WO2019178934A1 - In-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy hub for new energy automobile and manufacturing method therefor - Google Patents

In-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy hub for new energy automobile and manufacturing method therefor Download PDF

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WO2019178934A1
WO2019178934A1 PCT/CN2018/087959 CN2018087959W WO2019178934A1 WO 2019178934 A1 WO2019178934 A1 WO 2019178934A1 CN 2018087959 W CN2018087959 W CN 2018087959W WO 2019178934 A1 WO2019178934 A1 WO 2019178934A1
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melt
composite
aluminum alloy
alloy
nano
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赵玉涛
陶然
陈刚
王坤
李维玉
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江苏大学
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D21/00Casting non-ferrous metals or metallic compounds so far as their metallurgical properties are of importance for the casting procedure; Selection of compositions therefor
    • B22D21/02Casting exceedingly oxidisable non-ferrous metals, e.g. in inert atmosphere
    • B22D21/04Casting aluminium or magnesium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/10Alloys containing non-metals
    • C22C1/1036Alloys containing non-metals starting from a melt
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D18/00Pressure casting; Vacuum casting
    • B22D18/04Low pressure casting, i.e. making use of pressures up to a few bars to fill the mould
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D21/00Casting non-ferrous metals or metallic compounds so far as their metallurgical properties are of importance for the casting procedure; Selection of compositions therefor
    • B22D21/002Castings of light metals
    • B22D21/007Castings of light metals with low melting point, e.g. Al 659 degrees C, Mg 650 degrees C
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60BVEHICLE WHEELS; CASTORS; AXLES FOR WHEELS OR CASTORS; INCREASING WHEEL ADHESION
    • B60B27/00Hubs
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/02Making alloys by melting
    • C22C1/026Alloys based on aluminium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/02Making alloys by melting
    • C22C1/03Making alloys by melting using master alloys
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/06Making alloys with the use of special agents for refining or deoxidising
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C21/00Alloys based on aluminium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C21/00Alloys based on aluminium
    • C22C21/02Alloys based on aluminium with silicon as the next major constituent
    • C22C21/04Modified aluminium-silicon alloys
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C32/00Non-ferrous alloys containing at least 5% by weight but less than 50% by weight of oxides, carbides, borides, nitrides, silicides or other metal compounds, e.g. oxynitrides, sulfides whether added as such or formed in situ
    • C22C32/0005Non-ferrous alloys containing at least 5% by weight but less than 50% by weight of oxides, carbides, borides, nitrides, silicides or other metal compounds, e.g. oxynitrides, sulfides whether added as such or formed in situ with at least one oxides and at least one of carbides, nitrides, borides or silicides as the main non-metallic constituents
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • C22F1/04Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of aluminium or alloys based thereon
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • C22F1/04Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of aluminium or alloys based thereon
    • C22F1/05Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of aluminium or alloys based thereon of alloys of the Al-Si-Mg type, i.e. containing silicon and magnesium in approximately equal proportions
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60BVEHICLE WHEELS; CASTORS; AXLES FOR WHEELS OR CASTORS; INCREASING WHEEL ADHESION
    • B60B2360/00Materials; Physical forms thereof
    • B60B2360/10Metallic materials
    • B60B2360/104Aluminum
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60BVEHICLE WHEELS; CASTORS; AXLES FOR WHEELS OR CASTORS; INCREASING WHEEL ADHESION
    • B60B2360/00Materials; Physical forms thereof
    • B60B2360/30Synthetic materials
    • B60B2360/36Composite materials
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/10Alloys containing non-metals
    • C22C1/1036Alloys containing non-metals starting from a melt
    • C22C2001/1047Alloys containing non-metals starting from a melt by mixing and casting liquid metal matrix composites
    • C22C2001/1052Alloys containing non-metals starting from a melt by mixing and casting liquid metal matrix composites by mixing and casting metal matrix composites with reaction

Abstract

A method for manufacturing a lightweight, high-strength, and fatigue-resistant in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy hub for a new energy automobile. The method achieves nano-particle combined reinforcement by means of Orowan strengthening and grain boundary strengthening by employing an in-situ chemical melt reaction and achieves grain boundary strengthening by integrating long-acting combination modification and refinement. The method adopts nitrogen-argon composite rotary air refining and aluminum-rare earth purification technology to achieve multi-stage deep purification of an aluminum melt, forms a protective layer on the surface of the melt by leveraging the fact that the density of argon is higher than that of air, and introduces an aluminum-rare earth intermediate alloy to produce an intermediate compound having a density greater than that of the particles, thereby effectively achieving deep and efficient purification. The method also adopts a novel low-pressure forming technology of sequential solidification and rapid crystallization. Due to the shortening of crystallization time, the secondary dendrite arm spacing in the microstructure of a casting becomes shorter, the microstructure is refined, and the feeding effect is enhanced, such that the casting structure is denser, thus obtaining a hub having high-strength plasticity, high fatigue resistance, and high density. Further disclosed is the lightweight, high-strength, and fatigue resistant in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy hub for a new energy automobile.

Description

一种新能源汽车用原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂及制造方法In-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheel hub for new energy automobile and manufacturing method thereof 技术领域Technical field
本发明涉及一种新能源汽车用轻质高强抗疲劳原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂及制造方法,属于新能源汽车轮毂制备技术领域。The invention relates to a lightweight high-strength anti-fatigue in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheel hub for a new energy automobile and a manufacturing method thereof, and belongs to the technical field of new energy automobile wheel hub preparation.
背景技术Background technique
当前,以纯电动汽车、混合动力汽车、燃料电池汽车为代表的新能源汽车正在全球快速增长。然而,新能源汽车受电池重量及续航里程等因素的影响,对轻量化要求更加迫切。研究表明:新能源汽车采用轻质高强铝合金轮毂代替传统铝轮毂,可降低整车能耗达3%。同时,由于新能源汽车普遍重于同级别传统汽车,其轮毂所承受载荷更大,对强度和抗疲劳性能要求更高。因此,新能源汽车轮毂对轻量化和性能要求均很高。At present, new energy vehicles represented by pure electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles and fuel cell vehicles are growing rapidly in the world. However, due to factors such as battery weight and cruising range, new energy vehicles are more urgent for lightweighting. Research shows that new energy vehicles use lightweight high-strength aluminum alloy wheels instead of traditional aluminum wheels, which can reduce the energy consumption of the whole vehicle by 3%. At the same time, because new energy vehicles are generally heavier than conventional vehicles of the same class, their hubs are subjected to greater loads and require higher strength and fatigue resistance. Therefore, new energy vehicle wheels have high requirements for light weight and performance.
A356.2铝合金以其优良的铸造性能、机械加工性能、热处理强韧化设计性能和抗疲劳性能,成为汽车轮毂的主要材料。中国专利200910131282.8公开了一种铝合金的轮毂,是在现有A356.2合金的基础上进一步用Sr和混合稀土RE实施合金化,可有效的对Si进行变质,提高性能。中国专利201610054783.0公开一种汽车轮毂专用铝合金锭及其制备方法,在A356.2合金的基础上,加入Ti、Eu、La元素并调整Si、Mn、Mg元素的含量,可对合金组织起到变质和细化作用,改善铝合金轮毂的力学性能。然而,上述的工艺技术依然存在着以下缺点和不足:(1)大量价格昂贵的稀土元素的使用,提高材料制造的成本;(2)依靠传统的合金析出强化提高材料的强塑性是有限的,往往是降低塑性提高强度;(3)稀土的含量很难控制,过量加入反而会降低材料的性能。因此急需开发一种新型轮毂材料。A356.2 aluminum alloy has become the main material of automobile wheels because of its excellent casting properties, machinability, heat treatment, toughening design performance and fatigue resistance. Chinese patent 200910131282.8 discloses a wheel hub of aluminum alloy, which is further alloyed with Sr and mixed rare earth RE on the basis of the existing A356.2 alloy, which can effectively deteriorate Si and improve performance. Chinese patent 201610054783.0 discloses an aluminum alloy ingot for automobile wheel hub and a preparation method thereof. On the basis of A356.2 alloy, adding Ti, Eu and La elements and adjusting the content of Si, Mn and Mg elements can play the role of alloy structure. Deterioration and refinement to improve the mechanical properties of aluminum alloy wheels. However, the above process technology still has the following shortcomings and shortcomings: (1) the use of a large number of expensive rare earth elements to increase the cost of material manufacturing; (2) relying on conventional alloy precipitation strengthening to increase the material's strong plasticity is limited, It is often to reduce the plasticity to increase the strength; (3) the content of rare earth is difficult to control, and excessive addition will reduce the performance of the material. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a new type of wheel material.
