WO2021004244A1 - 一种自动脱扣和防坠避雷器及避雷熔断一体化组合装置 - Google Patents

一种自动脱扣和防坠避雷器及避雷熔断一体化组合装置 Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2021004244A1
WO2021004244A1 PCT/CN2020/096601 CN2020096601W WO2021004244A1 WO 2021004244 A1 WO2021004244 A1 WO 2021004244A1 CN 2020096601 W CN2020096601 W CN 2020096601W WO 2021004244 A1 WO2021004244 A1 WO 2021004244A1
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WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
arrester
falling
dropping
insulator
automatic tripping
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/CN2020/096601
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English (en)
French (fr)
Inventor
岳夕皓
郑春雨
Original Assignee
陕西和硕电气有限公司
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority claimed from CN201910609720.0A external-priority patent/CN110197973B/zh
Priority claimed from CN201910612771.9A external-priority patent/CN110277776A/zh
Priority claimed from CN201911351440.0A external-priority patent/CN110828081A/zh
Priority claimed from CN202010512467.XA external-priority patent/CN111524668A/zh
Application filed by 陕西和硕电气有限公司 filed Critical 陕西和硕电气有限公司
Priority to US17/610,436 priority Critical patent/US11936135B2/en
Publication of WO2021004244A1 publication Critical patent/WO2021004244A1/zh

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01RELECTRICALLY-CONDUCTIVE CONNECTIONS; STRUCTURAL ASSOCIATIONS OF A PLURALITY OF MUTUALLY-INSULATED ELECTRICAL CONNECTING ELEMENTS; COUPLING DEVICES; CURRENT COLLECTORS
    • H01R13/00Details of coupling devices of the kinds covered by groups H01R12/70 or H01R24/00 - H01R33/00
    • H01R13/62Means for facilitating engagement or disengagement of coupling parts or for holding them in engagement
    • H01R13/6205Two-part coupling devices held in engagement by a magnet
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01CRESISTORS
    • H01C1/00Details
    • H01C1/06Electrostatic or electromagnetic shielding arrangements
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01CRESISTORS
    • H01C1/00Details
    • H01C1/14Terminals or tapping points or electrodes specially adapted for resistors; Arrangements of terminals or tapping points or electrodes on resistors
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01CRESISTORS
    • H01C7/00Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material
    • H01C7/10Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material voltage responsive, i.e. varistors
    • H01C7/12Overvoltage protection resistors
    • H01C7/126Means for protecting against excessive pressure or for disconnecting in case of failure
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01FMAGNETS; INDUCTANCES; TRANSFORMERS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
    • H01F13/00Apparatus or processes for magnetising or demagnetising
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02GINSTALLATION OF ELECTRIC CABLES OR LINES, OR OF COMBINED OPTICAL AND ELECTRIC CABLES OR LINES
    • H02G13/00Installations of lightning conductors; Fastening thereof to supporting structure
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02HEMERGENCY PROTECTIVE CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS
    • H02H9/00Emergency protective circuit arrangements for limiting excess current or voltage without disconnection
    • H02H9/04Emergency protective circuit arrangements for limiting excess current or voltage without disconnection responsive to excess voltage
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01CRESISTORS
    • H01C7/00Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material
    • H01C7/10Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material voltage responsive, i.e. varistors
    • H01C7/12Overvoltage protection resistors

Definitions

  • the invention belongs to the technical field of power transmission and distribution, and relates to an automatic tripping and anti-falling arrester and a lightning protection fuse combination device.
  • the power industry usually needs to install RW series drop-out fuses and MOA series zinc oxide arresters to provide overcurrent and lightning protection to distribution transformers at the 10kV distribution network terminal offline.
  • the drop-out fuse is a common power device with isolation and protection features in the power industry.
  • the main feature is that when the current exceeds the fuse rating, the melt will be blown by the heat generated by itself, and the drop structure will use gravity to melt
  • the tube body is disconnected from the system power supply and forms an obvious disconnection distance.
  • Zinc oxide arrester is a kind of power equipment used to protect electrical equipment from high transient overvoltage. The arrester is installed and connected between the power supply line and the earth, and is usually used in parallel with the protected equipment.
  • the arrester When the power supply line or equipment is operating under the normal rated working voltage, the arrester is regarded as a high blocking circuit state to the earth. Once a high voltage occurs and the insulation of the protected equipment is endangered, the arrester immediately releases the overvoltage action to the ground and directs the high voltage impact to the ground, thereby limiting the voltage amplitude and protecting the insulation of the power supply cable and the equipment itself. When the overvoltage disappears, the arrester quickly returns to its original state, allowing the power supply line to work normally.
  • the existing installation methods of power grid fuse and lightning protection devices generally adopt a typical installation method of double poles and double crossarms, which is up and down. It is necessary to install a metal cross arm separately, and then install the arrester on the cross arm. When the arrester is aging and falls off, it needs to be removed.
  • This installation method not only increases the complexity and cumbersomeness of the installation process of the drop-out fuse and the zinc oxide arrester, and when the zinc oxide arrester fails or fails, it cannot be safely separated from the system in time and increases the distribution network terminal. Operation and maintenance workload on the 10kV side.
  • the current release device is roughly divided into two types, one is hot melt release, and the other is thermal explosion release.
  • the hot-melt disconnector is when the internal valve core of the zinc oxide arrester has an aging failure, the current flowing through the valve plate increases, so that the valve plate group forms a heating state. When the heating temperature reaches the design value of the disconnector, it is The low melting point is integrated into the financial industry, and the action of the disconnector causes the zinc oxide arrester to be disconnected from the system grounding wire.
  • the thermal explosion type disconnector is when the internal valve core of the zinc oxide arrester has an aging failure, the current flowing through the valve plate increases, and the power frequency current is used to generate an arc through itself, and the explosive is ignited to separate the arrester from the grounding wire.
  • the safety factor is low, and it needs to be powered off and replaced after it falls off. The operation is relatively troublesome, and the built-in explosive has a greater risk of safety management and control, which limits its promotion and use.
  • the purpose of the present invention is to provide an automatic tripping and anti-falling lightning arrester and lightning protection fuse combination device, which realizes the automatic and reliable separation of the aging arrester and the anti-falling of the arrester after the separation, ensuring the safety of the power grid and facilitating the replacement of the arrester. Realize the combined use of lightning arrester and fuse.
  • the key points of the present invention are: firstly, change the detachment method of the traditional lightning arrester, install the arrester inside the insulator body of the built-in magnetic thermal separation unit, and use the heat generated by the arrester after the failure to make the magnet fail, and then the arrester is separated, and the insulator
  • the anti-falling mechanism installed on the upper part supports the separated arrester, avoiding the safety impact caused by direct falling from a height, and facilitating the replacement of the arrester.
  • An automatic tripping and anti-dropping arrester comprising an insulator body, a lightning arrester body, and an anti-falling member;
  • the insulator body is a sealed cylinder structure, and a magnet adsorption surface is arranged inside the insulator body;
  • the arrester body includes a top-down The disengagement unit and lightning conductor are provided, and the surge arrester body is arranged in the insulator body;
  • the disengagement unit includes a magnetic trip module with a built-in magnet, which is adsorbed on the magnet adsorption surface when the disengagement unit works; the aging of the lightning conductor causes the magnetic trip module
  • the internal thermal effect causes the separation unit to separate from the magnet adsorption surface;
  • the anti-dropping member is arranged on the insulator body, and when the arrester body falls from the working position, it is supported and prevented from falling.
  • the magnetic trip module includes a metal shell (311) and a magnet, a resistor piece, and a pot-shaped conductor piece stacked from top to bottom in the metal shell.
  • the resistor piece It is arranged close to the pot-shaped conductor piece, and a discharge gap is arranged between the outer wall of the pot-shaped conductor piece and the inner wall of the metal shell.
  • the magnetic tripping module further includes a conductive tightening member, a conductive connecting screw and an insulating positioning pad which are sequentially arranged in the metal shell and located at the bottom of the pot-shaped conductor sheet.
  • the lower end of the conductive connection screw extends through the insulating positioning pad and the bottom of the metal casing to the outside of the metal casing, and a metal cover is installed on the top of the metal casing.
  • the discharge gap is 2 mm.
  • the resistor is a silicon carbide resistor.
  • the middle and lower outer ring of the arrester body is provided with a conductive convex ring
  • the anti-dropping member is a hook anti-dropping component arranged on one side of the bottom end of the insulator body. When falling, the hook anti-drop component hooks the lower end of the conductive convex ring to prevent the arrester body from falling.
  • the hook anti-dropping component includes a fixed bracket and an anti-dropping fixture that are fixedly connected as a whole.
  • the fixed bracket is sleeved at the lower opening of the insulating tube at the lower end of the insulator body, and the movable hook body
  • the torsion spring and the hook bolt are movably connected to the lower end of the anti-falling fixing member.
  • the outer ring of the top of the arrester body is provided with a brim
  • the anti-falling member includes a bell mouth body and a claw-type washer, and the bell mouth body is connected under the insulating tube at the lower end of the sub-insulator body Mouth;
  • the bell mouth body is provided with a claw-shaped washer inside, the claw-shaped washer includes a mounting ring and a plurality of elastic claws set at the lower part of the mounting ring, the top of each elastic claw and the mounting ring are fixedly connected as a whole, and the elastic claws face inward Bending and forming a protrusion in the middle part, the protrusion can block the brim of the hat when the arrester body falls.
  • a mounting gap is provided on one side of the ring body of the mounting ring, and the mounting gap penetrates the entire ring body.
  • a washer installation groove and a washer movable groove are arranged from top to bottom inside the main body of the bell mouth; the mounting ring of the claw-shaped washer is installed in the washer installation groove, and the position of the washer movable groove and the protrusion are the same. correspond.
  • the middle and lower outer ring of the arrester body is provided with a conductive convex ring
  • the bell mouth body is provided with a limit slot inside, and the conductive contact surface on the upper part of the limit slot when the arrester body is working normally Contact with the conductive convex ring.
  • the top end of the insulator body is provided with an upper umbrella skirt sealing member, and the lower end surface of the upper umbrella skirt sealing member is processed with the magnet adsorption surface; the release unit at the upper end of the arrester body is adsorbed on the magnet adsorption surface on.
