New! View global litigation for patent families

WO2017146867A1 - Lubricants for use in boosted engines - Google Patents

Lubricants for use in boosted engines

Info

Publication number
WO2017146867A1
WO2017146867A1 PCT/US2017/015279 US2017015279W WO2017146867A1 WO 2017146867 A1 WO2017146867 A1 WO 2017146867A1 US 2017015279 W US2017015279 W US 2017015279W WO 2017146867 A1 WO2017146867 A1 WO 2017146867A1
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
oil
lubricating
composition
ppm
wt
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US2017/015279
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Kongsheng Yang
Kristin FLETCHER
William Y. Lam
Jeremy Styer
Original Assignee
Afton Chemical Corporation
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M171/00Lubricating compositions characterised by purely physical criteria, e.g. containing as base-material, thickener or additive, ingredients which are characterised exclusively by their numerically specified physical properties, i.e. containing ingredients which are physically well-defined but for which the chemical nature is either unspecified or only very vaguely indicated
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M163/00Lubricating compositions characterised by the additive being a mixture of a compound of unknown or incompletely defined constitution and a non-macromolecular compound, each of these compounds being essential
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2203/00Organic non-macromolecular hydrocarbon compounds and hydrocarbon fractions as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2203/10Petroleum or coal fractions, e.g. tars, solvents, bitumen
    • C10M2203/102Aliphatic fractions
    • C10M2203/1025Aliphatic fractions used as base material
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2215/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing nitrogen as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2215/28Amides; Imides
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2219/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2219/04Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing sulfur, selenium or tellurium as ingredients in lubricant compositions containing sulfur-to-oxygen bonds, i.e. sulfones, sulfoxides
    • C10M2219/046Overbasedsulfonic acid salts
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2223/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing phosphorus as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2223/02Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing phosphorus as ingredients in lubricant compositions having no phosphorus-to-carbon bonds
    • C10M2223/04Phosphate esters
    • C10M2223/045Metal containing thio derivatives
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10MLUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS; USE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EITHER ALONE OR AS LUBRICATING INGREDIENTS IN A LUBRICATING COMPOSITION
    • C10M2227/00Organic non-macromolecular compounds containing atoms of elements not provided for in groups C10M2203/00, C10M2207/00, C10M2211/00, C10M2215/00, C10M2219/00 or C10M2223/00 as ingredients in lubricant compositions
    • C10M2227/09Complexes with metals
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2210/00Nature of the metal present as such or in compounds, i.e. in salts
    • C10N2210/02Group II, e.g. Mg, Ca, Ba, Zn, Cd, Hg
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2210/00Nature of the metal present as such or in compounds, i.e. in salts
    • C10N2210/06Group VI, e.g. Cr, Mo, W
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2220/00Specified physical or chemical properties or characteristics, i.e. function, of single compounds in lubricating compositions
    • C10N2220/02Physico-chemical properties
    • C10N2220/022Viscosity
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2230/00Specified physical or chemical properties of lubricating compositions
    • C10N2230/02Viscosity or viscosity index
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2230/00Specified physical or chemical properties of lubricating compositions
    • C10N2230/04Detergent properties, e.g. for cleaning, inhibition or removing varnish; Dispersion properties, e.g. for dispersing solids, carbon residues, sludge
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2230/00Specified physical or chemical properties of lubricating compositions
    • C10N2230/10Anti-oxidation characteristics
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2230/00Specified physical or chemical properties of lubricating compositions
    • C10N2230/74Noack Volatility
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2240/00Specified uses or applications of lubricating compositions
    • C10N2240/10Internal-combustion engines
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2240/00Specified uses or applications of lubricating compositions
    • C10N2240/10Internal-combustion engines
    • C10N2240/104Gasoline engines
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10NINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS C10M RELATING TO LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS
    • C10N2260/00Chemical after-treatment or modifications of compounds
    • C10N2260/14Treatment with boron or boron-containing compounds

Abstract

A lubricating oil composition and method of operating a boosted internal combustion engine. The lubricating oil composition is formulated to be resistant to turbocharger deposit formation in the boosted internal combustion engine, as shown by its ability to ensure a TCO Temperature Increase of less than 9.0% as measured using the 2015 version of the General Motors dexos1® Turbocharger Coking Test. The lubricating oil composition may also have a low NOACK volatility, as measured by the method of ASTM D-5800 at 250° C.

Description

LUBRICANTS FOR USE IN BOOSTED ENGINES

TECHNICAL FIELD

[01] The disclosure relates to lubricant compositions having improved resistance to the formation of engine deposits, including turbocharger deposits, when used in a boosted internal combustion engine.

BACKGROUND

[02] Turbocharged or supercharged engines (i.e. boosted or forced induction internal combustion engines) experience very high operating temperatures. The lubricants used in these engines are exposed to extreme conditions when the engine is stopped, and the lubricant sits in a hot turbocharger as it cools. A lubricant in this environment is prone to the formation of hard deposits in the turbocharger. This phenomenon causes a significant deterioration of turbocharger efficiency and has the potential to cause poor performance and/or severe damage to the engine.

[03] Several published studies have demonstrated that turbocharger use, engine design, engine coatings, piston shape, fuel choice, and/or engine oil additives may contribute to the formation of these deposits in turbocharged engines. Accordingly, there is a need for engine oil additive components and/or combinations that are effective to reduce or prevent the formation of deposits in turbocharged gasoline engines.

[04] Recent specifications such as the 2015 version of the General Motors dexosl® specification, require passage of a Turbocharger Coking Test. One parameter to determine a passing result in the General Motors dexosl® Turbocharger Coking Test is maintaining a percent increase to less than a 13% increase in the Turbo Coolant Outside (TCO)

Temperature from the 100 cycle TCO Temperature to the 1800 cycle TCO temperature.

[05] There is a need to improve on a simple pass of the 2015 version of the General

Motors dexosl® Turbocharger Coking Test to provide lubricating oil compositions that can score pass ratings of less than a 9.0% increase in the Turbo Coolant Outside (TCO)

Temperature from the 100 cycle TCO Temperature to the 1800 cycle TCO temperature.

"TCO Temperature Increase" as used herein refers to the percent increase in the TCO

Temperature from the 100 cycle TCO Temperature to the 1800 cycle TCO temperature as defined by the formula:

(1800 cycle TCO Temperature - 100 cycle TCO temperature)

100 cycle TCO Temperature. SUMMARY AND TERMS

[06] The present disclosure relates to a first lubricating oil composition and method of operating a boosted internal combustion engine with the first lubricating oil composition, hereinafter referred to as Invention A, and a second lubricating oil composition and method of operating a boosted internal combustion engine with the second lubricating oil composition, hereinafter referred to as Invention B.

[07] INVENTION A

[08] In an embodiment of Invention A, the lubricating oil composition includes greater than 50 wt.% of a base oil of lubricating viscosity. The lubricating oil composition has a ratio of total metal from the one or more metal-containing detergent(s) in ppm in the lubricating oil composition to the total nitrogen in ppm in the lubricating oil composition of less than 1.9; a ratio of total metal from the one or more metal-containing detergent(s) in ppm in the lubricating oil composition to the total boron in ppm in the lubricating oil composition is less than 7.5; and a ratio of total metal from the one or more metal-containing detergent(s) in ppm in the lubricating oil composition to the total molybdenum in ppm in the lubricating oil composition is less than 23.8. In addition, the lubricating oil composition has a NOACK volatility as measured by the method of ASTM D-5800 at 250 °C of less than 11.0 wt.%, and the lubricating oil composition is effective to ensure a TCO Temperature Increase of less than 9.0% as measured using the 2015 version of the General Motors dexosl® Turbocharger Coking Test (TC Test).

[09] In another embodiment of Invention A, the disclosure provides a method for reducing or preventing the formation of deposits in a boosted internal combustion engine. The method includes a step of lubricating a boosted internal combustion engine with a lubricating oil composition comprising greater than 50 wt.% of a base oil of lubricating viscosity. The lubricating oil composition has a ratio of total metal from the one or more metal-containing detergent(s) in ppm in the lubricating oil composition to the total nitrogen in ppm in the lubricating oil composition of less than 1.9; a ratio of total metal from the one or more metal-containing detergent(s) in ppm in the lubricating oil composition to the total boron in ppm in the lubricating oil composition is less than 7.5; and a ratio of total metal from the one or more metal-containing detergent(s) in ppm in the lubricating oil composition to the total molybdenum in ppm in the lubricating oil composition is less than 23.8. In addition, the lubricating oil composition has a NOACK volatility as measured by the method of ASTM D-5800 at 250 °C of less than 11.0 wt.%. By lubricating a boosted internal combustion engine with this lubricating oil composition there will be improved resistance to deposit formation in the boosted internal combustion engine, as shown by its ability to ensure a TCO Temperature Increase of less than 9.0% as measured using the 2015 version of the General Motors dexosl® Turbocharger Coking Test.

[10] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the ratio of total metal from the one or more metal-containing detergent(s) in ppm in the lubricating oil composition to the total nitrogen in ppm in the lubricating oil composition may be less than 1.8 or may be from 0.1 to less than 1.9, or from 0.1 to less than 1.8, or from 0.1 to 1.7.

[11] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the ratio of total metal from the one or more metal-containing detergent(s) in ppm in the lubricating oil composition to the total boron in ppm in the lubricating oil composition may be less than 7.3 or from 0.1 to less than 7.5, or from 0.1 to less than 7.3, or from 0.1 to 7.0.

[12] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the ratio of total metal from the one or more metal-containing detergent(s) in ppm in the lubricating oil composition to the total molybdenum in ppm in the lubricating oil composition may be less than 20.0, or less than 15.0, or 0.1 to less than 23.8, or from 0.1 to less than 20.0, or from 0.1 to less than 15.0, or from 0.1 to 13.0, or from 1.0 to 13.0.

[13] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the lubricating oil composition may have a

NOACK volatility as measured by the method of ASTM D-5800 at 250 °C of 2.0 wt.% to less than 11.0 wt.%, or from 2.0 wt.% to 10.9 wt.%, or 5.0 wt.% to 10.9 wt.%.

[14] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the lubricating oil composition may be effective to ensure a TCO Temperature Increase of less than 8.0% as measured using the

2015 version of the General Motors dexosl® Turbocharger Coking Test, or less than 7.0%, or 0.01% to less than 9.0%, or 0.01% to less than 7.0%, or 0.1% to less than 7.0%, or 1.0% to less than 6.0%.

[15] INVENTION B

[16] In one embodiment of Invention B, the lubricating oil composition includes greater than 50 wt.% of a base oil of lubricating viscosity and one or more borated compound(s). The lubricating oil composition also includes one or more molybdenum-containing compound(s) in an amount sufficient to provide greater than about 40 ppm by weight molybdenum to the lubricating oil composition, based on a total weight of the lubricating composition. In addition, the lubricating oil composition includes one or more magnesium-containing detergent(s). Also, the lubricating oil composition comprises one or more overbased calcium- containing detergent(s) in an amount sufficient to provide less than about 1800 ppm by weight calcium to the lubricating oil composition, based on the total weight of the lubricating composition.

[17] In another embodiment of Invention B, the disclosure provides a method for reducing or preventing the formation of deposits in a boosted internal combustion engine. The method includes a step of lubricating a boosted internal combustion engine with a lubricating oil composition comprising greater than 50 wt.% of a base oil of lubricating viscosity and one or more borated compound(s). The lubricating oil composition includes one or more molybdenum-containing compound(s) in an amount sufficient to provide greater than about 40 ppm by weight molybdenum to the lubricating oil composition, based on a total weight of the lubricating composition. In addition, the lubricating oil composition includes one or more magnesium-containing detergent(s). Also, the lubricating oil composition comprises one or more overbased calcium-containing detergent(s) in an amount sufficient to provide less than about 1800 ppm by weight calcium to the lubricating oil composition, based on the total weight of the lubricating composition. By lubricating a boosted internal combustion engine with this lubricating oil composition there will be improved resistance to deposit formation in the boosted internal combustion engine, as shown by its ability to ensure a TCO Temperature Increase of less than 9.0% as measured using the 2015 version of the General Motors dexosl® Turbocharger Coking Test.

[18] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the one or more molybdenum containing compound(s) may be present in an amount sufficient to provide at least about 50 ppm by weight molybdenum to the lubricating oil composition, or at least about 80 ppm by weight, or greater than 40 ppm by weight to 1200 ppm by weight, or greater than 40 ppm by weight to 900 ppm by weight, or at least about 80 ppm by weight to 800 ppm by weight molybdenum to the lubricating oil composition based on the total weight of the lubricating composition.

[19] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the one or more calcium-containing overbased detergent(s) may be selected from an overbased calcium sulfonate detergent, an overbased calcium phenate detergent, and an overbased calcium salicylate detergent. In each of the foregoing embodiments, the one or more overbased calcium-containing detergent(s) may provide from about 1000 to about 1750 ppm, or from 1100 to 1700 ppm by weight calcium to the lubricating oil composition based on a total weight of the lubricating oil composition.

[20] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the one or more magnesium-containing detergent(s) may be overbased, and wherein the one or more overbased calcium-containing detergent(s) and the one or more overbased magnesium-containing detergent(s) may each have a total base number (TBN) of greater than 225 mg KOH/g, measured by the method of ASTM D-2896, or a TBN of about 250 mg KOH/gram or greater, or a TBN of about 300 mg KOH/gram or greater, or a TBN of about 350 mg KOH/gram or greater, or a TBN of about 375 mg KOH/gram or greater, or a TBN of about 400 mg KOH/gram or greater; or a TBN of greater than 225 mg KOH/g to 425 mg KOH/gram, or a TBN of about 250 mg KOH/gram to 425 mg KOH/gram, or a TBN of about 300 mg KOH/gram to 425 mg KOH/gram, or a TBN of about 350 mg KOH/gram to 425 mg KOH/gram, or a TBN of about 375 mg KOH/gram to 425 mg KOH/gram, or a TBN of about 400 mg KOH/gram to 425 mg KOH/gram, as measured by the method of ASTM D-2896.

[21] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the one or more overbased magnesium containing detergent(s) may be an overbased magnesium sulfonate. In each of the foregoing embodiments, the one or more magnesium-containing detergent(s) may be present in an amount sufficient to provide 20 ppm by weight to 1800 ppm by weight magnesium to the lubricating oil composition, based on the total weight of the lubricating composition, or 100 ppm by weight to 1200 ppm by weight magnesium, or greater than about 140 ppm by weight to about 550 ppm by weight magnesium, based on the total weight of the lubricating composition.

[22] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the ratio of total boron in ppm by weight to total nitrogen in ppm by weight may be less than about 0.29, or from 0.01 to 0.28 or from 0.05 to 0.28.

[23] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the ratio of total calcium in ppm by weight to total boron in ppm by weight may be greater than about 4.9 to less than about 9.7 or from 5.0 to 9.0, or from 5.0 to 7.5.

[24] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the percent calcium from the one or more overbased calcium-containing detergent(s) based on the total calcium and magnesium from the one or more overbased calcium-containing detergent(s) and the one or more overbased magnesium-containing detergent(s), respectively, may be greater than 50%, or greater than 50% to 99%, or from 60% to 99% or from 65% to 95%.

[25] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the one or more borated compound(s) may be included in the lubricating oil composition in an amount sufficient to provide greater than 50 ppm boron to the lubricating oil composition, or greater than 100 ppm boron, or from greater than 50 ppm to 1000 ppm boron, or greater than 100 ppm to 800 ppm boron, or 110 ppm to 600 ppm boron, or 120 ppm to 500 ppm boron to the lubricating oil composition.

[26] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the lubricating oil composition may be effective to ensure a TCO Temperature Increase of less than 8.5% as measured using the 2015 version of the General Motors dexosl® Turbocharger Coking Test, or less than 8.0% or less than 7.5%; or 0.01% to less than 9.0%, or 0.05% to less than 8.5%, or 0.1% to less than 7.5%.

[27] The description below relates to both Invention A and Invention B unless stated otherwise.

[28] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the lubricating oil compositions may optionally also contain one or more low-based/neutral detergents, wherein the low- based/neutral detergent has a TBN of up to 175 mg KOH/g, or up to 150 mg KOH/g, measured by the method of ASTM D-2896. In each of the foregoing embodiments, the low- based/neutral detergent may include a calcium-containing detergent. In each of the foregoing embodiments, the low-based/neutral calcium-containing detergent may be selected from a calcium sulfonate detergent, a calcium phenate detergent, a calcium salicylate detergent or a mixture thereof. In each of the foregoing embodiments, the low-based/neutral detergent may be a calcium sulfonate detergent or a calcium phenate detergent. In some instances, "overbased" may be abbreviated "OB" and in some instances, "low-based/neutral" may be abbreviated "LB/N."

[29] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the low-based/neutral detergent may comprise at least 0.1 wt.% of the lubricating oil composition. In some embodiments, the low- based/neutral detergent may comprise at least 0.25 wt.%, or 0.1 wt.% to 5.0 wt, or 0.15 wt.% to 3.0 wt.%, or 0.15 wt.% to 1.0 wt.% of the lubricating oil composition.

[30] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the one or more low-based/neutral calcium- containing detergents may provide from about 10 to about 1000 ppm calcium by weight to the lubricating oil composition based on a total weight of the lubricating oil composition. In each of the foregoing embodiments, the one or more low-based/neutral calcium-containing detergents may provide from 25 to less than 800 ppm, or from 50 to 600 ppm, or from 100 to 500 ppm by weight calcium to the lubricating oil composition based on a total weight of the lubricating oil composition.

[31] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the one of the one or more overbased calcium- containing detergent(s) may be an overbased calcium sulfonate detergent.

