WO2018194704A1 - Apparatus, system and method of communicating a transmission according to a space-time encoding scheme - Google Patents

Apparatus, system and method of communicating a transmission according to a space-time encoding scheme Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO2018194704A1
WO2018194704A1 PCT/US2017/050873 US2017050873W WO2018194704A1 WO 2018194704 A1 WO2018194704 A1 WO 2018194704A1 US 2017050873 W US2017050873 W US 2017050873W WO 2018194704 A1 WO2018194704 A1 WO 2018194704A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
pair
ofdm symbol
band
example
data
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US2017/050873
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Artyom LOMAYEV
Alexander Maltsev
Michael Genossar
Claudio Da Silva
Carlos Cordeiro
Original Assignee
Intel Corporation
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US201762487912P priority Critical
Priority to US62/487,912 priority
Application filed by Intel Corporation filed Critical Intel Corporation
Publication of WO2018194704A1 publication Critical patent/WO2018194704A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L27/00Modulated-carrier systems
    • H04L27/26Systems using multi-frequency codes
    • H04L27/2601Multicarrier modulation systems
    • H04L27/2626Arrangements specific to the transmitter
    • H04L27/2627Modulators
    • H04L27/2634IFFT/IDFT in combination with other circuits for modulation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L1/00Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received
    • H04L1/02Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received by diversity reception
    • H04L1/06Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received by diversity reception using space diversity
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L1/00Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received
    • H04L1/02Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received by diversity reception
    • H04L1/06Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received by diversity reception using space diversity
    • H04L1/0618Space-time coding
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L27/00Modulated-carrier systems
    • H04L27/0008Modulated-carrier systems arrangements for allowing a transmitter or receiver to use more than one type of modulation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L27/00Modulated-carrier systems
    • H04L27/32Carrier systems characterised by combinations of two or more of the types covered by groups H04L27/02, H04L27/10, H04L27/18 or H04L27/26
    • H04L27/34Amplitude- and phase-modulated carrier systems, e.g. quadrature-amplitude modulated carrier systems
    • H04L27/3405Modifications of the signal space to increase the efficiency of transmission, e.g. reduction of the bit error rate, bandwidth, or average power
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L27/00Modulated-carrier systems
    • H04L27/32Carrier systems characterised by combinations of two or more of the types covered by groups H04L27/02, H04L27/10, H04L27/18 or H04L27/26
    • H04L27/34Amplitude- and phase-modulated carrier systems, e.g. quadrature-amplitude modulated carrier systems
    • H04L27/36Modulator circuits; Transmitter circuits
    • H04L27/362Modulation using more than one carrier, e.g. with quadrature carriers, separately amplitude modulated
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L5/00Arrangements affording multiple use of the transmission path
    • H04L5/0001Arrangements for dividing the transmission path
    • H04L5/0014Three-dimensional division
    • H04L5/0023Time-frequency-space
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L5/00Arrangements affording multiple use of the transmission path
    • H04L5/003Arrangements for allocating sub-channels of the transmission path
    • H04L5/0044Arrangements for allocating sub-channels of the transmission path allocation of payload

Abstract

Some embodiments relate to communicating a transmission according to a space-time encoding scheme. For example, a wireless station may be configured to modulate a plurality of data bit sequences into a plurality of data blocks according to a dual carrier modulation, to map the plurality of data blocks to a plurality of spatial streams according to a space-time encoding scheme, and to transmit an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) transmission based on the plurality of spatial streams.

Description

APPARATUS, SYSTEM AND METHOD OF COMMUNICATING A TRANSMISSION ACCORDING TO A SPACE-TIME ENCODING SCHEME

CROSS REFERENCE [001] This application claims the benefit of and priority from US Provisional Patent Application No. 62/487,912 entitled "Apparatus, System and Method of Communicating a Transmission According to a Space-Time Encoding Scheme", filed April 20, 2017, and is a Continuation In Part (CIP) of US Patent Application No. 15/278,928 entitled "Apparatus, System and Method of Communicating According to a Transmit Space-Frequency Diversity Scheme", filed September 28, 2016, which claims the benefit of and priority from US Provisional Patent Application No. 62/305,624 entitled "Apparatus, System and Method of Communicating According to a Transmit Space-Frequency Diversity Scheme", filed March 9, 2016, the entire disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[002] Embodiments described herein generally relate to communicating a transmission according to a space-time encoding scheme.

BACKGROUND

[003] A wireless communication network in a millimeter- wave (mmWave) band may provide high-speed data access for users of wireless communication devices.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[004] For simplicity and clarity of illustration, elements shown in the figures have not necessarily been drawn to scale. For example, the dimensions of some of the elements may be exaggerated relative to other elements for clarity of presentation. Furthermore, reference numerals may be repeated among the figures to indicate corresponding or analogous elements. The figures are listed below.

[005] Fig. 1 is a schematic block diagram illustration of a system, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[006] Fig. 2 is a schematic illustration of an Enhanced Directional Multi-Gigabit (EDMG) Physical Layer Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) format, which may be implemented in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[007] Fig. 3 is a schematic illustration of a transmit space-time diversity scheme, which may be implemented, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[008] Fig. 4 is a schematic illustration of a space-time subcarrier mapping according to a dual carrier modulation scheme, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[009] Fig. 5 is a schematic flow-chart illustration of a method of communicating a transmission according to a space-time encoding scheme, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments. [0010] Fig. 6 is a schematic flow-chart illustration of a method of communicating a transmission according to a space-time encoding scheme, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[0011] Fig. 7 is a schematic illustration of a product of manufacture, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0012] In the following detailed description, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of some embodiments. However, it will be understood by persons of ordinary skill in the art that some embodiments may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known methods, procedures, components, units and/or circuits have not been described in detail so as not to obscure the discussion.

[0013] Discussions herein utilizing terms such as, for example, "processing", "computing", "calculating", "determining", "establishing", "analyzing", "checking", or the like, may refer to operation(s) and/or process(es) of a computer, a computing platform, a computing system, or other electronic computing device, that manipulate and/or transform data represented as physical (e.g., electronic) quantities within the computer's registers and/or memories into other data similarly represented as physical quantities within the computer's registers and/or memories or other information storage medium that may store instructions to perform operations and/or processes.

[0014] The terms "plurality" and "a plurality", as used herein, include, for example, "multiple" or "two or more". For example, "a plurality of items" includes two or more items.

[0015] References to "one embodiment", "an embodiment", "demonstrative embodiment", "various embodiments" etc., indicate that the embodiment(s) so described may include a particular feature, structure, or characteristic, but not every embodiment necessarily includes the particular feature, structure, or characteristic. Further, repeated use of the phrase "in one embodiment" does not necessarily refer to the same embodiment, although it may. [0016] As used herein, unless otherwise specified the use of the ordinal adjectives "first", "second", "third" etc., to describe a common object, merely indicate that different instances of like objects are being referred to, and are not intended to imply that the objects so described must be in a given sequence, either temporally, spatially, in ranking, or in any other manner. [0017] Some embodiments may be used in conjunction with various devices and systems, for example, a User Equipment (UE), a Mobile Device (MD), a wireless station (STA), a Personal Computer (PC), a desktop computer, a mobile computer, a laptop computer, a notebook computer, a tablet computer, a server computer, a handheld computer, a handheld device, a wearable device, a sensor device, an Internet of Things (IoT) device, a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) device, a handheld PDA device, an on-board device, an off-board device, a hybrid device, a vehicular device, a non-vehicular device, a mobile or portable device, a consumer device, a non-mobile or non-portable device, a wireless communication station, a wireless communication device, a wireless Access Point (AP), a wired or wireless router, a wired or wireless modem, a video device, an audio device, an audio-video (A/V) device, a wired or wireless network, a wireless area network, a Wireless Video Area Network (WVAN), a Local Area Network (LAN), a Wireless LAN (WLAN), a Personal Area Network (PAN), a Wireless PAN (WPAN), and the like.

[0018] Some embodiments may be used in conjunction with devices and/or networks operating in accordance with existing IEEE 802.11 standards (including IEEE 802.11- 2016 {IEEE 802.11-2016, IEEE Standard for Information technology— Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks— Specific requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, December 7, 2016); and/or IEEE 802.1 lay (P802.11ay Standard for Information Technology- Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems Local and Metropolitan Area Networks— Specific Requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications— Amendment: Enhanced Throughput for Operation in License-Exempt Bands Above 45 GHz)) and/or future versions and/or derivatives thereof, devices and/or networks operating in accordance with existing WiFi Alliance (WFA) Peer-to-Peer (P2P) specifications (including WiFi P2P technical specification, version 1.5, August 4, 2015) and/or future versions and/or derivatives thereof, devices and/or networks operating in accordance with existing Wireless-Gigabit-Alliance (WGA) specifications (including Wireless Gigabit Alliance, Inc WiGig MAC and PHY Specification Version 1.1, April 2011, Final specification) and/or future versions and/or derivatives thereof, devices and/or networks operating in accordance with existing cellular specifications and/or protocols, e.g., 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) and/or future versions and/or derivatives thereof, units and/or devices which are part of the above networks, and the like. [0019] Some embodiments may be used in conjunction with one way and/or two-way radio communication systems, cellular radio-telephone communication systems, a mobile phone, a cellular telephone, a wireless telephone, a Personal Communication Systems (PCS) device, a PDA device which incorporates a wireless communication device, a mobile or portable Global Positioning System (GPS) device, a device which incorporates a GPS receiver or transceiver or chip, a device which incorporates an RFID element or chip, a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) transceiver or device, a Single Input Multiple Output (SEVIO) transceiver or device, a Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) transceiver or device, a device having one or more internal antennas and/or external antennas, Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) devices or systems, multi- standard radio devices or systems, a wired or wireless handheld device, e.g., a Smartphone, a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) device, or the like.

[0020] Some embodiments may be used in conjunction with one or more types of wireless communication signals and/or systems, for example, Radio Frequency (RF), Infra Red (IR), Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM), Orthogonal FDM (OFDM), Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA), FDM Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM), Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Multi-User MIMO (MU-MIMO), Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA), Extended TDMA (E- TDMA), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), extended GPRS, Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Wideband CDMA (WCDMA), CDMA 2000, single- carrier CDMA, multi-carrier CDMA, Multi-Carrier Modulation (MDM), Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT), Bluetooth®, Global Positioning System (GPS), Wi-Fi, Wi-Max, ZigBee™, Ultra-Wideband (UWB), Global System for Mobile communication (GSM), 2G, 2.5G, 3G, 3.5G, 4G, Fifth Generation (5G), or Sixth Generation (6G) mobile networks, 3 GPP, Long Term Evolution (LTE), LTE advanced, Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), or the like. Other embodiments may be used in various other devices, systems and/or networks.

[0021] The term "wireless device", as used herein, includes, for example, a device capable of wireless communication, a communication device capable of wireless communication, a communication station capable of wireless communication, a portable or non-portable device capable of wireless communication, or the like. In some demonstrative embodiments, a wireless device may be or may include a peripheral that is integrated with a computer, or a peripheral that is attached to a computer. In some demonstrative embodiments, the term "wireless device" may optionally include a wireless service.

[0022] The term "communicating" as used herein with respect to a communication signal includes transmitting the communication signal and/or receiving the communication signal. For example, a communication unit, which is capable of communicating a communication signal, may include a transmitter to transmit the communication signal to at least one other communication unit, and/or a communication receiver to receive the communication signal from at least one other communication unit. The verb communicating may be used to refer to the action of transmitting or the action of receiving. In one example, the phrase "communicating a signal" may refer to the action of transmitting the signal by a first device, and may not necessarily include the action of receiving the signal by a second device. In another example, the phrase "communicating a signal" may refer to the action of receiving the signal by a first device, and may not necessarily include the action of transmitting the signal by a second device. The communication signal may be transmitted and/or received, for example, in the form of Radio Frequency (RF) communication signals, and/or any other type of signal.

[0023] As used herein, the term "circuitry" may refer to, be part of, or include, an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), an integrated circuit, an electronic circuit, a processor (shared, dedicated, or group), and/or memory (shared, dedicated, or group), that execute one or more software or firmware programs, a combinational logic circuit, and/or other suitable hardware components that provide the described functionality. In some embodiments, the circuitry may be implemented in, or functions associated with the circuitry may be implemented by, one or more software or firmware modules. In some embodiments, circuitry may include logic, at least partially operable in hardware.

[0024] The term "logic" may refer, for example, to computing logic embedded in circuitry of a computing apparatus and/or computing logic stored in a memory of a computing apparatus. For example, the logic may be accessible by a processor of the computing apparatus to execute the computing logic to perform computing functions and/or operations. In one example, logic may be embedded in various types of memory and/or firmware, e.g., silicon blocks of various chips and/or processors. Logic may be included in, and/or implemented as part of, various circuitry, e.g. radio circuitry, receiver circuitry, control circuitry, transmitter circuitry, transceiver circuitry, processor circuitry, and/or the like. In one example, logic may be embedded in volatile memory and/or non-volatile memory, including random access memory, read only memory, programmable memory, magnetic memory, flash memory, persistent memory, and the like. Logic may be executed by one or more processors using memory, e.g., registers, stuck, buffers, and/or the like, coupled to the one or more processors, e.g., as necessary to execute the logic.

[0025] Some demonstrative embodiments may be used in conjunction with a WLAN, e.g., a WiFi network. Other embodiments may be used in conjunction with any other suitable wireless communication network, for example, a wireless area network, a "piconet", a WPAN, a WVAN and the like.

[0026] Some demonstrative embodiments may be used in conjunction with a wireless communication network communicating over a frequency band above 45 Gigahertz (GHz), e.g., 60GHz. However, other embodiments may be implemented utilizing any other suitable wireless communication frequency bands, for example, an Extremely High Frequency (EHF) band (the millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency band), e.g., a frequency band within the frequency band of between 20Ghz and 300GHz, a frequency band above 45GHz, a frequency band below 20GHz, e.g., a Sub 1 GHz (SIG) band, a 2.4GHz band, a 5GHz band, a WLAN frequency band, a WPAN frequency band, a frequency band according to the WGA specification, and the like.

[0027] The term "antenna", as used herein, may include any suitable configuration, structure and/or arrangement of one or more antenna elements, components, units, assemblies and/or arrays. In some embodiments, the antenna may implement transmit and receive functionalities using separate transmit and receive antenna elements. In some embodiments, the antenna may implement transmit and receive functionalities using common and/or integrated transmit/receive elements. The antenna may include, for example, a phased array antenna, a single element antenna, a set of switched beam antennas, and/or the like. [0028] The phrases "directional multi-gigabit (DMG)" and "directional band" (DBand), as used herein, may relate to a frequency band wherein the Channel starting frequency is above 45 GHz. In one example, DMG communications may involve one or more directional links to communicate at a rate of multiple gigabits per second, for example, at least 1 Gigabit per second, e.g., at least 7 Gigabit per second, at least 30 Gigabit per second, or any other rate.

[0029] Some demonstrative embodiments may be implemented by a DMG STA (also referred to as a "mmWave STA (mSTA)"), which may include for example, a STA having a radio transmitter, which is capable of operating on a channel that is within the DMG band. The DMG STA may perform other additional or alternative functionality. Other embodiments may be implemented by any other apparatus, device and/or station. [0030] Reference is made to Fig. 1, which schematically illustrates a system 100, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[0031] As shown in Fig. 1, in some demonstrative embodiments, system 100 may include one or more wireless communication devices. For example, system 100 may include a wireless communication device 102, a wireless communication device 140, and/or one more other devices.

[0032] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may include a mobile device or a non-mobile, e.g., a static, device.

[0033] For example, devices 102 and/or 140 may include, for example, a UE, an MD, a STA, an AP, a PC, a desktop computer, a mobile computer, a laptop computer, an Ultrabook™ computer, a notebook computer, a tablet computer, a server computer, a handheld computer, an Internet of Things (IoT) device, a sensor device, a handheld device, a wearable device, a PDA device, a handheld PDA device, an on-board device, an off-board device, a hybrid device (e.g., combining cellular phone functionalities with PDA device functionalities), a consumer device, a vehicular device, a non-vehicular device, a mobile or portable device, a non-mobile or nonportable device, a mobile phone, a cellular telephone, a PCS device, a PDA device which incorporates a wireless communication device, a mobile or portable GPS device, a DVB device, a relatively small computing device, a non-desktop computer, a "Cany Small Live Large" (CSLL) device, an Ultra Mobile Device (UMD), an Ultra Mobile PC (UMPC), a Mobile Internet Device (MID), an "Origami" device or computing device, a device that supports Dynamically Composable Computing (DCC), a context-aware device, a video device, an audio device, an A/V device, a Set- Top-Box (STB), a Blu-ray disc (BD) player, a BD recorder, a Digital Video Disc (DVD) player, a High Definition (HD) DVD player, a DVD recorder, a HD DVD recorder, a Personal Video Recorder (PVR), a broadcast HD receiver, a video source, an audio source, a video sink, an audio sink, a stereo tuner, a broadcast radio receiver, a flat panel display, a Personal Media Player (PMP), a digital video camera (DVC), a digital audio player, a speaker, an audio receiver, an audio amplifier, a gaming device, a data source, a data sink, a Digital Still camera (DSC), a media player, a Smartphone, a television, a music player, or the like.

[0034] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 may include, for example, one or more of a processor 191, an input unit 192, an output unit 193, a memory unit 194, and/or a storage unit 195; and/or device 140 may include, for example, one or more of a processor 181, an input unit 182, an output unit 183, a memory unit 184, and/or a storage unit 185. Devices 102 and/or 140 may optionally include other suitable hardware components and/or software components. In some demonstrative embodiments, some or all of the components of one or more of devices 102 and/or 140 may be enclosed in a common housing or packaging, and may be interconnected or operably associated using one or more wired or wireless links. In other embodiments, components of one or more of devices 102 and/or 140 may be distributed among multiple or separate devices. [0035] In some demonstrative embodiments, processor 191 and/or processor 181 may include, for example, a Central Processing Unit (CPU), a Digital Signal Processor (DSP), one or more processor cores, a single-core processor, a dual-core processor, a multiple-core processor, a microprocessor, a host processor, a controller, a plurality of processors or controllers, a chip, a microchip, one or more circuits, circuitry, a logic unit, an Integrated Circuit (IC), an Application-Specific IC (ASIC), or any other suitable multi-purpose or specific processor or controller. Processor 191 may execute instructions, for example, of an Operating System (OS) of device 102 and/or of one or more suitable applications. Processor 181 may execute instructions, for example, of an Operating System (OS) of device 140 and/or of one or more suitable applications. [0036] In some demonstrative embodiments, input unit 192 and/or input unit 182 may include, for example, a keyboard, a keypad, a mouse, a touch-screen, a touch-pad, a track-ball, a stylus, a microphone, or other suitable pointing device or input device. Output unit 193 and/or output unit 183 may include, for example, a monitor, a screen, a touch- screen, a flat panel display, a Light Emitting Diode (LED) display unit, a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) display unit, a plasma display unit, one or more audio speakers or earphones, or other suitable output devices.