近年来,由于颗粒增强铝基复合材料已逐渐应用于轮毂的材料,特别是原位生成纳米颗粒增强铝基复合材料,由于其纳米增强体是通过化学反应从铝基体中原位形核、长大的热力学稳定相,因此增强体表面无污染,避免了与基体相容性不良的问题,界面结合强度高,且其具有纳米尺寸效应,具有更高的比强度、比模量,良好的耐热性、耐摩擦性、耐腐蚀性,以及出色的抗疲劳能力,是提高汽车用铝合金材料综合力学性能的重要手段,已成为新能源汽车用轻质高强轮毂的研究热点。但是其制造过程中易存在以下问题:(1)熔体直接反应法,反应残渣容易留存在熔体中,并且由于熔体内部产生波动容易卷气进入熔体;(2)生成的纳米颗粒容易团聚,分布不均匀,因此容易产生缺陷,致密度低。In recent years, particle-reinforced aluminum-based composite materials have been gradually applied to the material of the hub, especially in-situ generation of nano-particle-reinforced aluminum-based composite materials, because their nano-reinforces are in-situ nucleated and grown from the aluminum matrix by chemical reaction. The thermodynamically stable phase, so that the surface of the reinforcing body is non-polluting, avoids the problem of poor compatibility with the matrix, has high interfacial bonding strength, and has a nano-size effect, has higher specific strength, specific modulus, and good heat resistance. Sex, friction resistance, corrosion resistance, and excellent fatigue resistance are important means to improve the comprehensive mechanical properties of automotive aluminum alloy materials, and have become a research hotspot for lightweight high-strength wheels for new energy vehicles. However, the following problems are easily encountered in the manufacturing process: (1) The direct reaction method of the melt, the reaction residue is liable to remain in the melt, and it is easy to wind into the melt due to the fluctuation inside the melt; (2) the generated nanoparticles are easy Agglomeration, uneven distribution, so it is easy to produce defects, resulting in low density.
发明内容Summary of the invention
本发明目的在于针对现有技术的不足,开发一种轻质高强原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂及制造方法,采用原位多元纳米颗粒与时效析出相协同强化、熔体深度净化和高致密低压成型技术,显著提高轮毂的强塑性、抗疲劳性。The invention aims to develop a lightweight high-strength in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheel hub and a manufacturing method thereof according to the deficiencies of the prior art, and adopts in-situ multi-particles and aging precipitation synergistic strengthening, melt deep purification and high-density low-pressure molding. Technology, significantly improve the strong plasticity and fatigue resistance of the hub.
本发明的一种轻质高强原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂的制造方法,通过熔体原位化学反应,以Orowan强化+细晶强化实现纳米颗粒复合强化,集成长效复合变质,以及复合细化,实现细晶强化。采用氮氩复合旋转吹气精炼+铝-稀土净化技术,实现铝熔体的多级深度净化,利用氩气密度大于空气的特性在熔体表面形成保护层,并结合铝-稀土中间合金的引入产生密度大于颗粒的中间体化合物,有效实现深度高效净化。最后通过顺序凝固+快速结晶的新型低压成型技术,由于结晶时间缩短,铸件微观组织中二次枝晶臂间距变短,组织细化,并增强补缩效果,使铸件组织更加致密,获得高强塑性、高抗疲劳性以及致密度高的轮毂。The invention relates to a method for manufacturing a lightweight high-strength in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheel hub, which realizes nano-particle composite strengthening by Orowan strengthening + fine grain strengthening through melt in-situ chemical reaction, integrating long-acting composite metamorphism, and composite refining , to achieve fine grain strengthening. The nitrogen-argon composite rotary air refining + aluminum-rare earth purification technology is used to realize the multi-stage deep purification of the aluminum melt, and the protective layer is formed on the surface of the melt by using the argon density higher than the air, and the introduction of the aluminum-rare earth intermediate alloy is combined. Produces intermediate compounds with a density greater than that of particles, effectively achieving deep and efficient purification. Finally, through the new low-pressure forming technology of sequential solidification + rapid crystallization, due to the shortening of crystallization time, the secondary dendrite arm spacing in the microstructure of the casting becomes shorter, the microstructure is refined, and the feeding effect is enhanced, the casting structure is more dense, and high-strength plasticity is obtained. High fatigue resistance and high density of the hub.
本发明的制造方法包括以下步骤:The manufacturing method of the present invention comprises the following steps:
(1)合金的熔炼:将A356.2合金在720-780℃熔化并保温10min。所述的A356.2合金为商用合金,其化学成分为:Si 6.5-7,Mg 0.3-0.4,Fe 0.1-0.15,Cu≤0.1,Mn≤0.05,Zn≤0.05,余量为Al。(1) Melting of the alloy: The A356.2 alloy was melted at 720-780 ° C for 10 min. The A356.2 alloy is a commercial alloy, and its chemical composition is: Si 6.5-7, Mg 0.3-0.4, Fe 0.1-0.15, Cu ≤ 0.1, Mn ≤ 0.05, Zn ≤ 0.05, and the balance is Al.
(2)原位合成纳米颗粒:将步骤(1)熔炼并保温的熔体迅速升温至830-870℃,通过高纯石墨钟罩加入已烘干的反应物粉末,同时施加声磁耦合场反应30min,然后降温至720-760℃保温。(2) In-situ synthesis of nanoparticles: The melt melted and kept in step (1) is rapidly heated to 830-870 ° C, and the dried reactant powder is added through a high-purity graphite bell jar while applying an acousto-magnetic coupling field reaction. 30 min, then cool down to 720-760 ° C insulation.
(3)Mg、Si含量的调整以及变质剂、细化剂的引入:将纯Mg和Al-Si中间合金加入步骤(2)所获得的熔体中,采用石墨搅拌转子转动促进混合并保温10min,然后将Al-Sr和Al-RE复合变质剂以及Al-Ti-B和Al-Ti-C复合细化剂,采用石墨搅拌并保温15min。(3) Adjustment of Mg and Si content and introduction of modifier and refiner: pure Mg and Al-Si intermediate alloy are added to the melt obtained in step (2), and the mixture is rotated by graphite to promote mixing and heat preservation for 10 min. Then, the Al-Sr and Al-RE composite modifiers and the Al-Ti-B and Al-Ti-C composite refiners were stirred with graphite and kept for 15 minutes.
(4)熔体的净化:将步骤(3)获得熔体升温至750-780℃,将精炼剂通过喷枪喷入熔体中进行初步净化,然后加入Al-Ce中间合金,静置并保温10-15min,进行二次净化;最后将一定比例的氮气和氩气混合后通入石墨制的气体旋转喷嘴,将转速为300-600r/min的石墨喷嘴伸入熔体中,然后将混合气体以0.2-0.5m 3/h的流量喷入熔体中精炼10-20min,静置5-10min。 (4) Purification of the melt: the step (3) is obtained to raise the temperature of the melt to 750-780 ° C, and the refining agent is sprayed into the melt through a spray gun for preliminary purification, and then the Al-Ce intermediate alloy is added, and the mixture is allowed to stand and kept warm for 10 -15min, secondary purification; finally, a certain proportion of nitrogen and argon are mixed and then passed into a graphite gas rotating nozzle, a graphite nozzle rotating at 300-600r/min is inserted into the melt, and then the mixed gas is A flow rate of 0.2-0.5 m 3 /h was sprayed into the melt for 10-20 min, and allowed to stand for 5-10 min.
(5)低压铸造成型:待步骤(4)获得的熔体温度降至720-750℃,将熔体置入低压铸机密封的石墨坩埚炉(温度为680-750℃),然后通入干燥的空气,熔体在气体压力为 0.04-0.08MPa的作用下以25-45mm/s的速度沿升液管上升进入温度为300-400℃的模具,待模具填满,水冷却模具,增加0.006-0.04MPa的压力,保压250-400s,释压取件,获得原位纳米复合强化铝合金铸件。(5) Low-pressure casting molding: the melt temperature obtained in step (4) is lowered to 720-750 ° C, and the melt is placed in a graphite crucible furnace sealed at a low-pressure casting machine (temperature is 680-750 ° C), and then introduced. Dry air, the melt rises along the riser tube at a speed of 25-45mm/s at a gas pressure of 0.04-0.08 MPa into a mold with a temperature of 300-400 ° C. After the mold is filled, the water cools the mold and increases. The pressure of 0.006-0.04MPa, the pressure is maintained at 250-400s, and the pressure is taken out to obtain the in-situ nano-composite reinforced aluminum alloy casting.