[32] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the total TBN of the lubricating oil composition may be at least 6.0 mg KOH/g of the lubricating oil composition, as measured by the method of ASTM D-2896, or 6.4 to 12.0 mg KOH/g of the lubricating oil composition, or 6.5 to 12.0 mg KOH/g of the lubricating oil composition, as measured by the method of ASTM D-2896. [33] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the lubricating oil composition may comprise a dispersant. In each of the foregoing embodiments, the dispersant may be a boron-containing dispersant. In each of the foregoing embodiments, the boron-containing dispersant may be present in an amount of 1.0-10 wt.%, based on the total weight of the lubricating oil composition. In each of the foregoing embodiments, the boron-containing dispersant may be present in an amount of 1.0-8.5 wt.%, based on the total weight of the lubricating oil composition.

[34] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the lubricating oil composition may have nitrogen present in an amount of about 500 ppm to about 2500 ppm, or in an amount of about 700 ppm to about 2000 ppm, or about 900 ppm to about 1600 ppm, all based on a total weight of the lubricating oil composition.

[35] In each of the foregoing embodiments, "the total metal from the one or more metal- containing detergent(s)" may be present in an amount to provide from about 100 ppm to about 3500 ppm metal to the lubricating oil composition, or from about 1100 to about 3000 ppm of metal, or about 1150 to about 2500 ppm of metal, or about 1200 to about 2400 ppm of metal, or less than 1800 ppm of metal to the lubricating oil composition.

[36] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the lubricating oil may further comprise one or more components selected from the group consisting of friction modifiers, antiwear agents, dispersants, antioxidants, and viscosity index improvers.

[37] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the lubricating oil may include greater than 50% base oil, wherein the base oil may be selected from the group consisting of Group II, Group III, Group IV, Group V base oils, and any combination of two or more of the foregoing, and wherein the greater than 50 wt.% of base oil may be other than diluent oils that arise from provision of additive components or viscosity index improvers in the composition. In each of the foregoing embodiments, the lubricating oil composition may comprise greater than 50 wt.% of a Group II base oil, a Group III base oil or a combination thereof, or greater than 70 wt.%, or greater than 75 wt.%, or greater than 80 wt.%, or greater than 85 wt.%, or greater than 90 wt.% of a Group II base oil, a Group III base oil or a combination thereof, or greater than 97 wt.% of a combination of a Group II base oil and a Group III base oil.

[38] In each of the foregoing embodiments of the method, the lubricating step lubricates turbocharger or supercharger components and a combustion chamber or cylinder walls of a spark-ignited direct injection engine or spark-ignited port fuel injected internal combustion engine provided with a turbocharger or a supercharger, including passages, bushings and other components found in a turbocharger or supercharger.

[39] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the overbased calcium-containing detergent may optionally exclude overbased calcium salicylate detergents.

[40] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the lubricating oil composition may not contain any Group IV base oils.

[41] In each of the foregoing embodiments, the lubricating oil composition may not contain any Group V base oils.

[42] The following definitions of terms are provided in order to clarify the meanings of certain terms as used herein.

[43] The terms "oil composition," "lubrication composition," "lubricating oil composition," "lubricating oil," "lubricant composition," "lubricating composition," "fully formulated lubricant composition," "lubricant," "crankcase oil," "crankcase lubricant," "engine oil," "engine lubricant," "motor oil," and "motor lubricant" are considered synonymous, fully interchangeable terminology referring to the finished lubrication product comprising greater than 50 wt.% of a base oil plus a minor amount of an additive composition.

[44] As used herein, the terms "additive package," "additive concentrate," "additive composition," "engine oil additive package," "engine oil additive concentrate," "crankcase additive package," "crankcase additive concentrate," "motor oil additive package," "motor oil concentrate," are considered synonymous, fully interchangeable terminology referring the portion of the lubricating oil composition excluding the greater than 50 wt.% of base oil stock mixture. The additive package may or may not include the viscosity index improver or pour point depressant.

[45] The term "overbased" relates to metal salts, such as metal salts of sulfonates, carboxylates, salicylates, and/or phenates, wherein the amount of metal present exceeds the stoichiometric amount. Such salts may have a conversion level in excess of 100% (i.e., they may comprise more than 100% of the theoretical amount of metal needed to convert the acid to its "normal," "neutral" salt). The expression "metal ratio," often abbreviated as MR, is used to designate the ratio of total chemical equivalents of metal in the overbased salt to chemical equivalents of the metal in a neutral salt according to known chemical reactivity and stoichiometry. In a normal or neutral salt, the metal ratio is one and in an overbased salt, MR, is greater than one. They are commonly referred to as overbased, hyperbased, or superbased salts and may be salts of organic sulfur acids, carboxylic acids, salicylates, and/or phenols. In the present disclosure, the lubricating oil composition may contain one or more overbased metal salts. The one or more overbased metal salt(s) can include an overbased detergent having a TBN of greater than 225 mg KOH/g. The overbased detergent may be a combination of two or more overbased detergents each having a TBN of greater than 225 mg KOH/g. The one or more overbased detergent(s) can include one or more overbased calcium- containing detergents having a TBN of greater than 225 mg KOH/g measured by the method of ASTM D-2896.

[46] As used herein, the term "hydrocarbyl substituent" or "hydrocarbyl group" or "alkyl group" is used in its ordinary sense, which is well-known to those skilled in the art. Specifically, it refers to a group having a carbon atom directly attached to the remainder of the molecule and having predominantly hydrocarbon character. Examples of hydrocarbyl groups include:

(a) hydrocarbon substituents, that is, aliphatic (e.g., alkyl or alkenyl), alicyclic (e.g., cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl) substituents, and aromatic-, aliphatic-, and alicyclic - substituted aromatic substituents, as well as cyclic substituents wherein the ring is completed through another portion of the molecule (e.g., two substituents together form an alicyclic moiety);

(b) substituted hydrocarbon substituents, that is, substituents containing non- hydrocarbon groups which, in the context of this disclosure, do not alter the predominantly hydrocarbon substituent (e.g., halo (especially chloro and fluoro), hydroxy, alkoxy, mercapto, alkylmercapto, nitro, nitroso, amino, alkylamino, and sulfoxy); and

(c) hetero substituents, that is, substituents which, while having a predominantly hydrocarbon character, in the context of this disclosure, contain other than carbon in a ring or chain otherwise composed of carbon atoms. Heteroatoms may include sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen, and encompass substituents such as pyridyl, furyl, thienyl, and imidazolyl. In general, no more than two, for example, no more than one, non- hydrocarbon substituent will be present for every ten carbon atoms in the hydrocarbyl group; typically, there will be no non-hydrocarbon substituents in the hydrocarbyl group.

[47] As used herein, the term "percent by weight", unless expressly stated otherwise, means the percentage the recited component represents to the weight of the entire composition. In addition, all values reported herein using "ppm" refer to ppm by weight of the total weight of the lubricating oil composition unless expressly stated otherwise. [48] The terms "soluble," "oil- soluble," or "dispersible" used herein may, but does not necessarily, indicate that the compounds or additives are soluble, dissolvable, miscible, or capable of being suspended in the oil in all proportions. The foregoing terms do mean, however, that they are, for instance, soluble, suspendable, dissolvable, or stably dispersible in oil to an extent sufficient to exert their intended effect in the environment in which the oil is employed. Moreover, the additional incorporation of other additives may also permit incorporation of higher levels of a particular additive, if desired.

[49] The transitional phrase "consisting essentially of as used herein limits the scope of an embodiment of the invention to the specified materials or steps and those that do not materially affect the basic and novel characteristic(s) of the invention. Herein, the basic and novel characteristics of the invention may be one or more of NOACK volatility, and TC Test performance.

[50] The term "TBN" as employed herein is used to denote the Total Base Number in mg KOH/g composition as measured by the method of ASTM D-2896.

[51] The term "alkyl" as employed herein refers to straight, branched, cyclic, and/or substituted saturated chain moieties of from about 1 to about 100 carbon atoms.

[52] The term "alkenyl" as employed herein refers to straight, branched, cyclic, and/or substituted unsaturated chain moieties of from about 3 to about 10 carbon atoms.

[53] The term "aryl" as employed herein refers to single and multi-ring aromatic compounds that may include alkyl, alkenyl, alkylaryl, amino, hydroxyl, alkoxy, halo substituents, and/or heteroatoms including, but not limited to, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur.

[54] Lubricants, combinations of components, or individual components of the present description may be suitable for use in various types of internal combustion engines. Suitable engine types may include, but are not limited to heavy duty diesel, passenger car, light duty diesel, medium speed diesel, marine engines, or motorcycle engines. An internal combustion engine may be a diesel fueled engine, a gasoline fueled engine, a natural gas fueled engine, a bio-fueled engine, a mixed diesel/biofuel fueled engine, a mixed gasoline/biofuel fueled engine, an alcohol fueled engine, a mixed gasoline/alcohol fueled engine, a compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled engine, or mixtures thereof. A diesel engine may be a compression ignited engine. A diesel engine may be a compression ignited engine with a spark-ignition assist. A gasoline engine may be a spark-ignited engine. An internal combustion engine may also be used in combination with an electrical or battery source of power. An engine so configured is commonly known as a hybrid engine. The internal combustion engine may be a 2-stroke, 4-stroke, or rotary engine. Suitable internal combustion engines include marine diesel engines (such as inland marine), aviation piston engines, low-load diesel engines, and motorcycle, automobile, locomotive, and truck engines.

[55] The internal combustion engine may contain components of one or more of an aluminum-alloy, lead, tin, copper, cast iron, magnesium, ceramics, stainless steel, composites, and/or mixtures thereof. The components may be coated, for example, with a diamond-like carbon coating, a lubricated coating, a phosphorus-containing coating, molybdenum-containing coating, a graphite coating, a nano-particle-containing coating, and/or mixtures thereof. The aluminum-alloy may include aluminum silicates, aluminum oxides, or other ceramic materials. In one embodiment the aluminum-alloy is an aluminum- silicate surface. As used herein, the term "aluminum alloy" is intended to be synonymous with "aluminum composite" and to describe a component or surface comprising aluminum and another component intermixed or reacted on a microscopic or nearly microscopic level, regardless of the detailed structure thereof. This would include any conventional alloys with metals other than aluminum as well as composite or alloy-like structures with non-metallic elements or compounds such with ceramic-like materials.

[56] The lubricating oil composition for an internal combustion engine may be suitable for any engine irrespective of the sulfur, phosphorus, or sulfated ash (ASTM D-874) content. The sulfur content of the engine oil lubricant may be about 1 wt.% or less, or about 0.8 wt.% or less, or about 0.5 wt.% or less, or about 0.3 wt.% or less, or about 0.2 wt.% or less. In one embodiment the sulfur content may be in the range of about 0.001 wt.% to about 0.5 wt.%, or about 0.01 wt.% to about 0.3 wt.%. The phosphorus content may be about 0.2 wt.% or less, or about 0.1 wt.% or less, or about 0.085 wt.% or less, or about 0.08 wt.% or less, or even about 0.06 wt.% or less, about 0.055 wt.% or less, or about 0.05 wt.% or less. In one embodiment the phosphorus content may be about 50 ppm to about 1000 ppm, or about 325 ppm to about 850 ppm. The total sulfated ash content may be about 2 wt.% or less, or about 1.5 wt.% or less, or about 1.1 wt.% or less, or about 1 wt.% or less, or about 0.8 wt.% or less, or about 0.5 wt.% or less. In one embodiment the sulfated ash content may be about 0.05 wt.% to about 0.9 wt.%, or about 0.1 wt.% or about 0.2 wt.% to about 0.45 wt.%. In another embodiment, the sulfur content may be about 0.4 wt.% or less, the phosphorus content may be about 0.08 wt.% or less, and the sulfated ash is about 1 wt.% or less. In yet another embodiment the sulfur content may be about 0.3 wt.% or less, the phosphorus content is about 0.05 wt.% or less, and the sulfated ash may be about 0.8 wt.% or less. ASTM D4951 is a test method which covers eight elements and can provide elemental composition data. ASTM D5185 can be used to determine 22 elements in used and unused lubricating oils and base oils, and can provide screening of used oils for indications of wear.

[57] In some embodiments, the total TBN of the lubricating oil composition may be at least 6.0 mg KOH/g. as measured by the method of ASTM D-2896, or 6.4 to 12.0 mg

KOH/g, or 6.5 to 12.0 mg KOH/g, as measured by the method of ASTM D-2896.

[58] In one embodiment the lubricating oil composition is an engine oil, wherein the lubricating oil composition may have (i) a sulfur content of about 0.5 wt.% or less, (ii) a phosphorus content of about 0.1 wt.% or less, and (iii) a sulfated ash content of about 1.5 wt.% or less.

[59] In some embodiments, the lubricating oil composition is suitable for use with engines powered by low sulfur fuels, such as fuels containing about 1 to about 5% sulfur. Highway vehicle fuels contain about 15 ppm sulfur (or about 0.0015% sulfur). The lubricating oil composition is suitable for use with boosted internal combustion engines including turbocharged or supercharged internal combustion engines.

[60] Further, lubricants of the present description may be suitable to meet one or more industry specification requirements such as ILSAC GF-3, GF-4, GF-5, GF-6, PC-11, CI-4, CJ-4, CK-4, FA-4, ACEA Al/Bl, A2/B2, A3/B3, A3/B4, A5/B5, CI, C2, C3, C4, C5, E4/E6/E7/E9, Euro 5/6, Jaso DL-1, Low SAPS, Mid SAPS, or original equipment manufacturer specifications such as Dexos™ 1, Dexos™ 2, MB-Approval 229.51/229.31, 229.71, 229.3/229.5, VW 502.00, 503.00/503.01, 504.00, 505.00, 506.00/506.01, 507.00, 508.00, 509.00, BMW Longlife-04, Porsche C30, Peugeot Citroen Automobiles B71 2290, B71 2296, B71 2297, B71 2300, B71 2302, B71 2312, B71 2007, B71 2008, Ford WSS- M2C153-H, WSS-M2C930-A, WSS-M2C945-A, WSS-M2C913A, WSS-M2C913-B, WSS- M2C913-C, GM 6094-M, Chrysler MS-6395, or any past or future PCMO or HDD specifications not mentioned herein. In some embodiments for passenger car motor oil (PCMO) applications, the amount of phosphorus in the finished fluid is 1000 ppm or less or 900 ppm or less or 800 ppm or less.

[61] Other hardware may not be suitable for use with the disclosed lubricant. A "functional fluid" is a term which encompasses a variety of fluids including but not limited to tractor hydraulic fluids, power transmission fluids including automatic transmission fluids, continuously variable transmission fluids and manual transmission fluids, hydraulic fluids, including tractor hydraulic fluids, some gear oils, power steering fluids, fluids used in wind turbines, compressors, some industrial fluids, and fluids related to power train components. It should be noted that within each of these fluids such as, for example, automatic transmission fluids, there are a variety of different types of fluids due to the various transmissions having different designs which have led to the need for fluids of markedly different functional characteristics. This is contrasted by the term "lubricating fluid" which is not used to generate or transfer power.

[62] With respect to tractor hydraulic fluids, for example, these fluids are all-purpose products used for all lubricant applications in a tractor except for lubricating the engine. These lubricating applications may include lubrication of gearboxes, power take-off and clutch(es), rear axles, reduction gears, wet brakes, and hydraulic accessories.

[63] When a functional fluid is an automatic transmission fluid, the automatic transmission fluids must have enough friction for the clutch plates to transfer power. However, the friction coefficient of fluids has a tendency to decline due to the temperature effects as the fluid heats up during operation. It is important that the tractor hydraulic fluid or automatic transmission fluid maintain its high friction coefficient at elevated temperatures, otherwise brake systems or automatic transmissions may fail. This is not a function of an engine oil.

[64] Tractor fluids, and for example Super Tractor Universal Oils (STUOs) or Universal Tractor Transmission Oils (UTTOs), may combine the performance of engine oils with transmissions, differentials, final-drive planetary gears, wet-brakes, and hydraulic performance. While many of the additives used to formulate a UTTO or a STUO fluid are similar in functionality, they may have deleterious effect if not incorporated properly. For example, some anti-wear and extreme pressure additives used in engine oils can be extremely corrosive to the copper components in hydraulic pumps. Detergents and dispersants used for gasoline or diesel engine performance may be detrimental to wet brake performance. Friction modifiers specific to quiet wet brake noise, may lack the thermal stability required for engine oil performance. Each of these fluids, whether functional, tractor, or lubricating, are designed to meet specific and stringent manufacturer requirements.

[65] The present disclosure provides novel lubricating oil blends formulated for use as automotive crankcase lubricants. Embodiments of the present disclosure may provide lubricating oils suitable for crankcase applications and having improvements in the following characteristics: air entrainment, alcohol fuel compatibility, antioxidancy, antiwear performance, biofuel compatibility, foam reducing properties, friction reduction, fuel economy, pre-ignition prevention, rust inhibition, sludge and/or soot dispersability, piston cleanliness, turbocharger deposit formation and water tolerance.

[66] Engine oils of the present disclosure may be formulated by the addition of one or more additives, as described in detail below, to an appropriate base oil formulation. The additives may be combined with a base oil in the form of an additive package (or concentrate) or, alternatively, may be combined individually with a base oil (or a mixture of both). The fully formulated engine oil may exhibit improved performance properties, based on the additives added and their respective proportions.

[67] Additional details and advantages of the disclosure will be set forth in part in the description which follows, and/or may be learned by practice of the disclosure. The details and advantages of the disclosure may be realized and attained by means of the elements and combinations particularly pointed out in the appended claims. It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description are exemplary and explanatory only and are not restrictive of the disclosure, as claimed.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[68] Various embodiments of the disclosure provide a lubricating oil composition and methods that may be used for to reduce or prevent the formation of deposits in a boosted internal combustion engine, including in the components of the turbocharger or supercharger. In particular, boosted internal combustion engines of the present disclosure include turbocharged and supercharged internal combustion engines. The boosted internal combustion engines include spark- ignited, direct injection and/or spark- ignited, port fuel injection engines. The spark-ignited internal combustion engines may be gasoline engines.

