WO2017117452A1 - Systems and methods for generating power waves in a wireless power transmission system - Google Patents

Systems and methods for generating power waves in a wireless power transmission system Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO2017117452A1
WO2017117452A1 PCT/US2016/069316 US2016069316W WO2017117452A1 WO 2017117452 A1 WO2017117452 A1 WO 2017117452A1 US 2016069316 W US2016069316 W US 2016069316W WO 2017117452 A1 WO2017117452 A1 WO 2017117452A1
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
transmitter
power waves
transmission field
sar value
power
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US2016/069316
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Michael A. Leabman
Original Assignee
Energous Corporation
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/02Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging batteries from ac mains by converters
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B17/00Monitoring; Testing
    • H04B17/10Monitoring; Testing of transmitters
    • H04B17/101Monitoring; Testing of transmitters for measurement of parameters
    • H04B17/102Monitoring; Testing of transmitters for measurement of parameters of radiated power at antenna port
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W52/00Power management, e.g. TPC [Transmission Power Control], power saving or power classes
    • H04W52/04TPC [Transmission power control]
    • H04W52/18TPC being performed according to specific parameters
    • H04W52/28TPC being performed according to specific parameters using user profile, e.g. mobile speed, priority or network state, e.g. standby, idle or non transmission
    • H04W52/283Power depending on the position of the mobile
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W52/00Power management, e.g. TPC [Transmission Power Control], power saving or power classes
    • H04W52/04TPC [Transmission power control]
    • H04W52/30TPC [Transmission power control] using constraints in the total amount of available transmission power
    • H04W52/36TPC [Transmission power control] using constraints in the total amount of available transmission power with a discrete range or set of values, e.g. step size, ramping or offsets
    • H04W52/367Power values between minimum and maximum limits, e.g. dynamic range
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W52/00Power management, e.g. TPC [Transmission Power Control], power saving or power classes
    • H04W52/04TPC [Transmission power control]
    • H04W52/38TPC being performed in particular situations

Abstract

Systems and methods disclosed herein related to wireless power transmission system. In one example method: a transmitter measures a plurality of specific absorption rate (SAR) values, each respective SAR value corresponding to a respective spatial location within a transmission field of the transmitter with respect to one or more power waves radiated from one or more antennas of the transmitter. The transmitter also determines a selected spatial location within the transmission field where a first measured SAR value of the plurality of SAR values does not satisfy a pre-defined SAR value threshold. The transmitter further transmits the one or more power waves to converge destructively at or proximate to the selected spatial location within the transmission field.

Description

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR GENERATING POWER WAVES IN A WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] This application generally relates to wireless charging systems and the hardware and software components used in such systems.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Numerous attempts have been made to wirelessly transmit energy to electronic devices, where a receiver device can consume the transmission and convert it to electrical energy. However, most conventional techniques are unable to transmit energy at any meaningful distance. For example, magnetic resonance provides electric power to devices without requiring an electronic device to be wired to a power resonator. However, the electronic device is required to be proximately located to a coil of the power resonator (i.e., within a magnetic field). Other conventional solutions may not contemplate user mobility for users who are charging their mobile devices or such solutions do not allow devices to be outside of a narrow window of operability.

[0003] Wirelessly powering a remote electronic device may require a means for identifying the location of electronic devices within a transmission field of a power-transmitting device. Conventional systems typically attempt to proximately locate an electronic device, so there are no capabilities for identifying and mapping the spectrum of available devices to charge, for example, in a large coffee shop, household, office building, or other three-dimensional space in which electrical devices could potentially move around. Moreover, what is needed is a system for managing power wave production, both for directionality purposes and power output modulation. Because many conventional systems do not contemplate a wide range of movement of the electronic devices they service, what is also needed is a means for dynamically and accurately tracking electronic devices that may be serviced by the power- transmitting devices.

[0004] Wireless power transmission may need to satisfy certain regulatory requirements. The devices transmitting wireless energy may be required to adhere to electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure protection standards for humans or other living beings. Maximum exposure limits are defined by US and European standards in terms of power density limits and electric field limits (as well as magnetic field limits). Some of these limits are established by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE), and some limits are established by European regulators for radiation exposure. Limits established by the FCC for MPE are codified at 47 CFR § 1.1310. For electromagnetic field (EMF) frequencies in the microwave range, power density can be used to express an intensity of exposure. Power density is defined as power per unit area. For example, power density can be commonly expressed in terms of watts per square meter (W/m2), milliwatts per square centimeter (mW/cm2), or microwatts per square centimeter

Figure imgf000003_0001

[0005] Accordingly, it is desirable to appropriately administer the systems and methods for wireless power transmission to satisfy these regulatory requirements. What is needed is a means for wireless power transmission that incorporates various safety techniques to ensure that humans or other living beings within a transmission field are not exposed to EMF energy near or above regulatory limits or other nominal limits.

SUMMARY

[0006] Disclosed herein are systems and methods that address the shortcomings in the art and may provide additional or alternative advantages as well. Embodiments disclosed herein may generate and transmit power waves that, as result of their physical waveform

characteristics (e.g., frequency, amplitude, phase, gain, direction), converge at a predetermined location in a transmission field to generate a pocket of energy. Receivers associated with an electronic device being powered by the wireless charging system, may extract energy from these pockets of energy and then convert that energy into usable electric power for the electronic device associated with a receiver. The pockets of energy may manifest as a three- dimensional field (e.g., transmission field), where energy may be harvested by receivers positioned within or nearby a pocket of energy. In some embodiments, transmitters may perform adaptive pocket forming processes by adjusting transmission of the power waves in order to regulate power levels based on inputted sensor data from sensors or to avoid certain objects. A technique for identifying regions in the transmission field may be employed to determine where pockets of energy should be formed and where power waves should be transmitted. In one example, this technique may result in determination of a specific absorption rate (SAR) value at each spatial location within the transmission field with respect to one or more power waves radiated from one or more antennas in the transmission field. Determination of the specific SAR may be done by sensors coupled to, or integrated into, a transmitter. These sensors may. capture information useful for making SAR measurements within a transmission field, and the transmitter may use this information in conjunction with pre-stored calculations and estimates that determine the SAR values in the transmission field based on known propagation characteristics of the power waves produced by the transmitter. The SAR is the rate at which electromagnetic energy from radio frequency (RF) waves are absorbed by a human body or another living being. In another example, heat-map data, which is a form of mapping data that may be stored into a mapping memory for later reference or computations may be used in determining where pockets of energy should be formed. In yet another example, sensors may generate sensor data that may identify areas that the power waves should avoid. This sensor data may be an additional or alternative form of mapping data, which may also be stored into a mapping memory for later reference or computation.

[0007] In an embodiment, a method of wireless power transmission comprises calculating, by a transmitter, a specific absorption rate (SAR) value at each spatial location within a transmission field of the transmitter with respect to one or more power waves radiated from one or more antennas of the transmitter; determining, by the transmitter, a selected portion within the transmission field where the calculated SAR value fails a pre-defined SAR value threshold; and transmitting, by the transmitter, the one or more power waves to converge destructively at the selected portion within the transmission field.