[0037] In some demonstrative embodiments, memory unit 194 and/or memory unit 184 includes, for example, a Random Access Memory (RAM), a Read Only Memory (ROM), a Dynamic RAM (DRAM), a Synchronous DRAM (SD-RAM), a flash memory, a volatile memory, a non-volatile memory, a cache memory, a buffer, a short term memory unit, a long term memory unit, or other suitable memory units. Storage unit 195 and/or storage unit 185 may include, for example, a hard disk drive, a floppy disk drive, a Compact Disk (CD) drive, a CD-ROM drive, a DVD drive, or other suitable removable or non-removable storage units. Memory unit 194 and/or storage unit 195, for example, may store data processed by device 102. Memory unit 184 and/or storage unit 185, for example, may store data processed by device 140.

[0038] In some demonstrative embodiments, wireless communication devices 102 and/or 140 may be capable of communicating content, data, information and/or signals via a wireless medium (WM) 103. In some demonstrative embodiments, wireless medium 103 may include, for example, a radio channel, a cellular channel, an RF channel, a WiFi channel, an IR channel, a Bluetooth (BT) channel, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Channel, and the like. [0039] In some demonstrative embodiments, WM 103 may include one or more directional bands and/or channels. For example, WM 103 may include one or more millimeter-wave (mmWave) wireless communication bands and/or channels.

[0040] In some demonstrative embodiments, WM 103 may include one or more DMG channels. In other embodiments WM 103 may include any other directional channels.

[0041] In other embodiments, WM 103 may include any other type of channel over any other frequency band.

[0042] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 and/or device 140 may include one or more radios including circuitry and/or logic to perform wireless communication between devices 102, 140 and/or one or more other wireless communication devices. For example, device 102 may include at least one radio 114, and/or device 140 may include at least one radio 144. [0043] In some demonstrative embodiments, radio 114 and/or radio 144 may include one or more wireless receivers (Rx) including circuitry and/or logic to receive wireless communication signals, RF signals, frames, blocks, transmission streams, packets, messages, data items, and/or data. For example, radio 114 may include at least one receiver 116, and/or radio 144 may include at least one receiver 146.

[0044] In some demonstrative embodiments, radio 114 and/or radio 144 may include one or more wireless transmitters (Tx) including circuitry and/or logic to transmit wireless communication signals, RF signals, frames, blocks, transmission streams, packets, messages, data items, and/or data. For example, radio 114 may include at least one transmitter 118, and/or radio 144 may include at least one transmitter 148.

[0045] In some demonstrative embodiments, radio 114 and/or radio 144, transmitters 118 and/or 148, and/or receivers 116 and/or 146 may include circuitry; logic; Radio Frequency (RF) elements, circuitry and/or logic; baseband elements, circuitry and/or logic; modulation elements, circuitry and/or logic; demodulation elements, circuitry and/or logic; amplifiers; analog to digital and/or digital to analog converters; filters; and/or the like. For example, radio 114 and/or radio 144 may include or may be implemented as part of a wireless Network Interface Card (NIC), and the like.

[0046] In some demonstrative embodiments, radios 114 and/or 144 may be configured to communicate over a directional band, for example, an mmWave band, and/or any other band, for example, a 2.4GHz band, a 5GHz band, a S1G band, and/or any other band.

[0047] In some demonstrative embodiments, radios 114 and/or 144 may include, or may be associated with one or more, e.g., a plurality of, directional antennas.

[0048] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 may include one or more, e.g., a plurality of, directional antennas 107, and/or device 140 may include on or more, e.g., a plurality of, directional antennas 147.

[0049] Antennas 107 and/or 147 may include any type of antennas suitable for transmitting and/or receiving wireless communication signals, blocks, frames, transmission streams, packets, messages and/or data. For example, antennas 107 and/or 147 may include any suitable configuration, structure and/or arrangement of one or more antenna elements, components, units, assemblies and/or arrays. Antennas 107 and/or 147 may include, for example, antennas suitable for directional communication, e.g., using beamforming techniques. For example, antennas 107 and/or 147 may include a phased array antenna, a multiple element antenna, a set of switched beam antennas, and/or the like. In some embodiments, antennas 107 and/or 147 may implement transmit and receive functionalities using separate transmit and receive antenna elements. In some embodiments, antennas 107 and/or 147 may implement transmit and receive functionalities using common and/or integrated transmit/receive elements.

[0050] In some demonstrative embodiments, antennas 107 and/or 147 may include directional antennas, which may be steered to one or more beam directions. For example, antennas 107 may be steered to one or more beam directions 135, and/or antennas 147 may be steered to one or more beam directions 145.

[0051] In some demonstrative embodiments, antennas 107 and/or 147 may include and/or may be implemented as part of a single Phased Antenna Array (PAA).

[0052] In some demonstrative embodiments, antennas 107 and/or 147 may be implemented as part of a plurality of PAAs, for example, as a plurality of physically independent PAAs.

[0053] In some demonstrative embodiments, a PAA may include, for example, a rectangular geometry, e.g., including an integer number, denoted M, of rows, and an integer number, denoted N, of columns. In other embodiments, any other types of antennas and/or antenna arrays may be used.

[0054] In some demonstrative embodiments, antennas 107 and/or antennas 147 may be connected to, and/or associated with, one or more Radio Frequency (RF) chains.

[0055] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 may include one or more, e.g., a plurality of, RF chains 109 connected to, and/or associated with, antennas 107. [0056] In some demonstrative embodiments, one or more of RF chains 109 may be included as part of, and/or implemented as part of one or more elements of radio 114, e.g., as part of transmitter 118 and/or receiver 116.

[0057] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 140 may include one or more, e.g., a plurality of, RF chains 149 connected to, and/or associated with, antennas 147. [0058] In some demonstrative embodiments, one or more of RF chains 149 may be included as part of, and/or implemented as part of one or more elements of radio 144, e.g., as part of transmitter 148 and/or receiver 146.

[0059] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 may include a controller 124, and/or device 140 may include a controller 154. Controller 124 may be configured to perform and/or to trigger, cause, instruct and/or control device 102 to perform, one or more communications, to generate and/or communicate one or more messages and/or transmissions, and/or to perform one or more functionalities, operations and/or procedures between devices 102, 140 and/or one or more other devices; and/or controller 154 may be configured to perform, and/or to trigger, cause, instruct and/or control device 140 to perform, one or more communications, to generate and/or communicate one or more messages and/or transmissions, and/or to perform one or more functionalities, operations and/or procedures between devices 102, 140 and/or one or more other devices, e.g., as described below. [0060] In some demonstrative embodiments, controllers 124 and/or 154 may include, or may be implemented, partially or entirely, by circuitry and/or logic, e.g., one or more processors including circuitry and/or logic, memory circuitry and/or logic, Media-Access Control (MAC) circuitry and/or logic, Physical Layer (PHY) circuitry and/or logic, baseband (BB) circuitry and/or logic, a BB processor, a BB memory, Application Processor (AP) circuitry and/or logic, an AP processor, an AP memory, and/or any other circuitry and/or logic, configured to perform the functionality of controllers 124 and/or 154, respectively. Additionally or alternatively, one or more functionalities of controllers 124 and/or 154 may be implemented by logic, which may be executed by a machine and/or one or more processors, e.g., as described below.

[0061] In one example, controller 124 may include circuitry and/or logic, for example, one or more processors including circuitry and/or logic, to cause, trigger and/or control a wireless device, e.g., device 102, and/or a wireless station, e.g., a wireless STA implemented by device 102, to perform one or more operations, communications and/or functionalities, e.g., as described herein.

[0062] In one example, controller 154 may include circuitry and/or logic, for example, one or more processors including circuitry and/or logic, to cause, trigger and/or control a wireless device, e.g., device 140, and/or a wireless station, e.g., a wireless STA implemented by device 140, to perform one or more operations, communications and/or functionalities, e.g., as described herein.

[0063] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 may include a message processor 128 configured to generate, process and/or access one or messages communicated by device 102.

[0064] In one example, message processor 128 may be configured to generate one or more messages to be transmitted by device 102, and/or message processor 128 may be configured to access and/or to process one or more messages received by device 102, e.g., as described below.

[0065] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 140 may include a message processor 158 configured to generate, process and/or access one or messages communicated by device 140.

[0066] In one example, message processor 158 may be configured to generate one or more messages to be transmitted by device 140, and/or message processor 158 may be configured to access and/or to process one or more messages received by device 140, e.g., as described below.

[0067] In some demonstrative embodiments, message processors 128 and/or 158 may include, or may be implemented, partially or entirely, by circuitry and/or logic, e.g., one or more processors including circuitry and/or logic, memory circuitry and/or logic, Media-Access Control (MAC) circuitry and/or logic, Physical Layer (PHY) circuitry and/or logic, BB circuitry and/or logic, a BB processor, a BB memory, AP circuitry and/or logic, an AP processor, an AP memory, and/or any other circuitry and/or logic, configured to perform the functionality of message processors 128 and/or 158, respectively. Additionally or alternatively, one or more functionalities of message processors 128 and/or 158 may be implemented by logic, which may be executed by a machine and/or one or more processors, e.g., as described below.

[0068] In some demonstrative embodiments, at least part of the functionality of message processor 128 may be implemented as part of radio 114, and/or at least part of the functionality of message processor 158 may be implemented as part of radio 144. [0069] In some demonstrative embodiments, at least part of the functionality of message processor 128 may be implemented as part of controller 124, and/or at least part of the functionality of message processor 158 may be implemented as part of controller 154. [0070] In other embodiments, the functionality of message processor 128 may be implemented as part of any other element of device 102, and/or the functionality of message processor 158 may be implemented as part of any other element of device 140.

[0071] In some demonstrative embodiments, at least part of the functionality of controller 124 and/or message processor 128 may be implemented by an integrated circuit, for example, a chip, e.g., a System on Chip (SoC). In one example, the chip or SoC may be configured to perform one or more functionalities of radio 114. For example, the chip or SoC may include one or more elements of controller 124, one or more elements of message processor 128, and/or one or more elements of radio 114. In one example, controller 124, message processor 128, and radio 114 may be implemented as part of the chip or SoC.

[0072] In other embodiments, controller 124, message processor 128 and/or radio 114 may be implemented by one or more additional or alternative elements of device 102.

[0073] In some demonstrative embodiments, at least part of the functionality of controller 154 and/or message processor 158 may be implemented by an integrated circuit, for example, a chip, e.g., a System on Chip (SoC). In one example, the chip or SoC may be configured to perform one or more functionalities of radio 144. For example, the chip or SoC may include one or more elements of controller 154, one or more elements of message processor 158, and/or one or more elements of radio 144. In one example, controller 154, message processor 158, and radio 144 may be implemented as part of the chip or SoC.

[0074] In other embodiments, controller 154, message processor 158 and/or radio 144 may be implemented by one or more additional or alternative elements of device 140.

[0075] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 and/or device 140 may include, operate as, perform the role of, and/or perform one or more functionalities of, one or more STAs. For example, device 102 may include at least one STA, and/or device 140 may include at least one STA. [0076] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 and/or device 140 may include, operate as, perform the role of, and/or perform one or more functionalities of, one or more DMG STAs. For example, device 102 may include, operate as, perform the role of, and/or perform one or more functionalities of, at least one DMG STA, and/or device 140 may include, operate as, perform the role of, and/or perform one or more functionalities of, at least one DMG STA.

[0077] In other embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may include, operate as, perform the role of, and/or perform one or more functionalities of, any other wireless device and/or station, e.g., a WLAN STA, a WiFi STA, and the like. [0078] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 and/or device 140 may be configured operate as, perform the role of, and/or perform one or more functionalities of, an access point (AP), e.g., a DMG AP, and/or a personal basic service set (PBSS) control point (PCP), e.g., a DMG PCP, for example, an AP/PCP STA, e.g., a DMG AP/PCP STA. [0079] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 and/or device 140 may be configured to operate as, perform the role of, and/or perform one or more functionalities of, a non-AP STA, e.g., a DMG non-AP STA, and/or a non-PCP STA, e.g., a DMG non-PCP STA, for example, a non-AP/PCP STA, e.g., a DMG non- AP/PCP STA. [0080] In other embodiments, device 102 and/or device 140 may operate as, perform the role of, and/or perform one or more functionalities of, any other additional or alternative device and/or station.

[0081] In one example, a station (STA) may include a logical entity that is a singly addressable instance of a medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) interface to the wireless medium (WM). The STA may perform any other additional or alternative functionality.

[0082] In one example, an AP may include an entity that contains a station (STA), e.g., one STA, and provides access to distribution services, via the wireless medium (WM) for associated STAs. The AP may perform any other additional or alternative functionality.

[0083] In one example, a personal basic service set (PBSS) control point (PCP) may include an entity that contains a STA, e.g., one station (STA), and coordinates access to the wireless medium (WM) by STAs that are members of a PBSS. The PCP may perform any other additional or alternative functionality.

[0084] In one example, a PBSS may include a directional multi-gigabit (DMG) basic service set (BSS) that includes, for example, one PBSS control point (PCP). For example, access to a distribution system (DS) may not be present, but, for example, an intra-PBSS forwarding service may optionally be present.

[0085] In one example, a PCP/AP STA may include a station (STA) that is at least one of a PCP or an AP. The PCP/AP STA may perform any other additional or alternative functionality. [0086] In one example, a non-AP STA may include a STA that is not contained within an AP. The non-AP STA may perform any other additional or alternative functionality.

[0087] In one example, a non-PCP STA may include a STA that is not a PCP. The non-PCP STA may perform any other additional or alternative functionality. [0088] In one example, a non PCP/AP STA may include a STA that is not a PCP and that is not an AP. The non-PCP/AP STA may perform any other additional or alternative functionality.

[0089] In some demonstrative embodiments devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to communicate over a Next Generation 60 GHz (NG60) network, an Enhanced DMG (EDMG) network, and/or any other network. For example, devices 102 and/or 140 may perform Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MFMO) communication, for example, for communicating over the NG60 and/or EDMG networks, e.g., over an NG60 or an EDMG frequency band.

[0090] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to operate in accordance with one or more Specifications, for example, including one or more IEEE 802.11 Specifications, e.g., an IEEE 802.11-2016 Specification, an IEEE 802. Hay Specification, and/or any other specification and/or protocol.

[0091] Some demonstrative embodiments may be implemented, for example, as part of a new standard in an mmWave band, e.g., a 60GHz frequency band or any other directional band, for example, as an evolution of an IEEE 802.11-2016 Specification and/or an IEEE 802. Had Specification.

[0092] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured according to one or more standards, for example, in accordance with an IEEE 802. Hay Standard, which may be, for example, configured to enhance the efficiency and/or performance of an IEEE 802. Had Specification, which may be configured to provide Wi-Fi connectivity in a 60 GHz band.

[0093] Some demonstrative embodiments may enable, for example, to significantly increase the data transmission rates defined in the IEEE 802. Had Specification, for example, from 7 Gigabit per second (Gbps), e.g., up to 30 Gbps, or to any other data rate, which may, for example, satisfy growing demand in network capacity for new coming applications.

[0094] Some demonstrative embodiments may be implemented, for example, to allow increasing a transmission data rate, for example, by applying MIMO and/or channel bonding techniques.

[0095] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to communicate MIMO communications over the mmWave wireless communication band.

[0096] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 and/or device 140 may be configured to support one or more mechanisms and/or features, for example, channel bonding, Single User (SU) MIMO, and/or Multi-User (MU) MFMO, for example, in accordance with an IEEE 802.1 lay Standard and/or any other standard and/or protocol.

[0097] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 and/or device 140 may include, operate as, perform a role of, and/or perform the functionality of, one or more EDMG STAs. For example, device 102 may include, operate as, perform a role of, and/or perform the functionality of, at least one EDMG STA, and/or device 140 may include, operate as, perform a role of, and/or perform the functionality of, at least one EDMG STA. [0098] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may implement a communication scheme, which may include Physical layer (PHY) and/or Media Access Control (MAC) layer schemes, for example, to support one or more applications, and/or increased transmission data rates, e.g., data rates of up to 30 Gbps, or any other data rate.

[0099] In some demonstrative embodiments, the PHY and/or MAC layer schemes may be configured to support frequency channel bonding over a mmWave band, e.g., over a 60 GHz band, SU MEVIO techniques, and/or MU MEVIO techniques.

[00100] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to implement one or more mechanisms, which may be configured to enable SU and/or MU communication of Downlink (DL) and/or Uplink frames (UL) using a MIMO scheme. [00101] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 and/or device 140 may be configured to implement one or more MU communication mechanisms. For example, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to implement one or more MU mechanisms, which may be configured to enable MU communication of DL frames using a MIMO scheme, for example, between a device, e.g., device 102, and a plurality of devices, e.g., including device 140 and/or one or more other devices.

[00102] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to communicate over an NG60 network, an EDMG network, and/or any other network and/or any other frequency band. For example, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to communicate DL MFMO transmissions and/or UL MIMO transmissions, for example, for communicating over the NG60 and/or EDMG networks.

[00103] Some wireless communication Specifications, for example, the IEEE 802.11ad-2012 Specification, may be configured to support a SU system, in which a STA may transmit frames to a single STA at a time. Such Specifications may not be able, for example, to support a STA transmitting to multiple STAs simultaneously, for example, using a MU-MIMO scheme, e.g., a DL MU-MFMO, or any other MU scheme.