[69] The composition of the invention includes a lubricating oil composition containing a base oil of lubricating viscosity and a particular additive composition. The methods of the present disclosure employ the lubricating oil composition containing the additive composition. As described in more detail below the lubricating oil composition may be surprisingly effective for use in reducing or preventing the formation of carbonaceous deposits in a boosted internal combustion engine, including carbonaceous deposits in the components of the turbocharger or supercharger, lubricated with the lubricating oil composition. Since the deposits act as insulators, the amount of deposits can be measured indirectly by measuring the temperature increase in one of the turbocharger coolant passages. The greater the amount of deposits, the greater the increase in the temperature of the turbocharger coolant outside (TCO Temperature) during engine use. The lubricating oil composition of the present invention is effective to ensure a TCO Temperature Increase of less than 9.0% as measured using the 2015 version of the General Motors dexosl® Turbocharger Coking Test. [70] In an embodiment of Invention A, the disclosure provides a method for reducing or preventing the formation of deposits in a boosted internal combustion engine. The method includes a step of lubricating the boosted internal combustion engine with a lubricating oil composition including greater than 50 wt.% of a base oil of lubricating viscosity; wherein a ratio of total metal from the one or more metal-containing detergent(s) in ppm in the lubricating oil composition to the total nitrogen in ppm in the lubricating oil composition is less than 1.9; a ratio of total metal from the one or more metal-containing detergent(s) in ppm in the lubricating oil composition to the total boron in ppm in the lubricating oil composition is less than 7.5; and a ratio of total metal from the one or more metal-containing detergent(s) in ppm in the lubricating oil composition to the total molybdenum in ppm in the lubricating oil composition is less than 23.8; the lubricating oil composition has a NOACK volatility as measured by the method of ASTM D-5800 at 250 °C of less than 11.0 wt.%. By lubricating a boosted internal combustion engine with this lubricating oil composition there will be improved resistance to deposit formation in the boosted internal combustion engine, including in the components of the turbocharger or supercharger, as shown by its ability to ensure a TCO Temperature Increase of less than 9.0% as measured using the 2015 version of the General Motors dexosl® Turbocharger Coking Test. The boosted internal combustion engine is operated and lubricated with the lubricating oil composition whereby the amount of deposits in the engine, including in the components of the turbocharger or supercharger, lubricated with the lubricating oil composition may be reduced or prevented.

[71] In an embodiment of Invention B, the disclosure provides a method for reducing or preventing the formation of deposits in a boosted internal combustion engine. The method includes a step of lubricating the boosted internal combustion engine with a lubricating oil composition including greater than 50 wt.% of a base oil of lubricating viscosity; one or more borated compound(s); one or more molybdenum-containing compound(s) in an amount sufficient to provide greater than about 40 ppm by weight molybdenum to the lubricating oil composition, based on a total weight of the lubricating composition; one or more magnesium-containing detergent(s); one or more overbased calcium-containing detergent(s) in an amount sufficient to provide less than about 1800 ppm by weight calcium to the lubricating oil composition, based on the total weight of the lubricating composition. By lubricating a boosted internal combustion engine with this lubricating oil composition there will be improved resistance to deposit formation in the boosted internal combustion engine, as shown by its ability to ensure a TCO Temperature Increase of less than 9.0% as measured using the 2015 version of the General Motors dexosl® Turbocharger Coking Test. The boosted internal combustion engine is operated and lubricated with the lubricating oil composition whereby the amount of deposits in the engine, including in the components of the turbocharger or supercharger, lubricated with the lubricating oil composition may be reduced or prevented.

[72] The description below relates to both Invention A and Invention B unless stated otherwise.

[73] In some embodiments of the method, the combustion chamber or cylinder walls of a spark-ignited direct injection engine or spark-ignited port fuel injected internal combustion engine provided with a turbocharger or a supercharger, as well as the passages, bushings and other components of the turbocharger or supercharger are lubricated with the lubricating oil composition and the lubricated spark-ignited direct injection engine is operated whereby the deposits in the turbocharger of the engine lubricated with the lubricating oil composition may be reduced or prevented.

[74] The calcium in the lubricating oil composition may be provided by various sources including detergents. In some embodiments, the lubricating oil composition may comprise at least one detergent selected from one or more overbased calcium-containing detergents having a TBN of greater than 225 mg KOH/g, measured by the method of ASTM D-2896, and optionally one or more low-based/neutral calcium-containing detergents having a TBN of up to 175 mg KOH/g, measured by the method of ASTM D-2896.

[75] The lubricating oil composition contains both boron and nitrogen. One source for providing boron and/or nitrogen to the lubricating oil composition is boron-containing dispersants. In some embodiments, the lubricating oil composition may comprise a dispersant which can be a boron-containing dispersant. In some embodiments, the boron-containing dispersant may be present in an amount of 1.0-10 wt.%, based on the total weight of the lubricating oil composition, and even more preferably the boron-containing dispersant may be in an amount of 1.0-8.5 wt.%, based on the total weight of the lubricating oil composition.

[76] In some embodiments, the nitrogen may be present in the lubricating oil composition in an amount of about 500 ppm to about 2500 ppm, or about 700 ppm to about 2000 ppm, or about 900 ppm to about 1600 ppm. In some embodiments, the nitrogen present in the lubricant composition can be added as part of one or more of the dispersants, antioxidants and friction modifiers. Base Oil

[77] The base oil used in the lubricating oil compositions herein may be selected from any of the base oils in Groups I-V as specified in the American Petroleum Institute (API) Base Oil Interchangeability Guidelines. The five base oil groups are as follows:

Table 1

Figure imgf000018_0001

[78] Groups I, II, and III are mineral oil process stocks. Group IV base oils contain true synthetic molecular species, which are produced by polymerization of olefinically unsaturated hydrocarbons. Many Group V base oils are also true synthetic products and may include diesters, polyol esters, polyalkylene glycols, alkylated aromatics, polyphosphate esters, polyvinyl ethers, and/or polyphenyl ethers, and the like, but may also be naturally occurring oils, such as vegetable oils. It should be noted that although Group III base oils are derived from mineral oil, the rigorous processing that these fluids undergo causes their physical properties to be very similar to some true synthetics, such as PAOs. Therefore, oils derived from Group III base oils may be referred to as synthetic fluids in the industry.

[79] The base oil used in the disclosed lubricating oil composition may be a mineral oil, animal oil, vegetable oil, synthetic oil, or mixtures thereof. Suitable oils may be derived from hydrocracking, hydrogenation, hydrofinishing, unrefined, refined, and re -refined oils, and mixtures thereof.

[80] Unrefined oils are those derived from a natural, mineral, or synthetic source without or with little further purification treatment. Refined oils are similar to the unrefined oils except that they have been treated in one or more purification steps, which may result in the improvement of one or more properties. Examples of suitable purification techniques are solvent extraction, secondary distillation, acid or base extraction, filtration, percolation, and the like. Oils refined to the quality of an edible may or may not be useful. Edible oils may also be called white oils. In some embodiments, lubricating oil compositions are free of edible or white oils. [81] Re-refined oils are also known as reclaimed or reprocessed oils. These oils are obtained similarly to refined oils using the same or similar processes. Often these oils are additionally processed by techniques directed to removal of spent additives and oil breakdown products.

[82] Mineral oils may include oils obtained by drilling or from plants and animals or any mixtures thereof. For example such oils may include, but are not limited to, castor oil, lard oil, olive oil, peanut oil, corn oil, soybean oil, and linseed oil, as well as mineral lubricating oils, such as liquid petroleum oils and solvent-treated or acid-treated mineral lubricating oils of the paraffinic, naphthenic or mixed paraffinic-naphthenic types. Such oils may be partially or fully hydrogenated, if desired. Oils derived from coal or shale may also be useful.

[83] Useful synthetic lubricating oils may include hydrocarbon oils such as polymerized, oligomerized, or interpolymerized olefins (e.g., polybutylenes, polypropylenes, propylene/isobutylene copolymers); poly(l-hexenes), poly(l-octenes), trimers or oligomers of 1-decene, e.g., poly(l-decenes), such materials being often referred to as a-olefins, and mixtures thereof; alkyl-benzenes (e.g. dodecylbenzenes, tetradecylbenzenes, dinonylbenzenes, di-(2-ethylhexyl)-benzenes); polyphenyls (e.g., biphenyls, terphenyls, alkylated polyphenyls); diphenyl alkanes, alkylated diphenyl alkanes, alkylated diphenyl ethers and alkylated diphenyl sulfides and the derivatives, analogs and homologs thereof or mixtures thereof. Polyalphaolefins are typically hydrogenated materials.

[84] Other synthetic lubricating oils include polyol esters, diesters, liquid esters of phosphorus-containing acids (e.g., tricresyl phosphate, trioctyl phosphate, and the diethyl ester of decane phosphonic acid), or polymeric tetrahydrofurans. Synthetic oils may be produced by Fischer-Tropsch reactions and typically may be hydroisomerized Fischer- Tropsch hydrocarbons or waxes. In one embodiment oils may be prepared by a Fischer- Tropsch gas-to-liquid synthetic procedure as well as other gas-to-liquid oils.

[85] The greater than 50 wt.% of base oil included in a lubricating composition may be selected from the group consisting of Group I, Group II, a Group III, a Group IV, a Group V, and a combination of two or more of the foregoing, and wherein the greater than 50 wt.% of base oil is other than base oils that arise from provision of additive components or viscosity index improvers in the composition. In another embodiment, the greater than 50 wt.% of base oil included in a lubricating composition may be selected from the group consisting of Group II, a Group III, a Group IV, a Group V, and a combination of two or more of the foregoing, and wherein the greater than 50 wt.% of base oil is other than diluent oils that arise from provision of additive components or viscosity index improvers in the composition. [86] The amount of the oil of lubricating viscosity present may be the balance remaining after subtracting from 100 wt.% the sum of the amount of the performance additives inclusive of viscosity index improver(s) and/or pour point depressant(s) and/or other top treat additives. For example, the oil of lubricating viscosity that may be present in a finished fluid may be a major amount, such as greater than about 50 wt.%, greater than about 60 wt.%, greater than about 70 wt.%, greater than about 80 wt.%, greater than about 85 wt.%, or greater than about 90 wt.%, all based on the total weight of the lubricating oil composition.

[87] The lubricating oil composition may comprise not more than 10 wt.% of a Group IV base oil, a Group V base oil, or a combination thereof. In each of the foregoing embodiments, the lubricating oil compositions may comprise less than 5 wt.% of a Group V base oil. In some embodiments, the lubricating oil composition does not contain any Group IV base oils and/or the lubricating oil composition does not contain any Group V base oils.

Detergents

[88] The lubricating oil composition may comprise one or more detergents. In some embodiments, the lubricating oil composition may comprise one or more overbased calcium- containing detergents and optionally other detergents. Suitable detergent substrates include phenates, sulfur containing phenates, sulfonates, calixarates, salixarates, salicylates, carboxylic acids, phosphorus acids, mono- and/or di-thiophosphoric acids, alkyl phenols, sulfur coupled alkyl phenol compounds, or methylene bridged phenols. Suitable detergents and their methods of preparation are described in greater detail in numerous patent publications, including US 7,732,390 and references cited therein. The detergent substrate may be salted with an alkali or alkaline earth metal such as, but not limited to, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, lithium, barium, or mixtures thereof. In some embodiments, the detergent is free of barium. A suitable detergent may include alkali or alkaline earth metal salts of petroleum sulfonic acids and long chain mono- or di-alkylarylsulfonic acids with the aryl group being benzyl, tolyl, and xylyl.

[89] Examples of suitable additional detergents include, but are not limited to, calcium phenates, calcium sulfur containing phenates, calcium sulfonates, calcium calixarates, calcium salixarates, calcium salicylates, calcium carboxylic acids, calcium phosphorus acids, calcium mono- and/or di-thiophosphoric acids, calcium alkyl phenols, calcium sulfur coupled alkyl phenol compounds, calcium methylene bridged phenols, magnesium phenates, magnesium sulfur containing phenates, magnesium sulfonates, magnesium calixarates, magnesium salixarates, magnesium salicylates, magnesium carboxylic acids, magnesium phosphorus acids, magnesium mono- and/or di-thiophosphoric acids, magnesium alkyl phenols, magnesium sulfur coupled alkyl phenol compounds, magnesium methylene bridged phenols, sodium phenates, sodium sulfur containing phenates, sodium sulfonates, sodium calixarates, sodium salixarates, sodium salicylates, sodium carboxylic acids, sodium phosphorus acids, sodium mono- and/or di-thiophosphoric acids, sodium alkyl phenols, sodium sulfur coupled alkyl phenol compounds, or sodium methylene bridged phenols.

[90] Overbased detergents are well known in the art and may be alkali or alkaline earth metal overbased detergents. Such detergents may be prepared by reacting a metal oxide or metal hydroxide with a substrate and carbon dioxide gas. The substrate is typically an acid, for example, an acid such as an aliphatic substituted sulfonic acid, an aliphatic substituted carboxylic acid, or an aliphatic substituted phenol.

[91] The terminology "overbased" relates to metal salts, such as metal salts of sulfonates, carboxylates, and phenates, wherein the amount of metal present exceeds the stoichiometric amount. Such salts may have a conversion level in excess of 100% (i.e., they may comprise more than 100% of the theoretical amount of metal needed to convert the acid to its "normal," "neutral" salt). The expression "metal ratio," often abbreviated as MR, is used to designate the ratio of total chemical equivalents of metal in the overbased salt to chemical equivalents of the metal in a neutral salt according to known chemical reactivity and stoichiometry. In a normal or neutral salt, the metal ratio is 1 and in an overbased salt, MR, is greater than 1. They are commonly referred to as overbased, hyperbased, or superbased salts and may be salts of organic sulfur acids, carboxylic acids, or phenols.

[92] An overbased detergent may have a TBN of greater 225 mg KOH/gram, or as further examples, an overbased detergent may have a TBN of about 250 mg KOH/gram or greater, or a TBN of about 300 mg KOH/gram or greater, or a TBN of about 350 mg KOH/gram or greater, or a TBN of about 375 mg KOH/gram or greater, or a TBN of about 400 mg KOH/gram or greater, as measured by the method of ASTM D-2896.

[93] Examples of suitable overbased detergents include, but are not limited to, overbased calcium phenates, overbased calcium sulfur containing phenates, overbased calcium sulfonates, overbased calcium calixarates, overbased calcium salixarates, overbased calcium salicylates, overbased calcium carboxylic acids, overbased calcium phosphorus acids, overbased calcium mono- and/or di-thiophosphoric acids, overbased calcium alkyl phenols, overbased calcium sulfur coupled alkyl phenol compounds, overbased calcium methylene bridged phenols, overbased magnesium phenates, overbased magnesium sulfur containing phenates, overbased magnesium sulfonates, overbased magnesium calixarates, overbased magnesium salixarates, overbased magnesium salicylates, overbased magnesium carboxylic acids, overbased magnesium phosphorus acids, overbased magnesium mono- and/or di- thiophosphoric acids, overbased magnesium alkyl phenols, overbased magnesium sulfur coupled alkyl phenol compounds, or overbased magnesium methylene bridged phenols.

[94] The overbased detergent may have a metal to substrate ratio of from 1.1: 1, or from 2: 1, or from 4: 1, or from 5: l, or from 7: l, or from 10: 1.

[95] In some embodiments, a detergent is effective at reducing or preventing rust in an engine.

[96] The total detergent may be present at up to 10 wt.%, or about up to 8 wt.%, or up to about 4 wt.%, or greater than about 1 wt.% to about 8 wt.%, or greater than about 1 wt.% to about 4 wt.%, based on a total weight of the lubricating oil composition.

[97] In each of the foregoing embodiments, "the total metal from the one or more metal- containing detergent(s)" may be present in an amount to provide from about 100 ppm to about 3500 ppm metal to the finished fluid. In other embodiments, the metal-containing detergent may provide from about 1100 to about 3000 ppm of metal, or about 1150 to about 2500 ppm of metal, or about 1200 to about 2400 ppm of metal, or less than 1800 ppm of metal to the finished fluid.

[98] The overbased detergent may be an overbased magnesium-containing detergent. The overbased magnesium-containing detergent may be selected from an overbased magnesium sulfonate detergent, an overbased magnesium phenate detergent, and an overbased magnesium salicylate detergent. In certain embodiments, the overbased magnesium- containing detergent comprises an overbased magnesium sulfonate detergent. In certain embodiments, the overbased detergent is one or more magnesium-containing detergents, preferably the overbased detergent is a magnesium sulfonate detergent.

[99] The total magnesium provided to the lubricating oil composition by the overbased magnesium detergent in each of the foregoing embodiments can be from 20 ppm by weight to 1500 ppm by weight magnesium to the lubricating oil composition, based on the total weight of the lubricating composition, or 100 ppm by weight to 800 ppm by weight magnesium, or greater than about 140 ppm by weight to about 550 ppm by weight magnesium, based on the total weight of the lubricating composition. In each of the foregoing embodiments, the overbased magnesium detergent may have a TBN of greater 225 mg KOH/gram, or as further examples, the overbased magnesium detergent may have a TBN of about 250 mg KOH/gram or greater, or a TBN of about 300 mg KOH/gram or greater, or a TBN of about 350 mg KOH/gram or greater, or a TBN of about 400 mg KOH/gram or greater, or a TBN of about 425 mg KOH/gram or greater, as measured by the method of ASTM D-2896.

