WO2019043009A1 - Heat pump having closed intermediate cooling and method for pumping heat or method for producing the heat pump - Google Patents

Heat pump having closed intermediate cooling and method for pumping heat or method for producing the heat pump Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2019043009A1
WO2019043009A1 PCT/EP2018/073143 EP2018073143W WO2019043009A1 WO 2019043009 A1 WO2019043009 A1 WO 2019043009A1 EP 2018073143 W EP2018073143 W EP 2018073143W WO 2019043009 A1 WO2019043009 A1 WO 2019043009A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
condenser
heat exchanger
liquid
heat pump
heated
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2018/073143
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Oliver Kniffler
Original Assignee
Efficient Energy Gmbh
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE102017215198.6A priority Critical patent/DE102017215198A1/en
Priority to DE102017215198.6 priority
Application filed by Efficient Energy Gmbh filed Critical Efficient Energy Gmbh
Publication of WO2019043009A1 publication Critical patent/WO2019043009A1/en

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B30/00Heat pumps
    • F25B30/02Heat pumps of the compression type
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B1/00Compression machines, plant, or systems with non-reversible cycle
    • F25B1/10Compression machines, plant, or systems with non-reversible cycle with multi-stage compression
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2339/00Details of evaporators; Details of condensers
    • F25B2339/04Details of condensers
    • F25B2339/047Water-cooled condensers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2400/00General features or devices for refrigeration machines, plants or systems, combined heating and refrigeration systems or heat-pump systems, i.e. not limited to a particular subgroup of F25B
    • F25B2400/07Details of compressors or related parts
    • F25B2400/072Intercoolers therefor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B25/00Machines, plant, or systems, using a combination of modes of operation covered by two or more of the groups F25B1/00 - F25B23/00
    • F25B25/005Machines, plant, or systems, using a combination of modes of operation covered by two or more of the groups F25B1/00 - F25B23/00 using primary and secondary systems

Abstract

The invention relates to a heat pump comprising an evaporator (10) for evaporating working fluid, a condenser (20) for condensing compressed working steam; a compressor (30) having a first compressor stage (31), a second compressor stage (33) and a steam chamber (32) between the first compressor stage (31) and the second compressor stage (33); and an intermediate cooler (40) having a heat exchanger (43), which is arranged in the steam chamber (32), and which has a heat exchanger input (41) and a heat exchanger output (42), wherein the heat exchanger input (41) or the heat exchanger output (42) is connected to a condenser input (21) or a condenser output (22) in order to direct cooling fluid for the condenser (20) in a circuit both through the condenser (20) and through the heat exchanger (43) during operation of the heat pump.

Description

 Heat pump with closed intercooling and method for pumping heat or method for producing the heat pump

description

The present invention relates to heat pumps and more particularly to heat pumps having a multi-stage compressor and intermediate cooling.

Fig. 5 shows a heat pump, as it can be used for example for heating. The heat pump comprises an evaporator 100, a compressor 110, a condenser 120 and an expansion valve 130. In the evaporator circulating in the circuit working fluid is vaporized and fed via an intake passage 1 12 to the compressor, which is exemplified here as a piston compressor. Compressed working steam is then fed via an ejection line 1 14 in the condenser 120. In the condenser 120, the compressed from the compressor 1 10 working vapor liquefied. The circuit is closed by an expansion valve 130, which is to expand the working fluid at the condenser outlet from the high condenser pressure to the low evaporator pressure.

In the evaporator 100, a heat exchanger is arranged with a closed line, which is shown at 102, above it runs a liquid, the z. B. brings heat from the environment. Due to the heat introduced into the evaporator 100, the working liquid evaporates in the evaporator, whereby heat is removed from the liquid in the heat exchanger 02 and thus cooled working fluid is led out of the evaporator via the heat exchanger. Similarly, the condenser also has a heat exchanger 122. In the heat exchanger 122 heat introduced by the liquefaction process in the condenser 120 out of the condenser, and indeed to cooler, which may be, for example, a radiator. The working fluid cooled in the radiator is then fed back into the heat exchanger 122, which is located in the condenser 120.

In the scenario shown in Fig. 5, environmental heat is introduced into the evaporator and heating heat is released from the condenser. This application of the heat pump thus serves for heating, for example, a building. The other application of the heat pump, in which the heat pump is basically the same, is used to cool a building. For this purpose, the "environmental heat" that is introduced into the evaporator 00 via the heat exchanger 102, the heat in a space to be cooled, such as a data center.The "heating heat", however, is the heat that is supplied to a radiator, for example a roof or on a building outside is arranged. Generally, the area that is thermally connected to the evaporator forms the area to be cooled, and the area that is thermally connected to the condenser forms the area to be heated.