[00104] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to communicate over a channel bandwidth, e.g., of at least 2.16GHz, in a frequency band above 45GHz.

[00105] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to implement one or more mechanisms, which may, for example, enable to extend a single-channel BW scheme, e.g., a scheme in accordance with the IEEE 802. Had Specification or any other scheme, for higher data rates and/or increased capabilities, e.g., as described below.

[00106] In one example, the single-channel BW scheme may include communication over a 2.16 GHz channel (also referred to as a "single-channel" or a "DMG channel").

[00107] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to implement one or more channel bonding mechanisms, which may, for example, support communication over a channel BW (also referred to as a "wide channel", an "EDMG channel", or a "bonded channel") including two or more channels, e.g., two or more 2.16 GHz channels, e.g., as described below.

[00108] In some demonstrative embodiments, the channel bonding mechanisms may include, for example, a mechanism and/or an operation whereby two or more channels, e.g., 2.16 GHz channels, can be combined, e.g., for a higher bandwidth of packet transmission, for example, to enable achieving higher data rates, e.g., when compared to transmissions over a single channel. Some demonstrative embodiments are described herein with respect to communication over a channel BW including two or more 2.16 GHz channels, however other embodiments may be implemented with respect to communications over a channel bandwidth, e.g., a "wide" channel, including or formed by any other number of two or more channels, for example, an aggregated channel including an aggregation of two or more channels.

[00109] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 and/or device 140 may be configured to implement one or more channel bonding mechanisms, which may, for example, support an increased channel bandwidth, for example, a channel BW of 4.32 GHz, a channel BW of 6.48 GHz, a channel BW of 8.64 GHz, and/or any other additional or alternative channel BW, e.g., as described below.

[00110] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 and/or device 140 may be configured to implement one or more channel bonding mechanisms, which may, for example, support an increased channel bandwidth, for example, a channel BW of 4.32 GHz, e.g., including two 2.16Ghz channels according to a channel bonding factor of two, a channel BW of 6.48 GHz, e.g., including three 2.16Ghz channels according to a channel bonding factor of three, a channel BW of 8.64 GHz, e.g., including four 2.16Ghz channels according to a channel bonding factor of four, and/or any other additional or alternative channel BW, e.g., including any other number of 2.16Ghz channels and/or according to any other channel bonding factor.

[00111] In some demonstrative embodiments, introduction of MIMO may be based, for example, on implementing robust transmission modes and/or enhancing the reliability of data transmission, e.g., rather than the transmission rate, compared to a Single Input Single Output (SISO) case. For example, one or more Space Time Block Coding (STBC) schemes utilizing a space-time channel diversity property may be implemented to achieve one or more enhancements for the MTMO transmission. [00112] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 and/or device 140 may be configured to communicate one or more transmissions over one or ore channel BWs, for example, including a channel BW of 2.16GHz, a channel BW of 4.32GHz, a channel BW of 6.478GHz, a channel BW of 8.64GHz and/or any other channel BW.

[00113] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to generate, process, transmit and/or receive a Physical Layer (PHY) Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) having a PPDU format (also referred to as "EDMG PPDU format"), which may be configured, for example, for communication between EDMG stations, e.g., as described below.

[00114] In some demonstrative embodiments, a PPDU, e.g., an EMDG PPDU, may include at least one non-EDMG fields, e.g., a legacy field, which may be identified, decodable, and/or processed by one or more devices ("non-EDMG devices", or "legacy devices"), which may not support one or more features and/or mechanisms ("non-legacy" mechanisms or "EDMG mechanisms"). For example, the legacy devices may include non-EDMG stations, which may be, for example, configured according to an IEEE 802.11-2016 Standard, and the like. For example, a non-EDMG station may include a DMG station, which is not an EDMG station.

[00115] Reference is made to Fig. 2, which schematically illustrates an EDMG PPDU format 200, which may be implemented in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments. In one example, devices 102 (Fig. 1) and/or 140 (Fig. 1) may be configured to generate, transmit, receive and/or process one or more EDMG PPDUs having the structure and/or format of EDMG PPDU 200. [00116] In one example, devices 102 (Fig. 1) and/or 140 (Fig. 1) may communicate PPDU 200, for example, as part of a transmission over a channel, e.g., an EDMG channel, having a channel bandwidth including one or more 2.16GHz channels, for example, including a channel BW of 2.16GHz, a channel BW of 4.32GHz, a channel BW of 6.478GHz, a channel BW of 8.64GHz, and/or any other channel BW, e.g., as described below.

[00117] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 2, EDMG PPDU 200 may include a non-EDMG portion 210 ("legacy portion"), e.g., as described below.

[00118] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 2, non-EDMG portion 210 may include a non-EDMG (legacy) Short Training Field (STF) (L-STF) 202, a non-EDMG (Legacy) Channel Estimation Field (CEF) (L-CEF) 204, and/or a non- EDMG header (L-header) 206.

[00119] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 2, EDMG PPDU 200, may include an EDMG portion 220, for example, following non-EDMG portion 210, e.g., as described below.

[00120] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 2, EDMG portion 220 may include a first EDMG header, e.g., an EDMG-Header-A 208, an EDMG- STF 212, an EDMG-CEF 214, a second EDMG header, e.g., an EDMG-Header-B 216, a Data field 218, and/or one or more beamforming training fields, e.g., a TRN field 224.

[00121] In some demonstrative embodiments, EDMG portion 220 may include some or all of the fields shown in Fig. 2 and/or one or more other additional or alternative fields.

[00122] Referring back to Fig. 1, in some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to implement one or more techniques, which may, for example, enable to support communications over a MIMO communication channel, e.g., a SU-MIMO channel between two mmWave STAs, or a MU-MFMO channel between a STA and a plurality of STAs.

[00123] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to communicate according to an encoding scheme for MIMO transmission, e.g., as described below. [00124] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to communicate according to a space-time encoding scheme, which may be configured, for example, for OFDM MIMO, e.g., as described below.

[00125] In some demonstrative embodiments, the space-time encoding scheme may be implemented for example, for communication in accordance with an IEEE 802.1 lay Specification, and/or any other standard, protocol and/or specification.

[00126] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to communicate according to a space-time transmit encoding scheme for OFDM modulation, which may be configured, for example, for 2xN MIMO communication, e.g., as described below. In other embodiments, a space-time transmit encoding scheme for OFDM modulation may be configured, for example, for any other type of MIMO communication, e.g., any other M x N MIMO communication, e.g., wherein N is equal or greater than 2, and Mis equal or greater than 2.

[00127] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to communicate according to a space-time transmit encoding scheme, which may utilize a frequency diversity scheme, for example, according to one or more Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM) techniques, e.g., as described below.

[00128] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to communicate according to a transmit space-time encoding scheme, which may extract, for example, both space and frequency diversity, and may combine a dual carrier modulation scheme, for example, using DCM techniques, e.g., which may be in compliance with an IEEE 802. Had Specification, and one or more space-time techniques, for example, Alamouti space-time techniques, e.g., as described below. [00129] In some demonstrative embodiments, the transmit space-time encoding scheme may be configured, for example, in compliance with one or more aspects of an Alamouti technique, for example, as described by Siavash M. Alamouti, "A Simple Transmit Diversity Technique for Wireless Communications, " IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 16, no. 8, October 1998. [00130] In one example, the transmit space-time encoding scheme may be configured to support, for example, transmission from 2 Transmit (TX) antennas to N Receive (RX) antennas, for example, for communication according to a 2 x NMIMO scheme. [00131] In some demonstrative embodiments, the transmit space-time encoding scheme may be configured, for example, based on a combination of a space-time diversity technique, e.g., an Alamouti space-time diversity technique, and Dual Carrier Modulations (DCMs), e.g., in compliance with an IEEE 802. Had Specification, for the OFDM PHY.

[00132] In some demonstrative embodiments, combining DCM modulation in conjunction with a space-time technique may allow, for example, extracting both space-time and frequency diversity channel gains.

[00133] For example, implementing DCM may allow to extract additional channel frequency diversity gain, e.g., in addition to space-time diversity gain which may be provided by a space-time diversity technique; and/or implementing a space-time diversity technique, e.g., in accordance with an STBC diversity technique, may allow to extract additional space-time channel diversity gain, e.g., in addition to the frequency diversity gain which may be provided by DCM. [00134] In some demonstrative embodiments, combining DCM modulation in conjunction with a space-time diversity technique may provide a robust scheme, e.g., to both space-time and frequency channel deviations.

[00135] Some demonstrative embodiments are described herein with respect to a transmit space-time encoding scheme, which may be configured based on a combination of a DCM scheme and an STBC diversity scheme. However, other embodiments may be implemented with respect to any other additional or alternative transmit space-time encoding scheme, which may be configured based on a combination of any other frequency diversity scheme, and/or any other space-time diversity scheme, for example, an Alamouti scheme, and/or any other diversity scheme.

[00136] In some demonstrative embodiments, a first device ("transmitter device" or "transmitter side"), e.g., device 102, may be configured to generate and transmit an OFDM MIMO transmission based on a plurality of spatial streams, for example, in accordance with a transmit space-time encoding scheme, e.g., as described below. [00137] In some demonstrative embodiments, a second device ("receiver device" or "receiver side"), e.g., device 140, may be configured to receive and process the OFDM MIMO transmission based on the plurality of spatial streams, for example, in accordance with the transmit space-time encoding scheme, e.g., as described below.

[00138] In some demonstrative embodiments, one or more aspects of the transmit space-time encoding scheme described herein may be implemented, for example, to provide at least a technical solution to allow a simple combining scheme at the receiver device, for example, to mitigate and/or cancel out interference, e.g., Inter Stream Interference (ISI), to combine channel diversity gain, which may provide reliable data transmission, e.g., even in hostile channel conditions, and/or to provide one or more additional and/or alternative advantages and/or technical solutions. [00139] For example, in some embodiments, the receiver side may not even be required to use a MIMO equalizer, for example, while being able to use at least only Single Input Single Output (SISO) equalizers, e.g., in each stream of the plurality of spatial streams. According to this example, the transmit space-frequency MIMO scheme may be simple for implementation. [00140] In some demonstrative embodiments, a PHY and/or Media Access Control (MAC) layer for a system operating in the 60 GHz band, e.g., the system of Fig. 1, may be defined, for example, in accordance with an IEEE 802. Had Standard, a future IEEE 802.1 lay Standard, and/or any other Standard.

[00141] In some demonstrative embodiments, some implementations may be configured to communicate an OFDM MIMO transmission over a directional channel, for example, using beamforming with a quite narrow beamwidth and fast enough signal transmission with typical frame duration, e.g., of about 100 microseconds (usee). Such implementations may allow, for example, having a static channel per entire packet transmission, and/or may enable the receiver side to perform channel estimation at the very beginning of the packet, e.g., using a Channel Estimation Field (CEF). A phase may be tracked, for example, instead of performing channel tracking using pilots. This may allow, for example, assuming a substantially unchanged or static channel over two or more successive symbol transmissions. [00142] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to communicate an OFDM MIMO transmission according to a transmit space-time encoding scheme, which may be based on a space-time diversity scheme, for example, an STBC scheme, e.g., an Alamouti diversity scheme, or any other space-time encoding scheme, e.g., as described below.

[00143] Fig. 3 is a schematic illustration of a space-time transmit diversity scheme, which may be implemented, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments. For example, the transmit diversity scheme of Fig. 3 illustrates spatial coding for a space-time transmit diversity scheme with a 2 x 1 configuration.

[00144] For example, a space-time encoding scheme, e.g., in accordance with an Alamouti diversity scheme, may be configured to transmit a signal, denoted So, and a signal with coding, denoted -Si*, via two antennas, denoted #0 and #1, at a time moment, denoted t; followed by a repetition of the signals as a signal, denoted Si, and a signal with coding, denoted So*, via the antennas #0 and #1, at a subsequent time moment, denoted t + T. The symbol * denotes an operation of complex conjugation. This diversity scheme may create two orthogonal sequences in a space-time domain. [00145] In some demonstrative embodiments, it may be assumed that the channel does not change during subsequent vector transmissions, for example, for communications over a narrow beamwidth, e.g., over a directional frequency band, as described above. Accordingly, it may be assumed that the sequential transmissions of the signals So and Si are transmitted through a substantially unchanged or static channel having a substantially unchanged or static channel coefficient H0, and/or that the sequential transmissions of the signals -S * and So* are transmitted through a substantially unchanged or static channel having a substantially unchanged or static channel coefficient Hi.

[00146] Referring back to Fig. 1, in some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to communicate according to a transmit space-time encoding scheme, which may be configured based on the transmit diversity scheme of Fig. 3, for example, for 2 x N OFDM MTMO communication, e.g., as described below.

[00147] In some demonstrative embodiments, a diversity scheme, which may be configured, for example, for OFDM modulation, may be applied, for example, in a frequency domain, for example, by repetition mapping to subcarriers, e.g., as described below. [00148] In some demonstrative embodiments, a symbol, denoted Xk, may be mapped to a subcarrier with an index k of an OFDM symbol, denoted symbol#l, in a first spatial stream, denoted stream#l; a symbol, denoted Yk, may be mapped to a subcarrier with an index & of a subsequent OFDM symbol, denoted symbol#2, in the first spatial stream stream#l; a signal with coding, denoted -Y , may be mapped to a subcarrier with an index k of the OFDM symbol symbol#l, in a second spatial stream, denoted stream#2; and a signal with coding, denoted Xk*, may be mapped to a subcarrier with an index k of the subsequent OFDM symbol symbol#2, in the second spatial stream stream#2, e.g., as described below.

[00149] In some demonstrative embodiments, it may be assumed that the channel per subcarrier does not change, for example, due to the stationary property of the channel in a directional frequency band, e.g., the 60 GHz band. Accordingly, at a receiver side, an optimal combining technique, e.g., in accordance with an Alamouti combining technique, may be applied, for example, to create diversity gain and/or cancel out inter stream interference.

[00150] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to communicate according to a space-time encoding scheme, which may be based on a combination of a frequency diversity scheme, e.g., DCM and/or any other frequency diversity scheme, and a space-time scheme, e.g., an Alamouti-based Technique and/or any other space-time diversity scheme, as described below.

[00151] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to communicate according to a transmit space-time encoding scheme, which may utilize one or more Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulation schemes, e.g., as described below. In other embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to communicate according to a transmit space-time encoding scheme, which may utilize any other additional or alternative modulation scheme, e.g., any modulation which is based or not based on PSK.

[00152] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to communicate according to a transmit space-time encoding scheme, which may utilize, for example, Staggered quadrature phase-shift keying (SQPSK) and/or Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) dual carrier modulation schemes, e.g., as described below. In other embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to communicate according to a space-frequency transmit diversity scheme, which may utilize any other additional or alternative dual carrier modulation scheme, and/or multi-carrier modulation scheme. [00153] In some demonstrative embodiments, the space-time transmit diversity scheme may be configured to use SQPSK and/or QPSK modulations, which may be compatible with "legacy" dual carrier modulations, for example, in compliance with an IEEE 802.1 lad Standard and/or any other Standard or protocol.

[00154] For example, some standards, for example, an IEEE 802.1 lad Standard, may support Single-In-Single-Out (SISO) dual carrier SQPSK and QPSK modulations mapping subcarriers to different sub-bands, for example, to exploit a frequency diversity property in frequency selective channels.

[00155] In some demonstrative embodiments, the SQPSK and/or QPSK dual carrier modulations may exploit two subcarriers in an OFDM signal spectrum to carry data, and, accordingly, may allow extracting a diversity gain in frequency selective channels. This may be achieved, for example, by mapping data symbols (also referred to as "data constellation point") to the different parts of the signal spectrum, e.g., to different sub-bands.

[00156] For example, the SQPSK and/or QPSK dual carrier modulations may be able to provide substantially the same performance as single carrier modulations, for example, in a frequency flat channel.

[00157] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to generate, transmit, receive and/or process one or more OFDM transmissions according to a space-time coding scheme, e.g., which may be configured, for example, to utilize a dual carrier modulation scheme, e.g., as described below.

[00158] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to generate, transmit, receive and/or process one or more OFDM transmissions according to a space-time coding scheme, e.g., which may be configured, for example, for SQPSK and/or QPSK dual carrier modulation schemes, and/or any other dual carrier modulation scheme, e.g., as described below. [00159] In some demonstrative embodiments, implementing the dual carrier modulation scheme may allow, for example, to extract additional frequency diversity gain, for example, compared a space-time diversity gain provided by an OFDM modulation. [00160] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to generate, transmit, receive and/or process one or more transmissions according to a space-time coding, for example, an STBC OFDM scheme, e.g., as described below.

[00161] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to generate, transmit, receive and/or process one or more transmissions according to a space-time coding, for example, an STBC OFDM scheme, which may be configured, for example, for SQPSK and/or QPSK dual carrier modulations for OFDM PHY, e.g., as described below.

[00162] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to generate, transmit, receive and/or process one or more transmissions according to a space-time coding scheme, which may be configured, for example, to provide a technical solution for exploiting dual carrier modulations, e.g., SQPSK and/or QPSK dual carrier modulations, while providing, for example, space-time- frequency diversity gain, e.g., compared to or in addition to a space-time gain, which may be achieved by other modulations.

[00163] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to generate, transmit, receive and/or process one or more transmissions according to a space-time coding scheme, e.g., an STBC scheme, which may, for example, outperform, e.g., at least in some use cases and/or implementations, an STBC scheme in frequency selective channels.

[00164] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to generate, transmit, receive and/or process one or more transmissions according to a dual carrier modulation, for example, an SQPSK modulation and/or a QPSK modulation, for example, in accordance with SQPSK and/or QPSK modulations for Single Input Single Output (SISO) according to an IEEE 802.11 Specification, for example, the IEEE 802.11-2016 Specification, e.g., as described below. In other embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to generate, transmit, receive and/or process one or more transmissions according to any other additional or alternative dual carrier modulation scheme.

[00165] In some demonstrative embodiments, an OFDM PHY may be defined with dual carrier SQPSK and/or QPSK modulations, which may, for example, provide a same data rate, e.g., as for regular BPSK and/or QPSK modulations.