  • the upper umbrella skirt sealing member is connected to the top end of the insulator main body through a thread.
  • the top end of the upper umbrella skirt sealing member is provided with an upper connecting piece, and the upper connecting piece is provided with a wire inlet end.
  • the outer ring of the insulator body is provided with an intermediate fixing member, the inside of the insulator body is provided with a magnet adsorption block, the magnet adsorption block is fixed on the intermediate fixing member, and the lower end surface of the magnet adsorption block is processed There is the magnet adsorption surface, and the detachment unit at the upper end of the arrester body is adsorbed on the magnet adsorption surface.
  • the intermediate fixing member is fixedly connected to the cross arm on the electric pole, and is connected to the ground terminal.
  • the insulator main body includes an insulating tube, the outer ring of the insulating tube is sleeved with an umbrella skirt main body, and the lower end of the umbrella skirt main body is provided with an insulating tube lower port.
  • An integrated lightning protection and fuse assembly device comprising a fuse and an automatic trip and anti-dropping arrester.
  • the upper part of the insulator body and the fuse is connected with an upper end fixing part, and the upper end fixing part is connected to the high-voltage incoming line of the external transmission line End connected.
  • the lower part of the insulator body and the fuse is connected with a lower end fixing piece, the lower end fixing piece is fixed between the lower mouth of the insulating pipe and the bell mouth body, and the lower end fixing piece is connected to the external transmission line
  • the low-voltage outlet end of the cable is connected to the inlet end of the arrester.
  • the lightning arrester of the present invention is equipped with a magnetic detachment unit and an anti-falling mechanism.
  • the lightning protection core is adsorbed on the magnet adsorption surface through the built-in magnet of the detachment unit to make it in working condition, and the detachment unit is used after the lightning protection core ages.
  • the thermal effect generated by the magnetic trip module heats the magnet to make it lose its magnetic force, which realizes the automatic and reliable separation of the aging arrester and the anti-falling of the arrester after separation, ensuring the safe use of the power grid and facilitating the replacement of the arrester.
  • the detachment unit of the lightning arrester of the present invention adopts laminated magnets, silicon carbide resistors and pot-shaped conductor pieces, and a discharge gap is set between the pot-shaped conductor piece and the metal shell of the detachment unit, so that the lightning protection core is severely aged
  • the voltage loaded on the silicon carbide resistor during operation will break down the discharge gap and form a discharge channel, causing the magnet to heat up quickly and lose its magnetism, causing the aging arrester to fall, ensuring the safety of the power grid.
  • an external anti-dropping mechanism is set on the bottom of the insulator body, and a conductive convex ring is set on the body of the arrester.
  • the conductive convex ring contacts the conductive contact surface on the main body of the bell mouth to achieve conductivity.
  • the hook anti-fall component of the anti-falling component hooks the lower end of the conductive convex ring to prevent the lightning arrester body from falling directly, ensuring the safety of the power grid and facilitating the replacement of the lightning protection core.
  • a built-in anti-fall mechanism is arranged inside the insulator cavity of the arrester.
  • the claw-shaped washer at the lower part of the insulator cavity blocks the brim of the top of the arrester and prevents the arrester from falling.
  • the length of the arrester used makes the arrester the farthest distance from the grounding terminal after the arrester falls off, ensuring that the arrester can be effectively separated from the main line after failure, and maximizing the safety distance.
  • the claw-shaped washer is provided on one side to facilitate the penetration of the arrester into the insulator cavity. Compared with the external anti-drop mechanism, it avoids the installation interference caused by the structure of the lower outlet end, which makes the components simple, beautiful in structure, and improved Productivity.
  • the present invention combines an automatic tripping and anti-dropping arrester and a fuse into an integrated lightning protection and fuse combination device, which is fixed on a cross arm on a telegraph pole by an intermediate fixing part arranged in the middle of the insulator body, and the lower end fixing part realizes The low-voltage outlet terminal and the lightning arrester's inlet terminal are shared, thereby simplifying the structure and installation and fixing methods of the split arrester and the fuse, and reducing the equipment cost.
  • Figure 1 is a structural diagram of the normal operation of the external anti-fall arrester of the present invention
  • Figure 2 is a structural diagram of the insulator body and the bell mouth of the external anti-drop arrester of the present invention
  • Figure 3 is a structural diagram of the body of the external anti-fall arrester body of the present invention.
  • Figure 4 is a structural diagram of the external anti-fall arrester of the present invention when it is aging and falls off;
  • Fig. 5 is a schematic diagram of the composition structure of the magnetically-attracted trip module of the arrester of the present invention.
  • Fig. 6 is a schematic diagram of the discharge gap in the magnetically-attracted trip module of the arrester of the present invention.
  • FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram of the leakage current flow when the silicon carbide resistor of the present invention is working normally
  • FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram of the leakage current flow when the silicon carbide resistor chip of the present invention is broken down;
  • FIG. 9 is a structural diagram of the built-in anti-falling lightning protection and fuse combination device of the present invention.
  • FIG. 10 is a structural diagram of the main body of the insulator in the built-in anti-falling lightning protection and fuse combination device of the present invention.
  • FIG. 11 is a schematic diagram of the lower end installation structure of the fuse in the built-in anti-falling lightning protection fuse combination device of the present invention.
  • Figure 12 is a structural diagram of the lower end fixing member of the built-in anti-falling lightning protection fuse combination device of the present invention.
  • Figure 13 is a main structure diagram of the built-in anti-fall arrester of the present invention.
  • Figure 14 is a structural diagram of the bell mouth of the built-in anti-fall arrester of the present invention.
  • Figure 15 is a sectional view of the bell mouth of Figure 14;
  • 16 is a structural diagram of the claw-type washer of the built-in anti-fall arrester of the present invention.
  • Figure 17 is a structural diagram of the built-in anti-fall arrester of the present invention installed in place
  • Figure 18 is a diagram of the built-in anti-fall arrester of the present invention falling off
  • Fig. 19 is a structural diagram of the mounting ring in the bell mouth when the built-in anti-fall arrester of the present invention is detached;
  • the reference signs are as follows: 1-Insulator body; 2-Bell mouth body; 3-Arrester body; 4-Fuse; 101-Umbrella body; 102-Insulating tube; 103-Insulating tube lower port; 104-External thread of tube bottom 105-upper fixing piece; 106-lower fixing piece; 107-middle fixing piece; 108-magnet adsorption block; 109-positioning screw; 110-fuse fixing hole; 111-positioning hole; 118-magnet adsorption surface; 200- Claw-type washer; 201-installation thread; 202-washer mounting groove; 203-washer movable groove; 204-conductive contact surface; 205-mounting ring; 206-installation gap; 207-elastic claw; 208-protrusion; 209-limit Position groove; 210-flexible claw part; 301-extension rod; 302-lightning conductor; 303-disengagement unit; 304-brim; 305-conducting conve
  • the role of lightning arrester is an important device used to protect electrical equipment from high transient overvoltage hazards.
  • the lightning arrester is installed and connected between the power supply line and the earth, and is usually used in parallel with the protected equipment.
  • the arrester will not release the earth and is regarded as high resistance to the earth Open circuit state.
  • the lightning arrester made of zinc oxide material immediately releases the overvoltage action to the ground and directs the high voltage impact to the ground, thereby limiting the voltage amplitude and protecting the power supply cable and the equipment itself.
  • the arrester quickly returns to its original state, allowing the power supply line to work normally.
  • the general lightning arrester detachment method can adopt the hot-melt detachment method.
  • the hot-melt detacher is to detach the ground terminal of the zinc oxide arrester when the internal valve core of the zinc oxide arrester is aging.
  • the main manifestation is that the current flowing through the valve plate increases, so The valve plate group forms a heating state. Because the valve plate group has a negative temperature coefficient, the equivalent resistance caused by heating decreases, which in turn promotes heating to increase, forming a vicious circle, so that the working state of the zinc oxide arrester is directly transmitted to the disconnector in the form of temperature.
  • the power frequency current is used to generate heat by itself. When the temperature reaches the designed value of the breaker, its low melting point will be integrated and the breaker will act to separate the zinc oxide arrester from the system grounding wire and then replace it.
  • the present invention focuses on the problems of long-term use and aging replacement of lightning arresters, and has developed an external anti-falling mechanism, a built-in anti-falling mechanism, a magnetically-attracted lightning protection core automatic trip structure, and a lightning protection fuse combination device. The following are introduced in the form of embodiments. .
  • an automatic tripping and falling arrester includes an umbrella skirt body 101, an insulating tube 102, a zinc oxide lightning conductor 302, and a bell mouth body 2.
  • the insulating tube 102 is located inside the umbrella skirt body 101.
  • the bell mouth body 2 is located at the bottom end of the umbrella skirt body 101.
  • the upper end of the shed main body 101 is provided with an upper shed sealing member 602, the lower surface of the upper shed sealing member 602 is provided with a magnet adsorption surface 118, and the lower end of the upper shed sealing member 602 is provided with a mounting internal thread.
  • the insulation tube 102 is provided with a tube top external thread 641 that matches the installation internal thread.
  • the upper umbrella skirt sealing member 602 is fixedly connected to the umbrella skirt main body 101 through the insulation tube 102.
  • the insulation tube 102 is provided with a lightning protection core installation inner
  • the zinc oxide arrester body 3 is installed in the inner cavity of the lightning conductor installation.
  • the arrester body 3 includes a zinc oxide lightning conductor 302 in the middle, a detachment unit 303 at the upper end, and an extension rod 301 at the lower end.
  • the extension rod 301 is provided with a conductive convex ring 305, an anti-fall mounting frame is connected to one side of the umbrella skirt body 101, and an anti-falling movable hook 508 is connected to the bottom side of the anti-falling mounting frame.
  • the falling movable hook 508 is located on the side of the bottom end of the lightning conductor.
  • the anti-dropping mounting frame includes a fixing bracket 505 and an anti-falling fixing member 506.
  • One end of the fixing bracket 505 is connected with a fixing collar 551, and the fixing collar 551 is fixedly sleeved between the umbrella skirt body 101 and the bell mouth body 2.
  • the anti-falling fixing member 506 is fixedly connected to the fixing bracket 505, and the anti-falling fixing member 506 is provided with a torsion spring 582.