[0008] In another embodiment, a method of wireless power transmission includes receiving, by a transmitter, a specific absorption rate (SAR) value at each spatial location within a transmission field of the transmitter with respect to one or more power waves radiated from one or more antennas. The method further includes determining, by the transmitter, a selected portion within the transmission field where the received SAR value is greater than a pre-defined SAR value. The method further includes transmitting, by the transmitter, the one or more power waves to converge destructively at the selected portion within the transmission field. The method further includes transmitting, by the transmitter, the one or more power waves to converge destructively to form a null space at remaining portions within the transmission field.

[0009] In another embodiment, a system for wireless power transmission may include one or more transmitters. Each of the one or more transmitters may include a microprocessor configured to calculate a specific absorption rate (SAR) value at each spatial location within a transmission field of the transmitter with respect to one or more power waves radiated from one or more antennas, and determine a selected portion within the transmission field where the calculated SAR value is greater than a pre-defined SAR value. Each of the one or more transmitters may further include one or more antenna arrays where each of the one or more antenna arrays includes one or more antennas configured to transmit power waves to converge destructively to form null space at the selected portion within the transmission field.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0010] The accompanying drawings constitute a part of this specification and illustrate embodiments of the invention. The present disclosure can be better understood by referring to the following figures. The components in the figures are not necessarily to scale, emphasis instead being placed upon illustrating the principles of the disclosure.

[0011] FIG. 1A illustrates a wireless power transmission system, according to an exemplary embodiment.

[0012] FIG. IB shows components of a system according to an exemplary embodiment.

[0013] FIG. 1C shows components of the system, according to the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. IB.

[0014] FIG. 2 illustrates a method to form a pocket of energy in a wireless power transmission system, according to an exemplary embodiment.

[0015] FIG. 3 illustrates a method for forming a null space in a wireless power

transmission system, according to an exemplary embodiment.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0016] Reference will now be made to the exemplary embodiments illustrated in the drawings, and specific language will be used here to describe the same. It should be understood that no limitation of the scope of the invention is intended through the descriptions of such exemplary embodiments. Alterations and further modifications of the exemplary embodiments and additional applications implementing the principles of the inventive features, which would occur to a person skilled in the relevant art and having possession of this disclosure, are to be considered within the scope of this disclosure.

[0017] A pocket of energy used to provide power wirelessly may be formed at locations of constructive interference patterns of power waves transmitted by a transmitter. The pockets of energy may manifest as a three-dimensional field where energy may be harvested by receivers located within or proximate to the pocket of energy. In operation, the pocket of energy produced by the transmitters during pocket-forming processes may be harvested by a receiver, converted to an electrical charge, and then provided to an electronic device (e.g., laptop computer, smartphone, rechargeable battery) associated with the receiver to operate the device or to charge the device battery. In some embodiments, multiple transmitters and/or multiple receivers may power various electronic devices. The receiver may be separable from the electronic device or integrated with the electronic device.

[0018] Constructive interference may be a type of waveform interference that may be generated at the convergence of the power waves at a particular location within a transmission field associated with one or more transmitters. Constructive interference may occur when power waves converge and their respective waveform characteristics coalesce, thereby augmenting the amount of energy concentrated at the particular location where the power waves converge. The constructive interference may be the result of power waves having particular waveform characteristics such that constructive interference results in a field of energy or "pocket of energy" at the particular location in the transmission field where the power waves converge. In the case of periodic signals, such as chirp waves or sinusoidal waves, a constructive interference pattern is created when the positive and negative peaks of the power waves arriving at a specific location are synchronized. The correlated positive and negative peaks across the waveforms add cumulatively to create a cumulative waveform having a larger amplitude than each of the individual power waves.

[0019] Destructive interference may be another type of waveform interference that may be generated at the convergence of the power waves at a particular location within a transmission field associated with one or more transmitters. Destructive interference may occur when power waves converge at a particular location and their respective waveform characteristics are opposite each other (i.e., waveforms cancel each other out), thereby diminishing the amount of energy concentrated at the particular location. Where constructive interference may result in generating pockets of energy when enough energy is present, destructive interference may result in generating a negligible amount of energy or "null" at the particular location within the transmission field where the power waves converge to form destructive interference. In the case of periodic waves, such as chirp waves or sinusoidal waves, a destructive interference pattern results when the positive and negative peaks of the power waves arriving at a specific location subtract from each other, rather than adding cumulatively, and therefore a low (ideally zero) amplitude waveform signal results.

[0020] A transmitter may be an electronic device that comprises, or is otherwise associated with, various components and circuits responsible for, e.g., generating and transmitting power waves, forming pockets of energy at locations in a transmission field, monitoring the conditions of the transmission field, and generating null spaces where needed. A transmitter may generate and transmit power waves for pocket-forming and/or null steering based on a specific absorption rate (SAR) value determined by the transmitter at one or more spatial locations within a transmission field of the transmitter. The specific absorption rate (SAR) value may be determined by a transmitter processor, and indicate an electric power absorbed by a living tissue, such as a human body, exposed to a radio frequency (RF) wave. The transmitter may generate and transmit, or otherwise adjust, the power waves so that the SAR value for the RF energy at a particular location in the transmission field does not exceed a predetermined SAR threshold value.

[0021] A receiver may be an electronic device that comprises at least one antenna, at least one rectifying circuit, and at least one power converter, which may utilize a pocket of energy for powering or charging the electronic device. "Pocket-forming" may refer to generating one or more RF waves that converge in a transmission field, forming controlled pockets of energy and null spaces. A "pocket of energy" may refer to an area or region of space where energy or power may accumulate based on a convergence of waves causing constructive interference at that area or region. The "null-space" may refer to areas or regions of space where pockets of energy do not form, which may be caused by destructive interference of waves at that area or region.

[0022] A transmitter may determine the present SAR value of RF energy at one or more particular locations of the transmission field using one or more sampling or measurement techniques. In some implementations, the transmitter may be preloaded with values, tables, and/or algorithms that indicate for the transmitter which waveform characteristics are likely to exceed to a pre-stored SAR threshold value. For example, a lookup table may indicate that the