[100] In some embodiments, the lubricating oil compositions of the present disclosure comprise at least one detergent selected from one or more overbased calcium-containing detergent(s) having a TBN of greater than 225 mg KOH/g, measured by the method of ASTM D-2896, and optionally one or more low-based/neutral calcium-containing detergent(s) having a TBN of up to 175 mg KOH/g, measured by the method of ASTM D- 2896. The present disclosure also includes methods of using such lubricating oil compositions in a method or lubricating a boosted engine by lubricating the engine with the lubricating oil composition and operating the engine.

[101] The lubricating oil composition of the disclosure may have an overbased calcium- containing detergent selected from an overbased calcium sulfonate detergent, an overbased calcium phenate detergent, and an overbased calcium salicylate detergent. In certain embodiments, the overbased calcium-containing detergent comprises an overbased calcium sulfonate detergent. In certain embodiments, the overbased detergent is one or more calcium- containing detergents. Preferably the overbased detergent is a calcium sulfonate detergent.

[102] In certain embodiments, the one or more overbased calcium-containing detergent(s) may be in an amount sufficient to provide less than about 1800 ppm by weight calcium to the lubricating oil composition, based on the total weight of the lubricating composition, or from about 1000 to about 1750 ppm, or from 1100 to 1700 ppm by weight calcium to the lubricating oil composition based on a total weight of the lubricating oil composition.

[103] The lubricating oil compositions of the present invention may optionally also contain one or more low-based/neutral detergents. The low-based/neutral detergent has a TBN of up to 175 mg KOH/g, or up to 150 mg KOH/g. The low-based/neutral detergent may include a calcium-containing detergent. The low-based neutral calcium-containing detergent may be selected from a calcium sulfonate detergent, a calcium phenate detergent and a calcium salicylate detergent. In some embodiments, the low-based/neutral detergent may be a calcium-containing detergent or a mixture of calcium-containing detergents. In some embodiments, the low-based/neutral detergent may be a calcium sulfonate detergent or a calcium phenate detergent. In some embodiments, the lubricating oil composition does not contain a low-based/neutral detergent.

[104] The low-based/neutral detergent, when present, may comprise at least 0.1 wt.% of the lubricating oil composition. In some embodiments, the low-based/neutral detergent may comprise at least 0.25 wt.%, or 0 wt.% to 5.0 wt,% or 0.15 wt.% to 3.0 wt.%, or 0.15 wt.% to 1.0 wt.% of the lubricating oil composition. The low-based/neutral detergent may optionally include one or more low-based/neutral calcium-containing detergents.

[105] In certain embodiments, the one or more low-based/neutral calcium-containing detergents may provide from about 0 to about 1000 ppm calcium by weight to the lubricating oil composition based on a total weight of the lubricating oil composition. In some embodiments, the one or more low-based/neutral calcium-containing detergents may provide from 25 to less than 800 ppm, or from 50 to 600 ppm, or from 100 to 500 ppm by weight calcium to the lubricating oil composition based on a total weight of the lubricating oil composition.

[106] In some embodiments the ratio of the ppm of calcium, by weight, provided to the lubricating oil composition by the low-based/neutral detergent to the ppm of calcium, by weight, provided to the lubricating oil composition by the overbased calcium detergent, may be from 0 to about 1, or from about 0.03 to about 0.7, or from about 0.05 to about 0.5, or from about 0.08 to about 0.4.

One or More Molybdenum-Containing Compound(s)

[107] The lubricating oil compositions herein contain molybdenum and this molybdenum may be provided to the lubricating oil composition in the form of one or more molybdenum- containing compounds. An oil-soluble molybdenum compound may have the functional performance of an antiwear agent, an antioxidant, a friction modifier, or mixtures thereof. An oil-soluble molybdenum compound may include molybdenum dithiocarbamates, molybdenum dialkyldithiophosphates, molybdenum dithiophosphinates, amine salts of molybdenum compounds, molybdenum xanthates, molybdenum thioxanthates, molybdenum sulfides, molybdenum carboxylates, molybdenum alkoxides, a trinuclear organo- molybdenum compound, and/or mixtures thereof. The molybdenum sulfides include molybdenum disulfide. The molybdenum disulfide may be in the form of a stable dispersion. In one embodiment the oil- soluble molybdenum compound may be selected from the group consisting of molybdenum dithiocarbamates, molybdenum dialkyldithiophosphates, amine salts of molybdenum compounds, and mixtures thereof. In one embodiment the oil-soluble molybdenum compound may be a molybdenum dithiocarbamate.

[108] Suitable examples of molybdenum compounds which may be used include commercial materials sold under the trade names such as Molyvan 822™, Molyvan™ A, Molyvan 2000™ and Molyvan 855™ from R. T. Vanderbilt Co., Ltd., and Sakura-Lube™ S- 165, S-200, S-300, S-310G, S-525, S-600, S-700, and S-710 available from Adeka Corporation, and mixtures thereof. Suitable molybdenum components are described in US 5,650,381; US RE 37,363 El ; US RE 38,929 El; and US RE 40,595 El.

[109] Additionally, the molybdenum compound may be an acidic molybdenum compound. Included are molybdic acid, ammonium molybdate, sodium molybdate, potassium molybdate, and other alkaline metal molybdates and other molybdenum salts, e.g., hydrogen sodium molybdate, M0OCI4, Mo02Br2, M02O3CI6, molybdenum trioxide or similar acidic molybdenum compounds. Alternatively, the compositions can be provided with molybdenum by molybdenum/sulfur complexes of basic nitrogen compounds as described, for example, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,263,152; 4,285,822; 4,283,295; 4,272,387; 4,265,773; 4,261,843; 4,259,195 and 4,259,194; and US Patent Publication No. 2002/0038525.

[110] Another class of suitable organo-molybdenum compounds are trinuclear molybdenum compounds, such as those of the formula Mo3SkLnQz and mixtures thereof, wherein S represents sulfur, L represents independently selected ligands having organo groups with a sufficient number of carbon atoms to render the compound soluble or dispersible in the oil, n is from 1 to 4, k varies from 4 through 7, Q is selected from the group of neutral electron donating compounds such as water, amines, alcohols, phosphines, and ethers, and z ranges from 0 to 5 and includes non-stoichiometric values. At least 21 total carbon atoms may be present among all the ligands' organo groups, such as at least 25, at least 30, or at least 35 carbon atoms. Additional suitable molybdenum compounds are described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,723,685.

[Ill] The one or more molybdenum containing compound(s) may be present in an amount sufficient to provide greater than about 40 ppm by weight of molybdenum to the lubricating composition, or at least about 50 ppm by weight molybdenum to the lubricating oil composition, or at least about 80 ppm by weight, or greater than 40 ppm by weight to 1200 ppm by weight, or greater than 40 ppm by weight to 900 ppm by weight, or at least about 80 ppm by weight to 800 ppm by weight molybdenum to the lubricating oil composition based on the total weight of the lubricating composition.

Boron-Containing Compounds

[112] The lubricating oil compositions herein contain boron which may be provided to the lubricating oil composition in the form of one or more boron-containing compound(s) (also referred to herein as one or more borated compound(s)) such as boron-containing dispersants as discussed above. [113] Examples of boron-containing compounds include borate esters, borated fatty amines, borated epoxides, borated detergents, and borated dispersants, such as borated succinimide dispersants, as disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 5,883,057.

[114] The boron-containing compound(s) can be used in an amount sufficient to provide about 0.01 wt.% to about 10 wt.%, about 0.05 wt.% to about 8.5 wt.%, or about 0.1 wt.% to about 3 wt.% of the lubricating oil composition. The boron-containing compound(s) may be included in the lubricating oil composition in an amount sufficient to provide greater than 50 ppm boron to the lubricating oil composition, or greater than 100 ppm boron, or from greater than 50 ppm to 1000 ppm boron, or greater than 100 ppm to 800 ppm boron, or 110 ppm to 600 ppm boron, or 120 ppm to 500 ppm boron to the lubricating oil composition, based on the total weight of the lubricating composition.

[115] The lubricating oil composition may also include one or more optional components selected from the various additives set forth below.

Antioxidants

[116] The lubricating oil compositions herein also may optionally contain one or more antioxidants. Antioxidant compounds are known and include for example, phenates, phenate sulfides, sulfurized olefins, phosphosulfurized terpenes, sulfurized esters, aromatic amines, alkylated diphenylamines (e.g., nonyl diphenylamine, di-nonyl diphenylamine, octyl diphenylamine, di-octyl diphenylamine), phenyl-alpha-naphthylamines, alkylated phenyl- alpha-naphthylamines, hindered non-aromatic amines, phenols, hindered phenols, oil-soluble molybdenum compounds, macromolecular antioxidants, or mixtures thereof. Antioxidant compounds may be used alone or in combination.

[117] The hindered phenol antioxidant may contain a secondary butyl and/or a tertiary butyl group as a sterically hindering group. The phenol group may be further substituted with a hydrocarbyl group and/or a bridging group linking to a second aromatic group. Examples of suitable hindered phenol antioxidants include 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, 4-methyl-2,6-di-tert- butylphenol, 4-ethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, 4-propyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol or 4-butyl-2,6- di-tert-butylphenol, or 4-dodecyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. In one embodiment the hindered phenol antioxidant may be an ester and may include, e.g., IRGANOX™ L-135 available from BASF or an addition product derived from 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol and an alkyl acrylate, wherein the alkyl group may contain about 1 to about 18, or about 2 to about 12, or about 2 to about 8, or about 2 to about 6, or about 4 carbon atoms. Another commercially available hindered phenol antioxidant may be an ester and may include ETHANOX 4716 available from Albemarle Corporation.

[118] Useful antioxidants may include diarylamines and high molecular weight phenols. In an embodiment, the lubricating oil composition may contain a mixture of a diarylamine and a high molecular weight phenol, such that each antioxidant may be present in an amount sufficient to provide up to about 5%, by weight, based upon the total weight of the lubricating oil composition. In an embodiment, the antioxidant may be a mixture of about 0.3 to about 1.5% diarylamine and about 0.4 to about 2.5% high molecular weight phenol, by weight, based upon the total weight of the lubricating oil composition.

[119] Examples of suitable olefins that may be sulfurized to form a sulfurized olefin include propylene, butylene, isobutylene, polyisobutylene, pentene, hexene, heptene, octene, nonene, decene, undecene, dodecene, tridecene, tetradecene, pentadecene, hexadecene, heptadecene, octadecene, nonadecene, eicosene or mixtures thereof. In one embodiment, hexadecene, heptadecene, octadecene, nonadecene, eicosene or mixtures thereof and their dimers, trimers and tetramers are especially useful olefins. Alternatively, the olefin may be a Diels-Alder adduct of a diene such as 1,3-butadiene and an unsaturated ester, such as, butylacrylate.

[120] Another class of sulfurized olefin includes sulfurized fatty acids and their esters. The fatty acids are often obtained from vegetable oil or animal oil and typically contain about 4 to about 22 carbon atoms. Examples of suitable fatty acids and their esters include triglycerides, oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitoleic acid or mixtures thereof. Often, the fatty acids are obtained from lard oil, tall oil, peanut oil, soybean oil, cottonseed oil, sunflower seed oil or mixtures thereof. Fatty acids and/or ester may be mixed with olefins, such as a-olefins.

[121] The one or more antioxidant(s) may be present in ranges about 0 wt.% to about 5.0 wt.%, or about 0.1 wt.% to about 4.0 wt.%, or about 0.5 wt.% to about 3 wt.%, of the lubricating oil composition, based on the total weight of the lubricating composition.

Antiwear Agents

[122] The lubricating oil compositions herein also may optionally contain one or more antiwear agents. Examples of suitable antiwear agents include, but are not limited to, a metal thiophosphate; a metal dialkyldithiophosphate; a phosphoric acid ester or salt thereof; a phosphate ester(s); a phosphite; a phosphorus -containing carboxylic ester, ether, or amide; a sulfurized olefin; thiocarbamate-containing compounds including, thiocarbamate esters, alkylene-coupled thiocarbamates, and bis(S-alkyldithiocarbamyl)disulfides; and mixtures thereof. A suitable antiwear agent may be a molybdenum dithiocarbamate. The phosphorus containing antiwear agents are more fully described in European Patent 612 839. The metal in the dialkyl dithiophosphate salts may be an alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, aluminum, lead, tin, molybdenum, manganese, nickel, copper, titanium, or zinc. A useful antiwear agent may be zinc dialkyldithiophosphate.

[123] Further examples of suitable antiwear agents include titanium compounds, tartrates, tartrimides, oil soluble amine salts of phosphorus compounds, sulfurized olefins, phosphites (such as dibutyl phosphite), phosphonates, thiocarbamate-containing compounds, such as thiocarbamate esters, thiocarbamate amides, thiocarbamic ethers, alkylene-coupled thiocarbamates, and bis(S-alkyldithiocarbamyl) disulfides. The tartrate or tartrimide may contain alkyl-ester groups, where the sum of carbon atoms on the alkyl groups may be at least 8. The antiwear agent may in one embodiment include a citrate.

[124] The antiwear agent may be present in ranges including about 0 wt.% to about 10 wt.%, or about 0.01 wt.% to about 8 wt.%, or about 0.05 wt.% to about 5 wt.%, or about 0.1 wt.% to about 3 wt.% or less than 2 wt.% of the lubricating oil composition, based on the total weight of the lubricating composition.

[125] An antiwear compound may be a zinc dihydrocarbyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) having a P:Zn ratio of from about 1 :0.8 to about 1: 1.7.

Dispersants

[126] The lubricating oil composition may optionally further comprise one or more dispersants or mixtures thereof. Dispersants are often known as ashless-type dispersants because, prior to mixing in a lubricating oil composition, they do not contain ash-forming metals and they do not normally contribute any ash when added to a lubricant. Ashless type dispersants are characterized by a polar group attached to a relatively high molecular weight hydrocarbon chain. Typical ashless dispersants include N-substituted long chain alkenyl succinimides. Examples of N-substituted long chain alkenyl succinimides include polyisobutylene succinimide with number average molecular weight of the polyisobutylene substituent in the range about 350 to about 50,000, or to about 5,000, or to about 3,000. Succinimide dispersants and their preparation are disclosed, for instance in U.S. Pat. No. 7,897,696 or U.S. Pat. No. 4,234,435. The polyolefin may be prepared from polymerizable monomers containing about 2 to about 16, or about 2 to about 8, or about 2 to about 6 carbon atoms. Succinimide dispersants are typically the imide formed from a polyamine, typically a poly (e thy leneamine) . [127] In an embodiment the present disclosure further comprises at least one polyisobutylene succinimide dispersant derived from polyisobutylene with number average molecular weight in the range about 350 to about 50,000, or to about 5000, or to about 3000. The polyisobutylene succinimide may be used alone or in combination with other dispersants.

[128] In some embodiments, polyisobutylene, when included, may have greater than 50 mol%, greater than 60 mol%, greater than 70 mol%, greater than 80 mol%, or greater than 90 mol% content of terminal double bonds. Such PIB is also referred to as highly reactive PIB ("HR-PIB"). HR-PIB having a number average molecular weight ranging from about 800 to about 5000 is suitable for use in embodiments of the present disclosure. Conventional PIB typically has less than 50 mol%, less than 40 mol%, less than 30 mol%, less than 20 mol%, or less than 10 mol% content of terminal double bonds.

[129] An HR-PIB having a number average molecular weight ranging from about 900 to about 3000 may be suitable. Such HR-PIB is commercially available, or can be synthesized by the polymerization of isobutene in the presence of a non-chlorinated catalyst such as boron trifluoride, as described in US Patent No. 4,152,499 to Boerzel, et al. and U.S. Patent No. 5,739,355 to Gateau, et al. When used in the aforementioned thermal ene reaction, HR-PIB may lead to higher conversion rates in the reaction, as well as lower amounts of sediment formation, due to increased reactivity. A suitable method is described in U.S. Patent No. 7,897,696.

[130] In one embodiment the present disclosure further comprises at least one dispersant derived from polyisobutylene succinic anhydride ("PIBSA"). The PIBSA may have an average of between about 1.0 and about 2.0 succinic acid moieties per polymer.

[131] The % actives of the alkenyl or alkyl succinic anhydride can be determined using a chromatographic technique. This method is described in column 5 and 6 in U.S. Pat. No.

5,334,321.

[132] The percent conversion of the polyolefin is calculated from the % actives using the equation in column 5 and 6 in U.S. Pat. No. 5,334,321.

[133] Unless stated otherwise, all percentages are in weight percent and all molecular weights are number average molecular weights.

[134] In one embodiment, the dispersant may be derived from a polyalphaolefin (PAO) succinic anhydride.

[135] In one embodiment, the dispersant may be derived from olefin maleic anhydride copolymer. As an example, the dispersant may be described as a poly-PIBSA. [136] In an embodiment, the dispersant may be derived from an anhydride which is grafted to an ethylene-propylene copolymer.

[137] One class of suitable dispersants may be Mannich bases. Mannich bases are materials that are formed by the condensation of a higher molecular weight, alkyl substituted phenol, a polyalkylene polyamine, and an aldehyde such as formaldehyde. Mannich bases are described in more detail in U.S. Patent No. 3,634,515.

[138] A suitable class of dispersants may be high molecular weight esters or half ester amides.

[139] A suitable dispersant may also be post-treated by conventional methods by a reaction with any of a variety of agents. Among these are boron, urea, thiourea, dimercaptothiadiazoles, carbon disulfide, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, hydrocarbon- substituted succinic anhydrides, maleic anhydride, nitriles, epoxides, carbonates, cyclic carbonates, hindered phenolic esters, and phosphorus compounds. US 7,645,726; US 7,214,649; and US 8,048,831 disclose suitable dispersants and post-treatments.