European Patent EP 2 281 155 discloses a vertically arranged heat pump in which an evaporator and a condenser as well as a gas area extending between the evaporator and the condenser are present. In particular, the condenser is arranged above the evaporator in an operating Aufzerichtung the heat pump. The compressor comprises a first compressor stage, an intermediate cooling and a second compressor stage. Energy taken from the superheated working steam after the first compressor stage by the intercooler is used to heat a service water tank to a temperature that is above the temperature in the condenser. For the return of the medium, a return channel is provided, wherein a first stage of the return channel has nozzle openings in the bottom wall of the condenser, so that liquefied working fluid, which is in the vicinity of such a nozzle opening, due to the pressure difference between the condenser bottom and spraying the intercooler into the intercooler. The sprayed-in liquid medium is then collected in a bulge of the intercooler to be transported from there into the evaporator through a second section of the return channel. Again, a similar spraying technique can be used through nozzle openings, as again there is a pressure difference between the gas channel and the evaporation space in the evaporator.

European patent EP 2 016 349 discloses a heat pump which uses water as the working fluid and in which a multi-stage compressor is provided, the multi-stage compressor having a first turbomachine and an nth (last) turbomachine. In particular, an intercooler is used, which has a heat exchanger for domestic water heating. The turbomachines are designed as a radial compressor with a rotating wheel, the wheel is a slow-speed Radial, a medium radial wheel, a Halbaxialrad or an axial gear or a propeller can be. Generally, a turbomachine with a radial wheel is used. For intercooling one or more heat exchangers are provided for domestic water heating. These heat exchangers are designed to cool the gas heated (and compressed) by a previous turbomachine. For this purpose, the heat of enthalpy of entrainment is usefully used to increase the efficiency of the entire compaction process. It is thus removed heat from the compressed water vapor to service water to higher temperatures than z. B. 40 ° C to heat. In the case of open intercooling, refrigerant, for example water, is evaporated, which must be lifted to a higher pressure level with the downstream stage. For this additional compressor power is necessary. In contrast, a closed intercooling cool the superheated steam only to saturated steam, if there are sufficiently supercooled large areas for the heat transported. If cold water is provided for this, the power is introduced unfavorably into the system on the cold water side and must be provided as additional cooling capacity.

JPH 06257890 discloses a heat pump that uses water and is performed in cooling and heating with the same apparatus. To produce chilled water or ice, part of the water is evaporated and the rest of the water is cooled. The vapor produced by evaporation is compressed in several stages, and then enters a condenser coupled to a cooling tower. US Pat. No. 3,665,724 discloses a heating and cooling apparatus with a multi-stage centrifugal compressor. The latent heat of a coolant is released along with the heat of compression via a cooling tower.

The object of the present invention is to provide an improved heat pump concept with intercooling that deals more efficiently with existing resources.

This object is achieved by a heat pump according to claim 1, a method for pumping heat according to claim 18 or a method for producing a heat pump according to claim 19. The present invention is based on the finding that the reaching of the saturated steam temperature after a compressor stage is eliminated. Although this increases the compressor capacity of the downstream stage due to the less favorable starting conditions. But it can with the cooling liquid, ie the return of the area to be heated, a heat exchanger to cool the superheated working fluid to near the cooling water temperature, which is provided for example by the roof or from the area to be heated, cool. This produces no water vapor, which would have to be compacted with the downstream stage, but a large part of the superheat enthalpy is already as heat output to the cooling system, ie z. B. the waste heat system when using a heat pump as a cooling or refrigerating machine or the heating system when using a heat pump as a heater dispensed.

If the heat exchanger, which actually serves for intercooling, is designed large enough, a single-stage operation can already take place via this part of the heat exchanger. This eliminates the need to switch between single-stage and multi-stage operation of the heat pump. The only action that needs to be taken to switch from two-step operation to one-step operation. B. if appropriate Heizungsbzw. Cooling requirements are moderate, is to turn off the compressor of the downstream stage. Otherwise, no special measures are required.

According to the invention, therefore, in a heat pump having an evaporator, a condenser and a compressor with a plurality of stages and a vapor space between two compressor stages, an intercooler with a heat exchanger is used, which is arranged in the vapor space, and a heat exchanger input and a heat exchanger Output. The heat exchanger inlet or the heat exchanger outlet is connected to a condenser inlet or condenser outlet for directing condenser coolant in a circuit through both the condenser and the heat exchanger during operation of the heat pump.

Depending on the implementation, the condenser is an open condenser, in that the water from the intermediate heat exchanger is used directly to condense into this water compressed working steam from the second compressor stage. In contrast, in other embodiments, the condenser is a "closed" condenser, meaning that in the condenser there is a closed line between the condenser inlet and the condenser exit. tion, so again a heat exchanger is arranged, which ensures that the flowing medium in the heat exchanger does not come into direct contact with the condensed in the condenser compressed working steam, but only in thermal contact. In this implementation, the heat exchanger of the intercooler, which implements a closed intercooling, is carried out continuously with the heat exchanger in the condenser. For this purpose, the line of the heat exchanger extends either initially through the intermediate cooling and further through a partition wall into the pressure range of the condenser stage. Alternatively, however, first the return of the area to be heated can be fed into the heat exchanger in the condenser to then run from there into the heat exchanger in the intercooler. Again, it is preferred that the two heat exchangers, so the heat exchanger for intermediate cooling and the heat exchanger in the condenser are continuously designed to a certain extent as a single heat exchanger, going to a line of this heat exchanger the partition wall between the vapor space of the Zwischenküh- lungsbereich and the condenser Passes through the region of the condenser. Alternatively, however, an implementation can also be used in which the heat exchangers in the condenser and in the intercooler outside the heat pump volume are connected to each other, so that then no passage through the partition in the pressure range of the downstream stage is necessary.