SAR value for a volume of space (V) located some distance (D) from the transmitter receiving a number of power waves (P) having a particular frequency (F). One skilled in the art will appreciate that there could be any number of potential calculations, which may use any number of variables, to determine the SAR value of RF energy at a particular locations. [0023] Moreover, a transmitter may apply the SAR values identified for particular locations in various ways when generating, transmitting, or adjusting the power waves. In some embodiments, the SAR values may be measured and used by the transmitter to maintain a constant energy level throughout the transmission field, where the energy level is both safely below a SAR threshold value but still contains enough RF energy for the receivers to effectively convert into electrical power. In some implementations, the transmitter may proactively modulate the power waves based upon the RF expected to result from newly formed power waves based upon the predetermined SAR values. For example, after determining how to generate or adjust the power waves, but prior to actually transmitting the power waves, the transmitter may determine whether the power waves to be transmitted will result in RF energy accumulation at a particular location that either satisfies or fails the SAR threshold. Additionally or alternatively, in some implementations, the transmitter may actively monitor the transmission field to reactively adjust power waves transmitted to or through a particular location when the transmitter determines that the power waves passing through or accumulating at the particular location fail the SAR threshold. Where the transmitter is configured to proactively and reactively adjust power waves, with the goal of maintaining a continuous power level throughout the transmission field, the transmitter may be configured to proactively adjust the power waves to be transmitted to a particular location to be certain the power waves will satisfy the SAR threshold, but may also continuously poll the SAR values at locations throughout the transmission field to determine whether the SAR values for power waves accumulating at or passing through particular locations unexpectedly fail the SAR threshold. In some embodiments, the transmitter may be configured to generate pockets of energy or nulls at particular locations, and thus the SAR value may be used to determine whether areas around a pocket of energy are satisfactorily below the SAR threshold, or to determine efficacy of destructive interference patterns generating a null space.

[0024] Although the exemplary embodiments described herein mention the use of RF- based wave transmission technologies, it should be appreciated that the wireless charging techniques that might be employed are not be limited to such RF -based technologies and techniques. Rather, it should be appreciated that here are additional or alternative wireless charging techniques, which may include any number of technologies and techniques for wirelessly transmitting energy to a receiver that is capable of converting the transmitted energy to electrical power. Non-limiting exemplary transmission techniques for energy that can be converted by a receiving device into electrical power may include: ultrasound, microwave, laser light, infrared, or other forms of electromagnetic energy.

[0025] In some embodiments, control systems of transmitters adhere to electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure protection standards for human subjects. Maximum exposure limits are defined by US and European standards in terms of power density limits and electric field limits (as well as magnetic field limits). These include, for example, limits established by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for MPE, and limits established by European regulators for radiation exposure. Limits established by the FCC for MPE are codified at 47 CFR § 1.1310. For electromagnetic field (EMF) frequencies in the microwave range, power density can be used to express an intensity of exposure. Power density is defined as power per unit area. For example, power density can be commonly expressed in terms of watts per square meter (W/m2), milliwatts per square centimeter (mW/cm2), or microwatts per square centimeter

Figure imgf000009_0001

[0026] In some embodiments, the present systems and methods for wireless power transmission incorporate various safety techniques to ensure that human occupants in or near a transmission field are not exposed to EMF energy near or above regulatory limits or other nominal limits. One safety method is to include a margin of error (e.g., about 10% to 20%) beyond the nominal limits, so that human subjects are not exposed to power levels at or near the EMF exposure limits. A second safety method can provide staged protection measures, such as reduction or termination of wireless power transmission if humans (and in some embodiments, other living beings or sensitive objects) move toward a pocket of energy with power density levels exceeding EMF exposure limits.

[0027] FIG. 1A illustrates a wireless power transmission system 100, according to an exemplary embodiment. The wireless power transmission system 100 comprises a transmitter

102 that transmits one or more power waves 104 from an antenna array 106. Non -limiting examples of power waves 104 may include microwaves, radio waves, and ultrasound waves.

The power waves 104 are controlled through a microprocessor of the transmitter 102 to form a pocket of energy 112 at one or more locations in a transmission field, where the controller determines that a pocket of energy 112 is needed. The transmitter 102 is further configured to transmit the power waves 104 that may converge in three-dimensional space to create the one or more null spaces in the one or more locations where transmitted power waves cancel each other out substantially. In some implementations, the transmitter 102 may continuously measure the specific absorption rate (SAR) values of areas within the transmission field in order to maintain consistent energy levels throughout the transmission field. In such embodiments, the energy levels maintained may be high enough to provide power to receivers 103 charging electronic devices 108, 110, but remain below a given SAR threshold value. One skilled in the art would therefore appreciate that the generation of pockets of energy 112 or nulls, may not be necessary in every embodiment, as some embodiments may maintain a uniform or substantially uniform, safe and effective energy level throughout the transmission field. It would further be appreciated that the transmitter 102 may be configured to operate according to any combination of techniques for determining appropriate means for delivering power waves 104 to receivers 103 in a transmission field.

[0028] In some embodiments, the transmitter 102 may comprise or may otherwise be coupled to a memory or hard disk that stores predetermined SAR value determination criteria, such as algorithms, variables, tables, or other such information that a processor of the transmitter 102 may use to determine the SAR value at a given location, based on the characteristics of the power waves being transmitted to or through the given location, or about to be transmitted to or through the given location. The transmitter 102 may use known channel propagation models and empirical data on propagation losses collected prior to manufacture or prior to deployment, to calculate what the SAR may be at some distance from the transmitter 102. For example, prior to deployment or prior to manufacture, a probe may be used to scan a volume of space inside a model of living tissue, or other model intended to resemble the human body, such as a container filled with a liquid having nearly-equivalent characteristics of body-tissue, may be placed within a transmission field. The antenna array 106 of the transmitter 102 may transmit power waves 104 having various characteristics that cause the power waves 104 to be near and intersect with the model. The probe may measure the SAR values and RF energy levels in the proximity of the model and/or within the model. The probe may be used to register the RF energies and SAR values resulting from the various waveform characteristics, such as the amplitude, frequency, and vector characteristics, of the power waves 104 transmitted by the antenna array 106. The resulting SAR values and RF energies may be stored in a memory accessible to the transmitter 102, which may then use the pre- stored data to determine the SAR values at locations of a transmission field based on the characteristics of the power waves 104 being generated by the transmitter 102. [0029] The receiver 103 and the transmitter 102 may comprise respective communications components 111 (not pictured for receiver 103), which may be wireless communications chips configured to transmit various types of data through a communications signal 131 that is a distinct wireless communication channel independent from the power waves 104. In some cases, such as the receiver 103 of FIG. 1, the communications component may be embedded or otherwise integrated into an electronic device, such as a laptop 108 or other computer, coupled to the receiver 103 or transmitter 102. For example, the receiver 103 may be integrated into a laptop 108, and the communications component of the receiver 103 may include the native Bluetooth® chipset of laptop 108. In some cases, such as the transmitter 102 of FIG. 1, the communications component may be embedded or otherwise integrated into the transmitter 102 or receiver 103. In some embodiments, a communications component may be a distinct, standalone structure from the transmitter 102, receiver 103, or any other electronic device. The transmitter 102 may transmit communications signals to the receiver 103 containing operational instructions for the receiver 103 to execute, or containing requests for power level data or other operational data from the receiver 103.