[140] In addition to the carbonate and boric acids post-treatments both the compounds may be post-treated, or further post-treatment, with a variety of post-treatments designed to improve or impart different properties. Such post-treatments include those summarized in columns 27-29 of U.S. Pat. No. 5,241,003. Such treatments include, treatment with:

Inorganic phosphorus acids or anhydrates (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,403,102 and

4,648,980);

Organic phosphorus compounds (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 3,502,677);

Phosphorus pentasulfides;

Boron compounds as already noted above (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,178,663 and 4,652,387);

Carboxylic acid, polycarboxylic acids, anhydrides and/or acid halides (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,708,522 and 4,948,386);

Epoxides, polyepoxides or thioexpoxides (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,859,318 and 5,026,495);

Aldehyde or ketone (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 3,458,530);

Carbon disulfide (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 3,256,185);

Glycidol (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,617, 137);

Urea, thourea or guanidine (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,312,619; 3,865,813; and British Patent GB 1,065,595);

Organic sulfonic acid (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 3,189,544 and British Patent GB 2, 140,811); Alkenyl cyanide (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,278,550 and 3,366,569);

Diketene (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 3,546,243);

A diisocyanate (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 3,573,205);

Alkane sultone (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 3,749,695);

1,3-Dicarbonyl Compound (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,579,675);

Sulfate of alkoxylated alcohol or phenol (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 3,954,639);

Cyclic lactone (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,617,138; 4,645,515; 4,668,246; 4,963,275; and

4,971,711);

Cyclic carbonate or thiocarbonate linear monocarbonate or polycarbonate, or chloroformate (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,612,132; 4,647,390; 4,648,886; 4,670,170); Nitrogen-containing carboxylic acid (e.g., U.S. Pat. 4,971,598 and British Patent GB 2,140,811);

Hydroxy-protected chlorodicarbonyloxy compound (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,614,522); Lactam, thiolactam, thiolactone or ditholactone (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,614,603 and 4,666,460);

Cyclic carbonate or thiocarbonate, linear monocarbonate or polycarbonate, or chloroformate (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,612,132; 4,647,390; 4,646,886; and 4,670,170); Nitrogen-containing carboxylic acid (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,971,598 and British Patent GB 2,440,811);

Hydroxy-protected chlorodicarbonyloxy compound (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,614,522); Lactam, thiolactam, thiolactone or dithiolactone (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,614,603, and 4,666,460);

Cyclic carbamate, cyclic thiocarbamate or cyclic dithiocarbamate (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,663,062 and 4,666,459);

Hydroxyaliphatic carboxylic acid (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,482,464; 4,521,318; 4,713,189);

Oxidizing agent (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,379,064);

Combination of phosphorus pentasulfide and a polyalkylene polyamine (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 3,185,647);

Combination of carboxylic acid or an aldehyde or ketone and sulfur or sulfur chloride (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,390,086; 3,470,098);

Combination of a hydrazine and carbon disulfide (e.g. U.S. Pat. No. 3,519,564);

Combination of an aldehyde and a phenol (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,649,229; 5,030,249; 5,039,307); Combination of an aldehyde and an O-diester of dithiophosphoric acid (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 3,865,740);

Combination of a hydroxyaliphatic carboxylic acid and a boric acid (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,554,086);

Combination of a hydroxyaliphatic carboxylic acid, then formaldehyde and a phenol (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,636,322);

Combination of a hydroxyaliphatic carboxylic acid and then an aliphatic dicarboxylic acid (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,663,064);

Combination of formaldehyde and a phenol and then glycolic acid (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,699,724);

Combination of a hydroxyaliphatic carboxylic acid or oxalic acid and then a diisocyanate (e.g. U.S. Pat. No.4,713, 191);

Combination of inorganic acid or anhydride of phosphorus or a partial or total sulfur analog thereof and a boron compound (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,857,214);

Combination of an organic diacid then an unsaturated fatty acid and then a nitrosoaromatic amine optionally followed by a boron compound and then a glycolating agent (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,973,412);

Combination of an aldehyde and a triazole (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,963,278);

Combination of an aldehyde and a triazole then a boron compound (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,981,492);

Combination of cyclic lactone and a boron compound (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,963,275 and 4,971,711).

[141] The TBN of a suitable dispersant may be from about 10 to about 65 on an oil-free basis, which is comparable to about 5 to about 30 TBN if measured on a dispersant sample containing about 50% diluent oil.

[142] The dispersant, if present, can be used in an amount sufficient to provide up to about 10 wt.%, based upon the total weight of the lubricating oil composition. Another amount of the dispersant that can be used may be about 0.1 wt.% to about 10 wt.%, or about 1 wt.% to about 9 wt.%, or about 2 wt.% to about 8.5 wt.%, or about 2.75 wt.% to about 6.5 wt.%, based upon the total weight of the lubricating oil composition. In some embodiments, the lubricating oil composition utilizes a mixed dispersant system. A single type or a mixture of two or more types of dispersants in any desired ratio may be used. [143] If the dispersant contains nitrogen, then the amount of dispersant used in the present lubricating oil compositions may be constrained by the ratio of total metal from the one or more metal-containing detergent(s) to the total nitrogen in the lubricating oil composition.

Friction Modifiers

[144] The lubricating oil compositions herein also may optionally contain one or more friction modifiers. Suitable friction modifiers may comprise metal containing and metal-free friction modifiers and may include, but are not limited to, imidazolines, amides, amines, succinimides, alkoxylated amines, alkoxylated ether amines, amine oxides, amidoamines, nitriles, betaines, quaternary amines, imines, amine salts, amino guanadine, alkanolamides, phosphonates, metal-containing compounds, glycerol esters, sulfurized fatty compounds and olefins, sunflower oil other naturally occurring plant or animal oils, dicarboxylic acid esters, esters or partial esters of a polyol and one or more aliphatic or aromatic carboxylic acids, and the like.

[145] Suitable friction modifiers may contain hydrocarbyl groups that are selected from straight chain, branched chain, or aromatic hydrocarbyl groups or mixtures thereof, and may be saturated or unsaturated. The hydrocarbyl groups may be composed of carbon and hydrogen or hetero atoms such as sulfur or oxygen. The hydrocarbyl groups may range from about 12 to about 25 carbon atoms. In some embodiments the friction modifier may be a long chain fatty acid ester. In another embodiment the long chain fatty acid ester may be a mono-ester, or a di-ester, or a (tri)glyceride. The friction modifier may be a long chain fatty amide, a long chain fatty ester, a long chain fatty epoxide derivatives, or a long chain imidazoline.

[146] Other suitable friction modifiers may include organic, ashless (metal-free), nitrogen- free organic friction modifiers. Such friction modifiers may include esters formed by reacting carboxylic acids and anhydrides with alkanols and generally include a polar terminal group (e.g. carboxyl or hydroxyl) covalently bonded to an oleophilic hydrocarbon chain. An example of an organic ashless nitrogen-free friction modifier is known generally as glycerol monooleate (GMO) which may contain mono-, di-, and tri-esters of oleic acid. Other suitable friction modifiers are described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,723,685.

[147] Aminic friction modifiers may include amines or polyamines. Such compounds can have hydrocarbyl groups that are linear, either saturated or unsaturated, or a mixture thereof and may contain from about 12 to about 25 carbon atoms. Further examples of suitable friction modifiers include alkoxylated amines and alkoxylated ether amines. Such compounds may have hydrocarbyl groups that are linear, either saturated, unsaturated, or a mixture thereof. They may contain from about 12 to about 25 carbon atoms. Examples include ethoxylated amines and ethoxylated ether amines.

[148] The amines and amides may be used as such or in the form of an adduct or reaction product with a boron compound such as a boric oxide, boron halide, metaborate, boric acid or a mono-, di- or tri-alkyl borate. Other suitable friction modifiers are described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,300,291.

[149] A friction modifier may optionally be present in ranges such as about 0 wt.% to about 10 wt.%, or about 0.01 wt.% to about 8 wt.%, or about 0.05 wt.% to about 4 wt.% or about 0.05 to about 2 wt.%, based on the total weight of the lubricating composition.

Transition metal-containing compounds

[150] In another embodiment, the oil-soluble compound may be a transition metal containing compound or a metalloid. The transition metals may include, but are not limited to, titanium, vanadium, copper, zinc, zirconium, molybdenum, tantalum, tungsten, and the like. Suitable metalloids include, but are not limited to, boron, silicon, antimony, tellurium, and the like.

[151] In one embodiment, the oil-soluble compound that may be used in a weight ratio of Ca/M ranging from about 0.8: 1 to about 70: 1 is a titanium containing compound, wherein M is the total metal in the lubricant composition as described above. The titanium-containing compounds may function as antiwear agents, friction modifiers, antioxidants, deposit control additives, or more than one of these functions.

[152] Among the titanium containing compounds that may be used in, or which may be used for preparation of the oils-soluble materials of, the disclosed technology are various Ti (IV) compounds such as titanium (IV) oxide; titanium (IV) sulfide; titanium (IV) nitrate; titanium (IV) alkoxides such as titanium methoxide, titanium ethoxide, titanium propoxide, titanium isopropoxide, titanium butoxide, titanium 2-ethylhexoxide; and other titanium compounds or complexes including but not limited to titanium phenates; titanium carboxylates such as titanium (IV) 2-ethyl-l-3-hexanedioate or titanium citrate or titanium oleate; and titanium (IV) (triethanolaminato)isopropoxide. The monohydric alkoxides may have 2 to 16, or 3 to 10 carbon atoms. In an embodiment, the titanium compound may be the alkoxide of a 1,2-diol or polyol. In an embodiment, the 1,2-diol comprises a fatty acid mono- ester of glycerol, such as oleic acid. In an embodiment, the oil soluble titanium compound may be a titanium carboxylate. In an embodiment the titanium (IV) carboxylate may be titanium neodecanoate.

[153] Other forms of titanium encompassed within the disclosed technology include titanium phosphates such as titanium dithiophosphates (e.g., dialkyldithiophosphates) and titanium sulfonates (e.g., alkylbenzenesulfonates), or, generally, the reaction product of titanium compounds with various acid materials to form salts, such as oil-soluble salts. Titanium compounds can thus be derived from, among others, organic acids, alcohols, and glycols. Ti compounds may also exist in dimeric or oligomeric form, containing Ti-O-Ti structures. Such titanium materials are commercially available or can be readily prepared by appropriate synthesis techniques which will be apparent to the person skilled in the art. They may exist at room temperature as a solid or a liquid, depending on the particular compound. They may also be provided in a solution form in an appropriate inert solvent.

[154] In one embodiment, the titanium can be supplied as a Ti-modified dispersant, such as a succinimide dispersant. Such materials may be prepared by forming a titanium mixed anhydride between a titanium alkoxide and a hydrocarbyl-substituted succinic anhydride, such as an alkenyl- (or alkyl) succinic anhydride. The resulting titanate-succinate intermediate may be used directly or it may be reacted with any of a number of materials, such as (a) a polyamine-based succinimide/amide dispersant having free, condensable— NH functionality; (b) the components of a polyamine-based succinimide/amide dispersant, i.e., an alkenyl- (or alkyl-) succinic anhydride and a polyamine, (c) a hydroxy-containing polyester dispersant prepared by the reaction of a substituted succinic anhydride with a polyol, aminoalcohol, polyamine, or mixtures thereof. Alternatively, the titanate-succinate intermediate may be reacted with other agents such as alcohols, aminoalcohols, ether alcohols, polyether alcohols or polyols, or fatty acids, and the product thereof either used directly to impart Ti to a lubricant, or else further reacted with the succinic dispersants as described above. As an example, 1 part (by mole) of tetraisopropyl titanate may be reacted with about 2 parts (by mole) of a polyisobutene-substituted succinic anhydride at 140-150° C for 5 to 6 hours to provide a titanium modified dispersant or intermediate. The resulting material (30 g) may be further reacted with a succinimide dispersant from polyisobutene- substituted succinic anhydride and a polye thy lenepoly amine mixture (127 grams + diluent oil) at 150° C for 1.5 hours, to produce a titanium-modified succinimide dispersant.

[155] Another titanium containing compound may be a reaction product of titanium alkoxide and C6 to C25 carboxylic acid. The reaction product may be represented by the following formula:

Figure imgf000036_0001

wherein n is an integer selected from 2, 3 and 4, and R is a hydrocarbyl group containing from about 5 to about 24 carbon atoms or by the formula:

Figure imgf000036_0002

wherein m + n = 4 and n ranges from 1 to 3, R4 is an alkyl moiety with carbon atoms ranging from 1-8, Ri is selected from a hydrocarbyl group containing from about 6 to 25 carbon atoms, and R2 and R3 are the same or different and are selected from a hydrocarbyl group containing

Figure imgf000036_0003

wherein x ranges from 0 to 3, Ri is selected from a hydrocarbyl group containing from about 6 to 25 carbon atoms, R2, and R3 are the same or different and are selected from a hydrocarbyl group containing from about 1 to 6 carbon atoms, and R4 is selected from a group consisting of either H, or C6 to C25 carboxylic acid moiety.

[156] Suitable carboxylic acids may include, but are not limited to caproic acid, caprylic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, oleic acid, erucic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, phenylacetic acid, benzoic acid, neodecanoic acid, and the like. [157] In an embodiment the oil soluble titanium compound may be present in the lubricating oil composition in an amount to provide from 0 to 3000 ppm titanium or 25 to about 1500 ppm titanium or about 35 ppm to 500 ppm titanium or about 50 ppm to about 300 ppm titanium, based on the total weight of the lubricating composition.

Viscosity Index Improvers

[158] The lubricating oil compositions herein also may optionally contain one or more viscosity index improvers. Suitable viscosity index improvers may include polyolefins, olefin copolymers, ethylene/propylene copolymers, polyisobutenes, hydrogenated styrene- isoprene polymers, styrene/maleic ester copolymers, hydrogenated styrene/butadiene copolymers, hydrogenated isoprene polymers, alpha-olefin maleic anhydride copolymers, polymethacrylates, polyacrylates, polyalkyl styrenes, hydrogenated alkenyl aryl conjugated diene copolymers, or mixtures thereof. Viscosity index improvers may include star polymers and suitable examples are described in US Patent No. 8,999,905 B2.

[159] The lubricating oil compositions herein also may optionally contain one or more dispersant viscosity index improvers in addition to a viscosity index improver or in lieu of a viscosity index improver. Suitable viscosity index improvers may include functionalized polyolefins, for example, ethylene-propylene copolymers that have been functionalized with the reaction product of an acylating agent (such as maleic anhydride) and an amine; polymethacrylates functionalized with an amine, or esterified maleic anhydride- styrene copolymers reacted with an amine.

[160] The total amount of viscosity index improver and/or dispersant viscosity index improver may be about 0 wt.% to about 20 wt.%, about 0.1 wt.% to about 15 wt.%, about 0.1 wt.% to about 13 wt.%, or 0.25 wt.% to about 12 wt.%, or about 0.5 wt.% to about 11 wt.%, or about 3.0 wt.% to about 10.5 wt.%, of the lubricating oil composition.

Other Optional Additives

[161] Other additives may be selected to perform one or more functions required of a lubricating fluid. Further, one or more of the mentioned additives may be multi-functional and provide functions in addition to or other than the function prescribed herein.

[162] A lubricating oil composition according to the present disclosure may optionally comprise other performance additives. The other performance additives may be in addition to specified additives of the present disclosure and/or may comprise one or more of metal deactivators, viscosity index improvers, ashless TBN boosters, friction modifiers, antiwear agents, corrosion inhibitors, rust inhibitors, dispersants, dispersant viscosity index improvers, extreme pressure agents, antioxidants, foam inhibitors, demulsifiers, emulsifiers, pour point depressants, seal swelling agents and mixtures thereof. Typically, fully-formulated lubricating oil will contain one or more of these performance additives.

[163] Suitable metal deactivators may include derivatives of benzotriazoles (typically tolyltriazole), dimercaptothiadiazole derivatives, 1,2,4-triazoles, benzimidazoles, 2- alkyldithiobenzimidazoles, or 2-alkyldithiobenzothiazoles; foam inhibitors including copolymers of ethyl acrylate and 2-ethylhexylacrylate and optionally vinyl acetate; demulsifiers including trialkyl phosphates, polyethylene glycols, polyethylene oxides, polypropylene oxides and (ethylene oxide-propylene oxide) polymers; pour point depressants including esters of maleic anhydride-styrene, polymethacrylates, polyacrylates or polyacrylamides.

[164] Suitable foam inhibitors include silicon-based compounds, such as siloxane.

[165] Suitable pour point depressants may include a polymethylmethacrylates or mixtures thereof. Pour point depressants may be present in an amount sufficient to provide from about 0 wt.% to about 5 wt.%, about 0.01 wt.% to about 3 wt.%, or about 0.01 wt.% to about 1 wt.% based upon the total weight of the lubricating oil composition.

[166] Suitable rust inhibitors may be a single compound or a mixture of compounds having the property of inhibiting corrosion of ferrous metal surfaces. Non-limiting examples of rust inhibitors useful herein include oil-soluble high molecular weight organic acids, such as 2- ethylhexanoic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, behenic acid, and cerotic acid, as well as oil-soluble polycarboxylic acids including dimer and trimer acids, such as those produced from tall oil fatty acids, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. Other suitable corrosion inhibitors include long-chain alpha, omega- dicarboxylic acids in the molecular weight range of about 600 to about 3000 and alkenylsuccinic acids in which the alkenyl group contains about 10 or more carbon atoms such as, tetrapropenylsuccinic acid, tetradecenylsuccinic acid, and hexadecenylsuccinic acid. Another useful type of acidic corrosion inhibitors are the half esters of alkenyl succinic acids having about 8 to about 24 carbon atoms in the alkenyl group with alcohols such as the polyglycols. The corresponding half amides of such alkenyl succinic acids are also useful. A useful rust inhibitor is a high molecular weight organic acid. In some embodiments, an engine oil is devoid of a rust inhibitor. [167] The rust inhibitor, if present, can be used in an amount sufficient to provide about 0 wt.% to about 5 wt.%, about 0.01 wt.% to about 3 wt.%, about 0.1 wt.% to about 2 wt.%, based upon the total weight of the lubricating oil composition.