Preferred embodiments of the present invention will be explained below in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings. Show it:

1 shows a preferred embodiment of a heat pump with closed intermediate cooling and connection to the return from the area to be heated; an alternative embodiment of the present invention, wherein the return from the area to be heated is passed first through the condenser and then through the intercooler; an alternate embodiment of the present invention wherein the return from the area to be heated is first passed through the intercooler and then through the condenser heat exchanger;

Fig. 4 shows an embodiment of the present invention, wherein the heat exchanger in the intercooler within the heat pump with the heat exchanger in Condenser is connected, so that a line of heat transfer! Pass through the partition wall to the higher pressure stage;

5 shows a schematic heat pump according to the prior art;

6 shows a schematic representation of a compressor stage with suction mouth, radial wheel and guide space; and

Fig. 7 is a tabular overview of various modes in which the heat pump is operable.

1 shows a heat pump with an evaporator 10, a condenser 20, and a compressor 30. The compressor comprises a first compressor stage 31, a steam chamber 32 and a second compressor stage 33. It should be noted that the present invention does not the use of only two levels is limited, but may include the use of three, four, five or even more levels. In any case, between at least two stages of the plurality of stages of the compressor motor, the vapor space 32 is arranged, in which an intercooler 40 is arranged.

In addition, the evaporator can be coupled to a region 50 to be cooled, and the condenser can be coupled to a region 60 to be heated. The evaporator 10 is designed to evaporate working fluid. Working fluid is provided for example via a connection 1 1 for a return from the area to be cooled. This liquid provided via the connection 11 is warmer than the liquid which is dispensed from the evaporator via a connection 12 to a passage to the area to be cooled from the evaporator. The heat, which has been brought into the evaporator via the connection for the return, is guided by the vaporized working steam via a suction line 13 into the first stage 31 of the compressor 30. The vaporized working steam is compressed in the first stage, and the compressed working steam enters the steam chamber 32. There, the compressed working steam is cooled to reduce its typically occurring overheating. In the second compressor stage 33, the working steam, which has meanwhile been cooled by the intercooler 40, is then recompressed and then brought into the condenser 20 via a discharge line 24. The condenser comprises a condenser inlet 21 and a condenser outlet 22. In addition, the intercooler 40 comprises a heat exchanger, the one Heat exchanger input 41 and a heat exchanger output 42 has. According to the heat exchanger input 41 or the heat exchanger output 42 to the condenser inlet 21 or the condenser outlet 22 is connected to the operation of the heat pump coolant for the condenser in a circuit by both the condenser 20 and by the heat exchanger in the Conduct intercooler 40.

In principle, the condenser may be an open condenser, so that the condenser cooling liquid is the liquid into which the compressed working steam supplied from the discharge line 24 is directly condensed. Alternatively, the condenser may be a closed condenser, so that in the condenser there is also a heat exchanger with a conduit through which the cooling fluid for the condenser flows, but with the situation in the condenser 20 only thermal contact, but no direct media contact. In both cases, however, the liquid fed into the condenser via its inlet 21 serves as the cooling liquid for the condenser, because this liquid, regardless of whether it is used directly for condensing or whether it is separated from the working steam by a line, ie a closed line Line is disconnected, is used. In the embodiment shown in Fig. 1, the heat pump has a port 61 for connecting the trace for the area to be heated 60. In addition, the heat pump also has a port 62 for connecting the return of the area to be heated. The inlet 41 of the heat exchanger in the intercooler is connected to the connection 62 for the return from the area to be heated. In addition, the output 42 of the heat exchanger is connected to the condenser inlet 21. In addition, the condenser outlet 22 is connected to the connection for the trace to the area to be heated.

Fig. 1 further shows a heat exchanger 710 and a mixer or switch 720. The heat exchanger 710 and the mixer / switch 720 are optionally present. The switch is controllable to bridge in the position 1, the heat exchanger 710, and to integrate in position 2, the heat exchanger full 710. It should be noted that the mixer / switch and the heat exchanger can also be present in the embodiments of the other figures 2a to 4, although it is not shown. On the "warm side" (1st page), the port 62 of the area to be heated is connected to a first input of the heat exchanger, and is the first output with connected to the intercooler input 41. On the "cold" side (2nd side) the 2nd input is connected to the output 2 of the heat exchanger and the 2nd output is connected to the input 1 1 of the evaporator 10. The second output is also the output 2 of the switch 720 coupled.

Fig. 1 further shows an evaporator circuit interface 1 1, 12 for introducing liquid to be cooled into the heat pump and for discharging cooled liquid from the heat pump, a condenser circuit interface 21, 22 for introducing liquid to be heated in the heat pump and for discharging heated liquid from the heat pump, wherein the condenser circuit interface is coupled to the intercooler (40), a controllable heat exchanger, the z. B. is implemented as the combination of heat exchanger 710 and switch / mixer 720, for controllably coupling the evaporator circuit interface and the condenser circuit interface; and a controller 730 for controlling the controllable heat exchanger (710, 720) depending on an evaporator circuit temperature (TV or TWK) in the evaporator circuit interface or a condenser circuit temperature (TK or TWW) in the condenser circuit interface.