[0030] In some embodiments, the microprocessor of the transmitter 102 is configured to determine how the power waves 104 should be generated and transmitted to provide energy effectively and to safely avoid living beings or other sensitive objects. Determining how the power waves 104 should be generated may be based on the SAR value sampled or determined at each spatial location within the transmission field of the transmitter 102 with respect to one or more power waves 104 radiated into the transmission field from one or more antennas of the transmitter 102. When determining how the power waves 104 should be generated and transmitted, the microcontroller may determine the physical characteristics of the power waves 104 (e.g., frequency, amplitude, phase), and/or which antennas of the transmitter 102 may be used to transmit the power waves 104. The transmitter 102 may determine the characteristics of the power waves 104, and/or identify a subset of the antennas with which to transmit the power waves 104, such that the power waves 104 converge at a particular location in a transmission field to create constructive and/or destructive interference patterns. Additionally or alternatively, the microcontroller may determine the characteristics and/or the antennas to transmit the power waves 104, such that the power waves 104 generate a uniform or substantially uniform energy level throughout the transmission field or at one or more particular localized areas of the transmission field. [0031] As an example, based on a particular SAR value sampled at a particular location in the transmission field, the microprocessor of the transmitter 102 may select a type of waveform for the power waves 104 (e.g., chirp, sinusoidal, saw tooth, stepped), select the output frequency of the power waves 104, the shape of the one or more antenna arrays 106, and the spacing of the one or more antennas in at least one antenna array 106. Using one or more of these selections or determinations, the transmitter 100 may generate and transmit the power waves 104, and, as a result, the power waves 104 form the pocket of energy 112 at the targeted location to power one or more electronic devices 108, 110. In some embodiments, the microprocessor of the transmitter 102 is further configured to, based on the SAR value at each spatial location within the transmission field of the transmitter 102, select the output frequency of the power waves 104, the shape of the one or more antenna arrays 106, and the spacing of the one or more antennas in at least one antenna array 106 to form the one or more null spaces at locations within the transmission field of the transmitter 102. The pockets of energy are formed where the power waves 104 accumulate to form a three-dimensional field of energy.

[0032] In some embodiments, the antennas of the antenna array 106 of the transmitter 102 are operable as the single array of one or more antennas. In some other embodiments, the microcontroller may segment the array into subsets operating to service multiple device or multiple regions in the transmission field. In an embodiment, the antenna array 106 may include antenna elements where the height of at least one antenna of the array 106 may range from about 1/8 inches to about 1 inch, and the width of the at least one antenna can be from about 1/8 inches to about 1 inch. A distance between two adjacent antennas in an antenna array 106 can be between about 1/3 to about 12 Lambda. For instance, in some cases, the distance between antennas can be greater than about 1 Lambda; in some cases, the distance between antennas can be between about 1 Lambda and about 10 Lambda; and in some cases, the distance can be between about 4 Lambda and about 10 Lambda. Lambda is the wavelength of the power waves 106, and may be used as a measurement for the spacing between antennas of the antenna array 106.

[0033] The transmitter 102 calculates the SAR value at each spatial location within the transmission field of the transmitter 102 with respect to one or more power waves 104 radiated from one or more antennas of the antenna array 106 in the transmission field. In some embodiments, the microprocessor of the transmitter 102 then compares the calculated SAR value at each spatial location against a threshold SAR value. For example, based on FCC regulations, a pre-defined SAR value is about 1.6 watts per kilogram (W/Kg), so the transmitter 102 may adjust the various characteristics of the power waves 102 to reduce the amount of energy or power accumulating at a particular location in the transmission field, when the transmitter 102 determines that the power waves 102 accumulating at the particular location generate constructive interference patterns of 2.0 W/Kg, and thus no longer satisfy the threshold.

[0034] In some embodiments, the transmitter 102 may generate and transmit or otherwise adjust the power waves 104 when the calculated SAR value at a spatial location does not satisfy the pre-defined SAR value threshold. The microprocessor of the transmitter 104 may be configured to determine the characteristics for power waves 104 and/or determine from which antennas to transmit the power waves 104, so that the power waves 104 converge to form a destructive interference pattern at the particular location, and result in a null space having very little, negligible, or no energy accumulation at the portion in the transmission field. In some implementations, in order to generate null spaces, the transmitter 102 may generate a first set of power waves 104 that converge constructively to form pockets of energy 112, and then a second set of power waves 104 that converge destructively to form null spaces. In some embodiments, based upon the SAR values sampled at one or more locations of the transmission field, the microprocessor may generate and transmit, or otherwise adjust, the power waves 104 to converge constructively at certain locations within the transmission field, and simultaneously generate and transmit, or otherwise adjust, the power waves 104 to converge destructively to form the one or more null spaces at other locations within the transmission field.

[0035] In yet another embodiment, when the calculated SAR value is lesser than the predefined SAR value in a selected portion of the transmission field, the microprocessor is configured to select the type of power waves 104 to transmit such that the power waves 104 converge constructively at the selected portion within the transmission field, and

simultaneously transmit any other type of power waves 104 that converge destructively to form the one or more null spaces in portions other than the selected portions in the transmission field. These power waves 104 may also be produced by using an external power source and a local oscillator chip using a piezoelectric material. In some embodiments, the power waves 104 are constantly controlled by the microprocessor of the transmitter 102, which may also include a proprietary chip for adjusting phase and/or relative magnitudes of the power waves 104

[0036] The microprocessor of the transmitter 102, may continuously or periodically receive and/or calculate SAR value according to one or more sampling triggers or parameters. In some instances, the microprocessor may determine the SAR value for predetermined locations according to a location sampling-interval (e.g., one-inch interval, one-foot intervals). In some instances, the microprocessor may continuously determine the SAR values of locations or may determine the SAR values at a given time sampling-interval. In some instances, the microprocessor may determine or receive the SAR value for locations whenever there is a change in frequency value of the one or more power waves 104. During sampling, the microprocessor of the transmitter 102 determines the SAR value of the new or adjusted power waves 104 at each predetermined location or at a given location sampling-interval and then compares the new SAR values obtained for each spatial location within the transmission field with the pre-defined SAR value threshold. Based on the results of the comparison, the microprocessor may identify, for example, a location within the transmission field area where the corresponding newly-calculated SAR value no longer satisfies the pre-defined SAR value. The microprocessor of the transmitter 102 may then manipulate the frequency, phase, amplitude, or other characteristics of the transmitted power waves 104, and/or the selection of new sets of antennas or antenna arrays for the transmission of new power waves 104 to control the transmission of the power waves 104.

[0037] The transmitter 102 may receive location data of one or more receivers within the transmission field of the transmitter 102. In another embodiment, the transmitter 102

determines location data of one or more receivers within the transmission field of the transmitter 102. The transmitter 102 calculates the SAR value at each of the one or more receiver locations and in a zone surrounding a predetermined distance from the one or more receivers within the transmission field of the transmitter 102. In another embodiment, the transmitter 102 receives the SAR value at each of the one or more receiver locations, as measured and reported by the receivers, and in a zone surrounding a predetermined distance from the one or more receivers within the transmission field of the transmitter 102. The microprocessor of the transmitter 102 then compares the calculated SAR value at each of the one or more receiver locations and in the zone surrounding the predetermined distance from the one or more receivers within the transmission field with a pre-defined SAR value. In an embodiment, the pre-defined SAR value can be 1.6 watts per kilogram (W/Kg). In another embodiment, the pre-defined SAR value can be any value established by the Federal

Communications Commission (FCC).