  • the torsion spring 582 is connected to the anti-falling fixing member 506 by a bolt, and the fixing bracket 505 passes through
  • the fixed collar 551 fits tightly with the bell mouth 2 to ensure that overvoltage or lightning can be safely introduced into the ground.
  • the fixed collar 551 effectively connects the insulating tube 102, and can connect the ground wire of the outlet end through the torsion spring bolt 583 to the The falling fixing member 506 is connected.
  • the anti-falling movable hook 508 is located at the bottom side of the anti-falling fixing member 506, and the anti-falling movable hook 508 is connected to the anti-falling fixing member 506 through a torsion spring 582 and a hook bolt 581, and the operator manually installs the anti-falling movement
  • the installer is used to shrink the anti-falling movable hook piece 508 inward so that the zinc oxide lightning arrester body 3 is successfully installed and restored to the original state, so that the anti-falling movable hook can be used when the zinc oxide lightning conductor 302 is aging and falling
  • the piece 508 clamps the arrester body 3 in the anti-falling position to prevent the arrester body 3 from directly falling to other places and causing safety accidents.
  • the upper end of the bell mouth body 2 is provided with a mounting thread 201
  • the bottom side wall of the insulating tube 102 is provided with a pipe bottom external thread 104 matching the mounting thread 201
  • the larger diameter end of the bell mouth body 2 is provided with a conductive
  • the contact surface 204 and the installation thread 201 can tightly combine the bell mouth body 2 with the insulating tube 102, and the conductive contact surface 204 can fully contact the conductive parts at the lower end of the arrester body 3 to ensure effective conduction between the two.
  • the bell mouth body 2 is made of a non-ferrous metal material, the conductive contact surface 204 is 30° wide-mouthed, and the conductive contact surface 204 is in contact with the extension rod 301 through the conductive convex ring 301, and the bell mouth body 2 is non-ferrous
  • the iron metal material can prevent the upper magnet of the arrester body 3 from being attracted by accident during the installation process of the arrester body 3, and the conductive contact surface 204 is designed with a 30° wide mouth to make the arrester body 3 easier to install.
  • the upper end of the upper shed sealing member 602 is connected to an upper end connecting piece 601, the upper end of the upper end connecting piece 601 is provided with an inlet end 612, and the side wall of the upper end connecting piece 601 is provided with a connecting stud 611, and the upper shed is sealed
  • the upper end of the member 602 is provided with a mounting hole that matches the connecting stud 611.
  • the upper skirt sealing member 602 is connected to the upper connecting member 601 through the connecting stud 611, and the skirt body 101 is connected to the upper end through the upper skirt sealing member 602.
  • the connecting piece 601 is connected, so that the umbrella skirt body 101 can be rotated by 90°, and has a certain connection effect.
  • the upper umbrella skirt sealing member 602 is made of iron, and the lower end is processed with a magnet adsorption surface 118.
  • the magnet adsorption surface 118 is a flat circular surface. By making the magnet adsorption surface 118 a flat circular surface, it is a detachment unit
  • the magnet inside the 303 provides an effective adsorption surface, allowing the two to fully contact and conduct electricity. In normal operation, the detachment unit 303 is adsorbed on the magnet adsorption surface 118.
  • the thermal effect inside the magnetic trip module is caused, so that the detachment unit 303 and the magnet adsorption surface 118 automatically trip.
  • the umbrella skirt main body 101 When working, the umbrella skirt main body 101 is movably connected to the upper end connecting piece 601 through the upper umbrella skirt sealing piece 602, and the umbrella skirt main body 101 is connected to the upper end line through the upper end 612 of the upper end connecting piece 601.
  • the installation thread 201 can connect the speaker
  • the main body 2 of the mouth is tightly combined with the insulating tube 102.
  • the arrester body 3 is installed inside the insulating tube 102, and the conductive convex ring 301 on the extension rod 301 is in full contact with the conductive contact surface 204, so as to ensure effective conduction between the two.
  • the fixing bracket 505 is tightly attached to the bell mouth body 2 through the fixing collar 551, and the anti-falling fixing piece 506 is fixedly connected to the fixing bracket 505, and the lower ground line is connected to the anti-falling fixing piece 506 through the hook bolt 581, which can ensure overpressure Or lightning can be safely introduced underground.
  • Embodiment two magnetic trip module
  • the magnetic trip module includes a metal shell 311, a metal cover 312, a magnet 313, a resistor plate 314, a pot-shaped conductor plate 315, a conductive top member 316, a conductive connection screw 317, and insulation Positioning pad 318.
  • the metal shell 311 and the metal cover 312 are made of aluminum, the resistor chip 4 is a silicon carbide resistor chip, and the insulating positioning pad 318 is made of nylon.
  • the metal shell 311 serves as the main support of the entire structure to ensure that the entire structure does not collapse under high temperature conditions.
  • the bottom of the metal shell 311 has a special-shaped hole, which has two functions: the special-shaped hole can provide the conductive connection screw 317 with the friction required for rotation and tightening, so that it can be installed without tools; the maximum outer diameter of the special-shaped hole is smaller than the conductive connection screw 317 The maximum outer diameter of the tail structure can ensure that the screw will not be pulled out or dropped from the entire magnetic trip module after the insulating positioning pad 318 is melted at high temperature, which also ensures that the other end of the conductive connection screw connection is always not Will be separated from the magnetic trip module.
  • the top of the metal shell 311 is provided with threads to facilitate the installation of the metal cover 312.
  • the structural part of the metal cover 312 includes an external thread, a magnet positioning groove and an installation notch.
  • the function of the external thread is to ensure that the metal cover 312 and the metal shell 311 can be tightly connected;
  • the function of the magnet positioning groove is to ensure that the installation position of the magnet 313 is always in the center;
  • the existence of the installation gap provides a clamping position for the rotary tightening tool to ensure rotation Tightening force.
  • the magnet 313 is characterized by having a central positioning hole to ensure that the resistor plate 314 connected to the magnet 313 is positioned at the center of the structure during assembly.
  • the resistance piece 314 is characterized by a positioning boss in the center to ensure that the resistance piece 314 is positioned at the center of the magnet during assembly.
  • the pot-shaped conductor piece 315 is made of brass, and its shape is as shown in FIG. 5. It has two functions: First, when the leakage voltage value is less than a certain threshold (1kV in this patent), the current is introduced through the pot-shaped conductor piece 315 to the resistor piece 314 connected in series. At this time, the role of the pot-shaped conductor piece 315 is to increase The connection area between the large resistance piece 314 and the pot-shaped conductor piece 315 ensures sufficient conduction; second, when the leakage voltage exceeds a certain threshold (1kV in this patent), the voltage flowing through the pot-shaped conductor piece 315 will break down the pot-shaped conductor The 2mm air discharge gap 320 between the sheet 315 and the metal shell 311 continuously discharges the metal shell 311.
  • the conductive tightening member 316 is a metal flexible mechanism, which is used to tighten the entire mechanism while conducting the conductive connecting screw 317 and the pot-shaped conductor piece 315 to avoid gaps between the structural members.
  • the conductive connection screw 317 has two functions: one is as an external connector, and the other is when the insulating positioning pad 318 is accidentally melted by high temperature, the tail of the conductive connection screw 317 will hang on the special-shaped hole of the metal shell 311 to prevent magnetism.
  • the suction trip module is separated from other connected parts.
  • the inner hexagonal groove of the insulating positioning pad 318 serves as the positioning groove for the conductive connecting screw 317, and the outer hexagonal boss serves as the positioning structure of the overall mechanism to prevent the screw from rotating when the integral magnetic trip module is installed.
  • the nylon material serves as an insulating pad separating the conductive connection screw 317 from the metal casing 311.
  • the magnetic trip module is set inside the separation unit 303, and is adsorbed on the magnet adsorption surface 118 during normal work; once the lightning conductor is aging, the thermal effect inside the magnetic trip module will cause the magnet The high temperature fails, so that the detaching unit 303 is separated from the magnet adsorption surface 118 to realize the automatic tripping of the lightning conductor.
  • voltage leakage will occur. When the leakage voltage is below 1kV, part of the current on the main transmission line will flow through the fuse to the arrester connected in parallel, and then flow to the magnetic trip module, and finally make the resistance piece Heats up the magnet to achieve the purpose of the magnetic trip module.
  • the aging of the arrester is a long process, but this process is not linear and traceable.
  • the voltage level of the leakage energy will rise with the increase of the aging degree, but it does not rule out that the arrester has a sudden aging Intensified, the aging of the arrester means that its resistance begins to decline.
  • the lightning protection core is aging, the voltage loaded on the resistor will rise, and a leakage voltage level of 1kV or higher will appear.
  • the 1kV leakage voltage threshold is related to the thickness and breakdown voltage of the resistor strip 314, and is an approximate value obtained after many tests. In the present invention, by accurately selecting the silicon carbide material, thickness and other parameters, the withstand voltage threshold of the resistor piece is about 1kV.
  • the leakage current When the leakage voltage is less than 1kV when loaded on the resistor, the leakage current will follow the direction shown in Fig. 7, from the high-voltage U terminal through the lightning conductor 302, the conductive connecting screw 317, the conductive top 316, the pot-shaped conductor piece 315, and the resistor.
  • the sheet 314, the magnet 313, and the metal cover 312 flow into the ground GND terminal.
  • the resistor sheet 314 works in a normal manner and continues to generate heat, and transfers heat to the magnet to slowly heat it. After a long time accumulation, the magnet reaches a certain temperature and fails. The lightning conductor is off.
  • the 2mm air discharge gap 320 between the conductor piece 315 and the metal shell 311 is the first choice. At this time, the voltage breaks through the air discharge gap 320, causing the current to flow in the direction shown in FIG. 8 from the high-voltage U terminal through the conductive connecting screw. 317.
  • the pot-shaped conductor piece 315 heats the resistor piece 314 by discharging the inner wall of the metal shell 311, and then heats the magnet 313, so that the magnet loses its magnetism quickly, and the lightning arrester is quickly separated.
  • a large number of tests have shown that about 8s can ensure that the aging arrester falls off quickly.