Preferably, the heat exchanger 710 is connected between the intercooler inlet 41 and the port 62 for the area to be heated. Alternatively, the warm side of the mixer in FIG. 1 is connected between the intercooler output 42 and the condenser inlet 21. Again alternatively, in the embodiment of FIG. 2, the warm side of the mixer is connected between the intercooler outlet 42 and the port 61 for the trace to the area to be heated, or between the condenser outlet 22 and the intercooler inlet 41.

Preferably, the controller 730 is designed to prevent cooling of the liquid to be cooled by the liquid to be heated using the controllable heat exchanger preferably consisting of the heat exchanger 710 and the mixer or switch 720, if a condenser circuit temperature of the liquid to be heated is greater than is an evaporator circuit temperature of the liquid to be cooled, or to prevent cooling of the liquid to be cooled by the liquid to be heated using the controllable heat exchanger and depending on a required cooling power to make a speed control of Radial alrads a compressor in the heat pump, if a condenser - Circulation temperature of the liquid to be heated is greater than a Verdampferkreislauf- is the temperature of the liquid to be cooled, or to activate a cooling of the liquid to be cooled by the liquid to be heated using the controllable heat exchanger, when a condenser circuit temperature of the liquid to be heated is smaller than an evaporator circuit temperature of the liquid to be cooled, or to a cooling of to activate liquid to be cooled by the liquid to be heated using the controllable heat exchanger and depending on a required cooling capacity to increase or decrease a speed of a Radialrads within the compressor of the heat pump device or to deactivate a compressor in the heat pump device when a Kondensiererkreislauf- the liquid to be heated is smaller than a predetermined temperature of the liquid to be cooled or the cooled liquid, or a circulation pump which is in the Kondensiererkreislaufschn ittstelle is arranged to throttle with respect to a target speed when the condenser circuit temperature of the liquid to be heated is equal to or less than a predetermined temperature of the liquid to be cooled or the cooled liquid.

FIGS. 2 and 3 show an implementation in which the heat exchanger 43 in the intercooler 40 is shown in more detail as a continuous line. In addition, a further heat exchanger 23 is shown in the condenser 20 as a closed heat exchanger, which ensures that in the line of the heat exchanger 23, the cooling liquid is running, but that cooling liquid does not come into contact with the compressed working steam, so not in one direct contact via the steam supplied from the line 24, but only in thermal contact with the steam or with liquefied working fluid present in the condenser to dissipate heat from the condenser.

FIG. 3 shows an implementation similar to FIG. 1, namely that the cooling liquid, which is supplied via the connection for the return 62 from the area to be heated 60, first passes through the heat exchanger 43 and then the heat exchanger 23.

In contrast, Fig. 2 shows an alternative implementation, in which the return from the area 60 to be heated is first passed via the connection 62 for the return from the area to be heated in the heat exchanger 23 via the inlet 21, and then out of the heat exchanger 23 via its output 22 into the inlet 41 of the heat exchanger 43, in the vapor space between the two compressor stages 31 is guided, and from there via the port 61 in the area to be heated 60. It can be seen that the flow direction of the cooling liquid, which is cooled in the area to be heated 60, in Fig. 2 opposite to the flow direction the cooling liquid in Fig. 3 is.

In particular, in the embodiment shown in FIG. 2, the inlet 41 of the heat exchanger is connected to the condenser return 22. In addition, the output 42 of the heat exchanger 23 of the intercooler 40 is connected to a port 61 for a trace to the area to be heated. In addition, the condenser inlet 21 of the condenser heat exchanger 23 is connected to the return line 62 from the area 60 to be heated.

As has been shown, the condenser may be an open condenser, in which the compressed working steam condenses directly into the liquid which also runs in the heat exchanger 43 of the intercooler 40. Alternatively, as shown in particular in FIGS. 2 and 3 and also in FIG. 4, the condenser inlet 21 and the condenser outlet 22 are connected within the condenser through an intermediate line, so that a liquid in the line is medially separated from a working fluid liquefied in the condenser 20, but is in thermal contact.

In the embodiment shown in FIG. 4, a wall 59 is arranged between the condenser space, ie the space into which the discharge line 24 opens, and the dam f 32. A line of the heat exchanger 43 of the intercooler or a line of the heat exchanger in the condenser passes through the wall 59 in the embodiment shown in FIG. 4 inside the heat pump. Thus, both the heat exchanger 43 in the intercooler 40 and the heat exchanger 23 in the condenser directly coupled with each other. Depending on the flow direction of the cooling liquid, either the condenser outlet 22 or the condenser inlet 21 is thus connected to the heat exchanger outlet 42 or the heat exchanger inlet 41. Therefore, in Fig. 4, the respective heat exchanger inputs / outputs are each provided with two reference numerals, because the definition of whether the input is an input or an output, depends on which direction the cooling liquid flows, so whether the cooling liquid from the area to be heated via the terminals 61, 62 communicates with the heat pump, either first in the intercooler 40 and the heat exchanger 43 flows through the intercooler 40, as shown in Fig. 1 and in Fig. 3, or whether the liquid first flows through the heat exchanger 23 in the evaporator and then only through the intercooler, as shown in Fig. 2. Therefore, the connections between the outputs of the heat exchanger cascade from the heat exchangers 43 and 23 in Fig. 4 are shown in dashed lines. It should be noted, however, that typically only one of the two configurations will be used in actual implementations of the heat pump.