(6)热处理:将步骤(5)获得的轮毂铸件进行T6热处理,固溶淬火:温度530-550℃,保温时间4h-8h,水淬;人工时效:温度170-180℃,保温时间2-6h。最后获得高强原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂。(6) Heat treatment: the wheel casting obtained in step (5) is subjected to T6 heat treatment, solution hardening: temperature 530-550 ° C, holding time 4 h-8 h, water quenching; artificial aging: temperature 170-180 ° C, holding time 2 6h. Finally, high strength in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheels are obtained.
所述的步骤(2)中的原位合成的纳米颗粒的成分按照步骤(2)中熔体的重量百分比为:1-3%的纳米ZrB 2、2-4%的纳米Al 2O 3和1-5%的纳米TiB 2三元颗粒。ZrB 2和TiB 2沿晶界均匀分布,可有效钉扎晶界并阻碍晶界的迁移,细化晶粒,而Al 2O 3是在晶内均匀分布,与基体结合强度高,起到弥散强化的效果,提高复合材料的力学性能。 The composition of the in-situ synthesized nanoparticles in the step (2) is according to the weight percentage of the melt in the step (2): 1-3% of nano ZrB 2 , 2-4% of nano Al 2 O 3 and 1-5% of nano TiB 2 ternary particles. ZrB 2 and TiB 2 are uniformly distributed along the grain boundary, which can effectively pin the grain boundary and hinder the migration of grain boundaries, refine the grains, and Al 2 O 3 is uniformly distributed in the crystal, and the bonding strength with the matrix is high, which is dispersed. Strengthen the effect and improve the mechanical properties of the composite.
制备增强颗粒所述的反应物粉末为K 2ZrF 6、K 2TiF 6和Na 2B 4O 7。其质量比为:6-8:7-9:10-12(为了防止生成Al 3Zr和Al 3Ti,硼砂需过量50%-70%),粉体加入量为步骤(2)中熔体的20-40%。 The reactant powders for the preparation of the reinforcing particles are K 2 ZrF 6 , K 2 TiF 6 and Na 2 B 4 O 7 . The mass ratio is: 6-8:7-9:10-12 (in order to prevent the formation of Al 3 Zr and Al 3 Ti, the borax needs to be excessively 50%-70%), and the powder is added in the amount of the melt in the step (2). 20-40%.
所述的声磁耦合场为低频脉冲磁场和高能超声场组合场,低频脉冲磁场,频率为10-20Hz,磁力电流为100-200A;高能超声场,功率为1000-1500W,频率为15-30kHz;声磁耦合场可产生两种方向的声流运动,可避免单一磁场造成的颗粒偏聚外侧的现象和单一超声场的声流运动造成空化泡沿变幅杆轴向分布;并且声磁耦合场可保证整个铝合金熔体传质转热过程完全进行,使得铝合金熔体中各个区域浓度均匀,抑制颗粒的长大。因此声磁耦合场不仅可以避免单一物理场的缺点,还能放大单一物理场的优点。The acousto-magnetic coupling field is a combination field of a low-frequency pulse magnetic field and a high-energy ultrasonic field, a low-frequency pulse magnetic field, a frequency of 10-20 Hz, a magnetic current of 100-200 A, a high-energy ultrasonic field, a power of 1000-1500 W, and a frequency of 15-30 kHz. The acoustic-magnetic coupling field can generate sound flow in two directions, avoiding the phenomenon of particle segregation outside the single magnetic field and the acoustic flow of a single ultrasonic field causing the cavitation bubble to be axially distributed along the horn; The coupling field ensures that the mass transfer heat transfer process of the entire aluminum alloy melt is completely carried out, so that the concentration of each region in the aluminum alloy melt is uniform, and the growth of the particles is suppressed. Therefore, the acousto-magnetic coupling field can not only avoid the disadvantages of a single physics field, but also amplify the advantages of a single physics field.
所述的Mg、Si含量的调整是使Mg的含量达到0.4-0.45,Si的含量达到6.5-7.5,其目的一方面补充由于高温反应所消耗的Mg和Si元素,另一方面进一步优化Mg和Si元素的含量,提高Mg 2Si时效析出相的体积分数,增强时效析出强化,提高材料的抗拉强度。 The content of Mg and Si is adjusted so that the content of Mg reaches 0.4-0.45, and the content of Si reaches 6.5-7.5. The purpose is to supplement the Mg and Si elements consumed by the high temperature reaction on the one hand, and further optimize Mg and on the other hand. The content of Si element increases the volume fraction of the Mg 2 Si aging precipitation phase, enhances the aging precipitation strengthening, and improves the tensile strength of the material.
所述的复合变质剂是步骤(2)所获得熔体质量的0.1-0.2wt.%的Al-10%Sr中间合金和0.1-0.2wt.%的Al-10%RE中间合金,可改善常规Al-Sr中间合金变质效果易随熔体保温时间增加而出现衰退的问题,因此开发复合变质技术,保证变质效果与使用时间的良好结合,使粗大的共晶Si相变成细小纤维状,提高其强塑性。The composite modificator is 0.1-0.2 wt.% of the Al-10% Sr master alloy and 0.1-0.2 wt.% of the Al-10%RE master alloy obtained in the step (2), which can improve the conventional The metamorphism effect of Al-Sr master alloy tends to be degraded with the increase of the melt holding time. Therefore, the composite metamorphism technology is developed to ensure a good combination of the deterioration effect and the use time, so that the coarse eutectic Si phase becomes fine fiber and improves. Its strong plasticity.
所述的复合细化剂是步骤(2)所获得熔体质量的0.1-0.2wt.%的Al-5%Ti-1%B中间合金和0.1-0.2wt.%的Al-5%Ti-0.2%C中间合金,一方面Al-Ti-C可弥补Al-Ti-B中间合金细化过程中出现的“中毒”现象(TiB 2颗粒容易沉降,细化效果减退,并且容易成为 裂纹扩展源),另一方面Al-Ti-C细化剂中由于TiC颗粒尺寸小,尺寸小的颗粒不能减少临界晶核的形核曲率,细化效果不如Al-Ti-B中间合金好,因此开发复合细化技术,使达到最佳细化效果,通过细晶强化提高材料的强塑性和疲劳性能。 The composite refiner is 0.1-0.2 wt.% of the melt mass obtained in the step (2), and the Al-5% Ti-1% B intermediate alloy and 0.1-0.2 wt.% of the Al-5% Ti- 0.2%C intermediate alloy, on the one hand, Al-Ti-C can compensate for the “poisoning” phenomenon in the refining process of Al-Ti-B intermediate alloy (TiB 2 particles are easy to settle, the refining effect is reduced, and it is easy to become a crack propagation source. On the other hand, in the Al-Ti-C refiner, due to the small size of the TiC particles, the particles with small size cannot reduce the nucleation curvature of the critical nucleus, and the refinement effect is not as good as that of the Al-Ti-B intermediate alloy. Refinement technology to achieve the best refinement effect, through the fine-grained strengthening to improve the material's strong plasticity and fatigue properties.
所述的熔体的净化主要分为稀土净化和旋转喷气精炼。在初步净化之后,加入步骤(3)获得的熔体质量的0.1-0.3wt.%的Al-10%Ce中间合金,使之与Al 2O 3颗粒发生反应,生成密度远大于Al 2O 3的Ce 2O 3,其下沉速度更快,有效实现了对细小Al 2O 3夹杂物的清除;然后采用氮氩复合旋转吹气精炼,其氮气与氩气的体积比为:3-6:1-5,利用氩气密度大于空气的特性在熔体表面形成层,减少铝液精炼时的吸气现象,降低了铝液的含气量,铸铝件的气孔、针孔缺陷明显下降,并结合氮气优良的精炼效果,实现高效净化效果,减少由于气体和夹杂物产生的缺陷,提高材料性能。 The purification of the melt is mainly divided into rare earth purification and rotary jet refining. After the preliminary purification, 0.1 to 0.3 wt.% of the Al-10% Ce master alloy of the melt mass obtained in the step (3) is added to react with the Al 2 O 3 particles to form a density much larger than that of the Al 2 O 3 . Ce 2 O 3 , its sinking speed is faster, effectively eliminating the inclusion of fine Al 2 O 3 inclusions; then using nitrogen-argon composite rotary blowing refining, the volume ratio of nitrogen to argon is: 3-6 : 1-5, using argon gas density greater than the characteristics of air to form a layer on the surface of the melt, reducing the phenomenon of inhalation during the refining of aluminum liquid, reducing the gas content of the aluminum liquid, the porosity of the cast aluminum parts, pinhole defects are significantly reduced, Combined with the excellent refining effect of nitrogen, it achieves high-efficiency purification effect, reduces defects caused by gases and inclusions, and improves material properties.