  • Embodiment 3 Built-in anti-fall arrester and lightning protection and fuse integrated combined device
  • the input terminal of the 10kV distribution transformer has three phases A, B, and C. Three sets of lightning protection and fuse combination devices are provided on the three-phase line.
  • the fuse adopts the conventional drop-out fuse.
  • the drop-out fuse is a common power equipment with isolation and protection features in the power industry.
  • the main feature is that when the current exceeds the rated value of the fuse, the heat generated by itself makes the melt Fuse, the internal fuse forms tension with the drop mechanism in the fuse tube. When the fuse melt loses the tension, the falling structure uses gravity to disconnect the fuse tube body from the system power supply and form an obvious disconnection distance.
  • the lightning arrester is the same as in the first embodiment.
  • the lightning arrester is made of zinc oxide material, installed and connected between the power supply line and the earth, and is usually used in parallel with the protected equipment. Once high voltage occurs and the insulation of the protected equipment is endangered, the overvoltage action is immediately released to the ground, and the high voltage impact is directed to the ground, thereby limiting the voltage amplitude and protecting the insulation of the power supply cable and the equipment itself. When the overvoltage disappears, the arrester quickly returns to its original state, allowing the power supply line to work normally.
  • the lightning protection and fuse combination device of the present invention includes a fuse 4, an insulator body 1, a bell mouth body 2 and a lightning arrester body 3.
  • the arrester body 3 is installed inside the insulator body 1, and the bell mouth body 2 is connected to the mouth of the lower end of the insulator body 1 through threads.
  • the upper part of the insulator main body 1 and the upper part of the fuse 4 in Fig. 9 are connected with an upper end fixing member 105, which is connected to the high-voltage inlet end of the external transmission line; the upper end fixing member 105 serves as the upper end of the fuse
  • the fixed part has its own mounting holes, which can be installed with standard fuses, and it is also the high-voltage inlet end of the entire equipment.
  • the lower part of the insulator body 1 and the lower part of the fuse 4 are connected with a lower end fixing member 106.
  • the lower end fixing member 106 serves as the lower end fixing member of the fuse, which serves as a double connection between the low voltage outlet end and the lightning arrester inlet end.
  • the function is to connect with the input terminal of one of the three phases of A, B, and C of power equipment such as transformers on the one hand, and connect with the lower end of the arrester body 3 on the other hand.
  • one end of the lower end fixing member 106 is a straight end, and the other end is a ring end; the straight end part has a fuse fixing hole 110, which is connected to the standard fuse and the fuse outlet end 402 through a bolt 401; the ring end set A positioning hole 111 is provided on the lower opening 103 of the insulating tube and the annular end is positioned at a position set by the lower opening 103 of the insulating tube by a positioning screw 109.
  • the bell mouth main body 2 is closely attached to the ring end of the lower end fixing member 106 and fixed to the lower mouth 103 of the insulating tube, and the electric conduction between the lower end fixing member 106 and the bell mouth main body 2 is ensured.
  • the upper fixing piece 105 and the lower fixing piece 106 combine and fix the fuse 4 and the insulator body 1 together to form an integrated device.
  • the insulator body 1 has a sealed cylindrical structure, and the middle outer ring of the insulator body 1 is provided with an intermediate fixing member 107, and the intermediate fixing member 107 is in conduction with the ground terminal of the power equipment and the earth.
  • An iron magnet adsorption block 108 is arranged in the cabin of the insulator main body 1, and is fixedly connected with the intermediate fixing member 107 for adsorbing and fixing the arrester main body 3 at a set position inside the insulator main body.
  • the first role of the intermediate fixing member 107 is to act as an external connection member of the entire structure.
  • connection holes which can be fixed with the cross arm on the pole, so that the whole device is fixed by a cross arm;
  • the second is to connect to the ground terminal of the lightning arrester;
  • the third is to connect with the magnet adsorption block 108 by bolts to provide a firm fixed position for the magnet adsorption block 108.
  • the upper end of the arrester body 3 is magnetically attracted to the magnet adsorption block 108 and is connected to the intermediate fixing member 107.
  • the lower end surface of the magnet adsorption block 108 is processed with a magnet adsorption surface 118 for attracting with the magnet inside the detachment unit 303.
  • the insulator body 1 includes an insulating tube 102 sealed at the upper end.
  • the outer ring of the insulating tube 102 is sleeved with an umbrella skirt body 101.
  • the insulating tube 102 is made of glass fiber tube.
  • the umbrella skirt body 101 is made by pressing silicone rubber on the insulating tube after vulcanization. Therefore, the outer ring of the lower mouth 103 of the insulating pipe is provided with an outer thread 104 of the pipe bottom, which is used to fix and connect the bell mouth body 2.
  • the bell mouth body 2 is made of aluminum or other conductive materials.
  • the bell mouth body 2 is fixed on the insulator body 1 by a thread at the lower mouth 103 of the insulating tube, and is electrically connected to the lower end fixing member 106.
  • the insulating tube 102 on the upper part of the middle fixing member 107 is provided with a solid glass fiber rod, which functions firstly to seal and fill the upper end portion of the insulating tube 102; secondly, to prevent the upper end fixing member 105 and the middle fixing member 107 from conducting and discharging.
  • the arrester body 3 When in use, the arrester body 3 is integrated into the insulating tube 102, and the magnet 313 will adsorb the arrester body 3 on the magnet adsorption block 108. At this time, the arrester body 3 completes the ground connection.
  • the magnet adsorption block 108 serves as a magnet adsorption point to provide a reliable attraction for the entire arrester body 3, and at the same time serves as an intermediate point connecting the arrester body 3 and the ground wire.
  • the metal conductive parts at the lower end of the arrester body 3 will be connected to the bell mouth body 2. At this time, the arrester body 3 completes the high-voltage incoming terminal connection, and the installation of the entire arrester body 3 is completed.
  • the structural feature of the bell mouth body 2 is that the lower end is horn-shaped.
  • This structure is for the convenience of installation of the arrester body 3 and provides a larger installation diameter and guiding effect.
  • the material of the bell mouth body 2 is aluminum, and the outer surface is plated with a conductive layer as an intermediate structure connecting the lower end fixing member 106 and the arrester body 3.
  • the arrester body 3 includes a top-down disengagement unit 303, a lightning conductor 302 and an extension rod 301.
  • the end of the disengagement unit 303 is provided with a brim 304; between the lightning protection core 302 and the extension rod 301 is provided Conductive convex ring 305.
  • Magnets and other accessories are arranged inside the detachment unit 303.
  • the gap discharge inside the detachment unit will cause the magnet to lose its magnetism at a high temperature for a short time, causing the arrester body 3 to fall off naturally.
  • the outside of the bell mouth body 2 is a horn structure, and the inside is sequentially provided with a mounting thread 201, a washer mounting groove 202, a washer movable groove 203 and a conductive contact surface 204 from top to bottom.
  • the mounting thread 201 is insulated
  • the external thread 104 at the bottom of the tube is matched with parameters, and the bell mouth body 2 is fixed to the lower opening 103 of the insulating tube.
  • the washer mounting groove 202 is used to fix the claw-type washer 200.
  • the protrusion 208 of the elastic claw 207 corresponds to the position of the washer movable groove 203.
  • the inner diameter and width of the washer movable groove 203 are larger than the outer diameter of the protrusion 208, which gives the elastic claw 207 elasticity. Part of the space is reserved to ensure its telescopic function.
  • the upper surface of the limit slot 209 is a conductive contact surface 204.
  • the claw-type washer 200 includes a mounting ring 205 and a plurality of elastic claws 207 arranged at the lower part of the mounting ring 205.
  • the top of the elastic claws 207 and the mounting ring 205 are fixedly connected as a whole, and the elastic claws 207 are bent inward and form a protrusion 208 in the middle.
  • the elastic claw portion 210 is a structure that opens outward, which facilitates the installation of the arrester body 3 from below.
  • a mounting notch 206 is provided on one side of the ring body of the mounting ring 205.
  • the mounting notch 206 penetrates the entire ring body.
  • the function of the mounting notch 206 is to provide a contraction structure for the mounting ring 205 to facilitate the installation of the claw-shaped washer 200 on the horn body 2Internal.
  • the first step is to hold the mounting ring 205 of the claw washer 200 with your hand to partially overlap the mounting gap 206, and then fix the claw washer 200 to the bottom of the bell body 2 Inside, the mounting ring 205 is fixed at the position of the gasket mounting groove 202.
  • the second step is to fasten the bell mouth body 2 to the lower part of the insulator body 1 through threads.
  • the third step is to install the arrester body 3 from the lower part of the bell mouth body 2. As long as it is pushed up hard, the brim 304 of the arrester body 3 overcomes the elastic force of the claw-shaped washer 200, and the movable groove 203 of the washer now provides the protrusion 208 of the elastic claw 207.
  • the elastic space is reserved, so that the arrester body 3 is installed at a set position inside the insulator body 1.
  • the top of the arrester body 3 is attracted to the magnet adsorption block 108 arranged in the middle of the insulator by the magnet inside the separation unit 303, and the conductive contact surface 204 is fully in contact with the conductive convex ring 305 on the arrester body 3 at this time. .