Fig. 4 also shows a first throttle or a first expansion valve 61 between the vapor space 32 of the intermediate cooling and the evaporator 10. In addition, a second throttle is schematically drawn, which is also drawn at 62 as an expansion valve, and by the Condenser space 20 of the condenser 20 is connected to the evaporator 10 in order to achieve a return to working fluid to ensure the complete circuit.

In addition, at 71 in FIG. 4, a droplet separator is shown, which is arranged between the evaporator 10 and the first compressor stage 31. In addition, an optional droplet separator 72 is provided, which is arranged in the vapor space between the first compressor motor 31 and the second compressor motor 33. In addition, a control is shown in Fig. 4 at 80, through which the two-stage compressor can be controlled to run the heat pump in single-stage operation, if the requirements are not particularly high, and then the heat pump when the Requirements are high, to run in two-stage operation.

6 shows a schematic representation of a motor of a compressor stage 31 or 33. In particular, FIG. 6 shows a compressor stage with a suction mouth 91, a radial wheel 92, a motor 93 and a guide space 94 in order to compress steam. When the centrifugal compressor of Fig. 6 is used in the first stage 31, the steam sucked in via the suction port 91 comes from the evaporator, and the steam discharged via the guide space 94 flows into the vapor space 32 On the other hand, when the turbo-compressor shown in Fig. 6 is implemented in the second compressor stage 33, the steam sucked in via the suction mouth passes out of the steam space and has been cooled by the intercooler 40, and is the steam is output from the Leitraum 94, the steam, which is finally fed into the condenser 20 and is liquefied there to give its energy to the condenser and ultimately to the cooling liquid, which run via the condenser outlet 22 in the area to be heated 60 can. According to the invention, a large part of the superheat enthalpy is thus already delivered as heat output to the cooling water system, ie to the circuit which runs through the area 60 to be heated. If the heat exchanger 43 designed in the vapor space slightly larger than it is actually required only for the intermediate cooling, so a single-stage operation can already take place on this heat exchanger 43. There is no need to switch between single-stage and multi-stage operation. There is therefore no need to switch liquid lines between the two operating modes. In the single-stage case, the compressor of the downstream stage is simply switched off. Only the first compressor 31 and a pump, which is shown at 82 and can be arranged anywhere in the cooling circuit, but is preferably arranged on the outwardly accessible connection of the heat exchanger 23 in the condenser, are necessary in single-stage operation. This is shown at the top left in FIG. 4. In two-stage operation, however, both compressors K1, K2 and the pump P are turned on. It should be noted that in certain embodiments in one-stage operation condensation on the heat exchanger 43 can take place. It is preferred therefore to provide a throttle 63 to bring this condensate into the evaporator. In addition, the second throttle 62 is provided to provide a two-stage operation for a closed system. Thus, the system has an open component, since in the single-stage operation over a range of the condensate of the throttle 63 is supplied and should first be collected in advance. '

The cooling liquid and the condensate of the downstream stage are returned via the throttle 64 in the evaporator, where then takes place, the closing of the circuit. It is preferred that the water in the second throttle 62 does not touch the heat exchanger 43, since otherwise it would cool the cooling water in the heat exchanger by evaporation. Instead of the throttle 64 or in addition, a further (shown in dashed lines in Fig. 4) throttle 65 between the condenser 20 and the vapor space 32 may be present, which is supplemented by the throttle 63 between the vapor space 32 and the evaporator 10. The throttles are designed such that the intercooler 40 in the vapor space 32 does not come into contact with liquid from the throttles.

If, as shown in Fig. 2, for example, the cooling water flows first through the downstream stage, so by the Verfiüssiger and then by the intermediate cooling of the first stage, then the temperature thereof and thus the distance to S attd at the pfte perat ur in the intercooler. In single-stage operation but can Also, the condensation chamber after the stage are partially shared, and so the heat exchanger surface in the intermediate cooling and the single-stage operation can be again reduced slightly. Depending on the implementation, the droplet separator 72 may also be omitted, since the heat exchanger 43 provides for slight overheating. This will not produce drops in this area when the second stage is active. However, the start of the second stage is critical if the steam has previously condensed in the Zwischenkühiung and this is damp when starting. Then drops of water can be caused by the lowering of the suction pressure by boiling and the mist eliminator 72 is at least temporarily necessary, this can be avoided by a slow start of the second stage.

Fig. 7 shows a tabular compilation of various modes, the z. B. with a two-way switch 720 and the heat exchanger 710, as has been shown in Fig. 1, can be effected.