[0038] When the calculated SAR value at each of the one or more receiver locations and in the zone surrounding the predetermined distance from the one or more receivers satisfies the pre-defined SAR value in a selected portion of the transmission field, the transmitter 102 may generate and transmit or otherwise adjust the power waves 104 to converge constructively at the selected portion within the transmission field. In another embodiment, when the calculated SAR value at each of the one or more receiver locations and in the zone surrounding the predetermined distance from the one or more receivers does not satisfy the pre-defined SAR value in a selected portion of the transmission field, the microprocessor is configured to generate and transmit, or otherwise adjust, the one or more power waves 104 to converge destructively to form one or more null spaces within selected portion in the transmission field.

[0039] In order to determine the location of the one or more receivers, the transmitter 102 may continuously transmit the power waves 104 and a communication signal into the transmission field of the transmitter 102. The power waves 104 may be any type of wave having any set of characteristics that may provide power to the one or more receivers located at a given location within the transmission field. Non-limiting examples of power waves may include ultrasonic waves, microwaves, infrared waves, and radio-frequency waves. The power waves 104 may be transmitted with a certain set of physical characteristics (e.g., frequency, phase, energy level, amplitude, distance, direction) that result in the power waves 104

providing elevated energy levels at the given location in the transmission field. In some embodiments, the transmitter 102 may transmit so-called exploratory power waves, which are power waves having a power level comparatively lower than the power level ordinarily used for the power waves providing power to the one or more receivers. The exploratory power waves may be used to identify the one or more receivers, and/or used to determine the appropriate characteristics for the power waves 104 that will ultimately provide power to the one or more receivers in the transmission field.

[0040] The communication signal may be any type of wave used by electrical devices to communicate data through associated protocols. Non-limiting examples may include

Bluetooth®, NFC, Wi-Fi, ZigBee®, and the like. The communications signal may be used to communicate parameters used by the transmitter 102 to properly formulate the power waves 104. The communications signal may contain data describing the characteristics of the low- level power waves being transmitted. This data may indicate, for example, the direction and energy level of the power waves 104 transmitted along with the communication signal.

[0041] One or more antennas of the one or more receivers may receive the power waves 104 and the communication signal from the transmitter 102. The power waves 104 may have waveform characteristics that give the power waves 104 low-levels of power. The

communication signal may contain data indicating the characteristics of the power waves 104. When the transmitter 102 formulates and/or transmits the power waves 104 in a certain direction or to a certain location within the transmission field, a communications component 111 of the transmitter 102 may generate and transmit data, within the communications signal 114, describing the power waves 104. For example, the communications signal 114 may indicate information about the power wave, such as the amplitude, frequency, energy level, the trajectory of the power waves, and/or the desired location to which the power waves were transmitted.

[0042] In some embodiments, a receiver 103 may then respond to the transmitter 102 with an indication of its location, for example, an explicit communication of location information or a communication indicating receipt of an exploratory low power wave transmission in a segment or sub-segment, and/or confirmation that the power level of said exploratory wave exceeds a particular threshold within the transmission field, using the data in the

communications signal as input parameters. The one or more receivers may comprise a processor configured to generate a message for responding to the transmitter 102 with the indication of its location. The one or more receivers may be integrated into (e.g., within a smart phone) or coupled to (e.g., a smart phone backpack) an electronic device comprising a processor that is configured to generate messages indicating the receiver's location when receiving a low power wave transmission. In an alternative embodiment, the one or more receivers may determine their own locations based upon characteristics of the received power waves as indicated by the received communication signal, and transmit it to the transmitter 102

[0043] In one embodiment, the one or more antennas may be fixed upon movable elements and the distance between the one or more antennas in each of the one or more antenna arrays is dynamically adjusted depending on a location of a portion within the transmission field where either a pocket of energy or null space has to be formed based on a comparison result of the calculated SAR value and the pre-defined SAR value for the given portion. The movable elements are any mechanical actuators that are controlled by the microprocessor of the transmitter. The microprocessor of the transmitter determines the location of the portion within the transmission field, and based on the location of the portion, the microprocessor controls the movement of the mechanical actuators on which the antennas are mounted.

[0044] The one or more antennas of each of the one or more antenna arrays may be configured to transmit the one or more power waves at a different time from each other because of the placement of the one or more antennas. In another embodiment, the one or more antennas of each of the one or more antenna arrays may be configured to transmit the one or more power waves at a different time from each other because of a presence of a timing circuit that is controlled by the microprocessor of the transmitter. The timing circuit can be used to select a different transmission time for each of the one or more antennas. In one example, the microprocessor may pre-configure the timing circuit with the timing of transmission of the one or more transmission waves from each of the one or more antennas. In another example, depending on a location of portion within the transmission field where either a pocket of energy or null space has to be formed based on a comparison result of the calculated SAR value and the pre-defined SAR value for the given portion, the transmitter may delay the transmission of few transmission waves from few antennas.

[0045] In one implementation, the transmitter may include an antenna circuit coupled to a switch, where each of the one or more antennas in the antenna array, are adjusted or otherwise selected depending on a location within the transmission field where power waves, a pocket of energy, or null space has to be formed or otherwise transmitted based on a comparison result of the calculated SAR value and the pre-defined SAR value for the given location. In one embodiment, the antenna array is configured such that the power wave direction can be steered in a first direction by switching on a first set of antennas of the one or more antennas, and the power wave direction of the antenna array can be steered in a second direction by switching on a second set of antennas of the one or more antennas. The second set of antennas can include one or more antennas from the first set of antennas, or the second set of antennas may not include any antennas from the first set. In one embodiment, the power wave direction of the antenna array can be steered in a plurality of directions by switching on a set of antennas from the one or more antennas for each of the plurality of directions. In some embodiments, the selections of antennas in the first set of antennas and the second set of antennas are based upon the distances between the antennas in the first set of antennas and the second set of antennas. In some embodiments, the distances are so chosen that the power waves emerging out of the first set, second set or any set of antennas generate effective transmission of a pocket of energy at the desired locations.

[0046] In another embodiment, the transmitter comprises at least two antenna arrays. In one example, the at least two antenna arrays comprise a first antenna array and a second antenna array. In some embodiments, the microprocessor is configured to control the spacing between the first antenna array and the second antenna array. In some embodiments, the distance between the first antenna array and the second antenna array is dynamically adjusted, depending on a location within the transmission field where either a pocket of energy or null space has to be formed based on a comparison result of the calculated SAR value and the predefined SAR value for the given portion. In an embodiment, the first antenna array and the second antenna array may be flat shaped and the offset distance between the at least two antenna arrays is 4 inches.