所述的低压铸造成型是指顺序凝固+快速结晶的新型低压成型技术。一方面低压铸造模具由传统的风冷改为水冷,使铸件冷却速度增大,加快顺序凝固,结晶时间缩短,铸件微观组织中二次枝晶臂间距变短,组织细化;另一方面通过提高低压铸造凝固结晶时的压力,在铝液充型结束后在压力下凝固,持续对铝液施加压力,在提高补缩效果的同时熔体在压力下结晶凝固,实现轮毂的致密化和晶粒细化,明显提高强塑性和疲劳性能。The low pressure casting molding refers to a new low pressure molding technology of sequential solidification + rapid crystallization. On the one hand, the low-pressure casting mold is changed from the traditional air-cooling to the water-cooling, which increases the cooling rate of the casting, accelerates the sequential solidification, shortens the crystallization time, shortens the secondary dendrite arm spacing in the microstructure of the casting, and refines the structure; Increasing the pressure during solidification crystallization of low-pressure casting, solidifying under pressure after the filling of aluminum liquid, continuously applying pressure to the aluminum liquid, and simultaneously solidifying and solidifying the melt under pressure while improving the feeding effect, realizing densification of the hub and crystal Grain refinement significantly improves the ductility and fatigue properties.
本发明提出的一种轻质高强原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂及制备方法,利用多元复合纳米强化技术+复合变质细化技术+深度净化技术+低压成型技术,获得原位纳米颗粒分布均匀(颗粒尺寸20-100nm)、晶粒细小(使晶粒细化至ASTM标准4级)和细小纤维状的共晶Si相的原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂,其性能达到抗拉强度≥320MPa,屈服强度≥240MPa,延伸率≥8%,因此本发明制备的轮毂能降低新能源汽车能耗,增强续航能力,使制动、转弯、提速等更加灵敏,提高安全性。The invention relates to a lightweight high-strength in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheel hub and a preparation method thereof, which utilizes multi-component composite nano-enhancement technology + composite metamorphism refining technology + deep purification technology + low-pressure forming technology to obtain uniform distribution of in-situ nanoparticles (particles) In-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheels with a size of 20-100 nm), fine grain (refinement of grain to ASTM standard 4) and fine-grained eutectic Si phase, the properties of which reach tensile strength ≥ 320 MPa, yield strength ≥240MPa, elongation ≥8%, so the wheel hub prepared by the invention can reduce the energy consumption of the new energy vehicle, enhance the endurance ability, make the braking, turning and speed increasing more sensitive and improve the safety.
附图说明DRAWINGS
图1为本发明的制造工艺流程图Figure 1 is a flow chart of the manufacturing process of the present invention
图2为(a)常规A356.2合金铸件金相组织图,(b)本发明原位纳米强化铝合金铸件金相组织图。从两金相图可以看出,采用本发明制造的轮毂铸件中晶粒细小,细小纤维状Si相沿晶界分布。2 is a (a) metallographic structure diagram of a conventional A356.2 alloy casting, and (b) a metallographic structure of the in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy casting of the present invention. As can be seen from the two metallographic diagrams, the wheel castings produced by the present invention have fine crystal grains, and the fine fibrous Si phase is distributed along the grain boundaries.
图3为原位纳米颗粒分布和形貌图。从图中可以看出,采用本发明制造的轮毂铸件中的原位纳米颗粒均匀的沿晶界分布,且其颗粒呈六方形、圆球状和四方形,分别为ZrB 2、Al 2O 3和TiB 2. Figure 3 is a diagram showing the distribution and topography of in-situ nanoparticles. It can be seen from the figure that the in-situ nanoparticles in the hub casting made by the invention are uniformly distributed along the grain boundary, and the particles are hexagonal, spherical and square, respectively ZrB 2 , Al 2 O 3 and TiB 2 .
图4为材料的拉伸曲线,(a)常规A356.2合金铸件,(b)为本发明的原位纳米强化 铝合金轮毂铸件。Figure 4 is a tensile curve of the material, (a) a conventional A356.2 alloy casting, and (b) an in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheel casting of the present invention.
具体实施方式detailed description
以下结合附图对本发明实施方案进一步描述:以下实施例在以本发明技术方案为前提下进行实施,给出了详细的实施方式和具体的操作过程,但本发明的保护范围不限于下述的实施例。The embodiments of the present invention are further described below with reference to the accompanying drawings. The following embodiments are implemented on the premise of the technical solution of the present invention, and detailed implementation manners and specific operation procedures are given, but the scope of protection of the present invention is not limited to the following. Example.
实施例1:Example 1:
原位纳米颗粒增强复合材料的制备:将100Kg商用A356.2合金原材料在750℃熔化并保温10min,继续升温至850℃时,分批加入在200℃下烘干并混合研磨的K 2ZrF 6、K 2TiF 6和Na 2B 4O 7粉体(其加入量分别为:4174g,5714g,7415g,生成的ZrB 2,TiB 2和Al 2O 3颗粒之间的质量比为1:1:2),同时开启声磁耦合场(磁场:频率10Hz,磁力电流100A;超声:功率1000W,频率20kHz)反应30min,反应结束去除熔体表面的浮渣,待温度降至750℃保温。 Preparation of in-situ nano-particle reinforced composite material: 100Kg commercial A356.2 alloy raw material is melted at 750 ° C for 10 min, and the temperature is further increased to 850 ° C. The K 2 ZrF 6 is dried and mixed and ground at 200 ° C in batches. , K 2 TiF 6 and Na 2 B 4 O 7 powders (the amount of which is 4174 g, 5714 g, 7415 g, respectively, the mass ratio of the generated ZrB 2 , TiB 2 and Al 2 O 3 particles is 1:1: 2) Simultaneously open the acousto-magnetic coupling field (magnetic field: frequency 10 Hz, magnetic current 100 A; ultrasonic: power 1000 W, frequency 20 kHz) for 30 min, the reaction ends to remove the scum on the surface of the melt, and the temperature is lowered to 750 ° C for heat preservation.
成分的调整以及复合变质细化剂的加入:将熔体质量的0.4wt.%的纯Mg和0.35wt.%的Al-20%Si中间合金加入熔体中,并同时采用石墨搅拌转子转动促进混合并保温10min,然后将0.1wt.%的Al-10%Sr和0.1wt.%的Al-10%RE复合变质剂以及0.1wt.%的Al-5%Ti-1%B和0.1%的Al-5%Ti-0.5%C复合细化剂,立即开启石墨转子搅拌并保温15min。Adjustment of composition and addition of composite deterioration refiner: 0.4wt.% of pure Mg of melt mass and 0.35wt.% of Al-20%Si intermediate alloy are added into the melt, and at the same time, the rotation of the graphite stirring rotor is promoted. Mix and keep for 10 min, then 0.1 wt.% Al-10% Sr and 0.1 wt.% Al-10% RE composite modifier and 0.1 wt.% Al-5% Ti-1% B and 0.1% Al-5% Ti-0.5% C composite refiner, immediately open the graphite rotor and stir for 15 min.
熔体的净化:熔体升温至780℃,喷入精炼剂六氯乙烷进行初步净化,然后加入0.1wt.%的Al-10%Ce中间合金,静置并保温10-15min,进行二次净化,最后将比例为3:1的氮气和氩气通入石墨制的气体旋转喷嘴,将转速为300r/min的石墨喷嘴伸入铝熔体中,混合惰性气体以0.2m 3/h的流量喷入熔体中精炼20min,静置10min。 Purification of the melt: the melt is heated to 780 ° C, sprayed with the refining agent hexachloroethane for preliminary purification, then 0.1 wt.% of Al-10% Ce intermediate alloy is added, allowed to stand and kept for 10-15 min, twice Purification, finally, a ratio of 3:1 nitrogen and argon gas into a graphite gas rotating nozzle, a graphite nozzle rotating at 300r / min into the aluminum melt, mixed inert gas at a flow rate of 0.2m 3 / h It was sprayed into the melt for 20 minutes and allowed to stand for 10 minutes.