[00166] For example, the SQPSK and/or QPSK modulations may utilize two subcarriers in the OFDM signal spectrum. Accordingly, the SQPSK and/or QPSK modulations may, for example, extract additional frequency diversity gain in frequency selective channels, for example, while maintaining a same performance, e.g., as other modulations, e.g., in a frequency flat channel.

[00167] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to generate, transmit, receive and/or process one or more transmissions according to a space-time encoding scheme, e.g., an STBC scheme, which may be configured to support dual carrier modulation, e.g., the SQPSK and/or QPSK modulations, e.g., as described below.

[00168] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to modulate data into modulated data according to a dual carrier modulation scheme, e.g., as described below; map the modulated data to a plurality of spatial streams according to a space-time mapping scheme; and transmit an OFDM transmission based on the plurality of spatial streams, e.g., as described below.

[00169] In some demonstrative embodiments, the space-time mapping scheme may include mapping a first pair of data subcarriers and a second pair of data subcarriers to a pair of OFDM symbols over a pair of spatial streams, e.g., as described below.

[00170] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control a wireless station implemented by device 102 to generate and transmit an OFDM MIMO transmission to at least one other station, for example, a station implemented by device 140, e.g., as described below.

[00171] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless station implemented by device 102 to generate a plurality of spatial streams in a frequency domain based on data, which may be represented by encoded data bits, e.g., as described below. [00172] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless station implemented by device 102 to modulate a plurality of data bit sequences corresponding to the data to be transmitted into a plurality of data blocks (also referred to as "data groups" or "groups of bits"), in the frequency domain, e.g., as described below.

[00173] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may include, operate as, and/or perform the functionality of a DCM module 127, which may be configured to modulate the plurality of data bit sequences into the plurality of data blocks according to a dual carrier modulation, e.g., as described below. [00174] In some demonstrative embodiments, DCM module 127 may be configured to exploit a pair of tones in an OFDM signal spectrum to carry constellation points, e.g., as described below.

[00175] In some demonstrative embodiments, DCM module 127 may be configured to modulate a data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences into first and second data symbols, e.g., data constellation point in a data block of the plurality of data blocks, e.g., as described below.

[00176] In some demonstrative embodiments, the first and second data symbols may include consecutive data symbols, e.g., as describes below.

[00177] For example, DCM module 127 may modulate the data bit sequence into first and second constellation points in a group of data bits, e.g., as described below.

[00178] In some demonstrative embodiments, DCM module 127 may be configured to modulate the data bit sequences according to an SQPSK DCM, e.g., as described below.

[00179] For example, DCM module 127 may be configured to map a data bit sequence including two data bits to first and second symbols including first and second respective QPSK constellation points, e.g., as described below.

[00180] For example, DCM module 127 may be configured to map a data bit sequence including two data bits to a first QPSK constellation point and a second constellation point, which may be a complex conjugate of the first constellation point, e.g., as described below. [00181] In some demonstrative embodiments, DCM module 127 may be configured to generate a pair of complex constellation points, e.g., a pair of QPSK constellation points, denoted (so,si), for example, based on a data bit sequence including two encoded bits, denoted (c0,ci), e.g., as follows: 5o = 1 ((2Co _ l)+ 7-(2Cl - l))

V2

Sl = ^((2c0 - l)-j(2Cl - l))

[00182] For example, DCM module 127 may be configured to determine the point Si by simple conjugation of the point So, e.g., Si = So*, which may correspond, for example, to a repetition 2x of the second constellation point. [00183] In some demonstrative embodiments, DCM module 127 may be configured to modulate the data bit sequences according to a QPSK DCM, e.g., as described below.

[00184] For example, DCM module 127 may be configured to map a data bit sequence including four data bits into the first and second symbols, e.g., as described below.

[00185] For example, DCM module 127 may be configured to map first and second data bits of the four data bits to a first QPSK constellation point, and to map third and fourth data bits of the four data bits to a second QPSK constellation point, e.g., as described below. [00186] For example, DCM module 127 may be configured to map the first and second QPSK constellation points to first and second 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16QAM) constellation points, e.g., as described below.

[00187] In some demonstrative embodiments, DCM module 127 may be configured to generate the pair of QPSK constellation points (so,si), for example, based on a data bit sequence including 4 encoded bits, denoted (co,ci, C2,c ), for example, in two operations, e.g., as described below.

[00188] For example, in a first operation, the encoded bits (co,ci, C2,c ) may be converted into two QPSK constellation points, e.g., as follows: - ^ ((2c0 - l)+j(2c2

(2)

Figure imgf000035_0001

[00189] For example, in a second operation, the pair of constellation points (so,Si) may be obtained, for example, by multiplying the vector (χο,χι) by a matrix, e.g., as follows:

Figure imgf000035_0002

[00190] In some demonstrative embodiments, the constellation points (so,Si) may lie in a 16QAM constellation grid. However, this may be more than just a repetition 2x, but rather encoding in place, e.g., since So≠ Si. [00191] In other embodiments, DCM module 127 may be configured to modulate the data bit sequences into the data blocks according to any other dual carrier or multi- carrier modulation scheme.

[00192] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to map the modulated data to a plurality of spatial streams according to a space-time mapping scheme, e.g., as described below.

[00193] In some demonstrative embodiments, the space-time mapping scheme may include mapping a first pair of data subcarriers and a second pair of data subcarriers to a pair of OFDM symbols over a pair of spatial streams, e.g., as described below.

[00194] In some demonstrative embodiments, the space-time mapping scheme may include mapping the first pair of data subcarriers to a first OFDM symbol in a first spatial stream, mapping a complex conjugate of the first pair of data subcarriers to a second OFDM symbol in a second spatial stream, mapping the second pair of data subcarriers to the second OFDM symbol in the first spatial stream, and mapping a sign-inversed complex conjugate of the second pair of data subcarriers to the first OFDM symbol in the second spatial stream, e.g., as described below.

[00195] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may include, operate as, and/or perform the functionality of a mapper 129, which may be configured to map the plurality of data blocks to a plurality of spatial streams, for example, according to a space-time diversity mapping scheme, e.g., as described below.

[00196] In some demonstrative embodiments, mapper 129 may be configured to map first and second pairs of data symbols to first and second pairs of subcarriers of first and second respective OFDM symbols in first and second spatial streams, e.g., as described below.

[00197] In some demonstrative embodiments, mapper 129 may be configured to map a first pair of data symbols of a first data block to a first pair of respective subcarriers of a first OFDM symbol in a first spatial stream; to map a second pair of data symbols of a second data block to a second pair of respective subcarriers of a second OFDM symbol in the first spatial stream; to map a sign-inversed complex conjugate of the second pair of data symbols to a first pair of respective subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol in a second spatial stream; and to map a complex conjugate of the first pair of data symbols to a second pair of respective subcarriers of the second OFDM symbol in the second spatial stream, e.g., as described below.

[00198] In some demonstrative embodiments, the first pair of subcarriers may include a first subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the first OFDM symbol, and/or a second subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, e.g., as described below. [00199] In some demonstrative embodiments, the second pair of subcarriers may include a third subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the second OFDM symbol, and/or a fourth subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol, e.g., as described below.

[00200] In some demonstrative embodiments, the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol may include a first half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, and/or the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol may include a second half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, e.g., as described below.

[00201] In some demonstrative embodiments, the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol may include a first half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol, and/or the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol may include a second half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol, e.g., as described below. [00202] In some demonstrative embodiments, the first pair of data symbols may include a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the first data block, and/or the second pair of data symbols may include a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the second data block, e.g., as described below. [00203] In some demonstrative embodiments, the first subcarrier may include a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, and/or the second subcarrier may include a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, wherein P(k) is a predefined permutation of k, e.g., as described below.

[00204] In some demonstrative embodiments, the third subcarrier may include a k-th data subcarrier in the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, and/or the fourth subcarrier may include a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, e.g., as described below.

[00205] In some demonstrative embodiments, mapper 129 may be configured to determine the permutation P(k) according to a Static Tone Pairing (STP) permutation. [00206] In some demonstrative embodiments, mapper 129 may be configured to determine the permutation P(k) according to a Dynamic Tone Pairing (DTP) permutation.

[00207] In other embodiments, mapper 129 may be configured to determine the permutation P(k) according to any other permutation mechanism and/or scheme. [00208] In some demonstrative embodiments, an STP mapping mode may be applied, for example, for PHY header transmission.

[00209] In some demonstrative embodiments, the STP mapping mode may be applied for Physical layer Service Data Unit (PSDU) transmission, for example, if a header field includes a Tone Pairing Filed = 0. [00210] In other embodiments, the STP mode may be applied according to any other criteria.

[0021 1] In some demonstrative embodiments, the STP mapping mode may include mapping symbol pairs, e.g., SQPSK or QPSK symbol pairs, using the indexes k and P(k). For example, a k th repeated symbol may be mapped to the second half of the signal spectrum with the index the P(k) = 168 + k, e.g., k = 0 : 167 for a size of 168 subcarriers. [00212] In some demonstrative embodiments, a DTP mapping mode may be applied for PSDU transmission, for example, if the header field includes the Tone Pairing Filed = 1. In other embodiments, the DTP mode may be applied according to any other criteria.

[00213] In some demonstrative embodiments, the DTP mapping mode may include dividing a symbol stream, e.g., a SQPSK or QPSK symbol stream, into a plurality of groups of symbols, for example, 42 groups of 4 symbols, e.g., for a size of 168 subcarriers, or any other number of groups of any other number of symbols, and/or for any other size.

[00214] In some demonstrative embodiments, the DTP mapping may include mapping the groups of 4 symbols, e.g., continuously, to the first half of the spectrum.

[00215] In some demonstrative embodiments, each group of 4 symbols may be repeated in the second half of the spectrum, for example, by applying interleaving on a group basis.

[00216] In some demonstrative embodiments, group interleaving may be defined based on an array, for example, a GroupP air Index array, e.g., in the range of 0 to 41 , for example, with respect to 42 groups, or any other array.

[00217] In some demonstrative embodiments, a repeated symbol index in the second half of the signal spectrum may be determined, for example, as follows:

P (k) = 168 + 4

Figure imgf000038_0001

[00218] In some demonstrative embodiments, DCM module 127 and mapper 129 may be configured to generate and map the plurality of data blocks to the plurality of spatial streams according to an SQPSK modulation scheme and/or a QPSK modulation scheme, e.g., as described below.

[00219] In some demonstrative embodiments, DCM module 127 and mapper 129 may be configured to generate and map a pair of two subcarriers (Xk, Xp(k)) according to a DCM scheme, for example, by applying to the subcarriers an SQPSK modulation and/or a QPSK modulation, e.g., as described below. [00220] For example, the SQPSK and/or QPSK modulation schemes may represent normal BPSK and/or QPSK modulations with some precoding by Q matrix of size 2x2, e.g., as described below.

[00221] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to generate, transmit, receive and/or process one or more transmissions according to an SQPSK modulation scheme, e.g. as described below.

[00222] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to modulate a transmission according to an SQPSK modulation, for example, by performing one or more operations, e.g., as follows:

- Two coded bits (c2k, c2k+i) may be modulated to two subcarriers

Figure imgf000039_0001

- The modulation may be performed, for example, in 2 steps:

First, two BPSK points are modulated as x2k = (2*c2k-l), x2k+i = (2*c2k+i-l);

Second, two QPSK points are modulated by multiplication on a matrix Q;

- P(k) = 168 + k for STP mode and can be permutation of indexes for DTP mode, e.g., in the range [168, 335], any other permutation P(k) may be used;

[00223] In one example, the subcarriers (Xk, Xp(k)) may be determined, for example, as follows:

Figure imgf000039_0002

=Q

[00224] In other embodiments, any other matrix Q may be used, any other permutation P may be used, and/or any other additional or alternative operations may be performed as part of the SQPSK modulation scheme.

[00225] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to generate, transmit, receive and/or process one or more transmissions according to a QPSK modulation, e.g. as described below. [00226] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to modulate a transmission according to an QPSK modulation scheme, for example, by performing one or more operations, e.g., as follows:

- Four coded bits (c4k, c4k+i, c4k+2, c4k+ ) are modulated to two

subcarriers (Xk, Xp(k));

- The modulation may be performed in 2 steps:

First, two QPSK points are modulated, e.g., as x2k =

((2*c4k-l)+j(2*c4k+2-l))/2; x2k+i = ((2*c4k+i-l)+j(2*c4k+3-

Second, two 16QAM points may be modulated by multiplication on matrix Q;

[00227] In one example, the subcarriers (Xk, Xp(k)) may be determined, for example, as follows:

Figure imgf000040_0001

=

[00228] In other embodiments, any other matrix Q may be used, any other permutation P may be used, and/or any other additional or alternative operations may be performed as part of the QPSK modulation scheme.

[00229] In some demonstrative embodiments, the DCM may allow, for example, to avoid complete data symbol loss, for example, even in case of a deep notch in a frequency response, e.g., due to the data duplication in the second half of the frequency band.

[00230] In some demonstrative embodiments, the STP mapping approach may at least provide, for example, a maximal equal space between the tones carrying the same information.

[00231] In some demonstrative embodiments, the DTP mapping may allow, for example, at least adaptive pairing of tones, for example, based on channel state information feedback. [00232] In some demonstrative embodiments, lost tones, e.g., with low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), in the second sub-band of the frequency band may be, for example, grouped with strong tones, e.g., with high SNR, in the first sub-band of the frequency band. For example, medium quality tones may be grouped with each other. [00233] In some demonstrative embodiments, this adaptive approach for pairing of tones may provide, for example, equal protection of symbols, e.g., even under hostile frequency selectivity conditions.

[00234] In some demonstrative embodiments, mapper 129 may be configured to map a plurality of modulated data sequences to a plurality of space-time streams, for example, according to a space-time diversity mapping scheme, e.g., as described below.

[00235] In some demonstrative embodiments, mapper 129 may be configured to map a first modulated data sequence to a first space-time stream and a second modulated data sequence to a second space-time stream, e.g., as described below. [00236] In some demonstrative embodiments, the first modulated data sequence may include a first plurality of data symbols mapped to a first plurality of respective subcarriers of a first plurality of OFDM symbols in the first space-time stream, and a second plurality of data symbols mapped to a second plurality of respective subcarriers of a second plurality OFDM symbols in the first space-time stream, e.g., as described below.

[00237] In one example, the first plurality of data symbols may include data symbols of a first data block, and/or the second first plurality of data symbols may include data symbols of a second data block, for example, according to a DCM scheme, e.g., as described above. [00238] In some demonstrative embodiments, the second modulated data sequence may include a sign-inversed complex conjugate of the second plurality of data symbols mapped to the first plurality of respective subcarriers of the first plurality of OFDM symbols in the second space-time stream, and the complex conjugate of the first plurality of data symbols mapped to the second plurality of respective subcarriers of the second plurality of OFDM symbols in the second space-time stream, e.g., as described below. [00239] In some demonstrative embodiments, the first plurality of OFDM symbols may include even-numbered OFDM symbols, and the second plurality of OFDM symbols may include odd-numbered OFDM symbols, e.g., as described below.

[00240] For example, the first modulated data sequence, denoted D(iSTS = 1), may be determined, e.g., as follows:

D(iSIs = \,2n,Md (k))= d(iss = \,2n,k)

D(iSIS = l,2n + 1, Md (k))= d(iss = l,2n + l,k) ^ wherein iSTS denotes a space-time stream index (number), iss denotes a spatial stream index (number), Md (&) denotes a mapped data subcarrier index (number), n denotes an OFDM symbol index (number), k denotes a data subcarrier index (number), and d(iss,n,k) denotes a data symbol (constellation point) corresponding to a k-th subcarrier of an n-th OFDM symbol in an iss-th spatial stream.

[00241] For example, the second modulated data sequence, denoted D( iSTS = 2), may be determined, e.g., as follows:

D (½ra = 2> 2"> Md (k))= -COfU (d ( s = 1,2/1 + 1,*))

D (fm = 1, 2n + 1, Md (£))= conj (d(iss = 1, 2n, k)) ^ [00242] In other embodiments, the first and/or second modulated sequences may be mapped according to any other scheme.

[00243] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless station implemented by device 102 to transmit an OFDM MIMO transmission based on the plurality of spatial streams, e.g., as described below.

[00244] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless station implemented by device 102 to transmit the plurality of spatial streams via a plurality of directional antennas. For example, controller 124 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless station implemented by device 102 to transmit the first spatial stream via a first antenna of antennas 107, and to transmit the second spatial stream via a second antenna of antennas 107.

[00245] In some demonstrative embodiments, the OFDM MIMO transmission may include a 2xN OFDM MFMO transmission, e.g., as described below. In other embodiments, the OFDM MFMO transmission may include any other M x N OFDM MFMO transmission.

[00246] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless station implemented by device 102 to transmit the OFDM MIMO transmission over a frequency band above 45GHz. [00247] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless station implemented by device 102 to transmit the OFDM MIMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of at least 2.16GHz.

[00248] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless station implemented by device 102 to transmit the OFDM MFMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of 4.32GHz, 6.48GHz, or 8.64GHz.

[00249] Reference is made to Fig. 4, which schematically illustrates a space- frequency mapping scheme 400, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments. For example, a wireless station, e.g., a wireless station implemented by device 102 (Fig. 1), may be configured to map data to data subcarriers of a plurality of spatial streams according to mapping scheme 400, e.g., as described below. In one example, controller 124 (Fig. 1), DCM module 127 (Fig. 1) and/or mapper 129 (Fig. 1), may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless station implemented by device 102 (Fig. 1) to map data to be transmitted in an OFDM MFMO transmission according to space-frequency mapping scheme 400.

[00250] In some demonstrative embodiments, space-frequency mapping scheme 400 may be configured to support dual carrier modulations for 2 x N OFDM MFMO, e.g., to support an implementation in accordance with an IEEE 802.1 lay Specification. [00251] In some demonstrative embodiments, space-frequency diversity mapping scheme 400 may be configured based on a dual carrier modulation scheme 404, e.g., as described below. [00252] In some demonstrative embodiments, the dual carrier modulation scheme 404 may be configured to modulate data 402 into a plurality of data blocks including a plurality of symbols.