[0047] In another embodiment, the transmitter comprises at least two antenna arrays. In one example, the at least two antenna arrays comprise a first antenna array and a second antenna array. It should be noted that for the simplicity of explanation that the first antenna array and the second antenna array are being described; however, more than two antenna arrays may be included in the system without moving out from the scope of the disclosed embodiments. Each of the first antenna array and the second antenna array comprises one or more rows and one or more columns of antennas configured to transmit one or more power waves. In one example, the first antenna array and the second antenna array are both used for creation of the pocket of energy at the same time depending on a location within the transmission field where either a pocket of energy or null space has to be formed based on a comparison result of the calculated SAR value and the pre-defined SAR value for the given portion. In another example, the first antenna array and the second antenna array are both used for creation of the null space at the same time depending on a location within the transmission field where either a pocket of energy or null space has to be formed based on a comparison result of the calculated SAR value and the pre-defined SAR value for the given portion. In another example, the first antenna array and the second antenna array are both used for creation of the pocket of energy and the null space at the same time depending on the location within the transmission field where either a pocket of energy or null space has to be formed based on a comparison result of the calculated SAR value and the pre-defined SAR value for the given portion.

[0048] FIG. IB shows components of a system 100 according to an exemplary

embodiment. The exemplary system comprises a transmitter 102 configured to transmit one or more power waves 104 that are intended to maintain a consistent energy level, such that SAR levels do not exceed a SAR threshold, but so that enough RF energy remains for a receiver 103 to capture and convert to electric power for an electronic device 108 coupled to the receiver 103. In some embodiments, a first location 105 comprises enough RF energy that the RF energy exceeds a SAR threshold; a second location 107 comprises RF energy that is uniform through the transmission field, and is compliant with the SAR threshold. The transmitter 102 may detect the non-compliant SAR value of the first location 105 through any number of techniques. For example, the transmitter 102 may continuously determine the SAR value of the power waves 104 that the transmitter 102 is generating to particular locations, at a given distance interval. In such examples, the transmitter 102 may determine that the first location 105, located at a given distance from the transmitter 102, and at a particular lateral interval, has power waves 104 being transmitted having particular characteristics that cause the RF energy at that location to exceed the SAR value threshold. Accordingly, the transmitter 102 may determine that the power waves 104 may be adjusted to maintain uniform energy levels across the transmission field.

[0049] FIG. 1C shows components of the system 100, according to the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. IB. In FIG. 1C, the transmitter 102 may have adjusted the power waves 104 generated and transmitted by the transmitter 102, to mitigate the RF energy exceeding the SAR threshold at the first location 105. As such, the RF energy of the power waves 104 remains uniform throughout the transmission field.

[0050] FIG. 2 illustrates a method to form a pocket of energy in a wireless power transmission system, according to an exemplary embodiment.

[0051] In a first step 202, a transmitter (TX) determines SAR values for each spatial location within a transmission field of the transmitter with respect to one or more power waves radiated from one or more antennas in the transmission field. For instance, in another embodiment, the TX determines the SAR values obtained for each spatial location within the transmission field with respect to one or more power waves radiated from one or more antennas in the transmission field.

[0052] One having skill in the art would appreciate that SAR values may be predetermined or modeled according to a number of waveform parameters. The models and predetermined values are stored into memory or preprogrammed into a processor of the TX, and the waveform parameters are known to the TX as result of determining how to generate and transmit, or otherwise adjust, the power waves. For instance, the transmitter may determine a SAR value sample for a particular location using a model that uses the frequency, power level, antenna strength, and distance of one or more power waves entering the certain volume of space where the particular location is found. Using these known values and the model, the TX may determine how much power is generated by the power waves within the volume containing the location.

[0053] In a next step 204, the transmitter compares the SAR values for each spatial location within the transmission field with respect to one or more power waves radiated from one or more antennas in the transmission field with a pre-defined SAR value. In an embodiment, the pre-defined SAR value is 1.6 watts per kilogram (W/Kg). In another embodiment, the pre-defined SAR value can be any value established by the Federal

Communications Commission (FCC).

[0054] In a next step 206, a microprocessor of the transmitter may execute one or more software modules in order to analyze the comparison between the SAR values for each spatial location within the transmission field with the pre-defined SAR value, and based on the analysis identify safe area within the transmission field. In one embodiment, the safe area is an area within the transmission field where the calculated SAR value is lesser than the pre-defined SAR threshold value.

[0055] The microprocessor will then determine the distance and size of the safe area from the transmitter, and based on the determined distance and the size of the safe area, the microprocessor may execute one or more software modules to select a power wave to be generated by the waveform generator, select the output frequency of the power wave, select a subset of antennas from a fixed physical shape of one or more antenna arrays that correspond to a desired spacing of antennas to form a pocket of energy at the safe area. [0056] In one embodiment, the transmitter may adjust the power waves for the distance and the size of the safe area. For example, the transmitter may adjust the phase at which the transmitter's antenna transmits the power. When an optimal configuration for the antennas is identified, memory of the transmitter may store the configurations to keep the transmitter transmitting at that highest level. In another embodiment, the algorithms of the transmitter based on determined distance and the size of the safe area from the transmitter may determine when it is necessary to adjust the power waves and may also vary the configuration of the transmitter antennas. For example, the transmitter may determine the power received at the safe area is less than maximal, based on the determined distance and the size of the safe area. The transmitter may then adjust the phase of the power waves.

[0057] In the next step 208, the transmitter will transmit the one or more power waves to converge constructively at the safe area within the transmission field to generate the pocket of energy at the safe area.

[0058] FIG. 3 illustrates a method for forming a null space in a wireless power

transmission system, according to an exemplary embodiment.

[0059] In a first step 302, a transmitter (TX) calculates SAR values for each spatial location within a transmission field of the transmitter. In another embodiment, TX receives the SAR values obtained for each spatial location within the transmission field.

[0060] In a next step 304, the transmitter compares the SAR values for each spatial location within the transmission field with a pre-defined SAR value. In an embodiment, the pre-defined SAR value is 1.6 watts per kilogram (W/Kg). In another embodiment, the predefined SAR value can be any value established by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).

[0061] In a next step 306, a microprocessor of the transmitter may execute one or more software modules in order to analyze the comparison between the SAR values for each spatial location within the transmission field with the pre-defined SAR value, and based on the analysis identify unsafe area within the transmission field. In one embodiment, the unsafe area is an area within the transmission field where the calculated SAR value for each spatial location within the transmission field is greater than to the pre-defined SAR value. [0062] The microprocessor will then determine the distance and size of the unsafe area from the transmitter, and based on the determined distance and the size of the unsafe area from the transmitter, the microprocessor may execute one or more software modules to select a power wave to be generated by the waveform generator, select the output frequency of the power wave, select a subset of antennas from a fixed physical shape of one or more antenna arrays that correspond to a desired spacing of antennas to form null space at the unsafe area.

[0063] In one embodiment, the distance and the size of the unsafe area from the transmitter, as calculated according to transmitter algorithms, may vary production and transmission of power waves by the transmitter's antennas to form null space at the unsafe area. For example, the transmitter may adjust the phase at which the transmitter's antenna transmits the power. When an optimal configuration for the antennas is identified, memory of the transmitter may store the configurations to keep the transmitter transmitting at that highest level. In another embodiment, the algorithms of the transmitter based on determined distance and the size of the unsafe area from the transmitter may determine when it is necessary to adjust the power waves and may also vary the configuration of the transmitter antennas.