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Abstract

一种自动脱扣和防坠避雷器及避雷熔断一体化组合装置,避雷器包括绝缘子主体(1)、避雷器本体(3)和防坠构件;绝缘子主体(1)内部设置有磁铁吸附面(118);所述避雷器本体(3)包括自上而下设置的脱离单元(303)和避雷芯(302),脱离单元(303)包括内置磁铁(313)的磁吸式脱扣模块,脱离单元(303)工作时吸附在磁铁吸附面(118)上;避雷芯(302)老化引起磁吸式脱扣模块内部的热效应,使得脱离单元(303)与磁铁(313)吸附面相脱离;所述的防坠构件在避雷器本体(3)脱离工作位置掉落时将其托接并防止坠落。该方案在避雷芯(302)老化后利用脱离单元(303)的磁吸式脱扣模块产生的热效应加热磁铁(313)使其失去磁力,实现了老化避雷器的自动可靠脱离以及脱离后避雷器的防坠,确保了电网使用安全并方便了避雷器更换。

Description

一种自动脱扣和防坠避雷器及避雷熔断一体化组合装置 技术领域
本发明属于输配电技术领域,涉及一种自动脱扣和防坠避雷器及避雷熔断组合装置。
背景技术
电力行业在10kV配网终端下线处通常需要安装RW系列跌落式熔断器与MOA系列氧化锌避雷器对配电变压器提供过流以及雷电保护。其中跌落式熔断器是一种电力行业常见的具备隔离与保护特性功能的电力设备,主要特性为电流超过熔丝额定值时,以本身产生的热量使熔体熔断,同时跌落结构利用重力将熔管本体与系统电源断开,并形成明显的断开距离。氧化锌避雷器是用于保护电气设备免受高瞬态过电压危害的一种电力设备,避雷器安装连接在供电线路和大地之间,通常与被保护设备并联使用。当供电线路或设备在正常额定工作电压下运行时,避雷器对大地来说视为高阻断路状态。一旦出现高电压,且危及被保护设备绝缘时,避雷器立即对地释放过电压动作,将高电压冲击导向大地,从而限制电压幅值,保护供电线缆和设备自身绝缘。当过电压消失后,避雷器迅速恢复起始原状,使供电线路正常工作。
现有的电网熔断和避雷装置的安装方式一般采用双杆双横担上进下出的典型安装方法。其中需要单独安装一根金属横担,然后将避雷器安装在横担上。当避雷器老化脱落后,需要将其取下。这样的安装方式既增加了跌落式熔断器与氧化锌避雷器在安装工艺上的复杂性、繁琐性,并且当氧化锌避雷器故障或失效时也无法及时安全的脱离系统运行,增大了配网终端10kV侧的运行维护工作量。
其次,避雷器在老化以后如果不及时对其进行断开处理并更换,就会发生避雷器本体发热乃至爆炸的安全事故,故需要设置脱离器。目前的脱离器大致分为两种,一种是热熔式脱离,一种是热爆式脱离。热熔式脱离器是当氧化锌避雷器内部阀芯出现老化故障时流经阀片的电流增大,使阀片组形成发热状态,这发热温度达到脱离器设计值时,使其脱离器中的低熔点合金融化,脱离器动作使氧化锌避雷器与系统接地线脱离。但由于热熔式脱离器脱离动作的时间一致性无法满足现有电网运行状态,无法保证短时间之内将避雷器与主线路脱离,现在已基本 不使用热熔是脱离器。热爆式脱离器是当氧化锌避雷器内部阀芯出现老化故障时,流经阀片的电流增大,利用工频电流通过自身产生电弧,而引燃爆炸物,使其避雷器与接地线脱离,但安全系数较低,在发生脱落后需要断电更换,操作相对比较麻烦,且内置的炸药存在较大的安全管控风险,限制了其推广使用。
发明内容
本发明的目的是提供一种自动脱扣及防坠的避雷器和避雷熔断组合装置,实现了老化避雷器的自动可靠脱离以及脱离后避雷器的防坠,确保了电网使用安全并方便了避雷器更换,同时实现了避雷器和熔断器的组合使用。
本发明的发明要点是:首先改变传统避雷器的脱离方式,将避雷器安装在内置磁吸式热脱离单元的绝缘子主体内部,利用失效后避雷器工作产生的热使得磁铁失效,进而避雷器脱离,并由绝缘子上安装的防坠机构将脱离后的避雷器托住,避免高处直接掉落带来的安全影响,并方便了避雷器更换。
本发明的具体技术方案如下:
一种自动脱扣和防坠避雷器,包括绝缘子主体、避雷器本体和防坠构件;所述的绝缘子主体为密封筒体结构,绝缘子主体内部设置有磁铁吸附面;所述避雷器本体包括自上而下设置的脱离单元和避雷芯,避雷器本体设置在绝缘子主体内;脱离单元包括内置磁铁的磁吸式脱扣模块,脱离单元工作时吸附在磁铁吸附面上;避雷芯老化引起磁吸式脱扣模块内部的热效应,使得脱离单元与磁铁吸附面相脱离;所述的防坠构件设置在绝缘子主体上,在避雷器本体脱离工作位置掉落时将其托接并防止坠落。
上述自动脱扣和防坠避雷器中,所述的磁吸式脱扣模块包括金属壳体(311)和金属壳体内由上之下依次叠放的磁铁、电阻片和锅形导体片,电阻片紧贴锅形导体片设置,锅形导体片的外壁与金属壳体的内壁之间设置有放电间隙。
上述自动脱扣和防坠避雷器中,所述的磁吸式脱扣模块还包括依次设置在金属壳体内且位于锅形导体片下部的导电顶紧件、导电连接螺丝和绝缘定位垫,所述导电连接螺丝的下端穿过所述绝缘定位垫和所述金属壳体的底部延伸至金属壳体外侧,所述金属壳体顶部安装有金属盖子。
上述自动脱扣和防坠避雷器中,所述放电间隙为2mm。
上述自动脱扣和防坠避雷器中,电阻片为碳化硅电阻片。
上述自动脱扣和防坠避雷器中,所述避雷器本体的中下部外圈设置有导电凸环,所述的防坠构件为设置在绝缘子主体底端的一侧的弯钩防坠部件,在避雷器本体跌落时,弯钩防坠部件钩住导电凸环下端,防止避雷器本体坠落。
上述自动脱扣和防坠避雷器中,所述的弯钩防坠部件包括固联为一体的固定支架和防坠固定件,固定支架套接在绝缘子主体下端的绝缘管下口处,活动钩体通过扭簧和钩体螺栓活动联接在防坠固定件的下端。
上述自动脱扣和防坠避雷器中,所述避雷器本体顶部的外圈设置有帽檐,所述的防坠构件包括喇叭口主体和爪型垫圈,喇叭口主体联接在子绝缘子主体下端的绝缘管下口;所述的喇叭口主体内部设置有爪型垫圈,爪型垫圈包括安装环和安装环下部设置的多只弹性爪,每只弹性爪的顶部与安装环固联为一体,弹性爪向内弯曲并在中间部位形成凸起,所述的凸起在避雷器本体掉落时实现对帽檐的阻挡。
上述自动脱扣和防坠避雷器中,所述的安装环的环体一侧设置有安装缺口,所述的安装缺口贯穿整个环体。
上述自动脱扣和防坠避雷器中,喇叭口主体内部自上而下设置有垫圈安装槽和垫圈活动槽;爪型垫圈的安装环安装在垫圈安装槽内,垫圈活动槽与凸起的位置相对应。
上述自动脱扣和防坠避雷器中,所述避雷器本体的中下部外圈设置有导电凸环,所述喇叭口主体内部设置有限位槽,所述避雷器本体正常工作时限位槽上部的导电接触面与导电凸环相接触。
上述自动脱扣和防坠避雷器中,绝缘子主体的顶端设置有上部伞裙封口件,上部伞裙封口件的下端面加工有所述的磁铁吸附面;避雷器本体上端的脱离单元吸附在磁铁吸附面上。
上述自动脱扣和防坠避雷器中,上部伞裙封口件通过螺纹联接在绝缘子主体的顶端。
上述自动脱扣和防坠避雷器中,上部伞裙封口件的顶端设置有上端连接件,上端连接件上设置有进线端。
上述自动脱扣和防坠避雷器中,绝缘子主体的外圈设置有中间固定件,绝缘子主体的内部设置有磁铁吸附块,磁铁吸附块固定在所述中间固定件上,磁铁吸附块的下端面加工有所述的磁铁吸附面,避雷器本体上端的脱离单元吸附在磁铁 吸附面。
上述自动脱扣和防坠避雷器中,所述的中间固定件固联在电线杆上的横担上,并与接地端联通。
上述自动脱扣和防坠避雷器中,绝缘子主体包括绝缘管,绝缘管的外圈套接有伞裙主体,伞裙主体下端设置有绝缘管下口。
一种避雷熔断一体化组合装置,包括熔断器和自动脱扣和防坠避雷器,所述绝缘子主体和熔断器的上部联接有上端固定件,所述的上端固定件与外部输电线的高压进线端相联。
上述一种避雷熔断一体化组合装置中,绝缘子主体和熔断器的下部连接有下端固定件,下端固定件固定在绝缘管下口和喇叭口主体之间,所述的下端固定件与外部输电线的低压出线端与避雷器进线端相联。
本发明具有的有益技术效果如下:
1、本发明的避雷器设置了磁吸式脱离单元和防坠机构,正常工作时将避雷芯通过脱离单元内置的磁铁吸附在磁铁吸附面上使其处于工作状态,在避雷芯老化后利用脱离单元的磁吸式脱扣模块产生的热效应加热磁铁使其失去磁力,实现了老化避雷器的自动可靠脱离以及脱离后避雷器的防坠,确保了电网使用安全并方便了避雷器更换。
2、本发明避雷器的脱离单元采用层叠设置的磁铁、碳化硅电阻片和锅形导体片,并在锅形导体片与脱离单元的金属壳体之间设置了放电间隙,使得严重老化后避雷芯工作时加载在碳化硅电阻片的电压会击穿该放电间隙,并形成放电通道,导致磁铁快速加热从而失去磁性,使得老化后的避雷器坠落,确保了电网安全。
3、本发明在绝缘子主体的底部设置了外置式防坠机构,并在避雷器本体上设置了导电凸环,正常工作时导电凸环与喇叭口主体上的导电接触面相接触实现导电,当避雷器本体脱落时,防坠构件的弯钩防坠部件钩住导电凸环下端,防止避雷器本体直接坠落,确保了电网安全,并便于避雷芯的更换。
4、本发明在避雷器绝缘子腔体内部设置了内置式防坠机构,当避雷器失效掉落时,处于绝缘子腔体的下部的爪型垫圈阻挡了避雷器顶部的帽檐,防止了避雷器的跌落,由于充分利用的避雷器的长度,使得脱落后的避雷器距接地端距离最远,确保了避雷器失效后能有效与主线路脱离,使得安全距离最大化。该爪型 垫圈一侧设置了,方便避雷器穿入至绝缘子腔体内部,与外置式防坠机构相比,避免了下口出线端的结构产生的安装干涉,使得部件简化、结构美观,并提高了生产效率。