低压铸造成型:待熔体温度降至750℃,将熔体置入低压铸机密封的石墨坩埚炉(温度为750℃),通入干燥的空气,熔体在气体压力为0.05MPa的作用下以25mm/s的速度沿升液管上升进入温度为300℃的模具,待模具填满,增加0.03MPa的压力,保压300s,释压取件,获得原位纳米复合强化铝合金压铸件。Low pressure casting: After the melt temperature drops to 750 ° C, the melt is placed in a graphite crucible furnace sealed at a low pressure casting machine (temperature is 750 ° C), and the dry air is introduced, and the melt pressure is 0.05 MPa. The mold is raised along the riser pipe at a speed of 25mm/s into a mold with a temperature of 300°C. When the mold is filled, the pressure is increased by 0.03MPa, the pressure is maintained for 300s, and the pressure is taken out to obtain the in-situ nano-composited aluminum alloy die-casting part. .
T6热处理:将切除浇冒口和飞边的压铸毛坯放入热处理炉中,固溶淬火:温度545℃,保温时间4h,水淬;人工时效:温度180℃,保温时间6h。最后获得高强原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂。T6 heat treatment: the die-casting blank for cutting the pouring riser and the flashing edge is placed in the heat treatment furnace, solid solution quenching: temperature 545 ° C, holding time 4 h, water quenching; artificial aging: temperature 180 ° C, holding time 6 h. Finally, high strength in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheels are obtained.
在轮毂上取样测试其力学性能,抗拉强度为325MPa,屈服强度为243MPa,延伸率为11.5%。在弯矩为2554N·m、转速为500r/min以及螺母扭矩为120N·m的条件下,弯 曲疲劳试验寿命大于6×10 5次,且增移量未超过初始偏移量的20%,性能合格。 The mechanical properties of the sample were tested on the hub, the tensile strength was 325 MPa, the yield strength was 243 MPa, and the elongation was 11.5%. Under the conditions of bending moment of 2554N·m, rotation speed of 500r/min and nut torque of 120N·m, the bending fatigue test life is more than 6×10 5 times, and the increase amount does not exceed 20% of the initial offset. qualified.
实施例2Example 2
原位纳米颗粒增强复合材料的制备:将100Kg商用A356.2合金原材料在750℃熔化并保温10min,继续升温至850℃时,分批加入在200℃下烘干并混合研磨的K 2ZrF 6、K 2TiF 6和Na 2B 4O 7粉体(其加入量分别为:3542g,5134g,6844g,生成的ZrB 2,TiB 2和Al 2O 3颗粒之间的质量比为1:2:2,同时开启声磁耦合场(磁场:频率10Hz,磁力电流100A;超声:功率1000W,频率20kHz)反应30min,反应结束去除熔体表面的浮渣,待温度降至750℃保温。 Preparation of in-situ nano-particle reinforced composite material: 100Kg commercial A356.2 alloy raw material is melted at 750 ° C for 10 min, and the temperature is further increased to 850 ° C. The K 2 ZrF 6 is dried and mixed and ground at 200 ° C in batches. , K 2 TiF 6 and Na 2 B 4 O 7 powders (the amount of addition is: 3542 g, 5134 g, 6844 g, the mass ratio of the generated ZrB 2 , TiB 2 and Al 2 O 3 particles is 1:2: 2, simultaneously open the acousto-magnetic coupling field (magnetic field: frequency 10Hz, magnetic current 100A; ultrasonic: power 1000W, frequency 20kHz) reaction for 30min, the reaction ends to remove the scum on the surface of the melt, until the temperature drops to 750 ° C insulation.
成分的调整以及复合变质细化剂的加入:将熔体质量的0.4wt.%的纯Mg和0.35wt.%的Al-20%Si中间合金加入熔体中,并同时采用石墨搅拌转子转动促进混合并保温10min,然后将0.2wt.%的Al-10%Sr和0.2wt.%的Al-10%RE复合变质剂以及0.2wt.%的Al-5%Ti-1%B和0.2wt.%的Al-5%Ti-0.5%C复合细化剂,立即开启石墨转子搅拌并保温15min。Adjustment of composition and addition of composite deterioration refiner: 0.4wt.% of pure Mg of melt mass and 0.35wt.% of Al-20%Si intermediate alloy are added into the melt, and at the same time, the rotation of the graphite stirring rotor is promoted. Mix and keep for 10 min, then 0.2 wt.% Al-10% Sr and 0.2 wt.% Al-10% RE composite modifier and 0.2 wt.% Al-5% Ti-1% B and 0.2 wt. % Al-5% Ti-0.5% C composite refiner, immediately open the graphite rotor and stir for 15 min.
熔体的净化:熔体升温至780℃,喷入精炼剂六氯乙烷进行初步净化,然后加入0.2wt.%的Al-10%Ce中间合金,静置并保温10-15min,进行二次净化,最后将比例为3:1的氮气和氩气通入石墨制的气体旋转喷嘴,将转速为300r/min的石墨喷嘴伸入铝熔体中,混合惰性气体以0.2m 3/h的流量喷入熔体中精炼20min,静置10min。 Purification of the melt: the melt is heated to 780 ° C, sprayed with the refining agent hexachloroethane for preliminary purification, then 0.2 wt.% of Al-10% Ce intermediate alloy is added, allowed to stand and kept for 10-15 min, twice Purification, finally, a ratio of 3:1 nitrogen and argon gas into a graphite gas rotating nozzle, a graphite nozzle rotating at 300r / min into the aluminum melt, mixed inert gas at a flow rate of 0.2m 3 / h It was sprayed into the melt for 20 minutes and allowed to stand for 10 minutes.
低压铸造成型:待熔体温度降至750℃,将熔体置入低压铸机密封的石墨坩埚炉(温度为750℃),通入干燥的空气,熔体在气体压力为0.06MPa的作用下以25mm/s的速度沿升液管上升进入温度为300℃的模具,待模具填满,增加0.035MPa的压力,保压300s,释压取件,获得原位纳米复合强化铝合金轮毂铸件。Low-pressure casting: After the melt temperature drops to 750 °C, the melt is placed in a graphite crucible furnace sealed at a low-pressure casting machine (temperature is 750 °C), and the dry air is passed. The melt pressure is 0.06 MPa. The mold is raised along the riser tube at a speed of 25mm/s into a mold with a temperature of 300°C. When the mold is filled, the pressure is increased by 0.035MPa, the pressure is maintained for 300s, and the pressure is taken out to obtain the in-situ nano-composited aluminum alloy wheel casting. .
T6热处理:将切除浇冒口和飞边的低压铸件毛坯放入热处理炉中,固溶淬火:温度545℃,保温时间4h,水淬;人工时效:温度180℃,保温时间6h。最后获得高强原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂。T6 heat treatment: the low-pressure casting blanks of the refining riser and the flashing edge are placed in a heat treatment furnace, and the solution quenching is performed at a temperature of 545 ° C, a holding time of 4 h, and water quenching; artificial aging: temperature of 180 ° C, holding time of 6 h. Finally, high strength in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheels are obtained.
在轮毂上取样测试其力学性能,抗拉强度为320MPa,屈服强度为240MPa,延伸率为9.1%。在弯矩为2554N·m、转速为500r/min以及螺母扭矩为120N·m的条件下,弯曲疲劳试验寿命大于6×10 5次,且增移量未超过初始偏移量的20%,性能合格。 The mechanical properties of the sample were tested on the hub, the tensile strength was 320 MPa, the yield strength was 240 MPa, and the elongation was 9.1%. Under the conditions of bending moment of 2554N·m, rotation speed of 500r/min and nut torque of 120N·m, the bending fatigue test life is more than 6×10 5 times, and the increase amount does not exceed 20% of the initial offset. qualified.