[00253] In some demonstrative embodiments, the dual carrier modulation scheme 404 may be configured to modulate a plurality of data bit sequences of data 402 into the plurality of data blocks, for example, by modulating a data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences into first and second consecutive symbols in a data block of the plurality of data blocks, e.g., as described below.

[00254] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 4, the dual carrier modulation scheme 404 may be configured to modulate the data bit sequences of data 402 into a plurality of blocks, e.g., including a first data bock 408 and a second data block 438, having a predefined number of data symbols, e.g., 336 data symbols or any other number of data symbols.

[00255] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 4, the dual carrier modulation scheme 404 may be configured to modulate a data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences into first and second symbols in a data block of the plurality of data blocks.

[00256] In some demonstrative embodiments, the first and second symbols may include first and second consecutive data symbols, e.g., as describes below. [00257] For example, DCM module 127 may modulate the data bit sequence into first and second constellation points in a group of bits, e.g., as described below.

[00258] For example, as shown in Fig. 4, the dual carrier modulation scheme 404 may be configured to modulate a plurality of data bit sequences into a plurality of pairs of consecutive symbols of data block 408, e.g., including the pair of consecutive symbols 410 and 412, which may correspond to a data bit sequence. For example, the symbol 410 may include a first DCM symbol, denoted Xo, and the symbol 412 may include a second DCM symbol, denoted Xj, which may both be based on a same first data bit sequence, e.g., as described above.

[00259] For example, as shown in Fig. 4, the dual carrier modulation scheme 404 may be configured to modulate another plurality of data bit sequences into a plurality of pairs of consecutive symbols of data block 438, e.g., e.g., including the pair of consecutive symbols 440 and 442, which may correspond to another data bit sequence. For example, the symbol 440 may include a first DCM symbol, denoted Yo, and the symbol 442 may include a second DCM symbol, denoted Yj, which may both be based on a same second data bit sequence, e.g., as described above.

[00260] In some demonstrative embodiments, the dual carrier modulation scheme 404 may be configured to modulate the plurality of data bit sequences according to an SQPSK DCM scheme, e.g., as described above. For example, the pair of symbols 410 and 412 may include the respective pair of QPSK constellation points (so, Si) corresponding to a two-bit data bit sequence; and the pair of symbols 440 and 442 may include the respective pair of QPSK constellation points (so, Si) corresponding to another two-bit data bit sequence, e.g., as described above.

[00261] In some demonstrative embodiments, the dual carrier modulation scheme 404 may be configured to modulate the plurality of data bit sequences according to a QPSK DCM scheme, e.g., as described above. For example, the pair of symbols 410 and 412 may include the respective pair of 16QAM constellation points (so, Si) corresponding to a four-bit data bit sequence; and the pair of symbols 440 and 442 may include the respective pair of 16QAM constellation points (so, Si) corresponding to another four-bit data bit sequence, e.g., as described above.

[00262] In some demonstrative embodiments, the symbols Xo and Xi may include a first pair of dependent symbols, for example, the pair of DCM symbols representing the same first plurality of data bits, e.g., as described above with respect to the QPSK and/or SQPSK DCM.

[00263] In some demonstrative embodiments, the symbols Yo and Yi may include a second pair of dependent symbols, for example, the pair of DCM symbols representing the same second plurality of data bits, e.g., as described above with respect to the QPSK and/or SQPSK DCM.

[00264] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 4, the space- frequency diversity mapping scheme 400 may be configured to extend the dual carrier modulation scheme with a space-time diversity, e.g., between a plurality of symbols in a plurality of spatial streams, e.g., two symbols in two streams as shown in Fig. 4. [00265] In some demonstrative embodiments, space-frequency mapping scheme 400 may be configured to map symbols of first data block 408 and symbols of second data block 438 to subcarriers of a first OFDM symbol 415 and a second OFDM symbol 445 in a first spatial stream 414 and a second spatial stream 444, e.g., as described below.

[00266] In some demonstrative embodiments, two pairs of DCM symbols, e.g., the pairs (X0, Xi) and (Y0, Yi), may be mapped to OFDM subcarriers of the OFDM symbols 415 and 445 in the spatial streams 414 and 444, e.g., as described below.

[00267] In some demonstrative embodiments, the pair of symbols Xo and Xi may be mapped to a pair of subcarriers in the first spatial stream 414 and the first OFDM symbol in time 415, e.g., as described below.

[00268] In some demonstrative embodiments, a repetition of the pair of symbols Xo and Xi may be mapped with complex conjugation, for example, to the same pair of subcarriers in the second spatial stream 444 and the second OFDM symbol in time 445, e.g., as described below.

[00269] In some demonstrative embodiments, the pair of symbols Yo and Yi may be mapped to a pair of subcarriers in the first spatial stream 414 and the second OFDM symbol in time 445, e.g., as described below.

[00270] In some demonstrative embodiments, a repetition of the pair of symbols Yo and Yi may be mapped with complex conjugation and sign inversion, for example, to the same pair of subcarriers in the second spatial stream 444 and the first OFDM symbol in time 415, e.g., as described below. [00271] In some demonstrative embodiments, a signal band of the OFDM symbols 415 and 445 in spatial streams 414 and 444 may be divided into first and second sub- bands.

[00272] In some demonstrative embodiments, for example, as shown in Fig. 4, OFDM symbols 415 and 445 may each have a signal band including 336 subcarriers (tones).

[00273] In other embodiments, OFDM symbols 415 and/or 445 may have a signal band including any other number of subcarriers.

[00274] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 4, for example, a first sub-band 416 of a signal band of the first OFDM symbol 415 may include a first subset of the subcarriers, e.g., including 168 subcarriers, and a second sub-band 418 of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol 415 may include a second subset of the subcarriers, e.g., including 168 subcarriers.

[00275] In other embodiments, the first sub-band 416 and/or the second sub-band 418 of the first OFDM symbol 415 may include any other number of subcarriers. [00276] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 4, for example, a first sub-band 446 of a signal band of the second OFDM symbol 445 may include a first subset of the subcarriers, e.g., including 168 subcarriers, and a second sub-band 448 of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol 445 may include a second subset of the subcarriers, e.g., including 168 subcarriers. [00277] In other embodiments, the first sub-band 446 and/or the second sub-band 448 of the second OFDM symbol 445 may include any other number of subcarriers.

[00278] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 4, space-frequency mapping scheme 400 may be configured to map a first pair of data symbols of data block 408, e.g., the pair of symbols 410 and 412, to a first pair of respective subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol 415 in the first spatial stream 414, e.g., the pair of data subcarriers 420 and 422.

[00279] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 4, space-frequency mapping scheme 400 may be configured to map a second pair of data symbols of data block 442, e.g., the pair of symbols 440 and 442, to the first pair of respective subcarriers of the second OFDM symbol 445 in the first spatial stream 414, e.g., to the pair of data subcarriers 477 and 479.

[00280] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 4, space-frequency mapping scheme 400 may be configured to map a complex conjugate of the first pair of data symbols, e.g., the pair of symbols 410 and 412, to a second pair of respective subcarriers of the second OFDM symbol 445 in the second spatial stream 444, e.g., the pair of data subcarriers 487 and 489.

[00281] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 4, space-frequency mapping scheme 400 may be configured to map a sign-inversed complex conjugate of the second pair of data symbols, e.g., the pair of data symbols 440 and 442, to the first pair of respective subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol 415 in the second spatial stream 444, e.g., the pair of data subcarriers 450 and 452. [00282] In some demonstrative embodiments, space-frequency mapping scheme 400 may be configured to map a k-th symbol of data block 408, e.g., the symbol 410, to a k-th subcarrier, e.g., the subcarrier 420, of OFDM symbol 415 in spatial stream 414, and/or to map a (k+l)-th symbol of data block 408, e.g., the symbol 412, to a P(k)-th subcarrier, e.g., the subcarrier 422, of OFDM symbol 415 in spatial stream 414.

[00283] In some demonstrative embodiments, space-frequency mapping scheme 400 may be configured to map a k-th symbol of data block 438, e.g., the symbol 440, to a k-th subcarrier, e.g., the subcarrier 477, of OFDM symbol 445 in spatial stream 414, and/or to map a (k+l)-th symbol of data block 438, e.g., the symbol 442, to a P(k)-th subcarrier, e.g., the subcarrier 479, of OFDM symbol 445 in spatial stream 414.

[00284] In some demonstrative embodiments, the permutation P(K) may include an STP permutation, a DTP permutation, or any other permutation, e.g., as described above.

[00285] In some demonstrative embodiments, space-frequency mapping scheme 400 may be configured to map a complex conjugate of the k-th symbol of data block 408, e.g., the symbol 410, to a k-th subcarrier, e.g., the subcarrier 487, of OFDM symbol 445 in spatial stream 444, and/or to map a complex conjugate of the (k+l)-th symbol of data block 408, e.g., the symbol 412, to a P(k)-th subcarrier, e.g., the subcarrier 489, of OFDM symbol 445 in spatial stream 444. [00286] In some demonstrative embodiments, space-frequency mapping scheme 400 may be configured to map a sign-inversed complex conjugate of the k-th symbol of data block 438, e.g., the symbol 440, to a k-th subcarrier, e.g., the subcarrier 450, of OFDM symbol 415 in spatial stream 444, and/or to map a sign-inversed complex conjugate of the (k+l)-th symbol of data block 438, e.g., the symbol 442, to a P(k)-th subcarrier, e.g., the subcarrier 452, of OFDM symbol 415 in spatial stream 444.

[00287] In some demonstrative embodiments, the space-frequency diversity mapping scheme 400 may allow, for example, providing spatial diversity, for example, in addition to exploiting channel frequency diversity, and/or avoiding data loss due to deep notches in the frequency domain. [00288] In some demonstrative embodiments, the space-frequency diversity mapping scheme 400 may allow, for example, operation, for example, even when one of the spatial streams 414 and 444 is attenuated, e.g., due to blockage or any other reason, while another spatial stream of streams 414 and 444 survives and has enough quality.

[00289] In some demonstrative embodiments, the spatial diversity achieved by the space-frequency diversity mapping scheme 400 may allow, for example, robust transmission, for example, even without re-beamforming of the communication link, for example, in case when a blockage event is temporary, e.g., due to movement in the area of communication.

[00290] Referring back to Fig. 1, in some demonstrative embodiments, controller 154 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control a wireless station implemented by device 140 to process an OFDM MIMO transmission received from another station, for example, the station implemented by device 102, e.g., as described below.

[00291] In some demonstrative embodiments, the received OFDM MIMO transmission may include a plurality of spatial streams representing a plurality of data bit sequences, e.g., as described above. [00292] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 154 may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless station implemented by device 140 to process the received OFDM MIMO transmission, for example, in accordance with the space-frequency diversity mapping scheme 400 (Fig. 4), e.g., as described below.

[00293] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 154 may include, operate as, and/or perform the functionality of a demapper 157, which may be configured to process the plurality of spatial streams to determine a plurality of data blocks, for example, according to a mapping scheme, e.g., as described below.

[00294] In some demonstrative embodiments, the mapping scheme may include a first pair of data symbols of a first data block mapped to a first pair of respective subcamers of a first OFDM symbol in a first spatial stream, a second pair of data symbols of a second data block mapped to a second pair of respective subcamers of a second OFDM symbol in the first spatial stream, a sign-inversed complex conjugate of the second pair of data symbols mapped to a first pair of respective subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol in a second spatial stream, and a complex conjugate of the first pair of data symbols mapped to a second pair of respective subcarriers of the second OFDM symbol in the second spatial stream, e.g., as described above with reference to Fig. 4. [00295] In some demonstrative embodiments, demapper 157 may be configured to determine a first pair of symbols in a first data block of the plurality of data blocks and a second pair of symbols in a second data block of the plurality of data blocks, for example, based on pairs of subcarriers in first and second OFDM symbols, for example, from the first and second data streams, e.g., as described below.

[00296] In some demonstrative embodiments, demapper 157 may be configured to determine the first and second pairs of symbols, for example, based on a space-time combining scheme, e.g., an Alamouti combining scheme.

[00297] In some demonstrative embodiments, demapper 157 may be configured to determine the first pair of data symbols, for example, based on a first pair of subcarriers of a first OFDM symbol in a first spatial stream, e.g., the k-th and P(K)-th subcarriers of OFDM symbol 415 (Fig. 4) in stream 414 (Fig. 4), and a second pair of subcarriers of a second OFDM symbol in a second spatial stream, e.g., the k-th and P(K)-th subcarriers of OFDM symbol 445 (Fig. 4) in stream 444 (Fig. 4). [00298] In some demonstrative embodiments, demapper 157 may be configured to determine the second pair of data symbols, for example, based on the first pair of subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol in the second spatial stream, e.g., the k-th and P(K)-th subcarriers of OFDM symbol 415 (Fig. 4) in stream 444 (Fig. 4), and the second pair of subcarriers of the second OFDM symbol in the first spatial stream, e.g., the k-th and P(K)-th subcarriers of OFDM symbol 445 (Fig. 4) in stream 414 (Fig. 4).

[00299] In some demonstrative embodiments, demapper 157 may be configured, for example, to apply an Alamouti combining scheme to combine the symbols Xo and Yo and their repeated counterparts, and/or to apply an STBC combining scheme, e.g., an Alamouti combining scheme, to combine the symbols Xi and Yi and their repeated counterparts, e.g., as described above with reference to Fig. 4.

[00300] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 154 may include, operate as, and/or perform the functionality of a DCM module 159, which may be configured to determine the plurality of data bit sequences based on the plurality of data blocks, for example, by determining a first data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences based on the first pair of data symbols, and/or determining a second data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences based on the second pair of data symbols. [00301] In some demonstrative embodiments, DCM module 159 may be configured to demodulate the transmission, for example, by demodulating the symbol pairs (X0, Xi) and (Y0, Yi), for example, according to a DCM scheme, e.g., according to a DCM scheme implemented by a sender of the transmission. [00302] In some demonstrative embodiments, DCM module 159 may be configured to determine the plurality of data bit sequences according to an SQPSK DCM scheme, e.g., as described above.

[00303] In some demonstrative embodiments, DCM module 159 may be configured to determine the plurality of data bit sequences according to an QPSK DCM scheme, e.g., as described above.

[00304] In some demonstrative embodiments, DCM module 159 may be configured to determine the plurality of data bit sequences according to any other dual-carrier or multi-carrier modulation scheme, e.g., as described above.

[00305] Reference is made to Fig. 5, which schematically illustrates a method of communicating a transmission according to a space-time encoding scheme, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments. For example, one or more of the operations of the method of Fig. 5 may be performed by one or more elements of a system, e.g., system 100 (Fig. 1), for example, one or more wireless devices, e.g., device 102 (Fig. 1), and/or device 140 (Fig. 1), a controller, e.g., controller 124 (Fig. 1) and/or controller 154 (Fig. 1), a radio, e.g., radio 114 (Fig. 1) and/or radio 144 (Fig. 1), and/or a message processor, e.g., message processor 128 (Fig. 1) and/or message processor 158 (Fig. 1).

[00306] As indicated at block 502, the method may include modulating a plurality of data bit sequences into a plurality of data blocks in a frequency domain according to a dual carrier modulation. For example, a data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences may be modulated into a pair of data symbols in a data block of the plurality of data blocks. For example, controller 124 (Fig. 1) may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless station implemented by device 102 (Fig. 1) to modulate the plurality of data bit sequences corresponding to data to be transmitted into a plurality of data blocks in the frequency domain, e.g., as described above.

[00307] As indicated at block 504, the method may include mapping the plurality of data blocks to a plurality of spatial streams by mapping a first pair of data symbols of a first data block to a first pair of respective subcarriers of a first OFDM symbol in a first spatial stream, mapping a second pair of data symbols of a second data block to a second pair of respective subcarriers of a second OFDM symbol in the first spatial stream, mapping a sign-inversed complex conjugate of the second pair of data symbols to a first pair of respective subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol in a second spatial stream, and mapping a complex conjugate of the first pair of data symbols to a second pair of respective subcarriers of the second OFDM symbol in the second spatial stream. For example, controller 124 (Fig. 1) may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless station implemented by device 102 (Fig. 1) to map the plurality of data blocks to a plurality of spatial streams, for example, according to the space-frequency diversity mapping scheme 400 (Fig. 4), e.g., as described above.

[00308] As indicated at block 506, the method may include transmitting an OFDM MFMO transmission based on the plurality of spatial streams. For example, controller 124 (Fig. 1) may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless station implemented by device 102 (Fig, 1) to transmit the OFDM MIMO transmission based on the plurality of spatial streams, e.g., as described above.

[00309] Reference is made to Fig. 6, which schematically illustrates a method of communicating a transmission according to a space-time encoding scheme, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments. For example, one or more of the operations of the method of Fig. 6 may be performed by one or more elements of a system, e.g., system 100 (Fig. 1), for example, one or more wireless devices, e.g., device 102 (Fig. 1), and/or device 140 (Fig. 1), a controller, e.g., controller 124 (Fig. 1) and/or controller 154 (Fig. 1), a radio, e.g., radio 114 (Fig. 1) and/or radio 144 (Fig. 1), and/or a message processor, e.g., message processor 128 (Fig. 1) and/or message processor 158 (Fig. 1).

[00310] As indicated at block 602, the method may include receiving an OFDM MFMO transmission including a plurality of spatial streams representing a plurality of data bit sequences. For example, controller 154 (Fig. 1) may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless station implemented by device 140 (Fig. 1) to receive from device 102 (Fig. 1) the OFDM MIMO transmission including the plurality of spatial streams, e.g., as described above. [00311] As indicated at block 604, the method may include processing the plurality of spatial streams to determine a plurality of data blocks according to a mapping scheme. For example, the mapping scheme may include a first pair of data symbols of a first data block mapped to a first pair of respective subcarriers of a first OFDM symbol in a first spatial stream, a second pair of data symbols of a second data block mapped to a second pair of respective subcarriers of a second OFDM symbol in the first spatial stream, a sign-inversed complex conjugate of the second pair of data symbols mapped to a first pair of respective subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol in a second spatial stream, and a complex conjugate of the first pair of data symbols mapped to a second pair of respective subcarriers of the second OFDM symbol in the second spatial stream. For example, controller 154 (Fig. 1) may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless station implemented by device 140 (Fig. 1) to determine the first and second pairs of data symbols, based on the pairs of data subcarriers in the first and second OFDM symbols of the first and second spatial streams, for example, in accordance with the space-frequency diversity mapping scheme 400 (Fig. 4), e.g., as described above.