5、本发明将自动脱扣及防坠避雷器和熔断器组合为避雷熔断一体化组合装置,由绝缘子主体中部设置的中间固定件固定在电线杆上的一根横担上,且下端固定件实现了低压出线端与避雷器进线端的共用,从而简化了分体式避雷器和熔断器的结构和安装固定方式,降低了设备成本。
附图说明
图1为本发明外置式防坠避雷器正常工作的组成结构图;
图2为本发明外置式防坠避雷器绝缘子主体及喇叭口组成结构图;
图3为本发明外置式防坠避雷器本体的组成结构图;
图4为本发明外置式防坠避雷器老化脱落时的结构图;
图5为本发明避雷器磁吸式脱扣模块的组成结构示意图;
图6为本发明避雷器磁吸式脱扣模块中放电间隙的示意图;
图7为本发明碳化硅电阻片正常工作时的泄露电流流向示意图;
图8为本发明碳化硅电阻片被击穿时的泄露电流流向示意图;
图9为本发明内置式防坠避雷熔断组合装置的组成结构图;
图10为本发明内置式防坠避雷熔断组合装置中绝缘子主体结构图;
图11为本发明内置式防坠避雷熔断组合装置中熔断器下端安装结构示意图;
图12为本发明内置式防坠避雷熔断组合装置中下端固定件结构图;
图13为本发明内置式防坠避雷器主体结构图;
图14为本发明内置式防坠避雷器喇叭口结构图;
图15为图14喇叭口的剖视图;
图16为本发明内置式防坠避雷器爪型垫圈结构图;
图17为本发明内置式防坠避雷器安装在原位的结构图;
图18为本发明内置式防坠避雷器脱落的状态图;
图19为本发明内置式防坠避雷器脱落状态下安装环在喇叭口中的结构图;
附图标记如下:1-绝缘子主体;2-喇叭口主体;3-避雷器本体;4-熔断器; 101-伞裙主体;102-绝缘管;103-绝缘管下口;104-管底外螺纹;105-上端固定件;106-下端固定件;107-中间固定件;108-磁铁吸附块;109-定位螺钉;110-熔断器固定孔;111-定位孔;118-磁铁吸附面;200-爪型垫圈;201-安装螺纹;202-垫圈安装槽;203-垫圈活动槽;204-导电接触面;205-安装环;206-安装缺口;207-弹性爪;208-凸起;209-限位槽;210-弹性爪口部;301-延长杆;302-避雷芯;303-脱离单元;304-帽檐;305-导电凸环;311-金属壳体;312-金属盖子;313-磁铁;314-电阻片;315-锅形导体片;316-导电顶紧件;317-导电连接螺丝;318-绝缘定位垫;320-放电间隙;401-螺栓;402-熔断器出线端;505-固定支架;506-防坠固定件;508-防坠活动钩体;551-固定套环;581-钩体螺栓;582-扭簧;583-扭簧螺栓;601-上端连接件;602-上部伞裙封口件;611-连接螺柱;612-进线端;641-管顶外螺纹。
具体实施方式
避雷器的作用是用于保护电气设备免受高瞬态过电压危害的重要设备。避雷器安装连接在供电线路和大地之间,通常与被保护设备并联使用,当供电线路或设备在正常额定工作电压下运行时,避雷器不会对大地产生释放作用,对大地来说视为高阻断路状态。一旦出现高电压,且危及被保护设备绝缘时,氧化锌材料制成避雷器立即对地释放过电压动作,将高电压冲击导向大地,从而限制电压幅值,保护供电线缆和设备自身绝缘。当过电压消失后,避雷器迅速恢复起始原状,使供电线路正常工作。
由于避雷器长期使用,必然有寿命问题,一旦出现器件老化,需要及时将避雷器从配网电路上进行脱离。一般避雷器脱离方式可采用热熔式脱离方式,热熔式脱离器是当氧化锌避雷器内部阀芯出现老化故障时对氧化锌避雷器接地端脱离,主要表现为流经阀片的电流增大,使阀片组形成发热状态,由于阀片组为负温度系数,发热引起的等效电阻下降,又促使发热加剧,形成恶性循环,这样氧化锌避雷器的工作状态直接通过温度的形式传给脱离器,利用工频电流通过自身发热,当这一温度达到脱离器设计值时,使其低熔点合金融化,脱离器动作使氧化锌避雷器与系统接地线脱离,再进行更换。
本发明围绕避雷器长期使用及老化更换的难题,研发了外置式防坠机构、内置式防坠机构、磁吸式避雷芯自动脱扣结构和避雷熔断组合装置,下面分别以实 施例的方式进行介绍。
实施例一:外置式防坠避雷器
如图1-3所示,一种自动脱扣和防坠避雷器包括伞裙主体101、绝缘管102、氧化锌避雷芯302和喇叭口主体2,绝缘管102位于伞裙主体101内部,所述喇叭口主体2位于伞裙主体101底端。所述伞裙主体101上端设有上部伞裙封口件602,所述上部伞裙封口件602下表面设有磁铁吸附面118,所述上部伞裙封口件602下端设有安装内螺纹,所述绝缘管102上设有与安装内螺纹匹配的管顶外螺纹641,所述上部伞裙封口件602通过绝缘管102与伞裙主体101固定连接,所述绝缘管102内部设有避雷芯安装内腔,所述氧化锌避雷器本体3安装在避雷芯安装内腔内,避雷器本体3包括中间的氧化锌避雷芯302、上端的脱离单元303和下端的延长杆301。所述延长杆301上设有导电凸环305,所述伞裙主体101一侧连接有防坠安装架,所述防坠安装架底端一侧连接有防坠活动钩件508,所述防坠活动钩件508位于避雷芯底端一侧。所述防坠安装架包括固定支架505和防坠固定件506,所述固定支架505一端连接有固定套环551,所述固定套环551固定套设在伞裙主体101与喇叭口主体2的连接处,所述防坠固定件506与固定支架505固定连接,所述防坠固定件506上设有扭簧582,所述扭簧582通过螺栓与防坠固定件506连接,固定支架505通过固定套环551与喇叭口2紧密贴合,可以保证过压或雷电可被安全引入地下,同时固定套环551将绝缘管102有效连接,可以将出线端接地线的通过扭簧螺栓583与防坠固定件506连接。
所述防坠活动钩件508位于防坠固定件506底端一侧,且防坠活动钩件508通过扭簧582和钩体螺栓581与防坠固定件506连接,操作人员手动安装防坠活动钩件508时,使用安装器使防坠活动钩件508向内收缩使得氧化锌避雷器本体3顺利通过完成安装并回复原始状态,以便当氧化锌避雷芯302老化掉落时可以利用防坠活动钩件508将避雷器本体3卡在防坠位置,避免避雷器本体3直接掉落在其他地方发生安全事故。
所述喇叭口主体2上端设有安装螺纹201,所述绝缘管102底端侧壁上设有与安装螺纹201匹配的管底外螺纹104,所述喇叭口主体2直径大的一端设有导电接触面204,安装螺纹201可将喇叭口主体2与绝缘管102紧密结合,导电接触面204可与避雷器本体3下端的导电零件充分接触,保证二者之间有效导电。 所述喇叭口主体2采用非铁质金属材料,所述导电接触面204呈30°广口设置,且导电接触面204通过导电凸环301与延长杆301接触,通过将喇叭口主体2采用非铁质金属材料,可以避免避雷器本体3安装过程中其上端磁铁误吸,通过将导电接触面204呈30°广口设计可以使避雷器本体3安装时更容易。
所述上部伞裙封口件602顶端连接有上端连接件601,所述上端连接件601上端设有进线端612,且上端连接件601侧壁设有连接螺柱611,所述上部伞裙封口件602上端开设有与连接螺柱611匹配的安装孔,所述上部伞裙封口件602通过连接螺柱611与上端连接件601连接,通过将伞裙主体101通过上部伞裙封口件602与上端连接件601连接,可以使伞裙主体101能进行90°旋转,并起到一定的连接作用。
所述上部伞裙封口件602采用铁质材质,下端加工有磁铁吸附面118,所述磁铁吸附面118为平整的圆形面,通过将磁铁吸附面118为平整的圆形面,为脱离单元303内部的磁铁提供有效的吸附面,使二者充分接触导电。正常工作时脱离单元303吸附在磁铁吸附面118上,当避雷芯老化引起磁吸式脱扣模块内部的热效应,使得脱离单元303与磁铁吸附面118自动脱扣。
工作时,伞裙主体101通过上部伞裙封口件602与上端连接件601活动连接,并使伞裙主体101通过上端连接件601上端的进线端612与上端线路连接,安装螺纹201可将喇叭口主体2与绝缘管102紧密结合,此时避雷器本体3安装在绝缘管102内部,延长杆301上的导电凸环301与导电接触面204充分接触,从而保证二者之间有效导电,且由于固定支架505通过固定套环551与喇叭口主体2紧密贴合,同时防坠固定件506与固定支架505固定连接,下端接地线路通过钩体螺栓581与防坠固定件506连接,可以保证过压或雷电可被安全引入地下。
如图4所示,当氧化锌避雷芯302老化脱落时,延长杆301与导电凸环301也随之下落,使得导电凸环301底端与防坠活动钩体508顶端接触,从而利用防坠活动钩体508托住避雷器本体3的导电凸环301,将避雷器本体3卡在防坠位置,避免避雷器本体3直接掉落在其他地方发生安全事故,安全性高,便于使用。
实施例二、磁吸式脱扣模块
如图5和图6所示,磁吸式脱扣模块包括金属壳体311、金属盖子312、磁铁313、电阻片314、锅形导体片315、导电顶紧件316、导电连接螺丝317和绝 缘定位垫318。其中金属壳体311和金属盖子312采用铝制成,电阻片4采用碳化硅电阻片,绝缘定位垫318采用尼龙制成。
金属壳体311作为整个结构的主要支撑体,保证整体结构在高温情况下不会发生坍塌。金属壳体311的底部有异形孔,作用有二:异形孔可以为导电连接螺丝317提供旋转紧固时所需的摩擦力,做到免工具安装;异形孔的最大外径小于导电连接螺丝317尾部结构的最大外径,可以保证在绝缘定位垫318被高温融化以后螺丝不会从整个磁吸式脱扣模块中拔出、掉落,这样也就保证了导电连接螺丝连接的另外一端始终不会与磁吸式脱扣模块分离。
