵(19)通过微水反冲主管(23)、微水反冲阀门(30)、阀门(31)连接微水反冲喷淋支管(8),微水反冲喷淋支管(8)周向设置在压实过滤区(5)和变速过滤区(4)的外部,每个微水反冲喷淋支管(8)上设置多个滤料助洗喷头(24)将水通入压实过滤区(5)和变速过滤区(4)的内部;液位感应器(35)设置在反冲洗剥离区(3)的顶部,并与液位检测仪表(34)通过数据线相连接,在反冲洗过程中用于根据液位感应器(35)的水位感应结果将水位控制在反冲洗剥离区(3)的顶部。The filter according to claim 1, wherein the micro-water backwash spray system includes a clean water pump (19), a micro-water backwash main pipe (23), a micro-water backwash valve (30) and a valve (31) , Micro-water recoil spray branch pipe (8) and filter aid washing nozzle (24), liquid level sensor (35) and liquid level detection instrument (34); clean water pump (19) is connected to clean water tank (38), The clean water pump (19) is connected to the micro-water recoil spray branch pipe (8) and the micro-water recoil spray branch pipe (8) through the micro-water recoil main pipe (23), the micro-water recoil valve (30), and the valve (31). Circumferentially arranged on the outside of the compaction filter zone (5) and the variable-speed filter zone (4), each micro-water backwash spray branch pipe (8) is provided with a plurality of filter aid washing nozzles (24) to pass the water into the pressure Inside the solid filter zone (5) and the variable speed filter zone (4); the liquid level sensor (35) is set on the top of the backwash stripping zone (3), and is connected with the liquid level detection instrument (34) through a data line, During the backwashing process, it is used to control the water level at the top of the backwashing stripping zone (3) according to the water level sensing result of the liquid level sensor (35).
  7. 根据权利要求1所述的过滤器,其特征在于,气反冲洗系统包括空气压缩机(20)、反冲洗气管(22)、反冲洗气管喷头(7)、反冲洗气阀(28)和逆止阀(26)、反冲洗放气阀(9)。反应器(1)的排水管(21)上安装有排水/排泥阀(27);反应器(1)内的反冲洗气管(22)在位于反冲洗剥离区(3)底部的管段上设置有均匀分布的反冲洗气管喷头(7),且反冲洗气管(22)上安装有反冲洗气阀(28)和防止倒水的逆止阀(26);反应器(1)的顶部盖板上有排气阀(9);The filter according to claim 1, wherein the air backwash system includes an air compressor (20), a backwash air pipe (22), a backwash air pipe nozzle (7), a backwash air valve (28) and a reverse Check valve (26), backwash air release valve (9). The drain pipe (21) of the reactor (1) is equipped with a drain/sludge valve (27); the backwash gas pipe (22) in the reactor (1) is set on the pipe section at the bottom of the backwash stripping zone (3) There are evenly distributed backwashing air pipe nozzles (7), and the backwashing air pipe (22) is equipped with a backwashing air valve (28) and a check valve (26) to prevent water pouring; the top cover of the reactor (1) There is an exhaust valve (9);
  8. 根据权利要求1所述的过滤器,其特征在于,排水/排泥系统包括排水/排泥管(21)、排水/排泥阀(27),排水/排泥管(21)设置在进水/排泥区(2)的底部,排水/排泥管(21)上设置有排水/排泥阀(27)。The filter according to claim 1, characterized in that the drainage/sludge system includes a drainage/sludge pipe (21), a drainage/sludge valve (27), and the drainage/sludge pipe (21) is arranged at the inlet /At the bottom of the sludge area (2), a drain/sludge valve (27) is provided on the drain/sludge pipe (21).
  9. 根据权利要求1所述的过滤器的运行操作方法,其特征在于,微水量反冲变速上向流轻质滤料过滤器的运行操作过程分为:(1)过滤过程;(2)反冲洗过程;(3)轻质滤料层复位过程;三个过程循环进行;The operation method of the filter according to claim 1, characterized in that the operation process of the micro-water backflush variable speed upward flow light filter material filter is divided into: (1) filtration process; (2) backwash Process; (3) The reset process of the light filter material layer; the three processes are carried out in cycles;
    (1)过滤过程:关闭排水/排泥阀(27)、反冲洗进气阀(28)和连通阀(29),打开进水阀门(25)和排气阀门(9),启动进水泵(18),由水泵(18)将原水箱(37)中待处理水经进水管(10)输送进入反应器(1),待处理水从进水管(10)流经反射板(11)进行均匀布水,过滤水流向上依次通过反冲洗剥离区(3)、变速过滤区(4)、压实过滤区(5),最后水流通过滤头进入清水区,上升水流遇到盖板(14)时,出水先由排气管排出,这时关闭排气阀(9),让水流通过导流板流入清水槽(15),再经溢流堰(16)流入集水区(6),最后通过出水管(17)进入清水箱(38)。(1) Filtration process: Close the drain/sludge valve (27), the backwash inlet valve (28) and the connecting valve (29), open the water inlet valve (25) and exhaust valve (9), and start the water inlet pump ( 18), the water to be treated in the raw water tank (37) is transported into the reactor (1) through the inlet pipe (10) by the water pump (18), and the water to be treated flows from the inlet pipe (10) through the reflector (11) for uniformity Water distribution, the filtered water flows upwards through the backwash stripping zone (3), variable speed filter zone (4), compaction filter zone (5), and finally the water flows through the filter head into the clear water zone, when the rising water flow meets the cover plate (14) , The effluent is discharged from the exhaust pipe first, then close the exhaust valve (9), let the water flow into the clear water tank (15) through the deflector, and then into the catchment area (6) through the overflow weir (16), and finally pass The outlet pipe (17) enters the clean water tank (38).