[168] In general terms, a suitable crankcase lubricant may include additive components in the ranges listed in the following table.

Table 2

Figure imgf000039_0001

[169] The percentages of each component above represent the weight percent of each component, based upon the total weight of the lubricating oil composition. The remainder of the lubricating oil composition consists of one or more base oils.

[170] Additives used in formulating the compositions described herein may be blended into the base oil individually or in various sub-combinations. However, it may be suitable to blend all of the components concurrently using an additive concentrate (i.e., additives plus a diluent, such as a hydrocarbon solvent). Additives used in formulating the compositions described herein may be blended into the base oil individually or in various subcombinations. However, it may be suitable to blend all of the components concurrently using an additive concentrate (i.e., additives plus a diluent, such as a hydrocarbon solvent).

[171] The present disclosure provides novel lubricating oil blends specifically formulated for use as automotive engine lubricants. Embodiments of the present disclosure may provide lubricating oils suitable for engine applications that provide improvements in one or more of the following characteristics: antioxidancy, antiwear performance, rust inhibition, fuel economy, water tolerance, air entrainment, seal protection, and turbocharger deposit reduction, i.e., resisting a TCO Temperature Increase.

[172] Fully formulated lubricants conventionally contain an additive package, referred to herein as a dispersant/inhibitor package or DI package, that will supply the characteristics that are required in the formulations. Suitable DI packages are described for example in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,204,012 and 6,034,040 for example. Among the types of additives included in the additive package may be dispersants, seal swell agents, antioxidants, foam inhibitors, lubricity agents, rust inhibitors, corrosion inhibitors, demulsifiers, viscosity index improvers, and the like. Several of these components are well known to those skilled in the art and are generally used in conventional amounts with the additives and compositions described herein.

[173] The following examples are illustrative, but not limiting, of the methods and compositions of the present disclosure. Other suitable modifications and adaptations of the variety of conditions and parameters normally encountered in the field, and which are obvious to those skilled in the art, are within the scope of the disclosure.

EXAMPLES

[174] Fully formulated lubricating oil compositions containing additives were made and tested to determine their influence on turbocharger deposit formation by determining the TCO Temperature Increase in a boosted internal combustion engine. The TCO Temperature Increase provides an indication that turbocharger deposits in the engine are producing an insulating effect. Thus, an increase in the TCO Temperature of a turbocharger of a boosted internal combustion engine indicates an increase in the amount of turbocharger deposits.

[175] Each of the lubricating oil compositions contained a major amount of a base oil, a DI package and one or more viscosity index improver(s), wherein the DI package (less the viscosity index improver) provided about 8 to about 16, percent by weight of the lubricating oil composition. The DI package contained conventional amounts of dispersant(s), antiwear additive(s), antifoam agent(s), and antioxidant(s) as set forth in Table 3 below. Specifically, the DI package contained a succinimide dispersant, a borated succinimide dispersant, a molybdenum-containing compound, a friction modifier, one or more antioxidants, and one or more antiwear agents (unless specified otherwise). About 4 to about 10 wt.% of one or more viscosity index improver(s) was included in each tested lubricating oil composition. A base oil was used as a diluent oil for the viscosity index improver(s). The components that were varied are specified in the Tables and discussion of the Examples given below. All the values listed in Table 3 are stated as weight percent of the component based on the total weight of the lubricating oil composition (i.e., active ingredient plus diluent oil, if any), unless specified otherwise.

Table 3 - DI Package Composition Ranges

Figure imgf000041_0001

Turbocharger Coking Test

[176] The turbocharger coking tests were carried out using a 2012, 1.4L Chevy Cruze calibration engine with 3 liters of test oil charge and a qualified test fuel using the 2015 version of the General Motors dexosl® Turbocharger Coking Test (TC Test).

[177] The TCO Temperature is measured every 30 seconds. The "100 cycle TCO Temperature" is the average TCO temperature of cycle 1 to cycle 100 of the TC test. The "1800 cycle TCO Temperature" is the average TCO temperature from cycle 1701 to cycle 1800 of the TC Test. The test is considered a "pass" if the TCO Temperature Increase from the 100 cycle TCO Temperature to the 1800 cycle TCO Temperature is less than 9.0%.

INVENTION A - Comparative Examples C-l and C-2 and Inventive Examples 1-1 and 1-2

[178] In the following examples, the impact of the total metal from the one or more metal- containing detergent(s) and the amounts of nitrogen, boron and molybdenum in varying ratios on the TCO temperature and the NOACK Volatility (ASTM D-5800 at 250 °C) was determined. The amounts of nitrogen, boron and molybdenum were determined by ICP analysis.

[179] Four samples were tested, each containing greater than 50 wt.% of a base oil of lubricating viscosity, and each were formulated to have an OW-20 rating. Table 4

Figure imgf000042_0001

a - NOACK volatility as measured by the method of ASTM D-5800 at 250 °C. "Pass" if the weight loss of lubricant oil composition is less than 11.0 wt.%.

b -TCO Temperature Increase. "Pass" means that the TCO Temperature Increase is less than 9.0%.

[180] Comparative examples C-l and C-2 are not commercially available fluids but are designed to demonstrate technical problems experienced by one skilled in the art when the lubricant oil composition is modified to meet performance needs.

[181] In Table 4, formulations C-l, C-2, I-l and 1-2 demonstrate the relationship between the total metal from the detergent:nitrogen weight ratio ("total metal: nitrogen ratio") and the TCO Temperature Increase. When the total metal: nitrogen ratio is outside the range of less than 1.9, as in Comparative examples C-l and C-2, the lubricating oil composition failed the TC Test, i.e., the TCO Temperature Increase was 9.0% or greater. On the other hand, each of the lubricating oil compositions of Inventive examples I-l and 1-2 having a total metal: nitrogen ratio which is inside the range of less than 1.9, passed the TC Test, i.e., the TCO Temperature Increase was less than 9.0%. Accordingly, Inventive examples I-l and 1-2 showed an improved resistance to formation of turbocharger deposits in a boosted engine.

[182] In Table 4, formulations C-l, C-2, I-l and 1-2 demonstrate the relationship between the total metal from the detergent:boron weight ratio ("total metahboron ratio") and the TCO Temperature Increase. When the total metahboron ratio is outside the range of less than 7.5, as in Comparative examples C-l and C-2, the lubricating oil composition failed the TC Test, i.e., the TCO Temperature Increase was 9.0% or greater. On the other hand, each of the lubricating oil compositions of Inventive examples I-l and 1-2 having a total metahboron ratio which is inside the range of less than 7.5, passed the TC Test, i.e., the TCO Temperature Increase was less than 9.0%. Accordingly, Inventive examples I-l and 1-2 showed an improved resistance to formation of turbocharger deposits in a boosted engine.

[183] In Table 4, formulations C-l, C-2, I-l and 1-2 demonstrate the relationship between the total metal from the detergent:molybdenum weight ratio ("total metal: molybdenum ratio") and the TCO Temperature Increase. When the total metal: molybdenum ratio is outside the range of less than 23.8, as in Comparative examples C-l and C-2, the lubricating oil composition failed the TC Test, i.e., the TCO Temperature Increase was 9.0% or greater. On the other hand, each of the lubricating oil compositions of Inventive examples I-l and 1-2 having a total metal: molybdenum ratio which is inside the range of less than 23.8, passed the TC Test, i.e., the TCO Temperature Increase was less than 9.0%. Accordingly, Inventive examples I- 1 and 1-2 showed an improved resistance to formation of turbocharger deposits in a boosted engine.

[184] In Table 4, formulations C-l, C-2, I-l and 1-2 demonstrate the relationship between the type of base oil and the NOACK volatility. When a Group III base oil is used alone, the NOACK volatility is outside the range of less than 11.0 wt.%, as in Comparative examples C- 1 and C-2. On the other hand, each of the lubricating oil compositions of Inventive examples I-l and 1-2 having a combination of Group II and Group III base oils, gave a NOACK volatility of less than 11.0 wt.%. Accordingly, Inventive examples I-l and 1-2 showed NOACK volatility improvement.

INVENTION B - Comparative Examples C-3 to C-5 and Inventive Examples 1-3 to 1-7

[185] In the following examples, the impact of several parameters on the TCO Temperature Increase was determined. Eight samples were tested, each containing greater than 50 wt.% of a base oil of lubricating viscosity; and the compounds and elements as listed below in Table 5. All eight samples were formulated to have a 5W-30 rating. Table 5

Figure imgf000044_0001

a - Overbased magnesium sulfonate detergent: Target 400 TBN.

b - Overbased (Target 300 TBN) and optionally low-based/neutral (Target <150 TBN) calcium sulfonate detergent.

c - % Ca = [Ca/(Ca+Mg)*100]

d - Lubricant passes if <9.0%.

[186] In Table 5, formulations C-3, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6 and 1-7 demonstrate the relationship between the amount of the organomolybdenum nitrogen complex and the TCO Temperature Increase. According to one aspect of the invention, the one or more molybdenum-containing compound(s) are present in the lubricating oil composition in an amount sufficient to provide greater than about 40 ppm by weight molybdenum to the lubricating oil composition, based on a total weight of the lubricating composition. When the amount is outside the range of greater than about 40 ppm by weight molybdenum, as in Comparative example C-3, the lubricating oil composition failed the TC Test, i.e., the TCO Temperature Increase was 9.0% or greater. On the other hand, each of the lubricating oil compositions of Inventive examples 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6 and 1-7 having molybdenum in the range of greater than about 40 ppm by weight from the molybdenum-containing compounds, passed the TC Test, i.e., the TCO Temperature Increase was less than 9.0%. Accordingly, Inventive examples 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6 and 1-7 showed an improved resistance to formation of turbocharger deposits in a boosted engine.

[187] In Table 5, formulations C-3, C-4, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6 and 1-7 demonstrate the relationship between the presence of a magnesium-containing detergent in the lubricating oil composition and the TCO Temperature Increase. According to one aspect of the invention, the lubricating oil composition has a magnesium-containing detergent. When the lubricating oil composition does not have a magnesium-containing detergent, as in Comparative example C-3, the lubricating oil composition failed the TC Test, i.e., the TCO Temperature Increase was 9.0% or greater. On the other hand, each of the lubricating oil compositions of Inventive examples 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6 and 1-7 have a magnesium-containing detergent, the lubricating oil composition passed the TC Test, i.e., the TCO Temperature Increase was less than 9.0%. Accordingly, Inventive examples 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6 and 1-7 showed an improved resistance to formation of turbocharger deposits in a boosted engine.

[188] In Table 5, formulations C-3, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6 and 1-7 demonstrate the relationship between the amount of the one or more overbased calcium-containing detergent(s) and the TCO Temperature Increase. According to one aspect of the invention, the one or more overbased calcium-containing detergent(s) is present in the lubricating oil composition in an amount sufficient to provide less than about 1800 ppm by weight calcium to the lubricating oil composition, based on a total weight of the lubricating composition. When the amount is outside the range of less than about 1800 ppm by weight calcium, as in Comparative example C-3, the lubricating oil composition failed the TC Test, i.e., the TCO Temperature Increase was 9.0% or greater. On the other hand, each of the lubricating oil compositions of Inventive examples 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6 and 1-7 formulated within the range of less than about 1800 ppm by weight calcium, passed the TC Test, i.e., the TCO Temperature Increase was less than 9.0%. Accordingly, Inventive examples 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6 and 1-7 showed an improved resistance to formation of turbocharger deposits in a boosted engine.

[189] In Table 5, formulations C-3, C-4, C-5, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6 and 1-7 demonstrate the relationship between the ratio of total boron in ppm by weight to total nitrogen in the lubricating oil composition and the TCO Temperature Increase. According to one aspect of the invention, the lubricating oil composition has a ratio of total boron in ppm by weight to total nitrogen in ppm by weight may be less than about 0.29. When the lubricating oil composition does not have a ratio of total boron in ppm by weight to total nitrogen in ppm by weight may be less than about 0.29, as in Comparative examples C-3, C-4 and C-5, the lubricating oil composition failed the TC Test, i.e., the TCO Temperature Increase was 9.0% or greater. On the other hand, each of the lubricating oil compositions of Inventive examples 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6 and 1-7 have a ratio of total boron in ppm by weight to total nitrogen in ppm by weight may be less than about 0.29, the lubricating oil composition passed the TC Test, i.e., the TCO Temperature Increase was less than 9.0%. Accordingly, Inventive examples 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6 and 1-7 showed an improved resistance to formation of turbocharger deposits in a boosted engine.

[190] In Table 5, formulations C-3, C-4, C-5, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6 and 1-7 demonstrate the relationship between the ratio of total calcium in ppm by weight to total boron in the lubricating oil composition and the TCO Temperature Increase. According to one aspect of the invention, the lubricating oil composition has a ratio of total calcium in ppm by weight to total boron in ppm by weight may be greater than about 4.9 to less than about 9.7. When the lubricating oil composition does not have a ratio of total calcium in ppm by weight to total boron in ppm by weight may be greater than about 4.9 to less than about 9.7, as in Comparative examples C-3, C-4 and C-5, the lubricating oil composition failed the TC Test, i.e., the TCO Temperature Increase was 9.0% or greater. On the other hand, each of the lubricating oil compositions of Inventive examples 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6 and 1-7 have a ratio of total calcium in ppm by weight to total boron in ppm by weight may be greater than about 4.9 to less than about 9.7, the lubricating oil composition passed the TC Test, i.e., the TCO Temperature Increase was less than 9.0%. Accordingly, Inventive examples 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6 and 1-7 showed an improved resistance to formation of turbocharger deposits in a boosted engine.

[191] At numerous places throughout this specification, reference has been made to a number of U.S. Patents and other documents. All such cited documents are expressly incorporated in full into this disclosure as if fully set forth herein and for the specific purpose that they are cited.

[192] Other embodiments of the present disclosure will be apparent to those skilled in the art from consideration of the specification and practice of the embodiments disclosed herein. As used throughout the specification and claims, "a" and/or "an" may refer to one or more than one. Unless otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing quantities of ingredients, properties such as molecular weight, percent, ratio, reaction conditions, and so forth used in the specification and claims are to be understood as being modified in all instances by the term "about," whether or not the term "about" is present. Accordingly, unless indicated to the contrary, the numerical parameters set forth in the specification and claims are approximations that may vary depending upon the desired properties sought to be obtained by the present disclosure. At the very least, and not as an attempt to limit the application of the doctrine of equivalents to the scope of the claims, each numerical parameter should at least be construed in light of the number of reported significant digits and by applying ordinary rounding techniques. Notwithstanding that the numerical ranges and parameters setting forth the broad scope of the disclosure are approximations, the numerical values set forth in the specific examples are reported as precisely as possible. Any numerical value, however, inherently contains certain errors necessarily resulting from the standard deviation found in their respective testing measurements. It is intended that the specification and examples be considered as exemplary only, with a true scope of the disclosure being indicated by the following claims.

[193] The foregoing embodiments are susceptible to considerable variation in practice. Accordingly, the embodiments are not intended to be limited to the specific exemplifications set forth hereinabove. Rather, the foregoing embodiments are within the scope of the appended claims, including the equivalents thereof available as a matter of law.

[194] The patentees do not intend to dedicate any disclosed embodiments to the public, and to the extent any disclosed modifications or alterations may not literally fall within the scope of the claims, they are considered to be part hereof under the doctrine of equivalents.

[195] It is to be understood that each component, compound, substituent or parameter disclosed herein is to be interpreted as being disclosed for use alone or in combination with one or more of each and every other component, compound, substituent or parameter disclosed herein.

[196] It is also to be understood that each amount/value or range of amounts/values for each component, compound, substituent or parameter disclosed herein is to be interpreted as also being disclosed in combination with each amount/value or range of amounts/values disclosed for any other component(s), compounds(s), substituent(s) or parameter(s) disclosed herein and that any combination of amounts/values or ranges of amounts/values for two or more component(s), compounds(s), substituent(s) or parameters disclosed herein are thus also disclosed in combination with each other for the purposes of this description.

[197] It is further understood that each range disclosed herein is to be interpreted as a disclosure of each specific value within the disclosed range that has the same number of significant digits. Thus, a range of from 1-4 is to be interpreted as an express disclosure of the values 1, 2, 3 and 4.

[198] It is further understood that each lower limit of each range disclosed herein is to be interpreted as disclosed in combination with each upper limit of each range and each specific value within each range disclosed herein for the same component, compounds, substituent or parameter. Thus, this disclosure to be interpreted as a disclosure of all ranges derived by combining each lower limit of each range with each upper limit of each range or with each specific value within each range, or by combining each upper limit of each range with each specific value within each range.

[199] Furthermore, specific amounts/values of a component, compound, substituent or parameter disclosed in the description or an example is to be interpreted as a disclosure of either a lower or an upper limit of a range and thus can be combined with any other lower or upper limit of a range or specific amount/value for the same component, compound, substituent or parameter disclosed elsewhere in the application to form a range for that component, compound, substituent or parameter.