金属壳体311顶部带有螺纹,方便金属盖子312的安装。金属盖子312的结构部分包括外螺纹、磁铁定位槽和安装缺口。外螺纹的作用是保证金属盖子312与金属壳体311能够紧密连接;磁铁定位槽的作用是保证磁铁313的安装位置始终在中心部位;安装缺口的存在为旋转拧紧工具提供卡紧位置,保证旋转拧紧力度。磁铁313的特征在于带有中心定位孔,保证与磁铁313连接的电阻片314在组装时被定位在结构的中心位置。电阻片314的特征在于中心带有定位凸台,保证电阻片314在组装时被定位在磁铁的中心位置。
锅形导体片315的材质为黄铜,形状如图5中所示。其作用有二:一是当泄漏电压值小于一定阈值(本专利中为1kV)时,电流通过锅形导体片315导入与之串联的电阻片314,此时锅形导体片315的作用就是增大电阻片314与锅形导体片315的连接面积,保证导电充分;二是当泄露电压超过一定阈值(本专利中为1kV)时,流经锅形导体片315的电压会击穿锅形导体片315与金属壳体311之间的2mm空气放电间隙320,对金属壳体311进行持续放电,此时也就创造了另外一条并联通路,这条通路利用并释放了一部分电流,这个放电过程会使锅形导体片315瞬间产生大于1000℃的高温,此温度通过电阻片314传至磁铁313,对磁铁313进行加热,保证其8s之内失磁。
导电顶紧件316为金属柔性机构,作用是在导通导电连接螺丝317与锅形导体片315的同时将整个机构绷紧,避免结构件之间存在间隙。导电连接螺丝317有两个作用:一是作为外置连接件,二是当绝缘定位垫318意外被高温融化了以后,导电连接螺丝317尾部会挂在金属壳体311的异形孔上,防止磁吸式脱扣模块与其他被连接件分离。绝缘定位垫318的内六边形凹槽作为导电连接螺丝317的定位槽,外六边形凸台作为整体机构的定位结构,防止安装整体磁吸式脱扣模 块时螺丝发生旋转。尼龙材质作为将导电连接螺丝317与金属壳体311分开的绝缘垫。
如图1和图3所示,磁吸式脱扣模块设置在脱离单元303内部,平时工作时吸附在磁铁吸附面118上;一旦避雷芯老化引起磁吸式脱扣模块内部的热效应,使得磁铁高温失效,从而脱离单元303与磁铁吸附面118相脱离,实现避雷芯的自动脱扣。避雷器老化情况下,会产生电压泄露,当泄露电压约1kV以下等级时,主输电线路上的部分电流会通过熔断器流向与之并联的避雷器,继而流向磁吸式脱扣模块,最终使电阻片发热,加热磁铁,达到磁吸式脱扣模块动作目的。当泄露电压为1kV以上等级时,此时电流流入磁吸式脱扣模块后,会在流经碳化硅阀片时受阻,过高的电压会通过锅型导体片315击穿锅型导体片与金属铝壳之间的空气形成旁路,使得锅型导体片315对金属壳体311放电,放电时锅型导体片315会瞬间升至高温,加热电阻片314,最终快速加热磁铁313,使得磁铁失效,达到磁吸式脱扣模块动作目的。
避雷器的老化是一个漫长过程,但是这个过程又不是线性的、有迹可循的,一开始老化时,泄露能量的电压等级会随着老化程度的升高而攀升,但是不排除避雷器有突然老化加剧的可能,避雷器老化就代表着其阻值开始下降。当避雷芯老化就会造成加载在电阻片上电压攀升,出现1kV或者更高的泄露电压等级。其中1kV泄露电压阈值与电阻片314的厚度和击穿电压相关,是通过多次试验后得到的一个近似值。本发明中通过精确选定碳化硅材质、厚度等参数,使得电阻片的耐压阈值为1kV左右。当加载在电阻片上泄露电压小于1kV时,此时泄露电流沿图7所示方向,由高压U端依次经避雷芯302、导电连接螺丝317、导电顶紧件316、锅形导体片315、电阻片314、磁铁313、金属盖子312,流入地GND端,电阻片314按照正常方式工作并持续发热,并传热至磁铁使其缓慢加热,通过长时间累积后磁铁达到一定的温度,并失效使得避雷芯脱落。
当避雷芯老化加剧导致泄露电流剧增,使得加载在电阻片上泄露电压大于1kV时,电阻片被击穿,电阻片的阻值急剧下降,此时泄露电流就会薄弱点进行流通,故锅形导体片315与金属壳体311之间的2mm空气放电间隙320成了首选,此时电压击穿空气放电间隙320,使得电流按照图8所示的方向流动,由高压U端依次经导电连接螺丝317、导电顶紧件316、锅形导体片315,一路经过击穿的电阻片314、磁铁313、金属盖子312,流入地GND端;另一路经过空气放电 间隙320、金属壳体311、金属盖子312,流入地GND端。由此锅形导体片315对金属壳体311内壁放电的方式加热电阻片314,继而加热磁铁313,使磁铁快速失磁,达到避雷器快速脱离效果。大量的试验表明,大约8s钟时间即可确保老化后的避雷器快速脱落。
实施例三:内置式防坠避雷器及避雷熔断一体化组合装置
在10kV配网终端下线处通常需要安装RW系列跌落式熔断器与MOA系列氧化锌避雷器对配电变压器提供过流以及雷电保护,其中10kV配电变压器输入端有A、B、C三相,三相线路上设置有三套避雷熔断组合装置。
熔断器采用常规的跌落式熔断器,跌落式熔断器是一种电力行业常见的具备隔离与保护特性功能的电力设备,主要特性为电流超过熔丝额定值时,以本身产生的热量使熔体熔断,内部熔丝在熔管内与跌落机构形成张力,当熔丝熔体熔断失去张力,跌落结构利用重力将熔管本体与系统电源断开,并形成明显的断开距离。
避雷器同实施例一,采用氧化锌材料制成避雷器,安装连接在供电线路和大地之间,通常与被保护设备并联使用。一旦出现高电压,且危及被保护设备绝缘时,立即对地释放过电压动作,将高电压冲击导向大地,从而限制电压幅值,保护供电线缆和设备自身绝缘。当过电压消失后,避雷器迅速恢复起始原状,使供电线路正常工作。
如图9-11所示,本发明的避雷熔断组合装置包括熔断器4、绝缘子主体1、喇叭口主体2和避雷器本体3。避雷器本体3安装在绝缘子主体1内部,喇叭口主体2通过螺纹联接在绝缘子主体1下端的口部。
图9中绝缘子主体1的上部和熔断器4的上部联接有上端固定件105,所述的上端固定件105与外部的输电线的高压进线端相联;上端固定件105作为熔断器的上端固定部分,自带安装孔位,可安装标准熔断器,同时也是整个设备的高压进线端。
如图10和图11所示,绝缘子主体1的下部和熔断器4的下部连接有下端固定件106,下端固定件106作为熔断器下端固定件,起着连接低压出线端与避雷器进线端的双重作用,一方面与变压器等电力设备的A、B、C三相其中一相的输入端联接,另一方面与避雷器本体3的下端连通。
图12中下端固定件106的一端为直端,另一端为环形端;其中直端部分带有熔断器固定孔110,通过螺栓401联接至标准熔断器和熔断器出线端402上;环形端套装于绝缘管下口103,环形端上设置有定位孔111,通过定位螺钉109定位在绝缘管下口103设定的位置上。喇叭口主体2紧贴下端固定件106的环形端固定在绝缘管下口103,并确保下端固定件106和喇叭口主体2电导通。上端固定件105和下端固定件106将熔断器4和绝缘子主体1组合固定在一起成为一体化设备。
绝缘子主体1为密封筒体结构,绝缘子主体1的中部外圈设置有中间固定件107,所述的中间固定件107与电力设备的接地端以及大地相导通。绝缘子主体1的舱内设置有铁制的磁铁吸附块108,并与中间固定件107固联,用于将避雷器本体3吸附固定在绝缘子主体内部设定的位置处。中间固定件107作用一是作为整个结构的外置连接件,该零件一端自带有两个连接孔位,可与电线杆上的横担进行固定,从而将整个装置通过一个横担进行固定;二是作为避雷器接地端连接位;三是与磁铁吸附块108通过螺栓进行连接,为磁铁吸附块108提供牢靠的固定位置。避雷器本体3的上端通过磁力吸附在磁铁吸附块108,并与中间固定件107相导通。磁铁吸附块108的下端面加工有磁铁吸附面118,用于与脱离单元303内部的磁铁吸附。
绝缘子主体1包括上端密封的绝缘管102,绝缘管102的外圈套接有伞裙主体101,绝缘管102采用玻纤管制成,伞裙主体101是将硅橡胶硫化处理后压制在绝缘管上制成,绝缘管下口103外圈设置有管底外螺纹104,用于固定联接喇叭口主体2。喇叭口主体2为铝或其他导体材料制成,喇叭口主体2依靠绝缘管下口103处的螺纹固定在绝缘子主体1上,并与下端固定件106电导通。绝缘管102上有加工出的螺纹、定位槽和安装孔,为所有的结构件提供安装位置。中间固定件107上部的绝缘管102内设置有实心玻纤棒,其作用一是为密封、填实绝缘管102的上端部分;二是防止上端固定件105与中间固定件107导通放电。
使用时,将避雷器本体3整体装入绝缘管102内部,磁铁313会将避雷器本体3吸附在磁铁吸附块108上,此时避雷器本体3完成接地连接。磁铁吸附块108作为磁铁吸附点,为整个避雷器本体3提供可靠的吸力,同时作为连通避雷器本体3与接地线的中间点。避雷器本体3下端的金属导电零件会与喇叭口主体2导通,此时避雷器本体3完成高压进线端连接,至此整个避雷器本体3安装 完成。喇叭口主体2的结构特征为下端呈喇叭状,这种结构是为了避雷器本体3安装时方便,提供更大的安装口径和导向作用。喇叭口主体2的材质为铝,外表面镀有导电层,作为连通下端固定件106与避雷器本体3的中间结构。
避雷器在老化前的正常工作情况下,当无过电压情况出现时,电流从熔断器4上口流入,从熔断器4下口流出,不经过与熔断器4并联的避雷器。当有过电压情况出现时,过电压从熔断器4上口流入,流至熔断器4下口处的下端固定件106,下端固定件106将过电压导入与之相连的喇叭口主体2,喇叭口主体2将过电压流至与之相连的避雷器延长杆301,延长杆301将过电压导入与之相连的避雷芯302,继而通过磁吸式脱扣模块将过电压导入大地,避免产生安全事故。