[0064] In the next step 308, the transmitter will transmit the one or more power waves to converge destructively at the unsafe area within the transmission field to form the null space. In an embodiment, the unsafe area may receive multiple power transmission signals from the transmitter. Each of the multiple power transmission signals comprises the power waves from multiple antennas of the transmitter. The composite of these power transmission signals may be essentially zero, because the power waves add together destructively to create the null space.

[0065] In another embodiment, at least two power waves may be generated by a waveform generator of the transmitter. The at least two power waves generated may have different frequencies. In some embodiments, the change in phase of the frequency of one of the at least two power waves may result in formation of a unified power wave. The uniform power wave may be such that it will generate the null space at the unsafe area in the transmission field, along with generation of the pocket of energy in areas other than the unsafe area in the transmission field.

[0066] The foregoing method descriptions and the process flow diagrams are provided merely as illustrative examples and are not intended to require or imply that the steps of the various embodiments must be performed in the order presented. As will be appreciated by one of skill in the art the steps in the foregoing embodiments may be performed in any order.

Words such as "then," "next," etc. are not intended to limit the order of the steps; these words are simply used to guide the reader through the description of the methods. Although process flow diagrams may describe the operations as a sequential process, many of the operations can be performed in parallel or concurrently. In addition, the order of the operations may be rearranged. A process may correspond to a method, a function, a procedure, a subroutine, a subprogram, etc. When a process corresponds to a function, its termination may correspond to a return of the function to the calling function or the main function.

[0067] The various illustrative logical blocks, modules, circuits, and algorithm steps described in connection with the embodiments disclosed herein may be implemented as electronic hardware, computer software, or combinations of both. To clearly illustrate this interchangeability of hardware and software, various illustrative components, blocks, modules, circuits, and steps have been described above generally in terms of their functionality.

Whether such functionality is implemented as hardware or software depends upon the particular application and design constraints imposed on the overall system. Those skilled in the art may implement the described functionality in varying ways for each particular application, but such implementation decisions should not be interpreted as causing a departure from the scope of the present invention.

[0068] Embodiments implemented in computer software may be implemented in software, firmware, middleware, microcode, hardware description languages, or any combination thereof. A code segment or machine-executable instructions may represent a procedure, a function, a subprogram, a program, a routine, a subroutine, a module, a software package, a class, or any combination of instructions, data structures, or program statements. A code segment may be coupled to another code segment or a hardware circuit by passing and/or receiving information, data, arguments, parameters, or memory contents. Information, arguments, parameters, data, etc. may be passed, forwarded, or transmitted via any suitable means including memory sharing, message passing, token passing, network transmission, etc.

[0069] The actual software code or specialized control hardware used to implement these systems and methods is not limiting of the invention. Thus, the operation and behavior of the systems and methods were described without reference to the specific software code being understood that software and control hardware can be designed to implement the systems and methods based on the description herein.

[0070] When implemented in software, the functions may be stored as one or more instructions or code on a non-transitory computer-readable or processor-readable storage medium. The steps of a method or algorithm disclosed herein may be embodied in a processor-executable software module, which may reside on a computer-readable or processor- readable storage medium. A non-transitory computer-readable or processor-readable media includes both computer storage media and tangible storage media that facilitate transfer of a computer program from one place to another. A non-transitory processor-readable storage media may be any available media that may be accessed by a computer. By way of example, and not limitation, such non-transitory processor-readable media may comprise RAM, ROM, EEPROM, CD-ROM or other optical disk storage, magnetic disk storage or other magnetic storage devices, or any other tangible storage medium that may be used to store desired program code in the form of instructions or data structures and that may be accessed by a computer or processor. Disk and disc, as used herein, include compact disc (CD), laser disc, optical disc, digital versatile disc (DVD), floppy disk, and Blu-ray disc where disks usually reproduce data magnetically, while discs reproduce data optically with lasers. Combinations of the above should also be included within the scope of computer-readable media. Additionally, the operations of a method or algorithm may reside as one or any combination or set of codes and/or instructions on a non-transitory processor-readable medium and/or computer-readable medium, which may be incorporated into a computer program product.