实施例3Example 3
原位纳米颗粒增强复合材料的制备:将100Kg商用A356.2合金原材料在750℃熔化并保温10min,继续升温至850℃时,分批加入在200℃下烘干并混合研磨的K 2ZrF 6、K 2TiF 6 和Na 2B 4O 7粉体(其加入量分别为:4174g,5714g,8786g,生成的ZrB 2,TiB 2和Al 2O 3颗粒之间的质量比为1:1:3),同时开启声磁耦合场(磁场:频率10Hz,磁力电流100A;超声:功率1000W,频率20kHz)反应30min,反应结束去除熔体表面的浮渣,待温度降至750℃保温。 Preparation of in-situ nano-particle reinforced composite material: 100Kg commercial A356.2 alloy raw material is melted at 750 ° C for 10 min, and the temperature is further increased to 850 ° C. The K 2 ZrF 6 is dried and mixed and ground at 200 ° C in batches. , K 2 TiF 6 and Na 2 B 4 O 7 powders (the amount of which is 4174 g, 5714 g, 8786 g, respectively, the mass ratio of the generated ZrB 2 , TiB 2 and Al 2 O 3 particles is 1:1: 3) Simultaneously open the acousto-magnetic coupling field (magnetic field: frequency 10Hz, magnetic current 100A; ultrasonic: power 1000W, frequency 20kHz) for 30min, the reaction ends to remove the scum on the surface of the melt, and the temperature is lowered to 750 °C to keep warm.
成分的调整以及复合变质细化剂的加入:将熔体质量的0.4wt.%的纯Mg和0.35wt.%的Al-20%Si中间合金加入熔体中,并同时采用石墨搅拌转子转动促进混合并保温10min,然后将0.1wt.%的Al-10%Sr和0.1wt.%的Al-10%RE复合变质剂以及0.1wt.%的Al-5%Ti-1%B和0.1wt.%的Al-5%Ti-0.5%C复合细化剂,立即开启石墨转子搅拌并保温15min。Adjustment of composition and addition of composite deterioration refiner: 0.4wt.% of pure Mg of melt mass and 0.35wt.% of Al-20%Si intermediate alloy are added into the melt, and at the same time, the rotation of the graphite stirring rotor is promoted. Mix and keep for 10 min, then 0.1 wt.% Al-10% Sr and 0.1 wt.% Al-10% RE composite modifier and 0.1 wt.% Al-5% Ti-1% B and 0.1 wt. % Al-5% Ti-0.5% C composite refiner, immediately open the graphite rotor and stir for 15 min.
熔体的净化:熔体升温至780℃,喷入精炼剂六氯乙烷进行初步净化,然后加入0.1wt.%的Al-10%Ce中间合金,静置并保温10-15min,进行二次净化,最后将比例为3:1的氮气和氩气通入石墨制的气体旋转喷嘴,将转速为300r/min的石墨喷嘴伸入铝熔体中,混合惰性气体以0.2m 3/h的流量喷入熔体中精炼20min,静置10min。 Purification of the melt: the melt is heated to 780 ° C, sprayed with the refining agent hexachloroethane for preliminary purification, then 0.1 wt.% of Al-10% Ce intermediate alloy is added, allowed to stand and kept for 10-15 min, twice Purification, finally, a ratio of 3:1 nitrogen and argon gas into a graphite gas rotating nozzle, a graphite nozzle rotating at 300r / min into the aluminum melt, mixed inert gas at a flow rate of 0.2m 3 / h It was sprayed into the melt for 20 minutes and allowed to stand for 10 minutes.
低压铸造成型:待熔体温度降至750℃,将熔体置入低压铸机密封的石墨坩埚炉(温度为750℃),通入干燥的空气,熔体在气体压力为0.07MPa的作用下以25mm/s的速度沿升液管上升进入温度为300℃的模具,待模具填满,增加0.04MPa的压力,保压300s,释压取件,获得原位纳米复合强化铝合金轮毂铸件。Low-pressure casting: After the melt temperature drops to 750 °C, the melt is placed in a graphite crucible furnace sealed at a low-pressure casting machine (temperature is 750 °C), and the dry air is introduced, and the melt pressure is 0.07 MPa. The mold is raised along the riser pipe at a speed of 25 mm/s into a mold with a temperature of 300 ° C. When the mold is filled, the pressure is increased by 0.04 MPa, the pressure is maintained for 300 s, and the pressure is taken out to obtain the in-situ nano-composited reinforced aluminum alloy wheel casting. .
T6热处理:将切除浇冒口和飞边的低压铸件毛坯放入热处理炉中,固溶淬火:温度545℃,保温时间4h,水淬;人工时效:温度180℃,保温时间6h。最后获得高强原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂。T6 heat treatment: the low-pressure casting blanks of the refining riser and the flashing edge are placed in a heat treatment furnace, and the solution quenching is performed at a temperature of 545 ° C, a holding time of 4 h, and water quenching; artificial aging: temperature of 180 ° C, holding time of 6 h. Finally, high strength in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheels are obtained.
在轮毂上取样测试其力学性能,抗拉强度为330MPa,屈服强度为250MPa,延伸率为13.65%。在弯矩为2554N·m、转速为500r/min以及螺母扭矩为120N·m的条件下,弯曲疲劳试验寿命大于6×10 5次,且增移量未超过初始偏移量的20%,性能合格。 The mechanical properties of the sample were tested on the hub, the tensile strength was 330 MPa, the yield strength was 250 MPa, and the elongation was 13.65%. Under the conditions of bending moment of 2554N·m, rotation speed of 500r/min and nut torque of 120N·m, the bending fatigue test life is more than 6×10 5 times, and the increase amount does not exceed 20% of the initial offset. qualified.
综上,本发明实施例具有如下的显著效果:抗拉强度,屈服强度,延伸率和抗疲劳强度有明显的提高;以上实施例在颗粒的含量,复合变质细化剂的含量以及凝固压力有所不同,可以看出,复合细化变质细化剂不宜加入太多,容易产生过变质细化效果,而且适当提高结晶凝固压力和颗粒的含量可提高材料的致密度提高材料的综合性能,因此可以看出发明实例3的综合性能最好,性能指标始终体现出比基体合金更加优异的性能,并且各项机械性能可以满足汽车轮毂材质的要求。In summary, the embodiments of the present invention have the following remarkable effects: tensile strength, yield strength, elongation and fatigue strength are significantly improved; the above examples have a content of particles, a content of a composite deterioration refiner, and a coagulation pressure. Differently, it can be seen that the composite refinement and deterioration refiner should not be added too much, and it is easy to produce over-deterioration and refinement effect, and appropriately increasing the crystallization solidification pressure and the content of the granule can increase the density of the material and improve the overall performance of the material. It can be seen that the comprehensive performance of the inventive example 3 is the best, the performance index always shows better performance than the base alloy, and various mechanical properties can meet the requirements of the material of the automobile hub.
本发明提供了一种轻质高强原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂及其制造方法,并创新开发多 元复合纳米强化技术+复合变质细化技术+深度净化技术+低压成型技术,获得一种轻质高强的汽车轮毂,为今后制备高性能的轻质轮毂提供了参考依据,具有广阔的市场前景和经济价值。The invention provides a lightweight high-strength in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheel hub and a manufacturing method thereof, and an innovative development of a multi-component composite nano-strengthening technology + a composite metamorphic refining technology + a deep purification technology + a low-pressure forming technology to obtain a light and high strength The automobile wheel hub provides a reference for the preparation of high-performance lightweight wheels in the future, and has broad market prospects and economic value.