[00312] As indicated at block 606, the method may include determining the plurality of data bit sequences based on the plurality of data blocks, for example, by determining a first data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences based on the first pair of data symbols, and/or determining a second data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences based on the second pair of data symbols. For example, controller 154 (Fig. 1) may be configured to cause, trigger, and/or control the wireless station implemented by device 140 (Fig. 1) to determine the plurality of data bit sequences based on the plurality of data blocks, e.g., as described above. [00313] Reference is made to Fig. 7, which schematically illustrates a product of manufacture 700, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments. Product 700 may include one or more tangible computer-readable ("machine readable") non- transitory storage media 702, which may include computer-executable instructions, e.g., implemented by logic 704, operable to, when executed by at least one processor, e.g., computer processor, enable the at least one processor to implement one or more operations at device 102 (Fig. 1), device 140 (Fig. 1), radio 114 (Fig. 1), radio 144 (Fig. 1), transmitter 118 (Fig. 1), transmitter 148 (Fig. 1), receiver 116 (Fig. 1), receiver 146 (Fig. 1), controller 124 (Fig. 1), controller 154 (Fig. 1), message processor 128 (Fig. 1), and/or message processor 158 (Fig. 1), to cause device 102 (Fig. 1), device 140 (Fig. 1), radio 114 (Fig. 1), radio 144 (Fig. 1), transmitter 118 (Fig. 1), transmitter 148 (Fig. 1), receiver 116 (Fig. 1), 1), receiver 146 (Fig. 1), controller 124 (Fig. 1), controller 154 (Fig. 1), message processor 128 (Fig. 1), and/or message processor 158 (Fig. 1) to perform one or more operations, and/or to perform, trigger and/or implement one or more operations, communications and/or functionalities described above with reference to Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and/or 6, and/or one or more operations described herein. The phrase "non-transitory machine- readable medium" is directed to include all computer-readable media, with the sole exception being a transitory propagating signal.

[00314] In some demonstrative embodiments, product 700 and/or storage media 702 may include one or more types of computer-readable storage media capable of storing data, including volatile memory, non-volatile memory, removable or non-removable memory, erasable or non-erasable memory, writeable or re-writeable memory, and the like. For example, machine-readable storage media 702 may include, RAM, DRAM, Double-Data-Rate DRAM (DDR-DRAM), SDRAM, static RAM (SRAM), ROM, programmable ROM (PROM), erasable programmable ROM (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable ROM (EEPROM), Compact Disk ROM (CD-ROM), Compact Disk Recordable (CD-R), Compact Disk Rewriteable (CD-RW), flash memory (e.g., NOR or NAND flash memory), content addressable memory (CAM), polymer memory, phase-change memory, ferroelectric memory, silicon-oxide-nitride- oxide-silicon (SONOS) memory, a disk, a floppy disk, a hard drive, an optical disk, a magnetic disk, a card, a magnetic card, an optical card, a tape, a cassette, and the like. The computer-readable storage media may include any suitable media involved with downloading or transferring a computer program from a remote computer to a requesting computer carried by data signals embodied in a carrier wave or other propagation medium through a communication link, e.g., a modem, radio or network connection.

[00315] In some demonstrative embodiments, logic 704 may include instructions, data, and/or code, which, if executed by a machine, may cause the machine to perform a method, process and/or operations as described herein. The machine may include, for example, any suitable processing platform, computing platform, computing device, processing device, computing system, processing system, computer, processor, or the like, and may be implemented using any suitable combination of hardware, software, firmware, and the like.

[00316] In some demonstrative embodiments, logic 704 may include, or may be implemented as, software, firmware, a software module, an application, a program, a subroutine, instructions, an instruction set, computing code, words, values, symbols, and the like. The instructions may include any suitable type of code, such as source code, compiled code, interpreted code, executable code, static code, dynamic code, and the like. The instructions may be implemented according to a predefined computer language, manner or syntax, for instructing a processor to perform a certain function. The instructions may be implemented using any suitable high-level, low- level, object-oriented, visual, compiled and/or interpreted programming language, such as C, C++, Java, BASIC, Matlab, Pascal, Visual BASIC, assembly language, machine code, and the like.

EXAMPLES [00317] The following examples pertain to further embodiments.

[00318] Example 1 includes an apparatus comprising logic and circuitry configured to cause a wireless communication station (STA) to modulate a plurality of data bit sequences into a plurality of data blocks in a frequency domain according to a dual carrier modulation, a data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences to be modulated into a pair of data symbols in a data block of the plurality of data blocks; map the plurality of data blocks to a plurality of spatial streams by mapping a first pair of data symbols of a first data block to a first pair of respective subcarriers of a first Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbol in a first spatial stream, mapping a second pair of data symbols of a second data block to a second pair of respective subcarriers of a second OFDM symbol in the first spatial stream, mapping a sign-inversed complex conjugate of the second pair of data symbols to the first pair of respective subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol in a second spatial stream, and mapping a complex conjugate of the first pair of data symbols to the second pair of respective subcarriers of the second OFDM symbol in the second spatial stream; and transmit an OFDM Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MFMO) transmission based on the plurality of spatial streams. [00319] Example 2 includes the subject matter of Example 1, and optionally, wherein the first pair of subcarriers comprises a first subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the first OFDM symbol and a second subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second pair of subcarriers comprises a third subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the second OFDM symbol and a fourth subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol.

[00320] Example 3 includes the subject matter of Example 2, and optionally, wherein the first subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the second subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the third subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, and the fourth subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, wherein P(k) is a predefined permutation of k. [00321] Example 4 includes the subject matter of Example 3, and optionally, wherein P(k) comprises a Static Tone Pairing (STP) permutation.

[00322] Example 5 includes the subject matter of Example 3, and optionally, wherein P(k) comprises a Dynamic Tone Pairing (DTP) permutation.

[00323] Example 6 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 3-5, and optionally, wherein the first pair of data symbols comprises a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the first data block, the second pair of data symbols comprises a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the second data block.

[00324] Example 7 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 2-6, and optionally, wherein the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol, and the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol. [00325] Example 8 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-7, and optionally, wherein the dual carrier modulation comprises a Staggered Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (SQPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM). [00326] Example 9 includes the subject matter of Example 8, and optionally, wherein the data bit sequence comprises two data bits.

[00327] Example 10 includes the subject matter of Example 8 or 9, and optionally, wherein the pair of data symbols comprises a pair of Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) constellation points.

[00328] Example 11 includes the subject matter of Example 10, and optionally, wherein the pair of QPSK constellation points comprises a first constellation point, and a second constellation point comprising a complex conjugate of the first constellation point. [00329] Example 12 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-7, and optionally, wherein the dual carrier modulation comprises a Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM).

[00330] Example 13 includes the subject matter of Example 12, and optionally, wherein the data bit sequence comprises four data bits. [00331] Example 14 includes the subject matter of Example 13, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to cause the STA to map first and second data bits of the four data bits to a first QPSK constellation point, to map third and fourth data bits of the four data bits to a second QPSK constellation point, and to map the first and second QPSK constellation points to first and second 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16QAM) constellation points, the pair of data symbols comprising the first 16QAM constellation point and the second 16QAM constellation point.

[00332] Example 15 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-14, and optionally, wherein the OFDM MIMO transmission comprises a 2xN OFDM MIMO transmission comprising two spatial transmit streams via two antennas. [00333] Example 16 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-15, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to cause the STA to transmit the OFDM MFMO transmission over a frequency band above 45 Gigahertz (GHz).

[00334] Example 17 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-16, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to cause the STA to transmit the OFDM MFMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of at least 2.16 Gigahertz (GHz). [00335] Example 18 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-17, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to cause the STA to transmit the OFDM MIMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of 4.32 Gigahertz (GHz), 6.48GHz, or 8.64GHz. [00336] Example 19 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-18, and optionally, wherein the STA comprises an Enhanced Directional Multi-Gigabit (EDMG) STA.

[00337] Example 20 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-19, and optionally, comprising a plurality of directional antennas to transmit the plurality of spatial streams.

[00338] Example 21 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-20, and optionally, comprising a radio, a memory, and a processor.

[00339] Example 22 includes a system of wireless communication comprising a wireless communication station (STA), the STA comprising a plurality of directional antennas; a radio; a memory; a processor; and a controller configured to cause the STA to modulate a plurality of data bit sequences into a plurality of data blocks in a frequency domain according to a dual carrier modulation, a data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences to be modulated into a pair of data symbols in a data block of the plurality of data blocks; map the plurality of data blocks to a plurality of spatial streams by mapping a first pair of data symbols of a first data block to a first pair of respective subcarriers of a first Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbol in a first spatial stream, mapping a second pair of data symbols of a second data block to a second pair of respective subcarriers of a second OFDM symbol in the first spatial stream, mapping a sign-inversed complex conjugate of the second pair of data symbols to the first pair of respective subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol in a second spatial stream, and mapping a complex conjugate of the first pair of data symbols to the second pair of respective subcarriers of the second OFDM symbol in the second spatial stream; and transmit an OFDM Multiple-Input- Multiple-Output (MIMO) transmission based on the plurality of spatial streams. [00340] Example 23 includes the subject matter of Example 22, and optionally, wherein the first pair of subcarriers comprises a first subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the first OFDM symbol and a second subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second pair of subcarriers comprises a third subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the second OFDM symbol and a fourth subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol. [00341] Example 24 includes the subject matter of Example 23, and optionally, wherein the first subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the second subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the third subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, and the fourth subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, wherein P(k) is a predefined permutation of k.

[00342] Example 25 includes the subject matter of Example 24, and optionally, wherein P(k) comprises a Static Tone Pairing (STP) permutation.

[00343] Example 26 includes the subject matter of Example 24, and optionally, wherein P(k) comprises a Dynamic Tone Pairing (DTP) permutation.

[00344] Example 27 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 24-26, and optionally, wherein the first pair of data symbols comprises a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the first data block, the second pair of data symbols comprises a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the second data block. [00345] Example 28 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 23-27, and optionally, wherein the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol, and the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol.

[00346] Example 29 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 22-28, and optionally, wherein the dual carrier modulation comprises a Staggered Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (SQPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM). [00347] Example 30 includes the subject matter of Example 29, and optionally, wherein the data bit sequence comprises two data bits. [00348] Example 31 includes the subject matter of Example 29 or 30, and optionally, wherein the pair of data symbols comprises a pair of Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) constellation points.

[00349] Example 32 includes the subject matter of Example 31, and optionally, wherein the pair of QPSK constellation points comprises a first constellation point, and a second constellation point comprising a complex conjugate of the first constellation point.

[00350] Example 33 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 22-28, and optionally, wherein the dual carrier modulation comprises a Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM).

[00351] Example 34 includes the subject matter of Example 33, and optionally, wherein the data bit sequence comprises four data bits.

[00352] Example 35 includes the subject matter of Example 34, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to cause the STA to map first and second data bits of the four data bits to a first QPSK constellation point, to map third and fourth data bits of the four data bits to a second QPSK constellation point, and to map the first and second QPSK constellation points to first and second 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16QAM) constellation points, the pair of data symbols comprising the first 16QAM constellation point and the second 16QAM constellation point.

[00353] Example 36 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 22-35, and optionally, wherein the OFDM MIMO transmission comprises a 2xN OFDM MIMO transmission comprising two spatial transmit streams via two antennas.

[00354] Example 37 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 22-36, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to cause the STA to transmit the OFDM MFMO transmission over a frequency band above 45 Gigahertz (GHz).

[00355] Example 38 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 22-37, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to cause the STA to transmit the OFDM MFMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of at least 2.16 Gigahertz (GHz). [00356] Example 39 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 22-38, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to cause the STA to transmit the OFDM MIMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of 4.32 Gigahertz (GHz), 6.48GHz, or 8.64GHz. [00357] Example 40 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 22-39, and optionally, wherein the STA comprises an Enhanced Directional Multi-Gigabit (EDMG) STA.

[00358] Example 41 includes a method to be performed at a wireless communication station (STA), the method comprising modulating a plurality of data bit sequences into a plurality of data blocks in a frequency domain according to a dual carrier modulation, a data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences to be modulated into a pair of data symbols in a data block of the plurality of data blocks; mapping the plurality of data blocks to a plurality of spatial streams by mapping a first pair of data symbols of a first data block to a first pair of respective subcarriers of a first Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbol in a first spatial stream, mapping a second pair of data symbols of a second data block to a second pair of respective subcarriers of a second OFDM symbol in the first spatial stream, mapping a sign-inversed complex conjugate of the second pair of data symbols to the first pair of respective subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol in a second spatial stream, and mapping a complex conjugate of the first pair of data symbols to the second pair of respective subcarriers of the second OFDM symbol in the second spatial stream; and transmitting an OFDM Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MFMO) transmission based on the plurality of spatial streams.

[00359] Example 42 includes the subject matter of Example 41, and optionally, wherein the first pair of subcarriers comprises a first subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the first OFDM symbol and a second subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second pair of subcarriers comprises a third subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the second OFDM symbol and a fourth subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol.

[00360] Example 43 includes the subject matter of Example 42, and optionally, wherein the first subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the second subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the third subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, and the fourth subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, wherein P(k) is a predefined permutation of k.

[00361] Example 44 includes the subject matter of Example 43, and optionally, wherein P(k) comprises a Static Tone Pairing (STP) permutation.

[00362] Example 45 includes the subject matter of Example 43, and optionally, wherein P(k) comprises a Dynamic Tone Pairing (DTP) permutation. [00363] Example 46 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 43-45, and optionally, wherein the first pair of data symbols comprises a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the first data block, the second pair of data symbols comprises a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the second data block.

[00364] Example 47 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 42-46, and optionally, wherein the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol, and the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol.

[00365] Example 48 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 41-47, and optionally, wherein the dual carrier modulation comprises a Staggered Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (SQPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM).

[00366] Example 49 includes the subject matter of Example 48, and optionally, wherein the data bit sequence comprises two data bits.

[00367] Example 50 includes the subject matter of Example 48 or 49, and optionally, wherein the pair of data symbols comprises a pair of Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) constellation points.

[00368] Example 51 includes the subject matter of Example 50, and optionally, wherein the pair of QPSK constellation points comprises a first constellation point, and a second constellation point comprising a complex conjugate of the first constellation point.

[00369] Example 52 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 41-47, and optionally, wherein the dual carrier modulation comprises a Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM).

[00370] Example 53 includes the subject matter of Example 52, and optionally, wherein the data bit sequence comprises four data bits.

[00371] Example 54 includes the subject matter of Example 53, and optionally, comprising mapping first and second data bits of the four data bits to a first QPSK constellation point, mapping third and fourth data bits of the four data bits to a second QPSK constellation point, and mapping the first and second QPSK constellation points to first and second 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16QAM) constellation points, the pair of data symbols comprising the first 16QAM constellation point and the second 16QAM constellation point. [00372] Example 55 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 41-54, and optionally, wherein the OFDM MIMO transmission comprises a 2xN OFDM MIMO transmission comprising two spatial transmit streams via two antennas.

[00373] Example 56 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 41-55, and optionally, comprising transmitting the OFDM MIMO transmission over a frequency band above 45 Gigahertz (GHz).

[00374] Example 57 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 41-56, and optionally, comprising transmitting the OFDM MIMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of at least 2.16 Gigahertz (GHz).

[00375] Example 58 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 41-57, and optionally, comprising transmitting the OFDM MIMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of 4.32 Gigahertz (GHz), 6.48GHz, or 8.64GHz.

[00376] Example 59 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 41-58, and optionally, wherein the STA comprises an Enhanced Directional Multi-Gigabit (EDMG) STA. [00377] Example 60 includes a product comprising one or more tangible computer- readable non-transitory storage media comprising computer-executable instructions operable to, when executed by at least one processor, enable the at least one processor to cause a wireless communication station (STA) to modulate a plurality of data bit sequences into a plurality of data blocks in a frequency domain according to a dual carrier modulation, a data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences to be modulated into a pair of data symbols in a data block of the plurality of data blocks; map the plurality of data blocks to a plurality of spatial streams by mapping a first pair of data symbols of a first data block to a first pair of respective subcarriers of a first Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbol in a first spatial stream, mapping a second pair of data symbols of a second data block to a second pair of respective subcarriers of a second OFDM symbol in the first spatial stream, mapping a sign-inversed complex conjugate of the second pair of data symbols to the first pair of respective subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol in a second spatial stream, and mapping a complex conjugate of the first pair of data symbols to the second pair of respective subcarriers of the second OFDM symbol in the second spatial stream; and transmit an OFDM Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MFMO) transmission based on the plurality of spatial streams.

[00378] Example 61 includes the subject matter of Example 60, and optionally, wherein the first pair of subcarriers comprises a first subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the first OFDM symbol and a second subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second pair of subcarriers comprises a third subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the second OFDM symbol and a fourth subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol.

[00379] Example 62 includes the subject matter of Example 61, and optionally, wherein the first subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the second subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the third subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, and the fourth subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, wherein P(k) is a predefined permutation of k.

[00380] Example 63 includes the subject matter of Example 62, and optionally, wherein P(k) comprises a Static Tone Pairing (STP) permutation. [00381] Example 64 includes the subject matter of Example 62, and optionally, wherein P(k) comprises a Dynamic Tone Pairing (DTP) permutation.

[00382] Example 65 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 62-64, and optionally, wherein the first pair of data symbols comprises a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the first data block, the second pair of data symbols comprises a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the second data block.

[00383] Example 66 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 61-65, and optionally, wherein the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol, and the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol.

[00384] Example 67 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 60-66, and optionally, wherein the dual carrier modulation comprises a Staggered Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (SQPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM).