如图13所示,避雷器本体3包括自上而下设置的脱离单元303、避雷芯302和延长杆301,脱离单元303的端部设置有帽檐304;避雷芯302和延长杆301之间设置有导电凸环305。脱离单元303内部设置有磁铁及其他附件,当避雷芯发生老化故障时,在受到雷击或过压时,脱离单元内部的间隙放电会使得磁铁短时高温失去磁性,使得避雷器本体3自然脱落。
如图14至16所示,喇叭口主体2的外部呈喇叭结构,内部自上而下依次设置有安装螺纹201、垫圈安装槽202、垫圈活动槽203和导电接触面204,安装螺纹201与绝缘管下部的管底外螺纹104参数匹配,将喇叭口主体2固定在绝缘管下口103。
垫圈安装槽202用于固定爪型垫圈200,弹性爪207的凸起208对应垫圈活动槽203的位置,垫圈活动槽203的内径和宽度均大于凸起208的外径,给弹性爪207的弹性部分预留活动空间,保证其伸缩功能,限位槽209的上表面为导电接触面204,当避雷器本体安装到位后,导电接触面204与避雷器本体3上的导电凸环305充分接触导电。
爪型垫圈200包括安装环205和安装环205下部设置有多只弹性爪207,弹性爪207的顶部与安装环205固联为一体,弹性爪207向内部弯曲并在中间部位形成凸起208,弹性爪口部210为向外张开的结构,利于避雷器本体3从下部装入。安装环205环体的一侧设置有安装缺口206,所述的安装缺口206贯穿整个环体,安装缺口206的作用是为安装环205提供收缩结构,方便将爪型垫圈200安装在喇叭口主体2内部。
安装时,第一步,用手握住爪型垫圈200的安装环205,使其在安装缺口206 处进行部分重叠,然后从喇叭口主体2下部将爪型垫圈200固定在喇叭口主体2的内部,其中安装环205固定在垫圈安装槽202的位置。第二步,将喇叭口主体2通过螺纹固联在绝缘子主体1下部。第三步,将避雷器本体3从喇叭口主体2下部装入,只要用力上推,避雷器本体3的帽檐304克服爪型垫圈200的弹力,此刻垫圈活动槽203则给弹性爪207的凸起208预留弹性空间,使得避雷器本体3安装在绝缘子主体1内部设定的位置。
如图17所示,此时避雷器本体3的顶部依靠脱离单元303内部的磁铁吸附在绝缘子中部设置的磁铁吸附块108上,同时导电接触面204与避雷器本体3上的导电凸环305充分接触导电。
如图18和图19所示,当老化的避雷器本体3从绝缘子主体1内部脱落时,避雷器本体3的帽檐304正好卡在弹性爪207的凸起208上,凸起208提供阻力防止帽檐304通过。操作人员用装置套在避雷器本体下端,施加向下的拉力会使得弹性爪207发生形变,使帽檐304通过喇叭口主体2,从而实现避雷器本体3的拆卸,再重复上面的步骤,即可更换。
对于本领域的普通技术人员而言,根据本发明的教导,在不脱离本发明的原理与精神的情况下,对实施方式所进行的改变、修改、替换和变型仍落入本发明的保护范围之内。

Claims (19)

  1. 一种自动脱扣和防坠避雷器,其特征在于:包括绝缘子主体(1)、避雷器本体(3)和防坠构件;所述的绝缘子主体(1)为密封筒体结构,绝缘子主体(1)内部设置有磁铁吸附面(118);
    所述避雷器本体(3)包括自上而下设置的脱离单元(303)和避雷芯(302),避雷器本体(3)设置在绝缘子主体(1)内;
    脱离单元(303)包括内置磁铁(313)的磁吸式脱扣模块,脱离单元(303)工作时吸附在磁铁吸附面(118)上;
    避雷芯老化引起磁吸式脱扣模块内部的热效应,使得脱离单元(303)与磁铁吸附面(118)相脱离;
    所述的防坠构件设置在绝缘子主体(1)上,在避雷器本体(3)脱离工作位置掉落时将其托接并防止坠落。
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的自动脱扣和防坠避雷器,其特征在于:所述的磁吸式脱扣模块包括金属壳体(311)和金属壳体(311)内由上之下依次叠放的磁铁(313)、电阻片(314)和锅形导体片(315),电阻片(314)紧贴锅形导体片(315)设置,锅形导体片(315)的外壁与金属壳体(311)的内壁之间设置有放电间隙(320)。
  3. 根据权利要求2所述的自动脱扣和防坠避雷器,其特征在于:所述的磁吸式脱扣模块还包括依次设置在金属壳体(311)内且位于锅形导体片(315)下部的导电顶紧件(316)、导电连接螺丝(317)和绝缘定位垫(318),所述导电连接螺丝(317)的下端穿过所述绝缘定位垫(318)和所述金属壳体(311)的底部延伸至金属壳体外侧,所述金属壳体(311)顶部安装有金属盖子(312)。
  4. 根据权利要求2所述的自动脱扣和防坠避雷器,其特征在于:所述放电间隙(320)为2mm。
  5. 根据权利要求2所述的自动脱扣和防坠避雷器,其特征在于:电阻片(314)为碳化硅电阻片。
  6. 根据权利要求1所述的自动脱扣和防坠避雷器,其特征在于:所述避雷器本体(3)的中下部外圈设置有导电凸环(305),所述的防坠构件为设置在绝缘子主体(1)底端的一侧的弯钩防坠部件,在避雷器本体(3)跌落时,弯钩防坠部件钩住导电凸环(305)下端,防止避雷器本体(3)坠落。
  7. 根据权利要求6所述的自动脱扣和防坠避雷器,其特征在于:所述的弯 钩防坠部件包括固联为一体的固定支架(505)和防坠固定件(506),固定支架(505)套接在绝缘子主体(1)下端的绝缘管下口(103)处,活动钩体(508)通过扭簧(582)和钩体螺栓(581)活动联接在防坠固定件(506)的下端。
  8. 根据权利要求1所述的自动脱扣和防坠避雷器,其特征在于:所述避雷器本体(3)顶部的外圈设置有帽檐(304),所述的防坠构件包括喇叭口主体(2)和爪型垫圈(200),喇叭口主体(2)联接在子绝缘子主体(1)下端的绝缘管下口(103);所述的喇叭口主体(2)内部设置有爪型垫圈(200),爪型垫圈(200)包括安装环(205)和安装环(205)下部设置的多只弹性爪(207),每只弹性爪(207)的顶部与安装环(205)固联为一体,弹性爪(207)向内弯曲并在中间部位形成凸起(208),所述的凸起(208)在避雷器本体(3)掉落时实现对帽檐(304)的阻挡。
  9. 根据权利要求8所述的自动脱扣和防坠避雷器,其特征在于:所述的安装环(205)的环体一侧设置有安装缺口(206),所述的安装缺口(206)贯穿整个环体。
  10. 根据权利要求8所述的自动脱扣和防坠避雷器,其特征在于:喇叭口主体(2)内部自上而下设置有垫圈安装槽(202)和垫圈活动槽(203);爪型垫圈(200)的安装环(205)安装在垫圈安装槽(202)内,垫圈活动槽(203)与所述凸起(208)的位置相对应。
  11. 根据权利要求8所述的自动脱扣和防坠避雷器,其特征在于:所述避雷器本体(3)的中下部外圈设置有导电凸环(305),所述喇叭口主体(2)内部设置有限位槽(209),所述避雷器本体(3)限位槽(209)上部的导电接触面(204)与导电凸环(305)相接触。
  12. 根据权利要求1所述的自动脱扣和防坠避雷器,其特征在于:绝缘子主体(1)的顶端设置有上部伞裙封口件(602),上部伞裙封口件(602)的下端面加工有所述的磁铁吸附面(118);避雷器本体(3)上端的脱离单元(303)吸附在磁铁吸附面(118)上。
  13. 根据权利要求11所述的自动脱扣和防坠避雷器,其特征在于:上部伞裙封口件(602)通过螺纹联接在绝缘子主体(1)的顶端。
  14. 根据权利要求11所述的自动脱扣和防坠避雷器,其特征在于:上部伞裙封口件(602)的顶端设置有上端连接件(601),上端连接件(601)上设置有 进线端(612)。
  15. 根据权利要求1所述的自动脱扣和防坠避雷器,其特征在于:绝缘子主体(1)的外圈设置有中间固定件(107),绝缘子主体(1)的内部设置有磁铁吸附块(108),磁铁吸附块(108)固定在所述中间固定件(107)上,磁铁吸附块(108)的下端面加工有所述的磁铁吸附面(118),避雷器本体(3)上端的脱离单元(303)吸附在磁铁吸附面(118)。
  16. 根据权利要求1所述的自动脱扣和防坠避雷器,其特征在于:所述的中间固定件(107)固联在电线杆上的横担上,并与接地端联通。
  17. 根据权利要求1所述的自动脱扣和防坠避雷器,其特征在于:绝缘子主体(1)包括绝缘管(102),绝缘管(102)的外圈套接有伞裙主体(101),伞裙主体(101)下端设置有绝缘管下口(103)。
  18. 一种避雷熔断一体化组合装置,其特征在于,包括熔断器和权利要求1-17任意之一的自动脱扣和防坠避雷器,所述绝缘子主体(1)和熔断器(4)的上部联接有上端固定件(105),所述的上端固定件(105)与外部输电线的高压进线端相联。
  19. 根据权利要求18所述的一种避雷熔断一体化组合装置,其特征在于:绝缘子主体(1)和熔断器(4)的下部连接有下端固定件(106),下端固定件(106)固定在绝缘管下口(103)和喇叭口主体(2)之间,所述的下端固定件(106)与外部输电线的低压出线端与避雷器进线端相联。
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