Claims

What is claimed is:
1. A lubricating oil composition comprising :
greater than 50 wt.% of a base oil of lubricating viscosity and one or more metal- containing detergent(s);
wherein a ratio of total metal from the one or more metal-containing detergent(s) in ppm in the lubricating oil composition to the total nitrogen in ppm in the lubricating oil composition is less than 1.9;
a ratio of total metal from the one or more metal-containing detergent(s) in ppm in the lubricating oil composition to the total boron in ppm in the lubricating oil composition is less than 7.5; and
a ratio of total metal from the one or more metal-containing detergent(s) in ppm in the lubricating oil composition to the total molybdenum in ppm in the lubricating oil composition is less than 23.8;
the lubricating oil composition has a NOACK volatility as measured by the method of ASTM D-5800 at 250 °C of less than 11.0 wt.%, and the lubricating oil composition is effective to ensure a TCO Temperature Increase of less than 9.0% as measured using the 2015 version of the General Motors dexosl® Turbocharger Coking Test.
2. The lubricating oil composition according to claim 1, wherein the ratio of total metal from the one or more metal-containing detergent(s) in ppm in the lubricating oil composition to the total nitrogen in ppm in the lubricating oil composition is less than 1.8.
3. The lubricating oil composition according to claim 1, wherein the ratio of total metal from the one or more metal-containing detergent(s) in ppm in the lubricating oil composition to the total boron in ppm in the lubricating oil composition is less than 7.3.
4. The lubricating oil composition according to claim 1, wherein the ratio of total metal from the one or more metal-containing detergent(s) in ppm in the lubricating oil composition to the total molybdenum in ppm in the lubricating oil composition is less than 20.0.
5. The lubricating oil composition according to claim 1, wherein the lubricating oil composition has a NOACK volatility as measured by the method of ASTM D-5800 at 250 °C of 2.0 wt.% to less than 11.0 wt.%.
6. The lubricating oil composition according to claim 1, wherein the lubricating oil composition is effective to ensure a TCO Temperature Increase of less than 8.0% as measured using the 2015 version of the General Motors dexosl® Turbocharger Coking Test.
7. The lubricating oil composition according to claim 1, wherein the lubricating oil composition has an OW-20 rating.
8. A method for reducing or preventing formation of deposits in a boosted internal combustion engine comprising steps of:
lubricating a boosted internal combustion engine with the lubricating oil composition of claim 1, and
operating the engine lubricated with the lubricating oil composition.
9. The method of claim 8, wherein the lubricating oil composition is effective to ensure a TCO Temperature Increase of less than 9.0% as measured using the 2015 version of the General Motors dexosl® Turbocharger Coking Test.
10. A lubricating oil composition comprising:
greater than 50 wt.% of a base oil of lubricating viscosity;
one or more borated compound(s);
one or more molybdenum-containing compound(s) in an amount sufficient to provide greater than about 40 ppm by weight molybdenum to the lubricating oil composition, based on a total weight of the lubricating composition;
one or more magnesium-containing detergent(s);
one or more overbased calcium-containing detergent(s) in an amount sufficient to provide less than about 1800 ppm by weight calcium to the lubricating oil composition, based on the total weight of the lubricating composition.
11. The lubricating oil composition according to claim 10, wherein the one or more molybdenum containing compound(s) is present in an amount sufficient to provide at least about 50 ppm by weight molybdenum to the lubricating oil composition, based on a total weight of the lubricating oil composition.
12. The lubricating oil composition according to claim 10, wherein the one or more calcium- containing overbased detergent(s) is selected from an overbased calcium sulfonate detergent, an overbased calcium phenate detergent, and an overbased calcium salicylate detergent.
13. The lubricating oil composition according to claim 10, wherein the one or more magnesium-containing detergent(s) is overbased, and wherein the one or more overbased calcium-containing detergent(s) and the one or more overbased magnesium-containing detergent(s) each have a total base number of greater than 225 mg KOH/g, measured by the method of ASTM D-2896.
14. The lubricating oil composition according to claim 10, wherein the one or more overbased magnesium containing detergent(s) is an overbased magnesium sulfonate.
15. The lubricating oil composition according to claim 10, wherein the one or more magnesium-containing detergent(s) is in an amount sufficient to provide 20 ppm to 1800 ppm magnesium to the lubricating oil composition, based on the total weight of the lubricating composition.
16. The lubricating oil composition according to claim 10, wherein the ratio of total boron in ppm in the lubricating oil composition to total nitrogen in ppm in the lubricating oil composition is less than about 0.29.
17. The lubricating oil composition according to claim 10, wherein the ratio of total calcium in ppm in the lubricating oil composition to total boron in ppm in the lubricating oil composition is greater than about 4.9 to less than about 9.7.
18. The lubricating oil composition according to claim 10, wherein the weight percent calcium from the one or more overbased calcium-containing detergent(s) based on the total weight of calcium and magnesium from the one or more overbased calcium-containing detergent(s) and the one or more overbased magnesium-containing detergent(s), is greater than 50 wt.%.
19. The lubricating oil composition according to claim 10, wherein the lubricating oil composition is effective to ensure a TCO Temperature Increase of less than 9.0% as measured using the 2015 version of the General Motors dexosl® Turbocharger Coking Test.
20. The lubricating oil composition according to claim 10, wherein the lubricating oil composition has a 5W-30 rating.
21. A method for reducing or preventing formation of deposits in a boosted internal combustion engine comprising steps of:
lubricating a boosted internal combustion engine with the lubricating oil composition of claim 8, and
operating the engine lubricated with the lubricating oil composition.
22. The method of claim 21, wherein the lubricating oil composition is effective to ensure a TCO Temperature Increase of less than 9.0% as measured using the 2015 version of the General Motors dexosl® Turbocharger Coking Test.
PCT/US2017/015279 2016-02-25 2017-01-27 Lubricants for use in boosted engines WO2017146867A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US201615053617 true 2016-02-25 2016-02-25
US15/053,617 2016-02-25
US15409513 US20170247627A1 (en) 2016-02-25 2017-01-18 Lubricants for use in boosted engines
US15/409,513 2017-01-18

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2017146867A1 true true WO2017146867A1 (en) 2017-08-31

Family

ID=57963505

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/US2017/015279 WO2017146867A1 (en) 2016-02-25 2017-01-27 Lubricants for use in boosted engines

Country Status (1)

Country Link
WO (1) WO2017146867A1 (en)

Citations (96)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3178663A (en) 1961-06-26 1965-04-13 Bendix Corp Single speed and multispeed unitary synchro structure
US3185647A (en) 1962-09-28 1965-05-25 California Research Corp Lubricant composition
US3189544A (en) 1962-12-19 1965-06-15 Shell Oil Co Non-ash-containing lubricating oil composition
US3256185A (en) 1961-06-12 1966-06-14 Lubrizol Corp Lubricant containing acylated aminecarbon disulfide product
US3278550A (en) 1959-03-30 1966-10-11 Lubrizol Corp Reaction products of a hydrocarbonsubstituted succinic acid-producing compound, an amine and an alkenyl cyanide
US3312619A (en) 1963-10-14 1967-04-04 Monsanto Co 2-substituted imidazolidines and their lubricant compositions
GB1065595A (en) 1963-07-22 1967-04-19 Monsanto Co Imidazolines and imidazolidines and oil compositions containing the same
US3366569A (en) 1959-03-30 1968-01-30 Lubrizol Corp Lubricating compositions containing the reaction product of a substituted succinic acid-producing compound, an amino compound, and an alkenyl cyanide
US3390086A (en) 1964-12-29 1968-06-25 Exxon Research Engineering Co Sulfur containing ashless disperant
US3403102A (en) 1963-05-17 1968-09-24 Lubrizol Corp Lubricant containing phosphorus acid esters
US3458530A (en) 1962-11-21 1969-07-29 Exxon Research Engineering Co Multi-purpose polyalkenyl succinic acid derivative
US3502677A (en) 1963-06-17 1970-03-24 Lubrizol Corp Nitrogen-containing and phosphorus-containing succinic derivatives
US3519564A (en) 1967-08-25 1970-07-07 Lubrizol Corp Heterocyclic nitrogen-sulfur compositions and lubricants containing them
US3546243A (en) 1966-10-01 1970-12-08 Orobis Ltd Reaction products of diketene with certain substituted n-(alkylamino) succinimides
US3573205A (en) 1968-12-17 1971-03-30 Chevron Res Diisocyanate modified polyisobutenyl-succinimides as lubricating oil detergents
US3634515A (en) 1968-11-08 1972-01-11 Standard Oil Co alkylene polyamide formaldehyde
US3649229A (en) 1969-12-17 1972-03-14 Mobil Oil Corp Liquid hydrocarbon fuels containing high molecular weight mannich bases
US3708522A (en) 1969-12-29 1973-01-02 Lubrizol Corp Reaction products of high molecular weight carboxylic acid esters and certain carboxylic acid acylating reactants
US3749695A (en) 1971-08-30 1973-07-31 Chevron Res Lubricating oil additives
US3859318A (en) 1969-05-19 1975-01-07 Lubrizol Corp Products produced by post-treating oil-soluble esters of mono- or polycarboxylic acids and polyhydric alcohols with epoxides
US3865813A (en) 1968-01-08 1975-02-11 Lubrizol Corp Thiourea-acylated polyamine reaction product
US3865740A (en) 1972-05-22 1975-02-11 Chevron Res Multifunctional lubricating oil additive
US3954639A (en) 1974-03-14 1976-05-04 Chevron Research Company Lubricating oil composition containing sulfate rust inhibitors
US4152499A (en) 1977-01-22 1979-05-01 Basf Aktiengesellschaft Polyisobutenes
US4234435A (en) 1979-02-23 1980-11-18 The Lubrizol Corporation Novel carboxylic acid acylating agents, derivatives thereof, concentrate and lubricant compositions containing the same, and processes for their preparation
US4259194A (en) 1979-06-28 1981-03-31 Chevron Research Company Reaction product of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate with basic nitrogen compounds and lubricants containing same
US4259195A (en) 1979-06-28 1981-03-31 Chevron Research Company Reaction product of acidic molybdenum compound with basic nitrogen compound and lubricants containing same
US4261843A (en) 1979-06-28 1981-04-14 Chevron Research Company Reaction product of acidic molybdenum compound with basic nitrogen compound and lubricants containing same
US4263152A (en) 1979-06-28 1981-04-21 Chevron Research Company Process of preparing molybdenum complexes, the complexes so-produced and lubricants containing same
US4265773A (en) 1979-06-28 1981-05-05 Chevron Research Company Process of preparing molybdenum complexes, the complexes so-produced and lubricants containing same
US4272387A (en) 1979-06-28 1981-06-09 Chevron Research Company Process of preparing molybdenum complexes, the complexes so-produced and lubricants containing same
US4283295A (en) 1979-06-28 1981-08-11 Chevron Research Company Process for preparing a sulfurized molybdenum-containing composition and lubricating oil containing said composition
US4285822A (en) 1979-06-28 1981-08-25 Chevron Research Company Process for preparing a sulfurized molybdenum-containing composition and lubricating oil containing the composition
US4379064A (en) 1981-03-20 1983-04-05 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) Oxidative passivation of polyamine-dispersants
US4482464A (en) 1983-02-14 1984-11-13 Texaco Inc. Hydrocarbyl-substituted mono- and bis-succinimide having polyamine chain linked hydroxyacyl radicals and mineral oil compositions containing same
GB2140811A (en) 1980-08-25 1984-12-05 Exxon Research Engineering Co Lubricating oil with improved diesel dispersancy
US4521318A (en) 1983-11-14 1985-06-04 Texaco Inc. Lubricant compositions containing both hydrocarbyl substituted mono and bissuccinimide having polyamine chain linked hydroxacyl radicals, and neopentyl derivative
US4554086A (en) 1984-04-26 1985-11-19 Texaco Inc. Borate esters of hydrocarbyl-substituted mono- and bis-succinimides containing polyamine chain linked hydroxyacyl groups and lubricating oil compositions containing same
US4579675A (en) 1983-11-09 1986-04-01 Texaco Inc. N-substituted enaminones and oleaginous compositions containing same
US4612132A (en) 1984-07-20 1986-09-16 Chevron Research Company Modified succinimides
US4614522A (en) 1985-04-12 1986-09-30 Chevron Research Company Fuel compositions containing modified succinimides (VI)
US4614603A (en) 1985-04-12 1986-09-30 Chevron Research Company Modified succinimides (III)
US4617137A (en) 1984-11-21 1986-10-14 Chevron Research Company Glycidol modified succinimides
US4617138A (en) 1985-04-12 1986-10-14 Chevron Research Company Modified succinimides (II)
US4636322A (en) 1985-11-04 1987-01-13 Texaco Inc. Lubricating oil dispersant and viton seal additives
US4645515A (en) 1985-04-12 1987-02-24 Chevron Research Company Modified succinimides (II)
US4646886A (en) 1982-06-21 1987-03-03 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Damper device of a clutch for a torque converter
US4647390A (en) 1985-04-12 1987-03-03 Chevron Research Company Lubricating oil compositions containing modified succinimides (V)
US4648980A (en) 1983-09-22 1987-03-10 Chevron Research Company Hydrocarbon soluble nitrogen containing dispersant - fluorophosphoric acid adducts
US4648886A (en) 1985-04-12 1987-03-10 Chevron Research Company Modified succinimides (V)
US4652387A (en) 1986-07-30 1987-03-24 Mobil Oil Corporation Borated reaction products of succinic compounds as lubricant dispersants and antioxidants
US4663062A (en) 1985-04-12 1987-05-05 Chevron Research Company Lubricating oil compositions containing modified succinimides (VII)
US4663064A (en) 1986-03-28 1987-05-05 Texaco Inc. Dibaisic acid lubricating oil dispersant and viton seal additives
US4666460A (en) 1985-04-12 1987-05-19 Chevron Research Company Modified succinimides (III)
US4668246A (en) 1985-04-12 1987-05-26 Chevron Research Company Modified succinimides (IV)
US4670170A (en) 1985-04-12 1987-06-02 Chevron Research Company Modified succinimides (VIII)
US4699724A (en) 1986-08-20 1987-10-13 Texaco Inc. Post-coupled mono-succinimide lubricating oil dispersant and viton seal additives
US4713191A (en) 1986-12-29 1987-12-15 Texaco Inc. Diiscyanate acid lubricating oil dispersant and viton seal additives
US4713189A (en) 1986-08-20 1987-12-15 Texaco, Inc. Precoupled mono-succinimide lubricating oil dispersants and viton seal additives
US4857214A (en) 1988-09-16 1989-08-15 Ethylk Petroleum Additives, Inc. Oil-soluble phosphorus antiwear additives for lubricants
US4948386A (en) 1988-11-07 1990-08-14 Texaco Inc. Middle distillate containing storage stability additive
US4963278A (en) 1988-12-29 1990-10-16 Mobil Oil Corporation Lubricant and fuel compositions containing reaction products of polyalkenyl succinimides, aldehydes, and triazoles
US4963275A (en) 1986-10-07 1990-10-16 Exxon Chemical Patents Inc. Dispersant additives derived from lactone modified amido-amine adducts
US4971711A (en) 1987-07-24 1990-11-20 Exxon Chemical Patents, Inc. Lactone-modified, mannich base dispersant additives useful in oleaginous compositions
US4971598A (en) 1988-08-30 1990-11-20 Mobil Oil Corporation Reaction products of alkenyl succinimides with ethylenediamine carboxy acids as fuel detergents
US4973412A (en) 1990-05-07 1990-11-27 Texaco Inc. Multifunctional lubricant additive with Viton seal capability
US4981492A (en) 1989-12-13 1991-01-01 Mobil Oil Corporation Borated triazole-substituted polyalkenyl succinimides as multifunctional lubricant and fuel additives
US5026495A (en) 1987-11-19 1991-06-25 Exxon Chemical Patents Inc. Oil soluble dispersant additives useful in oleaginous compositions
US5030249A (en) 1990-10-01 1991-07-09 Texaco Inc. Gasoline detergent additive
US5039307A (en) 1990-10-01 1991-08-13 Texaco Inc. Diesel fuel detergent additive
US5204012A (en) 1989-01-31 1993-04-20 Ethyl Corporation Supplemental rust inhibitors and rust inhibition in internal combustion engines
US5241003A (en) 1990-05-17 1993-08-31 Ethyl Petroleum Additives, Inc. Ashless dispersants formed from substituted acylating agents and their production and use
US5334321A (en) 1993-03-09 1994-08-02 Chevron Research And Technology Company, A Division Of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Modified high molecular weight succinimides
EP0612839A1 (en) 1993-02-18 1994-08-31 The Lubrizol Corporation Liquid compositions for refrigeration systems containing fatty amines, fatty amides, and reaction products of fatty acylating agents
US5650381A (en) 1995-11-20 1997-07-22 Ethyl Corporation Lubricant containing molybdenum compound and secondary diarylamine
US5658862A (en) * 1994-12-20 1997-08-19 Exxon Research And Engineering Company Engine oil with improved fuel economy properties (law372).
US5739355A (en) 1995-02-15 1998-04-14 Institut Francais Du Petrole Process for production of polyisobutenylsuccinic anhydrides without formation of resins
US5883057A (en) 1996-01-16 1999-03-16 The Lubrizol Corporation Lubricating compositions
US6034040A (en) 1998-08-03 2000-03-07 Ethyl Corporation Lubricating oil formulations
US6300291B1 (en) 1999-05-19 2001-10-09 Infineum Usa L.P. Lubricating oil composition
US20020038525A1 (en) 1992-09-11 2002-04-04 Chevron Research And Technology Company Fuel composition for two-cycle engines
US6723685B2 (en) 2002-04-05 2004-04-20 Infineum International Ltd. Lubricating oil composition
USRE38929E1 (en) 1995-11-20 2006-01-03 Afton Chemical Intangibles Llc Lubricant containing molybdenum compound and secondary diarylamine
US7214649B2 (en) 2003-12-31 2007-05-08 Afton Chemical Corporation Hydrocarbyl dispersants including pendant polar functional groups
GB2440811A (en) 2006-07-28 2008-02-13 Mcalpine & Co Ltd Waste outlet for a shower
US20090082233A1 (en) * 2005-05-27 2009-03-26 Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd. Lubricating oil composition
US7645726B2 (en) 2004-12-10 2010-01-12 Afton Chemical Corporation Dispersant reaction product with antioxidant capability
US7732390B2 (en) 2004-11-24 2010-06-08 Afton Chemical Corporation Phenolic dimers, the process of preparing same and the use thereof
US7897696B2 (en) 2007-02-01 2011-03-01 Afton Chemical Corporation Process for the preparation of polyalkenyl succinic anhydrides
US20110077181A1 (en) * 2004-10-19 2011-03-31 Nippon Oil Corporation Lubricant composition and antioxidant composition
US20110245120A1 (en) * 2010-03-31 2011-10-06 Bertram Richard D Lubricating Oil Composition
US8999905B2 (en) 2010-10-25 2015-04-07 Afton Chemical Corporation Lubricant additive
US20150133352A1 (en) * 2012-06-06 2015-05-14 Vanderbilt Chemicals, Llc Fuel efficient lubricating oils
WO2015114920A1 (en) * 2014-01-31 2015-08-06 東燃ゼネラル石油株式会社 Lubricating oil composition
WO2015152226A1 (en) * 2014-03-31 2015-10-08 出光興産株式会社 Lubricating oil composition for an internal combustion engine
WO2017011687A1 (en) * 2015-07-16 2017-01-19 Afton Chemical Corporation Lubricants with magnesium and their use for improving low speed pre-ignition