    (2)反冲洗过程:关闭进水阀门(25),打开排水/排泥阀(27),反应器(1)内的水位随着水从排水/排泥阀(27)的排出逐渐下降,滤料也随之下降,这时打开连通阀(29)、微水量进水调节阀(30)和阀门(31),启动微水量喷淋水泵(19),借助滤料助洗喷孔(24)的喷淋作用促使压实过滤区(5)的滤料分散下移,最终利用液位感应器(35)和液位检测仪表(34)将水位控制在反冲洗剥离区(3)的顶部。这时关闭连通阀(29)、微水量进水调节阀(30)和阀门(31),关闭微水量喷淋水泵(19),打开气反冲洗阀(28),排气阀(9),启动气泵(20),气体经空气压缩机(20)加压后,由气管(20),气量调节阀(28),逆止阀(26)进入反应器,再通过反冲洗气管喷头(7)鼓出,对轻质滤料进行搅拌,搅拌时间5-10min,使滤料滤层截留的污物受气体的剪切作用和自身重力作用与滤料剥离,然后关闭空气压缩机(20)和阀门(28),利用沉淀作用使剥离下来的杂质汇集在排水/排泥区(2),沉淀时间20-30min,然后打开排水/排泥阀(27),使污泥通过排泥管(21)随水流排出,完成反冲洗过程。(2) Backwashing process: close the water inlet valve (25), open the drain/sludge valve (27), the water level in the reactor (1) gradually drops as water is discharged from the drain/sludge valve (27), The filter material also drops accordingly. At this time, open the connecting valve (29), the micro water inlet regulating valve (30) and the valve (31), start the micro water spray pump (19), and use the filter material to help wash the spray holes (24). The spraying action of) promotes the dispersion and downward movement of the filter material in the compacted filter zone (5), and finally uses the liquid level sensor (35) and the liquid level detection instrument (34) to control the water level at the top of the backwash stripping zone (3) . At this time, close the communication valve (29), the micro-water inlet regulating valve (30) and the valve (31), close the micro-water spray pump (19), open the air backwash valve (28), and the exhaust valve (9), Start the air pump (20). After the gas is pressurized by the air compressor (20), it enters the reactor through the air pipe (20), the air volume regulating valve (28), and the check valve (26), and then passes through the backwashing air pipe nozzle (7) Blow out and stir the light filter material for 5-10min, so that the dirt trapped by the filter layer will be peeled from the filter material by the shearing action of the gas and its own gravity, and then turn off the air compressor (20) and The valve (28) uses sedimentation to collect the stripped impurities in the drainage/sludge discharge area (2). The sedimentation time is 20-30min, and then the drainage/sludge valve (27) is opened to allow the sludge to pass through the sludge discharge pipe (21). ) Discharge with the water flow to complete the backwashing process.
    (3)轻质滤料层复位过程:反冲洗结束并排泥之后,转入下一个过滤过程前,需要进行轻质滤料层复位。首先关闭排水/排泥阀(27)和反冲洗气阀(28),打开微水量喷淋进水阀(30)和阀门(31),打开连通阀(29)和排气阀门(9),启动微水量喷淋水泵(19),在微水量喷淋水泵(19)冲洗水作用下,水流从滤料助洗喷孔(24)中喷淋 到反应器(1)内,反应器(1)内水位逐渐上升,可发性聚苯乙烯颗粒(EPS)滤料(36)因为比重比水小,在这种上升水流的顶托下实现自动复位,同时微水量喷淋对上升过程中的轻质滤料分布进行辅助调整,上升滤料在抗浮滤板的阻挡和水流向上的作用力下,滤层逐渐被压实,这时关闭微水量喷淋进水阀(30)和阀门(31),继续保持微水量喷淋水泵(19)运行5-10min后,关闭微水量喷淋水泵(19)和连通阀(29),完成滤料层的复位过程。(3) The reset process of the light filter material layer: After the backwashing is completed and the mud is discharged, the light filter material layer needs to be reset before the next filtration process. First, close the drain/sludge valve (27) and the backwash air valve (28), open the micro-water spray inlet valve (30) and valve (31), open the connecting valve (29) and the exhaust valve (9), Start the micro-water spray pump (19), under the action of the washing water of the micro-water spray pump (19), the water flow is sprayed from the filter aid spray hole (24) into the reactor (1), the reactor (1) ) The internal water level gradually rises. Because the specific gravity of the expandable polystyrene particle (EPS) filter material (36) is smaller than that of water, it can automatically reset under the support of this rising water flow. At the same time, the slight water spray will affect the rising process. The light filter material distribution is adjusted auxiliary. The rising filter material is blocked by the anti-floating filter plate and the filter layer is gradually compacted under the force of the water flow upwards. At this time, close the micro water spray inlet valve (30) and the valve ( 31), after continuing to keep the micro-water spray pump (19) running for 5-10 minutes, close the micro-water spray pump (19) and the connecting valve (29) to complete the reset process of the filter layer.
PCT/CN2020/072602 2019-12-05 2020-01-17 Micro-water quantity backwashing variable-speed upward-flow lightweight-filtering-material filter, and method thereof WO2021109329A1 (en)

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