[00385] Example 68 includes the subject matter of Example 67, and optionally, wherein the data bit sequence comprises two data bits.

[00386] Example 69 includes the subject matter of Example 67 or 68, and optionally, wherein the pair of data symbols comprises a pair of Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) constellation points.

[00387] Example 70 includes the subject matter of Example 69, and optionally, wherein the pair of QPSK constellation points comprises a first constellation point, and a second constellation point comprising a complex conjugate of the first constellation point.

[00388] Example 71 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 60-66, and optionally, wherein the dual carrier modulation comprises a Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM).

[00389] Example 72 includes the subject matter of Example 71, and optionally, wherein the data bit sequence comprises four data bits. [00390] Example 73 includes the subject matter of Example 72, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, cause the STA to map first and second data bits of the four data bits to a first QPSK constellation point, to map third and fourth data bits of the four data bits to a second QPSK constellation point, and to map the first and second QPSK constellation points to first and second 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16QAM) constellation points, the pair of data symbols comprising the first 16QAM constellation point and the second 16QAM constellation point.

[00391] Example 74 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 60-73, and optionally, wherein the OFDM MIMO transmission comprises a 2xN OFDM MIMO transmission comprising two spatial transmit streams via two antennas.

[00392] Example 75 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 60-74, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, cause the STA to transmit the OFDM MFMO transmission over a frequency band above 45 Gigahertz (GHz). [00393] Example 76 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 60-75, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, cause the STA to transmit the OFDM MFMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of at least 2.16 Gigahertz (GHz).

[00394] Example 77 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 60-76, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, cause the STA to transmit the OFDM MFMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of 4.32 Gigahertz (GHz), 6.48GHz, or 8.64GHz.

[00395] Example 78 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 60-77, and optionally, wherein the STA comprises an Enhanced Directional Multi-Gigabit (EDMG) STA.

[00396] Example 79 includes an apparatus of wireless communication by a wireless communication station (STA), the apparatus comprising means for modulating a plurality of data bit sequences into a plurality of data blocks in a frequency domain according to a dual carrier modulation, a data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences to be modulated into a pair of data symbols in a data block of the plurality of data blocks; means for mapping the plurality of data blocks to a plurality of spatial streams by mapping a first pair of data symbols of a first data block to a first pair of respective subcarriers of a first Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbol in a first spatial stream, mapping a second pair of data symbols of a second data block to a second pair of respective subcarriers of a second OFDM symbol in the first spatial stream, mapping a sign-inversed complex conjugate of the second pair of data symbols to the first pair of respective subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol in a second spatial stream, and mapping a complex conjugate of the first pair of data symbols to the second pair of respective subcarriers of the second OFDM symbol in the second spatial stream; and means for transmitting an OFDM Multiple-Input- Multiple-Output (MIMO) transmission based on the plurality of spatial streams. [00397] Example 80 includes the subject matter of Example 79, and optionally, wherein the first pair of subcarriers comprises a first subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the first OFDM symbol and a second subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second pair of subcarriers comprises a third subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the second OFDM symbol and a fourth subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol.

[00398] Example 81 includes the subject matter of Example 80, and optionally, wherein the first subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the second subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the third subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, and the fourth subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, wherein P(k) is a predefined permutation of k.

[00399] Example 82 includes the subject matter of Example 81, and optionally, wherein P(k) comprises a Static Tone Pairing (STP) permutation.

[00400] Example 83 includes the subject matter of Example 81, and optionally, wherein P(k) comprises a Dynamic Tone Pairing (DTP) permutation.

[00401] Example 84 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 81-83, and optionally, wherein the first pair of data symbols comprises a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the first data block, the second pair of data symbols comprises a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the second data block. [00402] Example 85 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 80-84, and optionally, wherein the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol, and the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol.

[00403] Example 86 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 79-85, and optionally, wherein the dual carrier modulation comprises a Staggered Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (SQPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM).

[00404] Example 87 includes the subject matter of Example 86, and optionally, wherein the data bit sequence comprises two data bits.

[00405] Example 88 includes the subject matter of Example 86 or 87, and optionally, wherein the pair of data symbols comprises a pair of Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) constellation points.

[00406] Example 89 includes the subject matter of Example 88, and optionally, wherein the pair of QPSK constellation points comprises a first constellation point, and a second constellation point comprising a complex conjugate of the first constellation point. [00407] Example 90 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 79-85, and optionally, wherein the dual carrier modulation comprises a Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM).

[00408] Example 91 includes the subject matter of Example 90, and optionally, wherein the data bit sequence comprises four data bits. [00409] Example 92 includes the subject matter of Example 91, and optionally, comprising means for mapping first and second data bits of the four data bits to a first QPSK constellation point, mapping third and fourth data bits of the four data bits to a second QPSK constellation point, and mapping the first and second QPSK constellation points to first and second 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16QAM) constellation points, the pair of data symbols comprising the first 16QAM constellation point and the second 16QAM constellation point. [00410] Example 93 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 79-92, and optionally, wherein the OFDM MIMO transmission comprises a 2xN OFDM MIMO transmission comprising two spatial transmit streams via two antennas.

[00411] Example 94 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 79-93, and optionally, comprising means for transmitting the OFDM MIMO transmission over a frequency band above 45 Gigahertz (GHz).

[00412] Example 95 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 79-94, and optionally, comprising means for transmitting the OFDM MIMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of at least 2.16 Gigahertz (GHz). [00413] Example 96 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 79-95, and optionally, comprising means for transmitting the OFDM MIMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of 4.32 Gigahertz (GHz), 6.48GHz, or 8.64GHz.

[00414] Example 97 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 79-96, and optionally, wherein the STA comprises an Enhanced Directional Multi-Gigabit (EDMG) STA.

[00415] Example 98 includes an apparatus comprising logic and circuitry configured to cause a wireless communication station (STA) to receive an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MFMO) transmission comprising a plurality of spatial streams representing a plurality of data bit sequences; process the plurality of spatial streams to determine a plurality of data blocks according to a mapping scheme, the mapping scheme comprises a first pair of data symbols of a first data block mapped to a first pair of respective subcarriers of a first OFDM symbol in a first spatial stream, a second pair of data symbols of a second data block mapped to a second pair of respective subcarriers of a second OFDM symbol in the first spatial stream, a sign-inversed complex conjugate of the second pair of data symbols mapped to the first pair of respective subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol in a second spatial stream, and a complex conjugate of the first pair of data symbols mapped to the second pair of respective subcarriers of the second OFDM symbol in the second spatial stream; and determine the plurality of data bit sequences based on the plurality of data blocks by determining a first data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences based on the first pair of data symbols, and a second data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences based on the second pair of data symbols.

[00416] Example 99 includes the subject matter of Example 98, and optionally, wherein the first pair of subcarriers comprises a first subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the first OFDM symbol and a second subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second pair of subcarriers comprises a third subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the second OFDM symbol and a fourth subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol. [00417] Example 100 includes the subject matter of Example 99, and optionally, wherein the first subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the second subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the third subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, and the fourth subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, wherein P(k) is a predefined permutation of k.

[00418] Example 101 includes the subject matter of Example 100, and optionally, wherein P(k) comprises a Static Tone Pairing (STP) permutation.

[00419] Example 102 includes the subject matter of Example 100, and optionally, wherein P(k) comprises a Dynamic Tone Pairing (DTP) permutation.

[00420] Example 103 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 100-102, and optionally, wherein the first pair of data symbols comprises a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the first data block, the second pair of data symbols comprises a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the second data block. [00421] Example 104 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 99-103, and optionally, wherein the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol, and the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol. [00422] Example 105 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 98-104, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to cause the STA to determine the plurality of data bit sequences according to a Staggered Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (SQPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM) scheme. [00423] Example 106 includes the subject matter of Example 105, and optionally, wherein each of the first and second data bit sequences comprises two data bits.

[00424] Example 107 includes the subject matter of Example 105 or 106, and optionally, wherein each of the first and second pairs of data symbols comprises a pair of Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) constellation points. [00425] Example 108 includes the subject matter of Example 107, and optionally, wherein the pair of QPSK constellation points comprises a first constellation point, and a second constellation point comprising a complex conjugate of the first constellation point.

[00426] Example 109 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 98-104, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to cause the STA to determine the plurality of data bit sequences according to a Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM) scheme.

[00427] Example 110 includes the subject matter of Example 109, and optionally, wherein each of the first and second data bit sequences comprises four data bits. [00428] Example 111 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 98-110, and optionally, wherein the OFDM MIMO transmission comprises a 2xN OFDM MIMO transmission comprising two spatial transmit streams.

[00429] Example 112 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 98-111, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to cause the STA to receive the OFDM MFMO transmission over a frequency band above 45 Gigahertz (GHz).

[00430] Example 113 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 98-112, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to cause the STA to receive the OFDM MFMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of at least 2.16 Gigahertz (GHz). [00431] Example 114 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 98-113, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to cause the STA to receive the OFDM MIMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of 4.32 Gigahertz (GHz), 6.48GHz, or 8.64GHz.

[00432] Example 115 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 98-114, and optionally, wherein the STA comprises an Enhanced Directional Multi-Gigabit (EDMG) STA.

[00433] Example 116 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 98-115, and optionally, comprising a plurality of directional antennas to receive the plurality of spatial streams.

[00434] Example 117 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 98-116, and optionally, comprising a radio, a memory, and a processor.

[00435] Example 118 includes a system of wireless communication comprising a wireless communication station (STA), the STA comprising a plurality of directional antennas; a radio; a memory; a processor; and a controller configured to cause the STA to receive an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Multiple- Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) transmission comprising a plurality of spatial streams representing a plurality of data bit sequences; process the plurality of spatial streams to determine a plurality of data blocks according to a mapping scheme, the mapping scheme comprises a first pair of data symbols of a first data block mapped to a first pair of respective subcarriers of a first OFDM symbol in a first spatial stream, a second pair of data symbols of a second data block mapped to a second pair of respective subcarriers of a second OFDM symbol in the first spatial stream, a sign- inversed complex conjugate of the second pair of data symbols mapped to the first pair of respective subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol in a second spatial stream, and a complex conjugate of the first pair of data symbols mapped to the second pair of respective subcarriers of the second OFDM symbol in the second spatial stream; and determine the plurality of data bit sequences based on the plurality of data blocks by determining a first data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences based on the first pair of data symbols, and a second data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences based on the second pair of data symbols. [00436] Example 119 includes the subject matter of Example 118, and optionally, wherein the first pair of subcarriers comprises a first subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the first OFDM symbol and a second subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second pair of subcarriers comprises a third subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the second OFDM symbol and a fourth subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol. [00437] Example 120 includes the subject matter of Example 119, and optionally, wherein the first subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the second subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the third subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, and the fourth subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, wherein P(k) is a predefined permutation of k.

[00438] Example 121 includes the subject matter of Example 120, and optionally, wherein P(k) comprises a Static Tone Pairing (STP) permutation.

[00439] Example 122 includes the subject matter of Example 120, and optionally, wherein P(k) comprises a Dynamic Tone Pairing (DTP) permutation.

[00440] Example 123 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 120-122, and optionally, wherein the first pair of data symbols comprises a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the first data block, the second pair of data symbols comprises a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the second data block. [00441] Example 124 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 119-123, and optionally, wherein the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol, and the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol.

[00442] Example 125 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 118-124, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to cause the STA to determine the plurality of data bit sequences according to a Staggered Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (SQPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM) scheme.

[00443] Example 126 includes the subject matter of Example 125, and optionally, wherein each of the first and second data bit sequences comprises two data bits. [00444] Example 127 includes the subject matter of Example 125 or 126, and optionally, wherein each of the first and second pairs of data symbols comprises a pair of Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) constellation points.

[00445] Example 128 includes the subject matter of Example 127, and optionally, wherein the pair of QPSK constellation points comprises a first constellation point, and a second constellation point comprising a complex conjugate of the first constellation point.

[00446] Example 129 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 118-124, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to cause the STA to determine the plurality of data bit sequences according to a Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM) scheme.

[00447] Example 130 includes the subject matter of Example 129, and optionally, wherein each of the first and second data bit sequences comprises four data bits.

[00448] Example 131 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 118-130, and optionally, wherein the OFDM MFMO transmission comprises a 2xN OFDM MFMO transmission comprising two spatial transmit streams.

[00449] Example 132 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 118-131, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to cause the STA to receive the OFDM MFMO transmission over a frequency band above 45 Gigahertz (GHz). [00450] Example 133 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 118-132, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to cause the STA to receive the OFDM MFMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of at least 2.16 Gigahertz (GHz).

[00451] Example 134 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 118-133, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to cause the STA to receive the OFDM MFMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of 4.32 Gigahertz (GHz), 6.48GHz, or 8.64GHz.

[00452] Example 135 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 118-134, and optionally, wherein the STA comprises an Enhanced Directional Multi-Gigabit (EDMG) STA. [00453] Example 136 includes a method to be performed at a wireless communication station (STA), the method comprising receiving an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MFMO) transmission comprising a plurality of spatial streams representing a plurality of data bit sequences; processing the plurality of spatial streams to determine a plurality of data blocks according to a mapping scheme, the mapping scheme comprises a first pair of data symbols of a first data block mapped to a first pair of respective subcarriers of a first OFDM symbol in a first spatial stream, a second pair of data symbols of a second data block mapped to a second pair of respective subcarriers of a second OFDM symbol in the first spatial stream, a sign-inversed complex conjugate of the second pair of data symbols mapped to the first pair of respective subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol in a second spatial stream, and a complex conjugate of the first pair of data symbols mapped to the second pair of respective subcarriers of the second OFDM symbol in the second spatial stream; and determining the plurality of data bit sequences based on the plurality of data blocks by determining a first data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences based on the first pair of data symbols, and a second data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences based on the second pair of data symbols.

[00454] Example 137 includes the subject matter of Example 136, and optionally, wherein the first pair of subcarriers comprises a first subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the first OFDM symbol and a second subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second pair of subcarriers comprises a third subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the second OFDM symbol and a fourth subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol.

[00455] Example 138 includes the subject matter of Example 137, and optionally, wherein the first subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the second subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the third subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, and the fourth subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, wherein P(k) is a predefined permutation of k. [00456] Example 139 includes the subject matter of Example 138, and optionally, wherein P(k) comprises a Static Tone Pairing (STP) permutation.

[00457] Example 140 includes the subject matter of Example 138, and optionally, wherein P(k) comprises a Dynamic Tone Pairing (DTP) permutation. [00458] Example 141 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 138-140, and optionally, wherein the first pair of data symbols comprises a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the first data block, the second pair of data symbols comprises a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the second data block.

[00459] Example 142 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 137-141, and optionally, wherein the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol, and the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol.

[00460] Example 143 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 136-142, and optionally, comprising determining the plurality of data bit sequences according to a Staggered Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (SQPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM) scheme. [00461] Example 144 includes the subject matter of Example 143, and optionally, wherein each of the first and second data bit sequences comprises two data bits.

[00462] Example 145 includes the subject matter of Example 143 or 144, and optionally, wherein each of the first and second pairs of data symbols comprises a pair of Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) constellation points. [00463] Example 146 includes the subject matter of Example 145, and optionally, wherein the pair of QPSK constellation points comprises a first constellation point, and a second constellation point comprising a complex conjugate of the first constellation point.

[00464] Example 147 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 136-142, and optionally, comprising determining the plurality of data bit sequences according to a Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM) scheme.

[00465] Example 148 includes the subject matter of Example 147, and optionally, wherein each of the first and second data bit sequences comprises four data bits. [00466] Example 149 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 136-148, and optionally, wherein the OFDM MFMO transmission comprises a 2xN OFDM MFMO transmission comprising two spatial transmit streams.

[00467] Example 150 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 136-149, and optionally, comprising receiving the OFDM MIMO transmission over a frequency band above 45 Gigahertz (GHz).

[00468] Example 151 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 136-150, and optionally, comprising receiving the OFDM MIMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of at least 2.16 Gigahertz (GHz).

[00469] Example 152 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 136-151, and optionally, comprising receiving the OFDM MFMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of 4.32 Gigahertz (GHz), 6.48GHz, or 8.64GHz.

[00470] Example 153 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 136-152, and optionally, wherein the STA comprises an Enhanced Directional Multi-Gigabit (EDMG) STA. [00471] Example 154 includes a product comprising one or more tangible computer- readable non-transitory storage media comprising computer-executable instructions operable to, when executed by at least one processor, enable the at least one processor to cause a wireless communication station (STA) to receive an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MFMO) transmission comprising a plurality of spatial streams representing a plurality of data bit sequences; process the plurality of spatial streams to determine a plurality of data blocks according to a mapping scheme, the mapping scheme comprises a first pair of data symbols of a first data block mapped to a first pair of respective subcarriers of a first OFDM symbol in a first spatial stream, a second pair of data symbols of a second data block mapped to a second pair of respective subcarriers of a second OFDM symbol in the first spatial stream, a sign-inversed complex conjugate of the second pair of data symbols mapped to the first pair of respective subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol in a second spatial stream, and a complex conjugate of the first pair of data symbols mapped to the second pair of respective subcarriers of the second OFDM symbol in the second spatial stream; and determine the plurality of data bit sequences based on the plurality of data blocks by determining a first data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences based on the first pair of data symbols, and a second data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences based on the second pair of data symbols.

[00472] Example 155 includes the subject matter of Example 154, and optionally, wherein the first pair of subcarriers comprises a first subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the first OFDM symbol and a second subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second pair of subcarriers comprises a third subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the second OFDM symbol and a fourth subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol. [00473] Example 156 includes the subject matter of Example 155, and optionally, wherein the first subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the second subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the third subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, and the fourth subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, wherein P(k) is a predefined permutation of k.

[00474] Example 157 includes the subject matter of Example 156, and optionally, wherein P(k) comprises a Static Tone Pairing (STP) permutation.

[00475] Example 158 includes the subject matter of Example 156, and optionally, wherein P(k) comprises a Dynamic Tone Pairing (DTP) permutation.