以上所述仅为本发明的优选实施例而已,并不用于限制本发明,对于本领域的技术人员来说,本发明可以有各种更改和变化。凡在本发明的精神和原则之内,所作的任何修改、等同替换、改进等,均应包含在本发明的保护范围之内。The above description is only the preferred embodiment of the present invention, and is not intended to limit the present invention, and various modifications and changes can be made to the present invention. Any modifications, equivalent substitutions, improvements, etc. made within the spirit and scope of the present invention are intended to be included within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

  1. 一种新能源汽车用原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂的制造方法,其特征在于:将以含增强体元素的混合粉作为反应物,通过原位合成法并施加声磁耦合场制备多元纳米增强颗粒,通过熔体原位化学反应,以Orowan强化+细晶强化实现纳米颗粒复合强化;然后加入纯Mg,Al-Si中间合金,Al-Sr+Al-RE长效复合变质剂和Al-Ti-B+Al-Ti-C复合细化剂,集成长效复合变质,以及复合细化,实现细晶强化;采用氮氩复合旋转吹气精炼+铝-稀土净化技术,实现铝熔体的多级深度净化,利用氩气密度大于空气的特性在熔体表面形成保护层,并结合铝-稀土中间合金的引入产生密度大于颗粒的中间体化合物,有效实现深度高效净化;通过顺序凝固+快速结晶的低压铸造技术,使得结晶时间缩短,铸件微观组织中二次枝晶臂间距变短,组织细化,并增强补缩效果,使铸件组织更加致密,最后对铸件进行热处理获得高强塑性、高抗疲劳性以及致密度高的轮毂。The invention relates to a method for manufacturing an in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheel hub for a new energy automobile, which is characterized in that a multi-component nano-reinforced particle is prepared by in-situ synthesis and applying an acousto-magnetic coupling field with a mixed powder containing a reinforcing element as a reactant. Through the in-situ chemical reaction of the melt, the nanoparticle composite strengthening is achieved by Orowan strengthening + fine grain strengthening; then pure Mg, Al-Si intermediate alloy, Al-Sr+Al-RE long-acting composite modifier and Al-Ti- are added. B+Al-Ti-C composite refiner, integrated long-acting composite modification, and composite refinement to achieve fine-grained strengthening; using nitrogen-argon composite rotary blowing refining + aluminum-rare earth purification technology to achieve multi-stage aluminum melt Deep purification, using a argon density greater than the characteristics of air to form a protective layer on the surface of the melt, combined with the introduction of aluminum-rare earth intermediate alloy to produce intermediate compounds with a density greater than the particles, effectively achieving deep and efficient purification; by sequential solidification + rapid crystallization The low-pressure casting technology shortens the crystallization time, shortens the distance between the secondary dendrite arms in the microstructure of the casting, refines the structure, and enhances the feeding effect, making the casting structure more compact. Finally, Obtained by heat treating the casting of high strength plastic, high fatigue resistance and high densification of the hub.
  2. 如权利要求1所述的一种新能源汽车用原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂的制造方法,其特征在于,具体步骤如下:The method for manufacturing an in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheel hub for a new energy vehicle according to claim 1, wherein the specific steps are as follows:
    (1)合金的熔炼:将A356.2合金在720-780℃熔化并保温10min;(1) Melting of the alloy: melting the A356.2 alloy at 720-780 ° C for 10 min;
    (2)原位合成纳米颗粒:将步骤(1)熔炼并保温的熔体迅速升温至830-870℃,通过高纯石墨钟罩加入已烘干的反应物粉末,同时施加声磁耦合场反应30min,然后降温至720-760℃保温;(2) In-situ synthesis of nanoparticles: The melt melted and kept in step (1) is rapidly heated to 830-870 ° C, and the dried reactant powder is added through a high-purity graphite bell jar while applying an acousto-magnetic coupling field reaction. 30min, then cooled to 720-760 ° C insulation;
    (3)Mg、Si含量的调整以及变质剂、细化剂的引入:将纯Mg和Al-Si中间合金加入步骤(2)所获得的熔体中,采用石墨搅拌转子转动促进混合并保温10min,然后将Al-Sr和Al-RE复合变质剂以及Al-Ti-B和Al-Ti-C复合细化剂,采用石墨搅拌并保温15min;(3) Adjustment of Mg and Si content and introduction of modifier and refiner: pure Mg and Al-Si intermediate alloy are added to the melt obtained in step (2), and the mixture is rotated by graphite to promote mixing and heat preservation for 10 min. Then, the Al-Sr and Al-RE composite modifier and the Al-Ti-B and Al-Ti-C composite refiner are stirred by graphite and kept for 15 minutes;
    (4)熔体的净化:将步骤(3)获得熔体升温至750-780℃,将精炼剂通过喷枪喷入熔体中进行初步净化,然后加入Al-Ce中间合金,静置并保温10-15min,进行二次净化;最后将氮气和氩气混合后通入石墨制的气体旋转喷嘴,将转速为300-600r/min的石墨喷嘴伸入熔体中,然后将混合气体以0.2-0.5m 3/h的流量喷入熔体中精炼10-20min,静置5-10min; (4) Purification of the melt: the step (3) is obtained to raise the temperature of the melt to 750-780 ° C, and the refining agent is sprayed into the melt through a spray gun for preliminary purification, and then the Al-Ce intermediate alloy is added, and the mixture is allowed to stand and kept warm for 10 -15min, secondary purification; finally, nitrogen and argon are mixed and then passed into a graphite gas rotating nozzle, a graphite nozzle rotating at 300-600r/min is inserted into the melt, and then the mixed gas is 0.2-0.5. The flow rate of m 3 /h is sprayed into the melt for 10-20 min, and allowed to stand for 5-10 min;
    (5)低压铸造成型:待步骤(4)获得的熔体温度降至720-750℃,将熔体置入低压铸机密封的温度为680-750℃的石墨坩埚炉,然后通入干燥的空气,熔体在气体压力为0.04-0.08MPa的作用下以25-45mm/s的速度沿升液管上升进入温度为300-400℃的模具,待模具填满,水冷却模具,增加0.006-0.04MPa的压力,保压250-400s,释压取件,获得 原位纳米复合强化铝合金铸件;(5) Low-pressure casting molding: the melt temperature obtained in the step (4) is lowered to 720-750 ° C, and the melt is placed in a graphite crucible furnace sealed at a low pressure casting machine at a temperature of 680-750 ° C, and then dried. The air, the melt rises along the riser tube at a speed of 25-45 mm/s at a gas pressure of 0.04-0.08 MPa into a mold with a temperature of 300-400 ° C. After the mold is filled, the water cools the mold and increases by 0.006. -0.04MPa pressure, pressure holding 250-400s, pressure release take-up, to obtain in-situ nano-composite reinforced aluminum alloy castings;
    (6)热处理:将步骤(5)获得的轮毂铸件进行T6热处理,固溶淬火:温度530-550℃,保温时间4h-8h,水淬;人工时效:温度170-180℃,保温时间2-6h;最后获得新能源汽车用原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂。(6) Heat treatment: the wheel casting obtained in step (5) is subjected to T6 heat treatment, solution hardening: temperature 530-550 ° C, holding time 4 h-8 h, water quenching; artificial aging: temperature 170-180 ° C, holding time 2 6h; Finally, in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheels for new energy vehicles were obtained.
  3. 如权利要求2所述的一种新能源汽车用原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂的制造方法,其特征在于,所述的步骤(2)中的原位合成的纳米颗粒的成分按照步骤(2)中熔体的重量百分比为:1-3%的纳米ZrB 2、2-4%的纳米Al 2O 3和1-5%的纳米TiB 2三元颗粒;ZrB 2和TiB 2沿晶界均匀分布,可有效钉扎晶界并阻碍晶界的迁移,细化晶粒,而Al 2O 3是在晶内均匀分布,与基体结合强度高,起到弥散强化的效果,提高复合材料的力学性能。 The method for manufacturing an in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheel hub for a new energy vehicle according to claim 2, wherein the composition of the in-situ synthesized nanoparticles in the step (2) is in accordance with step (2) The weight percentage of the melt is: 1-3% of nano ZrB 2 , 2-4% of nano Al 2 O 3 and 1-5% of nano TiB 2 ternary particles; ZrB 2 and TiB 2 are uniformly distributed along the grain boundary It can effectively pin the grain boundary and hinder the migration of grain boundaries, refine the grains, and Al 2 O 3 is evenly distributed in the crystal, and has high bonding strength with the matrix, which acts as a dispersion strengthening and improves the mechanical properties of the composite. .
  4. 如权利要求2所述的一种新能源汽车用原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂的制造方法,其特征在于,制备增强颗粒所述的反应物粉末为K 2ZrF 6、K 2TiF 6和Na 2B 4O 7,其质量比为:6-8:7-9:10-12,为了防止生成Al 3Zr和Al 3Ti,硼砂需过量50%-70%,粉体加入量为步骤(2)中熔体的20-40%。 A method of manufacturing an in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheel for a new energy vehicle according to claim 2, wherein the reactant powder for preparing the reinforcing particles is K 2 ZrF 6 , K 2 TiF 6 and Na 2 . B 4 O 7 , the mass ratio is: 6-8:7-9:10-12, in order to prevent the formation of Al 3 Zr and Al 3 Ti, the borax needs an excess of 50%-70%, the powder addition amount is the step (2 ) 20-40% of the melt.