In particular, in a cold temperature range where an exemplary temperature of the air is less than 10 ° C and where the sensor values are such that the TWK (temperature at or in the area to be cooled 50) is greater than TWW (temperature at or in the area to be heated 60), the free cooling is active, Furthermore, the controllable heat exchanger flows from both sides, so it is active. In addition, the compressor (both stages) is deactivated, ie switched off. Control of the temperature can be achieved, for example, by controlling the condenser-side pump contained in a condenser circuit interface. If it is determined that the temperature of the cooled liquid is less than a set temperature, the pump can be throttled. If, on the other hand, it is determined that the temperature is getting too high, the pump can be turned faster again. Alternatively or additionally, a fan, which is typically present in the area to be heated 60, can also be rotated faster or slower in order to achieve more or less cooling power.

In a medium cold temperature range, for example, between 10 ° C and 16 ° C, the free cooling is also active. In addition, the compressor is also active in a first stage, and if necessary in the second stage, and a regulation of the temperature which is fed into the data center or into the area to be cooled can be effected in that the Speed of the radial wheel in the first stage of the compressor is controlled, the second stage is switched on, and / or the radial wheel is controlled in the second stage in its speed. If a higher cooling capacity is required, the speed is increased and / or the second stage is switched on. If, on the other hand, a lower cooling capacity is required, the speed of the radial wheel is reduced and / or the second stage is switched off.

In the normal operating mode, which is activated in a warm temperature range, the temperatures are greater than 16 ° C, for example. Then, the controllable heat exchanger is deactivated, ie switched inactive, and it can be a cooling power control again via the speed of the radial wheel. In this mode, ie in the warm temperature range, however, no free cooling is active.

As a special mode, a controllable short circuit between the output or the condenser circuit and the input or the evaporator circuit of the heat pump device can be achieved. Especially at high outside temperatures on the one hand and relatively low power requirements of the computer center, because there is only a partial load operation, for example, there may be the situation that the control would go without the special mode with controllable short circuit to an on-off timing, which for various reasons is not advantageous.

According to the invention, therefore, the special mode with controllable short circuit is activated, which is detected for example by a specific frequency of clocking. If a too high frequency of clocking is detected, then the controllable short circuit is activated, so a typically smaller part, that is a part less than 50% of the flow rate in the corresponding first or second path of the heat exchanger unit is fed and with the other (typically larger ) Share at the output of the heat exchanger unit combined again. Optionally, as shown in Fig. 7 in the last line of the table, this mixing effect may be controlled according to the implementation, eg from 1% / 99% control to 51% / 49%. - Control. In any event, it is preferred that the major portion of the flow pass the heat exchanger element 710 and only the minor portion of the flow pass through the heat exchanger element 710, as previously noted, allowing the smaller flow fraction to be controllable from 0 to 50%, as appropriate Execution of the mixer. In preferred embodiments of the free cooling Plus so a heat exchanger and a three-point switch are installed. The three-point switch can be on the Be installed cold water side or the hot water side and is to unlock the flow through the heat exchanger or lock. Due to its poor volumetric cooling capacity, water as a refrigerant offers the advantage for free cooling plus that the volume flow and the pressure ratio can be adjusted by a speed-controlled centrifugal compressor, thus creating a nearly ideal operating point of the system in a wide range of applications can be achieved with small cooling capacities below 50 kW. In implementations shown, water from e.g. B. 20 ° C cooled to 16 ° C, although other temperatures are possible, such as a cooling to 20 ° C from a higher temperature of 26 ° C. In general, it is always achieved that the cooling capacity is achieved with the least possible expenditure of energy to a temperature level, depending on the outside temperature, the output to the environment again. Comes from the roof, ie the area to be heated (recooler) a temperature that allows the entire cooling capacity can be transferred through the upstream heat exchanger from the cold water to the cooling water, no compressor work is done. If the ambient temperatures continue to rise, so that cold water at 20 ° C does not occur without compressor work, the compression refrigeration system is switched on with power control to provide the missing part, for example 3 ° C or 50% power. If the outside temperatures continue to rise and the cooling water reaches temperatures of, for example, 25 ° C and more, virtually no more energy can be transferred through the heat exchanger. The entire cooling capacity must now be provided by the compression refrigeration machine. If the cooling water temperatures continue to rise, in this range above 26 ° C, the three-way switch must block the flow through the heat exchanger at least on one side, otherwise the cooling system would have to provide even more cooling capacity than required by the application.

In specific alternative embodiments it is preferred that the control, ie whether the heat exchanger is flowed through or not, depends only on the temperatures TWW and TWK; namely, when the temperature TWW is less than TWK, the heat exchanger unit is flowed through. If the temperature in the evaporator is greater than the flow temperature on the cold water side or customer side, the compressor must work. On the other hand, if the temperatures in the free cooling mode are below the required customer temperature, in this case 16 ° C, the fan can be on the roof and finally the pumps can be throttled. LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS

10 evaporators

 1 1 connection for return from the area to be cooled

12 Connection for trace to the area to be cooled

13 intake pipe

 20 liquefier

 21 condenser inlet

 22 condenser output

 23 heat exchangers in the condenser

 24 discharge line

 30 compressors

 31 first compressor stage

 32 steam room

 33 second compressor stage

 40 intercoolers

 41 Intercooler input

 42 Intercooler output

 43 heat exchangers in the intercooler

 50 areas to be cooled

 59 partition

 60 areas to be heated

 61 Connection for the trace to the area to be heated

62 Connection for return from the area to be heated

63 first throttle

 64 second throttle

 65 more throttle

 71 droplet separator

 72 droplet separator

 80 control

 82 pump

 91 suction mouth

 92 radial wheel

 93 engine

 94 Leitraum

100 evaporators heat exchangers

compressor

 suction

 discharge line

condenser

 heat exchangers

expansion valve

heat exchanger unit

Two-way switch

Claims

claims
1 . Heat pump having the following features: an evaporator (10) for evaporating working fluid; a condenser (20) for liquefying compressed working steam; a compressor (30) having a first compressor stage (31), a second compressor stage (33) and a vapor space (32) between the first compressor stage (31) and the second compressor stage (33); an intercooler (40) having a heat exchanger (43) which is arranged in the steam chamber (32) and which has a heat exchanger inlet (41) and a heat exchanger outlet (42), wherein the heat exchanger inlet (41 ) or the heat exchanger output (42) is connected to a condenser inlet (21) or a condenser outlet (22) for circulating the condenser (20) in a circuit through both the condenser (20) during operation of the heat pump. as well as through the heat exchanger (43) to pass.
2. Heat pump according to claim 1, wherein the heat exchanger input (41) with a connection (62) for a return from a region to be heated (60) is connected, wherein the heat exchanger output (42) with the condenser inlet (21), and wherein the condenser exit (22) is connected to a port (61) for a trace to the warming area (60).
3. Heat pump according to claim 1, wherein the heat exchanger input (41) is connected to the condenser output (22), wherein the transformer output (42) is connected to an attachment (61) for a trace to the area to be heated (60), and in which the condenser inlet (21) is connected to a connection (62) for a return from the area to be heated (60).
4. Heat pump according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the condenser (20) is an open condenser, wherein the compressed working steam condenses directly into a liquid which passes through the heat exchanger (43) of the intercooler during operation of the heat pump.
5. Heat pump according to one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the condenser inlet (21) and the condenser outlet (22) are interconnected by an intermediate line, so that a liquid in the conduit of a in the condenser (20 ) liquefied working fluid is separated.
6. Heat pump according to claim 5, wherein the heat exchanger (43) has a heat exchanger line in which between the condenser inlet (21) and the condenser outlet (22) a condenser line is arranged, in which between the vapor space ( 32) and the condenser (20) an intermediate wall (59) is arranged, and in which the heat exchanger conduit or the condenser conduit passes through the intermediate wall (59).
7. Heat pump according to one of the preceding claims, further comprising a pump (82) connected to a port (61) for passage to the area to be heated (60) or to a port (62) for return to the area to be heated (60).
Heat pump according to one of the preceding claims, further comprising a controller which is adapted to operate the heat pump in a single-stage or in a two-stage operation depending on a size, wherein in the single-stage operation, the second compressor stage (33) is turned off and the first compressor stage (31) is turned on, and wherein in the single-stage operation, the heat exchanger (43) of the intermediate cooling (44) has a condenser.
A heat pump according to claim 8, wherein the pump (82) is active in both the one-stage operation and the two-stage operation to circulate the cooling fluid through both the heat exchanger of the intercooler (40) and the condenser (20).
Heat pump according to one of the preceding claims, further comprising a throttle (63) between the vapor space (32) and the evaporator (10) or a throttle (64) between the condenser (20) and the evaporator (10), or a throttle (65) between the condenser (20) and the vapor space (32) and a throttle (63) between the vapor space (32) and the evaporator (10), wherein the throttles are formed such that the intercooler (40) in the vapor space (32) does not come into contact with liquid from the throttles.
Heat pump according to claim 10, wherein the throttle between the condenser (20) and the evaporator (10) has a line which prevents contact of the liquid in the throttle with the heat exchanger (43).
12. Heat pump according to one of the preceding claims, wherein between the evaporator (10) and the first compressor stage, a mist eliminator (71) is arranged.
13. Heat pump according to one of the preceding claims, wherein between the intercooler (40) in the vapor space (32) and the second compressor stage (33) a mist eliminator (72) is arranged.
14. Heat pump according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the first compressor stage (31) or the second compressor stage (33) comprises the following feature: a suction mouth (91); a motor (93) coupled to a radial gear (92), the motor being configured to draw liquid vapor by rotating the radial gear (92) via the suction port (91); and a pilot space (94) for directing aspirated working steam into the vapor space (32) or the condenser (20).
15. A heat pump according to any one of the preceding claims, further comprising: a cooling heat exchanger mountable in the area to be cooled (50) and connected to the evaporator (10); and a waste heat exchanger attachable in the area to be heated (60) and coupled to the intercooler (40) and the condenser.
16. Heat pump according to one of the preceding claims, further comprising the following features: an evaporator circuit interface for introducing liquid to be cooled into the heat pump and for discharging cooled liquid from the heat pump; a condenser circuit interface for introducing liquid to be heated into the heat pump and for delivering heated liquid from the heat pump, the condenser circuit interface coupled to the intercooler (40); a controllable heat exchanger (710, 720) for controllably coupling the evaporator circuit interface and the condenser circuit interface; and a controller (730) for controlling the controllable heat exchanger (710, 720) responsive to an evaporator circuit temperature in the evaporator circuit interface or a condenser circuit temperature in the condenser circuit interface (300).
17. Heat pump according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the controller (730) is designed to prevent cooling of the liquid to be cooled by the liquid to be heated using the controllable heat exchanger (700) when a condenser circuit temperature of the liquid to be heated grö - ßer than an evaporator circuit temperature of the liquid to be cooled, or to prevent cooling of the liquid to be cooled by the liquid to be heated using the controllable heat exchanger and depending on a required cooling power to make a speed control of a radial wheel of a compressor in the heat pump, if a Condenser circulation temperature of the liquid to be heated is greater than an evaporator circuit temperature of the liquid to be cooled, or to a cooling of the liquid to be cooled by the liquid to be heated using the controllable Heat exchanger to activate if one Condenser circuit temperature of the liquid to be heated is smaller than an evaporator circuit temperature of the liquid to be cooled, or to activate cooling of the liquid to be cooled by the liquid to be heated using the controllable heat exchanger and depending on a required cooling capacity, a speed of a radial impeller within the compressor of the heat pump device increase or decrease or to deactivate a compressor in the heat pump apparatus when a condenser circuit temperature of the liquid to be heated is smaller than a predetermined temperature of the liquid or the liquid to be cooled, or a circulation pump disposed in the condenser circuit interface to throttle a target speed when the Kondensiererkreislauf- temperature of the liquid to be heated equal to or less than a predetermined temperature to be cooled liquid or chilled liquid.
18. A method of pumping heat with a heat pump, comprising: an evaporator (10) for vaporizing working fluid; a condenser (20) for liquefying compressed working steam; a compressor (30) having a first compressor stage (31), a second compressor stage (33) and a vapor space (32) between the first compressor stage (31) and the second compressor stage (33); an intercooler (40) having a heat exchanger (43) disposed in the vapor space (32) and having a heat exchanger inlet (41) and a heat exchanger outlet (42), the heat exchanger inlet (41) or the heat exchanger output (42) is connected to a condenser inlet (21) or a condenser outlet (22), the method comprising the following step:
Passing coolant for the condenser (20) in a circuit through both the condenser (20) and through the heat exchanger (43).
Method for producing a heat pump with an evaporator (10) for evaporating working fluid; a condenser (20) for liquefying compressed working steam; a compressor (30) having a first compressor stage (31), a second compressor stage (33) and a vapor space (32) between the first compressor stage (31) and the second compressor stage (33); and an intercooler (40) having a heat exchanger (43) disposed in the vapor space (32) and having a heat exchanger inlet (41) and a heat exchanger outlet (42), comprising the following step:
Connecting the heat exchanger input (41) or the heat exchanger output (42) with a condenser inlet (21) or a condenser outlet (22) to in the operation of the heat pump coolant for the condenser (20) in a circuit by both to conduct the condenser (20) and through the heat exchanger (43).
PCT/EP2018/073143 2017-08-30 2018-08-28 Heat pump having closed intermediate cooling and method for pumping heat or method for producing the heat pump WO2019043009A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