Patent Citations (102)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3366569A (en) 1959-03-30 1968-01-30 Lubrizol Corp Lubricating compositions containing the reaction product of a substituted succinic acid-producing compound, an amino compound, and an alkenyl cyanide
US3278550A (en) 1959-03-30 1966-10-11 Lubrizol Corp Reaction products of a hydrocarbonsubstituted succinic acid-producing compound, an amine and an alkenyl cyanide
US3256185A (en) 1961-06-12 1966-06-14 Lubrizol Corp Lubricant containing acylated aminecarbon disulfide product
US3178663A (en) 1961-06-26 1965-04-13 Bendix Corp Single speed and multispeed unitary synchro structure
US3185647A (en) 1962-09-28 1965-05-25 California Research Corp Lubricant composition
US3458530A (en) 1962-11-21 1969-07-29 Exxon Research Engineering Co Multi-purpose polyalkenyl succinic acid derivative
US3189544A (en) 1962-12-19 1965-06-15 Shell Oil Co Non-ash-containing lubricating oil composition
US3403102A (en) 1963-05-17 1968-09-24 Lubrizol Corp Lubricant containing phosphorus acid esters
US3502677A (en) 1963-06-17 1970-03-24 Lubrizol Corp Nitrogen-containing and phosphorus-containing succinic derivatives
GB1065595A (en) 1963-07-22 1967-04-19 Monsanto Co Imidazolines and imidazolidines and oil compositions containing the same
US3312619A (en) 1963-10-14 1967-04-04 Monsanto Co 2-substituted imidazolidines and their lubricant compositions
US3390086A (en) 1964-12-29 1968-06-25 Exxon Research Engineering Co Sulfur containing ashless disperant
US3470098A (en) 1964-12-29 1969-09-30 Exxon Research Engineering Co Sulfur and chlorine containing ashless dispersant,and lubricating oil containing same
US3546243A (en) 1966-10-01 1970-12-08 Orobis Ltd Reaction products of diketene with certain substituted n-(alkylamino) succinimides
US3519564A (en) 1967-08-25 1970-07-07 Lubrizol Corp Heterocyclic nitrogen-sulfur compositions and lubricants containing them
US3865813A (en) 1968-01-08 1975-02-11 Lubrizol Corp Thiourea-acylated polyamine reaction product
US3634515A (en) 1968-11-08 1972-01-11 Standard Oil Co alkylene polyamide formaldehyde
US3573205A (en) 1968-12-17 1971-03-30 Chevron Res Diisocyanate modified polyisobutenyl-succinimides as lubricating oil detergents
US3859318A (en) 1969-05-19 1975-01-07 Lubrizol Corp Products produced by post-treating oil-soluble esters of mono- or polycarboxylic acids and polyhydric alcohols with epoxides
US3649229A (en) 1969-12-17 1972-03-14 Mobil Oil Corp Liquid hydrocarbon fuels containing high molecular weight mannich bases
US3708522A (en) 1969-12-29 1973-01-02 Lubrizol Corp Reaction products of high molecular weight carboxylic acid esters and certain carboxylic acid acylating reactants
US3749695A (en) 1971-08-30 1973-07-31 Chevron Res Lubricating oil additives
US3865740A (en) 1972-05-22 1975-02-11 Chevron Res Multifunctional lubricating oil additive
US3954639A (en) 1974-03-14 1976-05-04 Chevron Research Company Lubricating oil composition containing sulfate rust inhibitors
US4152499A (en) 1977-01-22 1979-05-01 Basf Aktiengesellschaft Polyisobutenes
US4234435A (en) 1979-02-23 1980-11-18 The Lubrizol Corporation Novel carboxylic acid acylating agents, derivatives thereof, concentrate and lubricant compositions containing the same, and processes for their preparation
US4285822A (en) 1979-06-28 1981-08-25 Chevron Research Company Process for preparing a sulfurized molybdenum-containing composition and lubricating oil containing the composition
US4259195A (en) 1979-06-28 1981-03-31 Chevron Research Company Reaction product of acidic molybdenum compound with basic nitrogen compound and lubricants containing same
US4259194A (en) 1979-06-28 1981-03-31 Chevron Research Company Reaction product of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate with basic nitrogen compounds and lubricants containing same
US4263152A (en) 1979-06-28 1981-04-21 Chevron Research Company Process of preparing molybdenum complexes, the complexes so-produced and lubricants containing same
US4265773A (en) 1979-06-28 1981-05-05 Chevron Research Company Process of preparing molybdenum complexes, the complexes so-produced and lubricants containing same
US4272387A (en) 1979-06-28 1981-06-09 Chevron Research Company Process of preparing molybdenum complexes, the complexes so-produced and lubricants containing same
US4283295A (en) 1979-06-28 1981-08-11 Chevron Research Company Process for preparing a sulfurized molybdenum-containing composition and lubricating oil containing said composition
US4261843A (en) 1979-06-28 1981-04-14 Chevron Research Company Reaction product of acidic molybdenum compound with basic nitrogen compound and lubricants containing same
GB2140811A (en) 1980-08-25 1984-12-05 Exxon Research Engineering Co Lubricating oil with improved diesel dispersancy
US4379064A (en) 1981-03-20 1983-04-05 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) Oxidative passivation of polyamine-dispersants
US4646886A (en) 1982-06-21 1987-03-03 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Damper device of a clutch for a torque converter
US4482464A (en) 1983-02-14 1984-11-13 Texaco Inc. Hydrocarbyl-substituted mono- and bis-succinimide having polyamine chain linked hydroxyacyl radicals and mineral oil compositions containing same
US4648980A (en) 1983-09-22 1987-03-10 Chevron Research Company Hydrocarbon soluble nitrogen containing dispersant - fluorophosphoric acid adducts
US4579675A (en) 1983-11-09 1986-04-01 Texaco Inc. N-substituted enaminones and oleaginous compositions containing same
US4521318A (en) 1983-11-14 1985-06-04 Texaco Inc. Lubricant compositions containing both hydrocarbyl substituted mono and bissuccinimide having polyamine chain linked hydroxacyl radicals, and neopentyl derivative
US4554086A (en) 1984-04-26 1985-11-19 Texaco Inc. Borate esters of hydrocarbyl-substituted mono- and bis-succinimides containing polyamine chain linked hydroxyacyl groups and lubricating oil compositions containing same
US4612132A (en) 1984-07-20 1986-09-16 Chevron Research Company Modified succinimides
US4617137A (en) 1984-11-21 1986-10-14 Chevron Research Company Glycidol modified succinimides
US4668246A (en) 1985-04-12 1987-05-26 Chevron Research Company Modified succinimides (IV)
US4617138A (en) 1985-04-12 1986-10-14 Chevron Research Company Modified succinimides (II)
US4645515A (en) 1985-04-12 1987-02-24 Chevron Research Company Modified succinimides (II)
US4614603A (en) 1985-04-12 1986-09-30 Chevron Research Company Modified succinimides (III)
US4647390A (en) 1985-04-12 1987-03-03 Chevron Research Company Lubricating oil compositions containing modified succinimides (V)
US4614522A (en) 1985-04-12 1986-09-30 Chevron Research Company Fuel compositions containing modified succinimides (VI)
US4648886A (en) 1985-04-12 1987-03-10 Chevron Research Company Modified succinimides (V)
US4670170A (en) 1985-04-12 1987-06-02 Chevron Research Company Modified succinimides (VIII)
US4663062A (en) 1985-04-12 1987-05-05 Chevron Research Company Lubricating oil compositions containing modified succinimides (VII)
US4666459A (en) 1985-04-12 1987-05-19 Chevron Research Company Modified succinimides (VII)
US4666460A (en) 1985-04-12 1987-05-19 Chevron Research Company Modified succinimides (III)
US4636322A (en) 1985-11-04 1987-01-13 Texaco Inc. Lubricating oil dispersant and viton seal additives
US4663064A (en) 1986-03-28 1987-05-05 Texaco Inc. Dibaisic acid lubricating oil dispersant and viton seal additives
US4652387A (en) 1986-07-30 1987-03-24 Mobil Oil Corporation Borated reaction products of succinic compounds as lubricant dispersants and antioxidants
US4713189A (en) 1986-08-20 1987-12-15 Texaco, Inc. Precoupled mono-succinimide lubricating oil dispersants and viton seal additives
US4699724A (en) 1986-08-20 1987-10-13 Texaco Inc. Post-coupled mono-succinimide lubricating oil dispersant and viton seal additives
US4963275A (en) 1986-10-07 1990-10-16 Exxon Chemical Patents Inc. Dispersant additives derived from lactone modified amido-amine adducts
US4713191A (en) 1986-12-29 1987-12-15 Texaco Inc. Diiscyanate acid lubricating oil dispersant and viton seal additives
US4971711A (en) 1987-07-24 1990-11-20 Exxon Chemical Patents, Inc. Lactone-modified, mannich base dispersant additives useful in oleaginous compositions
US5026495A (en) 1987-11-19 1991-06-25 Exxon Chemical Patents Inc. Oil soluble dispersant additives useful in oleaginous compositions
US4971598A (en) 1988-08-30 1990-11-20 Mobil Oil Corporation Reaction products of alkenyl succinimides with ethylenediamine carboxy acids as fuel detergents
US4857214A (en) 1988-09-16 1989-08-15 Ethylk Petroleum Additives, Inc. Oil-soluble phosphorus antiwear additives for lubricants
US4948386A (en) 1988-11-07 1990-08-14 Texaco Inc. Middle distillate containing storage stability additive
US4963278A (en) 1988-12-29 1990-10-16 Mobil Oil Corporation Lubricant and fuel compositions containing reaction products of polyalkenyl succinimides, aldehydes, and triazoles
US5204012A (en) 1989-01-31 1993-04-20 Ethyl Corporation Supplemental rust inhibitors and rust inhibition in internal combustion engines
US4981492A (en) 1989-12-13 1991-01-01 Mobil Oil Corporation Borated triazole-substituted polyalkenyl succinimides as multifunctional lubricant and fuel additives
US4973412A (en) 1990-05-07 1990-11-27 Texaco Inc. Multifunctional lubricant additive with Viton seal capability
US5241003A (en) 1990-05-17 1993-08-31 Ethyl Petroleum Additives, Inc. Ashless dispersants formed from substituted acylating agents and their production and use
US5030249A (en) 1990-10-01 1991-07-09 Texaco Inc. Gasoline detergent additive
US5039307A (en) 1990-10-01 1991-08-13 Texaco Inc. Diesel fuel detergent additive
US20020038525A1 (en) 1992-09-11 2002-04-04 Chevron Research And Technology Company Fuel composition for two-cycle engines
EP0612839A1 (en) 1993-02-18 1994-08-31 The Lubrizol Corporation Liquid compositions for refrigeration systems containing fatty amines, fatty amides, and reaction products of fatty acylating agents
US5334321A (en) 1993-03-09 1994-08-02 Chevron Research And Technology Company, A Division Of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Modified high molecular weight succinimides
US5658862A (en) * 1994-12-20 1997-08-19 Exxon Research And Engineering Company Engine oil with improved fuel economy properties (law372).
US5739355A (en) 1995-02-15 1998-04-14 Institut Francais Du Petrole Process for production of polyisobutenylsuccinic anhydrides without formation of resins
US5650381A (en) 1995-11-20 1997-07-22 Ethyl Corporation Lubricant containing molybdenum compound and secondary diarylamine
USRE40595E1 (en) 1995-11-20 2008-12-02 Afton Chemical Intangibles Llc Lubricant containing molybdenum compound and secondary diarylamine
USRE37363E1 (en) 1995-11-20 2001-09-11 Ethyl Corporation Lubricant containing molybdenum compound and secondary diarylamine
USRE38929E1 (en) 1995-11-20 2006-01-03 Afton Chemical Intangibles Llc Lubricant containing molybdenum compound and secondary diarylamine
US5883057A (en) 1996-01-16 1999-03-16 The Lubrizol Corporation Lubricating compositions
US6034040A (en) 1998-08-03 2000-03-07 Ethyl Corporation Lubricating oil formulations
US6300291B1 (en) 1999-05-19 2001-10-09 Infineum Usa L.P. Lubricating oil composition
US6723685B2 (en) 2002-04-05 2004-04-20 Infineum International Ltd. Lubricating oil composition
US7214649B2 (en) 2003-12-31 2007-05-08 Afton Chemical Corporation Hydrocarbyl dispersants including pendant polar functional groups
US20110077181A1 (en) * 2004-10-19 2011-03-31 Nippon Oil Corporation Lubricant composition and antioxidant composition
US7732390B2 (en) 2004-11-24 2010-06-08 Afton Chemical Corporation Phenolic dimers, the process of preparing same and the use thereof
US8048831B2 (en) 2004-12-10 2011-11-01 Afton Chemical Corporation Dispersant reaction product with antioxidant capability
US7645726B2 (en) 2004-12-10 2010-01-12 Afton Chemical Corporation Dispersant reaction product with antioxidant capability
US20090082233A1 (en) * 2005-05-27 2009-03-26 Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd. Lubricating oil composition
GB2440811A (en) 2006-07-28 2008-02-13 Mcalpine & Co Ltd Waste outlet for a shower
US7897696B2 (en) 2007-02-01 2011-03-01 Afton Chemical Corporation Process for the preparation of polyalkenyl succinic anhydrides
US20110245120A1 (en) * 2010-03-31 2011-10-06 Bertram Richard D Lubricating Oil Composition
US8999905B2 (en) 2010-10-25 2015-04-07 Afton Chemical Corporation Lubricant additive
US20150133352A1 (en) * 2012-06-06 2015-05-14 Vanderbilt Chemicals, Llc Fuel efficient lubricating oils
WO2015114920A1 (en) * 2014-01-31 2015-08-06 東燃ゼネラル石油株式会社 Lubricating oil composition
WO2015152226A1 (en) * 2014-03-31 2015-10-08 出光興産株式会社 Lubricating oil composition for an internal combustion engine
EP3127993A1 (en) * 2014-03-31 2017-02-08 Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd Lubricating oil composition for an internal combustion engine
WO2017011687A1 (en) * 2015-07-16 2017-01-19 Afton Chemical Corporation Lubricants with magnesium and their use for improving low speed pre-ignition

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US7727943B2 (en) Titanium compounds and complexes as additives in lubricants
US20100197536A1 (en) Lubricating Composition Containing Ashfree Antiwear Agent Based on Hydroxypolycarboxylic Acid Derivative and a Molybdenum Compound
US20100093573A1 (en) Lubricating Composition Containing Sulphur, Phosphorus and Ashfree Antiwear Agent and Amine Containing Friction Modifier
US20070197407A1 (en) Lubricated part having partial hard coating allowing reduced amounts of antiwear additive
WO2008070307A2 (en) Antiwear agent and lubricating composition thereof
WO2010033447A2 (en) Composition containing heterocyclic compounds and a method of lubricating an internal combustion engine
WO2005061682A2 (en) Lubricating composition containing metal salixarate as detergent
WO2008147701A1 (en) Method of lubricating-an aluminium silicate composite surface with a lubricant comprising ashless, sulphur, phosphorus free antiwear agent
US8921288B2 (en) Composition containing ester compounds and a method of lubricating an internal combustion engine
WO2009042590A1 (en) Titanium compounds and complexes as additives in lubricants
WO2013013026A1 (en) Carboxylic pyrrolidinones and methods of use thereof
WO2009042586A1 (en) Titanium compounds and complexes as additives in lubricants
WO2010141530A1 (en) Lubricating composition containing friction modifier and viscosity modifier
US20110030648A1 (en) Marine Diesel Cylinder Lubricants for Fuel Efficiency
US20100081589A1 (en) Lubricating oil compositions
WO2010077755A2 (en) Lubricating oil compositions
WO2012087775A1 (en) Lubricating composition containing a detergent
WO2012177529A1 (en) Lubricating compositions containing salts of hydrocarbyl substituted acylating agents
US9090846B2 (en) Lubricating composition containing an antiwear agent
WO2010053893A1 (en) Method of lubricating an internal combustion engine
EP1676902A1 (en) Lubricating oil composition having improved oxidation stability at high temperatures
US20120309655A1 (en) Lubricating Composition Containing a Nitrile Compound
US20110015105A1 (en) Lubricating Composition Containing Overbased Detergent
WO2014164087A1 (en) Lubricating composition containing lewis acid reaction product
US9279093B2 (en) Lubricating composition containing an aromatic compound