  5. 如权利要求2所述的一种新能源汽车用原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂的制造方法,其特征在于,所述的声磁耦合场为低频脉冲磁场和高能超声场组合场,低频脉冲磁场,频率为10-20Hz,磁力电流为100-200A;高能超声场,功率为1000-1500W,频率为15-30kHz;声磁耦合场可产生两种方向的声流运动,可避免单一磁场造成的颗粒偏聚外侧的现象和单一超声场的声流运动造成空化泡沿变幅杆轴向分布;并且声磁耦合场可保证整个铝合金熔体传质转热过程完全进行,使得铝合金熔体中各个区域浓度均匀,抑制颗粒的长大,声磁耦合场不仅可以避免单一物理场的缺点,还能放大单一物理场的优点。The method for manufacturing an in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheel hub for a new energy vehicle according to claim 2, wherein the acousto-magnetic coupling field is a combination field of a low-frequency pulse magnetic field and a high-energy ultrasonic field, and a low-frequency pulse magnetic field. The frequency is 10-20Hz, the magnetic current is 100-200A; the high-energy ultrasonic field has a power of 1000-1500W and the frequency is 15-30kHz; the acoustic-magnetic coupling field can generate sound flow in two directions, which can avoid particles caused by a single magnetic field. The phenomenon of the outer side of the segregation and the acoustic flow of the single ultrasonic field cause the cavitation bubbles to be distributed along the axial direction of the horn; and the acoustic-magnetic coupling field ensures that the mass transfer heat transfer process of the entire aluminum alloy melt is completely performed, so that the aluminum alloy melt The concentration of each region is uniform, and the growth of the particles is suppressed. The acoustic-magnetic coupling field can not only avoid the disadvantages of a single physical field, but also magnify the advantages of a single physical field.
  6. 如权利要求2所述的一种新能源汽车用原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂的制造方法,其特征在于,所述的Mg、Si含量的调整是使Mg的含量达到0.4-0.45,Si的含量达到6.5-7.5,其目的一方面补充由于高温反应所消耗的Mg和Si元素,另一方面进一步优化Mg和Si元素的含量,提高Mg 2Si时效析出相的体积分数,增强时效析出强化,提高材料的抗拉强度。 The method for manufacturing an in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheel hub for a new energy automobile according to claim 2, wherein the Mg and Si content are adjusted so that the content of Mg reaches 0.4-0.45, and the content of Si It reaches 6.5-7.5, the purpose of which is to supplement the Mg and Si elements consumed by the high temperature reaction on the one hand, and further optimize the content of Mg and Si elements on the other hand, increase the volume fraction of the Mg 2 Si aging precipitation phase, enhance the aging precipitation strengthening, and improve The tensile strength of the material.
  7. 如权利要求2所述的一种新能源汽车用原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂的制造方法,其特征在于,所述的复合变质剂是步骤(2)所获得熔体质量的0.1-0.2wt.%的Al-10%Sr中间合金和0.1-0.2wt.%的Al-10%RE中间合金,可改善常规Al-Sr中间合金变质效果易随熔体保温时间增加而出现衰退的问题,因此开发复合变质技术,保证变质效果与使用时间的良好结合,使粗大的共晶Si相变成细小纤维状,提高其强塑性。The method for manufacturing an in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheel hub for a new energy vehicle according to claim 2, wherein the composite modificator is 0.1-0.2 wt of the melt mass obtained in the step (2). % Al-10%Sr master alloy and 0.1-0.2wt.% Al-10%RE master alloy can improve the deterioration of conventional Al-Sr master alloy and tend to decline with the increase of melt holding time, so development The composite metamorphism technology ensures a good combination of the deterioration effect and the use time, so that the coarse eutectic Si phase becomes a fine fiber and improves its strong plasticity.
  8. 如权利要求2所述的一种新能源汽车用原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂的制造方法,其 特征在于,所述的复合细化剂是步骤(2)所获得熔体质量的0.1-0.2wt.%的Al-5%Ti-1%B中间合金和0.1-0.2wt.%的Al-5%Ti-0.2%C中间合金,一方面Al-Ti-C可弥补Al-Ti-B中间合金细化过程中出现的“中毒”现象,即TiB 2颗粒容易沉降,细化效果减退,并且容易成为裂纹扩展源,另一方面Al-Ti-C细化剂中由于TiC颗粒尺寸小,尺寸小的颗粒不能减少临界晶核的形核曲率,细化效果不如Al-Ti-B中间合金好,因此开发复合细化技术,使达到最佳细化效果,通过细晶强化提高材料的强塑性和疲劳性能。 The method for manufacturing an in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheel hub for a new energy vehicle according to claim 2, wherein the composite refiner is 0.1-0.2 wt of the melt mass obtained in the step (2). .% Al-5% Ti-1% B master alloy and 0.1-0.2 wt.% Al-5% Ti-0.2% C master alloy, on the one hand Al-Ti-C can make up for Al-Ti-B master alloy The “poisoning” phenomenon that occurs during the refining process, that is, TiB 2 particles are easy to settle, the refining effect is reduced, and it is easy to become a crack propagation source. On the other hand, the Al-Ti-C refiner has small size and small size due to TiC particles. The particles can not reduce the nucleation curvature of the critical nucleus, and the refinement effect is not as good as that of the Al-Ti-B intermediate alloy. Therefore, the composite refining technology is developed to achieve the best refinement effect, and the strong plasticity of the material is improved by fine grain strengthening. Fatigue performance.
  9. 如权利要求2所述的一种新能源汽车用原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂的制造方法,其特征在于,所述的熔体的净化主要分为稀土净化和旋转喷气精炼,在初步净化之后,加入步骤(3)获得的熔体质量的0.1-0.3wt.%的Al-10%Ce中间合金,使之与Al 2O 3颗粒发生反应,生成密度远大于Al 2O 3的Ce 2O 3,其下沉速度更快,有效实现了对细小Al 2O 3夹杂物的清除;然后采用氮氩复合旋转吹气精炼,其氮气与氩气的体积比为:3-6:1-5,利用氩气密度大于空气的特性在熔体表面形成层,减少铝液精炼时的吸气现象,降低了铝液的含气量,铸铝件的气孔、针孔缺陷明显下降,并结合氮气优良的精炼效果,实现高效净化效果,减少由于气体和夹杂物产生的缺陷,提高材料性能。 The method for manufacturing an in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheel hub for a new energy automobile according to claim 2, wherein the purification of the melt is mainly divided into rare earth purification and rotary jet refining, after preliminary purification, added in step (3) 0.1-0.3wt.% of the melt mass obtained intermediate Al-10% Ce alloy, reacted with Al 2 O 3 particles occurs, generating much greater than the density of Al Ce 2 O 3 2 O 3 of The sinking speed is faster, and the removal of fine Al 2 O 3 inclusions is effectively realized; then, the nitrogen-argon composite rotary air blowing refining is adopted, and the volume ratio of nitrogen to argon is 3-6:1-5. The argon gas density is greater than the characteristics of air to form a layer on the surface of the melt, which reduces the gettering phenomenon during the refining of the aluminum liquid, reduces the gas content of the aluminum liquid, and significantly reduces the pores and pinhole defects of the cast aluminum part, and is excellent in combination with nitrogen. Refining effect, achieving high-efficiency purification effect, reducing defects caused by gases and inclusions, and improving material properties.
  10. 如权利要求2所述的一种新能源汽车用原位纳米强化铝合金轮毂的制造方法,其特征在于,所述的低压铸造成型是指顺序凝固+快速结晶的新型低压成型技术;一方面低压铸造模具由传统的风冷改为水冷,使铸件冷却速度增大,加快顺序凝固,结晶时间缩短,铸件微观组织中二次枝晶臂间距变短,组织细化;另一方面通过提高低压铸造凝固结晶时的压力,在铝液充型结束后在压力下凝固,持续对铝液施加压力,在提高补缩效果的同时熔体在压力下结晶凝固,实现轮毂的致密化和晶粒细化,明显提高强塑性和疲劳性能。A method for manufacturing an in-situ nano-reinforced aluminum alloy wheel hub for a new energy vehicle according to claim 2, wherein said low-pressure casting molding refers to a novel low-pressure molding technique of sequential solidification + rapid crystallization; The low-pressure casting mold is changed from the traditional air-cooling to the water-cooling, which increases the cooling rate of the casting, accelerates the sequential solidification, shortens the crystallization time, shortens the distance between the secondary dendrite arms in the microstructure of the casting, and refines the structure; The pressure at the time of casting solidification crystallization is solidified under pressure after the filling of the aluminum liquid, and the pressure is continuously applied to the aluminum liquid, and the melt is crystallized and solidified under pressure while improving the shrinking effect, thereby realizing densification of the hub and fine grain. Chemically, significantly improve the strong plasticity and fatigue properties.
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