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DE102017215198.6A DE102017215198A1 (en) 2017-08-30 2017-08-30 Heat pump with closed intercooling and method for pumping heat or method for producing the heat pump
DE102017215198.6 2017-08-30

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GBGB2002457.6A GB202002457D0 (en) 2017-08-30 2018-08-28 Heat pump having closed intermediate cooling and method for pumping heat or method for producing the heat pump

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Citations (4)

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US3665724A (en) 1970-07-13 1972-05-30 Carrier Corp Heating and cooling refrigeration apparatus
EP2016349A1 (en) 2006-04-04 2009-01-21 Efficient Energy GmbH Heat pump
EP2281155A1 (en) 2008-04-01 2011-02-09 Efficient Energy GmbH Vertically arranged heat pump and method of manufacturing the vertically arranged heat pump
WO2013125215A1 (en) * 2012-02-23 2013-08-29 川崎重工業株式会社 Refrigeration machine

Family Cites Families (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE229824C (en) *
DE475674C (en) * 1925-01-17 1929-04-30 Bbc Brown Boveri & Cie Centrifugal compressor for chiller
US3165905A (en) * 1962-08-15 1965-01-19 Trane Co Refrigerating machine including an economizer
JPH06257890A (en) * 1993-03-04 1994-09-16 Nkk Corp Heat pump

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3665724A (en) 1970-07-13 1972-05-30 Carrier Corp Heating and cooling refrigeration apparatus
EP2016349A1 (en) 2006-04-04 2009-01-21 Efficient Energy GmbH Heat pump
EP2281155A1 (en) 2008-04-01 2011-02-09 Efficient Energy GmbH Vertically arranged heat pump and method of manufacturing the vertically arranged heat pump
WO2013125215A1 (en) * 2012-02-23 2013-08-29 川崎重工業株式会社 Refrigeration machine

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GB202002457D0 (en) 2020-04-08

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