[00476] Example 159 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 156-158, and optionally, wherein the first pair of data symbols comprises a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the first data block, the second pair of data symbols comprises a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the second data block. [00477] Example 160 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 155-159, and optionally, wherein the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol, and the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol. [00478] Example 161 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 154-160, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, cause the STA to determine the plurality of data bit sequences according to a Staggered Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (SQPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM) scheme.

[00479] Example 162 includes the subject matter of Example 161, and optionally, wherein each of the first and second data bit sequences comprises two data bits.

[00480] Example 163 includes the subject matter of Example 161 or 162, and optionally, wherein each of the first and second pairs of data symbols comprises a pair of Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) constellation points.

[00481] Example 164 includes the subject matter of Example 163, and optionally, wherein the pair of QPSK constellation points comprises a first constellation point, and a second constellation point comprising a complex conjugate of the first constellation point.

[00482] Example 165 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 154-160, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, cause the STA to determine the plurality of data bit sequences according to a Quadrature Phase- Shift Keying (QPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM) scheme.

[00483] Example 166 includes the subject matter of Example 165, and optionally, wherein each of the first and second data bit sequences comprises four data bits.

[00484] Example 167 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 154-166, and optionally, wherein the OFDM MFMO transmission comprises a 2xN OFDM MFMO transmission comprising two spatial transmit streams.

[00485] Example 168 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 154-167, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, cause the STA to receive the OFDM MFMO transmission over a frequency band above 45 Gigahertz (GHz). [00486] Example 169 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 154-168, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, cause the STA to receive the OFDM MIMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of at least 2.16 Gigahertz (GHz).

[00487] Example 170 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 154-169, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, cause the STA to receive the OFDM MFMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of 4.32 Gigahertz (GHz), 6.48GHz, or 8.64GHz.

[00488] Example 171 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 154-170, and optionally, wherein the STA comprises an Enhanced Directional Multi-Gigabit (EDMG) STA. [00489] Example 172 includes an apparatus of wireless communication by a wireless communication station (STA), the apparatus comprising means for receiving an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Multiple-Input-Multiple- Output (MIMO) transmission comprising a plurality of spatial streams representing a plurality of data bit sequences; means for processing the plurality of spatial streams to determine a plurality of data blocks according to a mapping scheme, the mapping scheme comprises a first pair of data symbols of a first data block mapped to a first pair of respective subcarriers of a first OFDM symbol in a first spatial stream, a second pair of data symbols of a second data block mapped to a second pair of respective subcarriers of a second OFDM symbol in the first spatial stream, a sign- inversed complex conjugate of the second pair of data symbols mapped to the first pair of respective subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol in a second spatial stream, and a complex conjugate of the first pair of data symbols mapped to the second pair of respective subcarriers of the second OFDM symbol in the second spatial stream; and means for determining the plurality of data bit sequences based on the plurality of data blocks by determining a first data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences based on the first pair of data symbols, and a second data bit sequence of the plurality of data bit sequences based on the second pair of data symbols.

[00490] Example 173 includes the subject matter of Example 172, and optionally, wherein the first pair of subcarriers comprises a first subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the first OFDM symbol and a second subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second pair of subcarriers comprises a third subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the second OFDM symbol and a fourth subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol.

[00491] Example 174 includes the subject matter of Example 173, and optionally, wherein the first subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the second subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the third subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, and the fourth subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, wherein P(k) is a predefined permutation of k. [00492] Example 175 includes the subject matter of Example 174, and optionally, wherein P(k) comprises a Static Tone Pairing (STP) permutation.

[00493] Example 176 includes the subject matter of Example 174, and optionally, wherein P(k) comprises a Dynamic Tone Pairing (DTP) permutation.

[00494] Example 177 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 174-176, and optionally, wherein the first pair of data symbols comprises a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the first data block, the second pair of data symbols comprises a k-th symbol and a (k+l)-th symbol in the second data block.

[00495] Example 178 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 173-177, and optionally, wherein the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol, and the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol. [00496] Example 179 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 172-178, and optionally, comprising means for determining the plurality of data bit sequences according to a Staggered Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (SQPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM) scheme.

[00497] Example 180 includes the subject matter of Example 179, and optionally, wherein each of the first and second data bit sequences comprises two data bits. [00498] Example 181 includes the subject matter of Example 179 or 180, and optionally, wherein each of the first and second pairs of data symbols comprises a pair of Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) constellation points.

[00499] Example 182 includes the subject matter of Example 181, and optionally, wherein the pair of QPSK constellation points comprises a first constellation point, and a second constellation point comprising a complex conjugate of the first constellation point.

[00500] Example 183 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 172-178, and optionally, comprising means for determining the plurality of data bit sequences according to a Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM) scheme.

[00501] Example 184 includes the subject matter of Example 183, and optionally, wherein each of the first and second data bit sequences comprises four data bits.

[00502] Example 185 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 172-184, and optionally, wherein the OFDM MFMO transmission comprises a 2xN OFDM MFMO transmission comprising two spatial transmit streams.

[00503] Example 186 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 172-185, and optionally, comprising means for receiving the OFDM MIMO transmission over a frequency band above 45 Gigahertz (GHz). [00504] Example 187 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 172-186, and optionally, comprising means for receiving the OFDM MIMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of at least 2.16 Gigahertz (GHz).

[00505] Example 188 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 172-187, and optionally, comprising means for receiving the OFDM MIMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of 4.32 Gigahertz (GHz), 6.48GHz, or 8.64GHz.

[00506] Example 189 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 172-188, and optionally, wherein the STA comprises an Enhanced Directional Multi-Gigabit (EDMG) STA.

[00507] Functions, operations, components and/or features described herein with reference to one or more embodiments, may be combined with, or may be utilized in combination with, one or more other functions, operations, components and/or features described herein with reference to one or more other embodiments, or vice versa.

[00508] While certain features have been illustrated and described herein, many modifications, substitutions, changes, and equivalents may occur to those skilled in the art. It is, therefore, to be understood that the appended claims are intended to cover all such modifications and changes as fall within the true spirit of the disclosure.

Claims

CLAIMS What is claimed is:
1. An apparatus comprising logic and circuitry configured to cause a wireless communication station (ST A) to:
modulate a plurality of data bit sequences into a plurality of data blocks in a frequency domain according to a dual carrier modulation, a data bit sequence of said plurality of data bit sequences to be modulated into a pair of data symbols in a data block of said plurality of data blocks;
map the plurality of data blocks to a plurality of spatial streams by mapping a first pair of data symbols of a first data block to a first pair of respective subcarriers of a first Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbol in a first spatial stream, mapping a second pair of data symbols of a second data block to a second pair of respective subcarriers of a second OFDM symbol in the first spatial stream, mapping a sign-inversed complex conjugate of the second pair of data symbols to the first pair of respective subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol in a second spatial stream, and mapping a complex conjugate of the first pair of data symbols to the second pair of respective subcarriers of the second OFDM symbol in the second spatial stream; and
transmit an OFDM Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MFMO) transmission based on the plurality of spatial streams.
2. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the first pair of subcarriers comprises a first subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the first OFDM symbol and a second subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second pair of subcarriers comprises a third subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the second OFDM symbol and a fourth subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol.
3. The apparatus of claim 2, wherein the first subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the second subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the third subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, and the fourth subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub- band of the second OFDM symbol, wherein P(k) is a predefined permutation of k.
4. The apparatus of claim 2, wherein the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a first half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol, and the second sub-band of the second OFDM symbol comprises a second half of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol.
5. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the dual carrier modulation comprises a Staggered Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (SQPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM).
6. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the dual carrier modulation comprises a Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) Dual Carrier Modulation (DCM).
7. The apparatus of claim 6, wherein the data bit sequence comprises four data bits.
8. The apparatus of claim 7 configured to cause the STA to map first and second data bits of the four data bits to a first QPSK constellation point, to map third and fourth data bits of the four data bits to a second QPSK constellation point, and to map the first and second QPSK constellation points to first and second 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16QAM) constellation points, the pair of data symbols comprising the first 16QAM constellation point and the second 16QAM constellation point.
9. The apparatus of any one of claims 1-8, wherein the OFDM MIMO transmission comprises a 2xN OFDM MIMO transmission comprising two spatial transmit streams via two antennas.
10. The apparatus of any one of claims 1-8 configured to cause the STA to transmit the OFDM MIMO transmission over a frequency band above 45 Gigahertz (GHz).
11. The apparatus of any one of claims 1-8 configured to cause the ST A to transmit the OFDM MIMO transmission over a channel bandwidth of at least 2.16 Gigahertz (GHz).
12. The apparatus of any one of claims 1-8, wherein the STA comprises an Enhanced Directional Multi-Gigabit (EDMG) STA.
13. The apparatus of any one of claims 1-8 comprising a plurality of directional antennas to transmit the plurality of spatial streams.
14. The apparatus of any one of claims 1-8 comprising a radio, a memory, and a processor.
15. A method to be performed at a wireless communication station (STA), the method comprising:
modulating a plurality of data bit sequences into a plurality of data blocks in a frequency domain according to a dual carrier modulation, a data bit sequence of said plurality of data bit sequences to be modulated into a pair of data symbols in a data block of said plurality of data blocks;
mapping the plurality of data blocks to a plurality of spatial streams by mapping a first pair of data symbols of a first data block to a first pair of respective subcarriers of a first Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbol in a first spatial stream, mapping a second pair of data symbols of a second data block to a second pair of respective subcarriers of a second OFDM symbol in the first spatial stream, mapping a sign-inversed complex conjugate of the second pair of data symbols to the first pair of respective subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol in a second spatial stream, and mapping a complex conjugate of the first pair of data symbols to the second pair of respective subcarriers of the second OFDM symbol in the second spatial stream; and
transmitting an OFDM Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MFMO) transmission based on the plurality of spatial streams.
16. The method of claim 15, wherein the first pair of subcarriers comprises a first subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the first OFDM symbol and a second subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second pair of subcarriers comprises a third subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the second OFDM symbol and a fourth subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol.
17. The method of claim 16, wherein the first subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the second subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the third subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, and the fourth subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub- band of the second OFDM symbol, wherein P(k) is a predefined permutation of k.
18. A product comprising one or more tangible computer-readable non-transitory storage media comprising computer-executable instructions operable to, when executed by at least one processor, enable the at least one processor to cause a wireless communication station (STA) to perform the method of any one of claims 15-17.
19. An apparatus comprising logic and circuitry configured to cause a wireless communi cati on stati on ( S T A) to :
receive an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Multiple- Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) transmission comprising a plurality of spatial streams representing a plurality of data bit sequences;
process the plurality of spatial streams to determine a plurality of data blocks according to a mapping scheme, the mapping scheme comprises a first pair of data symbols of a first data block mapped to a first pair of respective subcarriers of a first OFDM symbol in a first spatial stream, a second pair of data symbols of a second data block mapped to a second pair of respective subcarriers of a second OFDM symbol in the first spatial stream, a sign-inversed complex conjugate of the second pair of data symbols mapped to the first pair of respective subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol in a second spatial stream, and a complex conjugate of the first pair of data symbols mapped to the second pair of respective subcarriers of the second OFDM symbol in the second spatial stream; and
determine the plurality of data bit sequences based on the plurality of data blocks by determining a first data bit sequence of said plurality of data bit sequences based on the first pair of data symbols, and a second data bit sequence of said plurality of data bit sequences based on the second pair of data symbols.
20. The apparatus of claim 19, wherein the first pair of subcarriers comprises a first subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the first OFDM symbol and a second subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second pair of subcarriers comprises a third subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the second OFDM symbol and a fourth subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol.
21. The apparatus of claim 20, wherein the first subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the second subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub-band of the first OFDM symbol, the third subcarrier comprises a k-th subcarrier in the first sub-band of the second OFDM symbol, and the fourth subcarrier comprises a P(k)-th subcarrier in the second sub- band of the second OFDM symbol, wherein P(k) is a predefined permutation of k.
22. The apparatus of any one of claims 19-21, wherein the OFDM MIMO transmission comprises a 2xN OFDM MIMO transmission comprising two spatial transmit streams.
23. The apparatus of any one of claims 19-21 comprising a plurality of directional antennas to receive the plurality of spatial streams.
24. A product comprising one or more tangible computer-readable non-transitory storage media comprising computer-executable instructions operable to, when executed by at least one processor, enable the at least one processor to cause a wireless communication station (STA) to:
receive an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Multiple- Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) transmission comprising a plurality of spatial streams representing a plurality of data bit sequences;
process the plurality of spatial streams to determine a plurality of data blocks according to a mapping scheme, the mapping scheme comprises a first pair of data symbols of a first data block mapped to a first pair of respective subcarriers of a first OFDM symbol in a first spatial stream, a second pair of data symbols of a second data block mapped to a second pair of respective subcarriers of a second OFDM symbol in the first spatial stream, a sign-inversed complex conjugate of the second pair of data symbols mapped to the first pair of respective subcarriers of the first OFDM symbol in a second spatial stream, and a complex conjugate of the first pair of data symbols mapped to the second pair of respective subcarriers of the second OFDM symbol in the second spatial stream; and
determine the plurality of data bit sequences based on the plurality of data blocks by determining a first data bit sequence of said plurality of data bit sequences based on the first pair of data symbols, and a second data bit sequence of said plurality of data bit sequences based on the second pair of data symbols.
25. The product of claim 24, wherein the first pair of subcarriers comprises a first subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the first OFDM symbol and a second subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the first OFDM symbol, the second pair of subcarriers comprises a third subcarrier in a first sub-band of a signal band of the second OFDM symbol and a fourth subcarrier in a second sub-band of the signal band of the second OFDM symbol.
PCT/US2017/050873 2017-04-20 2017-09-11 Apparatus, system and method of communicating a transmission according to a space-time encoding scheme WO2018194704A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US201762487912P true 2017-04-20 2017-04-20
US62/487,912 2017-04-20

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201780089814.9A CN110521153A (en) 2017-04-20 2017-09-11 According to the devices, systems, and methods of space-time coding scheme communications

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2018194704A1 true WO2018194704A1 (en) 2018-10-25

Family

ID=63855974

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/US2017/050873 WO2018194704A1 (en) 2017-04-20 2017-09-11 Apparatus, system and method of communicating a transmission according to a space-time encoding scheme

Country Status (2)

Country Link
CN (1) CN110521153A (en)
WO (1) WO2018194704A1 (en)

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20100104037A1 (en) * 2007-03-30 2010-04-29 Joengren George Method And Device For Interference Suppression In User Terminal
US20110103341A1 (en) * 2008-06-26 2011-05-05 Hyun Soo Ko Apparatus and Method for Data Transmission Using Transmit Diversity in SC-FDMA
KR20110139755A (en) * 2009-03-24 2011-12-29 삼성전자주식회사 Techniques for pilot stream remapping in ofdm wireless communication system
US20150043596A1 (en) * 2013-08-12 2015-02-12 Texas Instruments Incorporated Frequency diversity modulation system and method
US20160323058A1 (en) * 2015-04-30 2016-11-03 Intel IP Corporation Apparatus, system and method of multi-user wireless communication

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20100104037A1 (en) * 2007-03-30 2010-04-29 Joengren George Method And Device For Interference Suppression In User Terminal
US20110103341A1 (en) * 2008-06-26 2011-05-05 Hyun Soo Ko Apparatus and Method for Data Transmission Using Transmit Diversity in SC-FDMA
KR20110139755A (en) * 2009-03-24 2011-12-29 삼성전자주식회사 Techniques for pilot stream remapping in ofdm wireless communication system
US20150043596A1 (en) * 2013-08-12 2015-02-12 Texas Instruments Incorporated Frequency diversity modulation system and method
US20160323058A1 (en) * 2015-04-30 2016-11-03 Intel IP Corporation Apparatus, system and method of multi-user wireless communication

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CN110521153A (en) 2019-11-29

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
JP6031569B2 (en) Method and apparatus for uplink multi-antenna transmission
EP2374219B1 (en) A method for distributed mobile communications, corresponding system and computer program product
JP4987077B2 (en) Error correction method and apparatus in multiple subcarrier communication system using multiple antennas
US8917784B2 (en) Method and apparatus for constructing very high throughput long training field sequences
EP2923457B1 (en) Systems and methods for open-loop spatial multiplexing schemes for radio access virtualization
JP2016506143A (en) System and method for open loop MIMO communication in an SCMA communication system
JP5703361B2 (en) Data and control multiplexing for uplink MIMO using carrier aggregation and clustered DFT
JP5518832B2 (en) Method and apparatus for resource management in a wireless communication system
US20140211726A1 (en) Systems and Methods for SC-FDMA Diversity Transmission
JP2007502072A (en) System and method for adaptive bit loading in a multi-antenna orthogonal frequency division multiplexing communication system
KR20100039858A (en) Transmit method with delay diversity and space-frequency diversity
US8964686B2 (en) Operation of terminal for multi-antenna transmission
CN101461205B (en) Signal generation using phase-shift based pre-coding
CN1849769B (en) Multiple antenna systems and methods using high-throughput space-frequency block codes
KR101549021B1 (en) Precoding method for reduced uplink papr and appratus therefor
Chiueh et al. Baseband receiver design for wireless MIMO-OFDM communications
US20180069615A1 (en) Adaptive Transmission Systems and Methods
WO2006049426A1 (en) Apparatus and method for transmitting and receiving data using space-time block coding
US20090303866A1 (en) Method and device for the baseband process of the space-time/space -frequency/spatial diversity transmitter
RU2436243C1 (en) Method of transmitting and receiving signals using multiband radio frequencies
CN1773885A (en) Method for supporting various multi-antenna schemes in bwa system using multiple antennas
US9295035B2 (en) Method of allocating resources for transmitting uplink signal in MIMO wireless communication system and apparatus thereof
WO2005125140A1 (en) Apparatus and method for space-frequency block coding/decoding in a communication system
CN102113236B (en) DRS (Dedicated Reference Signal) is used to support coordinated multipoint transmission
KR101380021B1 (en) SC­QOSTFBC codes for MIMO transmitters

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application

Ref document number: 17906373

Country of ref document: EP

Kind code of ref document: A1

NENP Non-entry into the national phase in:

Ref country code: DE