Claims

CLAIMS What is claimed is:
1. A method of wireless power transmission, the method comprising:
measuring, by a transmitter, a plurality of specific absorption rate (SAR) values, each respective SAR value corresponding to a respective spatial location within a transmission field of the transmitter with respect to one or more power waves radiated from one or more antennas of the transmitter;
determining, by the transmitter, a selected spatial location within the transmission field where a first measured SAR value of the plurality of SAR values does not satisfy a pre-defined SAR value threshold; and
transmitting, by the transmitter, the one or more power waves to converge destructively at or proximate to the selected spatial location within the transmission field.
2. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
determining, by the transmitter, an additional spatial location within the transmission field where a second measured SAR value of the plurality of SAR values satisfies the predefined SAR value threshold; and
transmitting, by the transmitter, the one or more power waves to converge
constructively at the additional spatial location within the transmission field.
3. The method of any preceding claim, wherein the transmitting of the one or more power waves that converge destructively forms one or more null spaces at or proximate to the selected spatial location within the transmission field.
4. The method of any preceding claim, wherein the pre-defined SAR value is about 1.6 watts per kilogram (W/Kg).
5. The method of any preceding claim, further comprising receiving, by the transmitter, location data about a location associated with one or more receivers within the transmission field of the transmitter.
6. The method of any preceding claim, wherein the one or more power waves include power waves selected from the group consisting of electromagnetic wave, radio wave, microwave, acoustics, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance.
7. The method of any preceding claim, wherein the transmitter comprises one or more antenna arrays, and wherein a respective antenna array of the one or more antenna arrays comprises the one or more antennas.
8. A method of wireless power transmission, the method comprising:
determining, by a transmitter, a plurality of specific absorption rate (SAR) values, each respective SAR value corresponding to a respective spatial location within a transmission field of the transmitter with respect to one or more power waves radiated from one or more antennas of the transmitter;
determining, by the transmitter, a selected spatial location within the transmission field where a first measured SAR value does not satisfy a pre-defined SAR value threshold;
determining, by the transmitter, an additional spatial location within the transmission field where a second measured SAR value satisfies a pre-defined SAR value threshold;
transmitting, by the transmitter, the one or more power waves to converge destructively at or proximate to the selected spatial location within the transmission field; and
transmitting, by the transmitter, the one or more power waves to converge
constructively to form a pocket of energy at the additional spatial location within the transmission field.
9. The method of claim 8, wherein the pre-defined SAR value is about 1.6 watts per kilogram (W/Kg).
10. The method of any one of claims 8-9, wherein the one or more power waves include power waves selected from the group consisting of electromagnetic wave, radio wave, microwave, acoustics, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance.
11. The method of any one of claims 8-10, wherein the transmitter comprises one or more antenna arrays, and wherein a respective antenna array of the one or more antenna arrays comprises the one or more antennas.
12. A system for wireless power transmission, the system comprising:
one or more transmitters, a respective transmitter of the one or more transmitters comprising:
a microprocessor configured to: measure a plurality of specific absorption rate (SAR) values, each respective SAR value corresponding to a respective spatial location within a transmission field of the transmitter, and
determine a selected spatial location within the transmission field where a first measured SAR value satisfies a pre-defined SAR value threshold; and
one or more antenna arrays, wherein a respective antenna array of the one or more of the antenna arrays comprises one or more antennas configured to transmit power waves that converge destructively to form a null space at or proximate to the selected spatial location within the transmission field.
13. The system of claim 12, wherein the microprocessor is configured to:
in accordance with determining that the first measured SAR value does not satisfy the pre-defined SAR value threshold, select: (i) respective antennas from each of the one or more antenna arrays to form a desired shape and spacing between the respective antennas and (ii) an output frequency of the one or more power waves; and
transmit the one or more power waves via the selected respective antennas and using the selected output frequency to cause the one or more power waves to converge destructively to form the null space at or proximate to the selected spatial location within the transmission field.
14. The system of any one of claims 12-13, wherein the microprocessor is configured to: determine an additional spatial location within the transmission field where a second measured SAR value of the plurality of SAR values satisfies the pre-defined SAR value threshold;
in accordance with determining that the second measured SAR value satisfies the predefined SAR value threshold, select: (i) respective antennas from each of the one or more antenna arrays to form a desired shape and spacing between the respective antennas and (ii) an output frequency of the one or more power waves; and
transmit the one or more power waves via the selected respective antennas and using the selected output frequency to cause the one or more power waves to converge constructively to form a pocket of energy at the additional spatial location within the transmission field.
15. The system of any one of claims 12-14, wherein the pre-defined SAR value is about 1.6 watts per kilogram (W/Kg).
16. The system of any one of claims 12-15, wherein the one or more power waves comprise chirp waves having a frequency that is continually varied by the microprocessor.
17. The system of claim 14, wherein the additional spatial location includes a receiver comprising one or more antennas that are configured to receive energy from the one or more power waves for charging a targeted electronic device that is associated with the receiver.
18. The system of any one of claims 12-17, wherein:
at least one antenna of the one or more antennas is selected from the group consisting of a flat antenna, a patch antenna, and a dipole antenna,
the height of the at least one antenna is from about 1/8 inches to about 1 inch, and the width of at least one antenna is from about 1/8 inches to about 1 inch.
19. The system of any one of claims 12-18, wherein respective one or more antennas of respective one or more antenna arrays of the one or more transmitters are configured to operate in independent frequencies that allow a multichannel operation of pocket-forming in at least one of a single array, a pair array, and a quad array.
20. The system of any one of claims 12-19, wherein the one or more power waves include power waves selected from the group consisting of electromagnetic wave, radio wave, microwave, acoustics, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance.
PCT/US2016/069316 2015-09-16 2016-12-29 Systems and methods for generating power waves in a wireless power transmission system WO2017117452A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US201562272454 true 2015-12-29 2015-12-29
US62/272,454 2015-12-29
US15059898 US20170110888A1 (en) 2015-09-16 2016-03-03 Systems and methods for generating power waves in a wireless power transmission system
US15/059,898 2016-03-03

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
KR20187021892A KR20180095707A (en) 2015-12-29 2016-12-29 A system and method for generating power derived from the wireless power transmission system

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2017117452A1 true true WO2017117452A1 (en) 2017-07-06

Family

ID=59225817

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/US2016/069316 WO2017117452A1 (en) 2015-09-16 2016-12-29 Systems and methods for generating power waves in a wireless power transmission system

Country Status (2)

Country Link
KR (1) KR20180095707A (en)
WO (1) WO2017117452A1 (en)

Citations (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US787412A (en) * 1900-05-16 1905-04-18 Nikola Tesla Art of transmitting electrical energy through the natural mediums.
WO2001011716A1 (en) * 1999-08-09 2001-02-15 Franco Toninato Antenna for mobile radiocommunications equipment
US20090047998A1 (en) * 2007-08-16 2009-02-19 Motorola, Inc. Method and apparatus for controlling power transmission levels for a mobile station having transmit diversity
US20090102292A1 (en) * 2007-09-19 2009-04-23 Nigel Power, Llc Biological Effects of Magnetic Power Transfer
US20100134105A1 (en) * 2008-10-15 2010-06-03 Zelinski Adam C Method For Reducing Maximum Local Specific Absorption Rate In Magnetic Resonance Imaging
US20110152670A1 (en) * 2009-12-02 2011-06-23 Yang Qing X Method of Utilization of High Dielectric Constant (HDC) Materials for Reducing SAR and Enhancing SNR in MRI
US20110156494A1 (en) * 2008-08-25 2011-06-30 Governing Dynamics Llc Wireless Energy Transfer System
US20110281535A1 (en) * 2010-05-14 2011-11-17 Qualcomm Incorporated Controlling field distribution of a wireless power transmitter
US20130063143A1 (en) * 2011-09-01 2013-03-14 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Local SAR Constrained Parallel Transmission RF Pulse in Magnetic Resonance Imaging
US20130169348A1 (en) * 2012-01-04 2013-07-04 Futurewei Technologies, Inc. SAR Control Using Capacitive Sensor and Transmission Duty Cycle Control in a Wireless Device
US20140091968A1 (en) * 2009-09-08 2014-04-03 Google Inc. System and method for adaptive beamforming for specific absorption rate control
US20140375255A1 (en) * 2013-05-10 2014-12-25 DvineWave Inc. Wireless power transmission with selective range
US20160164563A1 (en) * 2014-12-05 2016-06-09 Microsoft Technology Licensing, Llc Selective specific absorption rate adjustment

Patent Citations (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US787412A (en) * 1900-05-16 1905-04-18 Nikola Tesla Art of transmitting electrical energy through the natural mediums.
WO2001011716A1 (en) * 1999-08-09 2001-02-15 Franco Toninato Antenna for mobile radiocommunications equipment
US20090047998A1 (en) * 2007-08-16 2009-02-19 Motorola, Inc. Method and apparatus for controlling power transmission levels for a mobile station having transmit diversity
US20090102292A1 (en) * 2007-09-19 2009-04-23 Nigel Power, Llc Biological Effects of Magnetic Power Transfer
US20110156494A1 (en) * 2008-08-25 2011-06-30 Governing Dynamics Llc Wireless Energy Transfer System
US20100134105A1 (en) * 2008-10-15 2010-06-03 Zelinski Adam C Method For Reducing Maximum Local Specific Absorption Rate In Magnetic Resonance Imaging
US20140091968A1 (en) * 2009-09-08 2014-04-03 Google Inc. System and method for adaptive beamforming for specific absorption rate control
US20110152670A1 (en) * 2009-12-02 2011-06-23 Yang Qing X Method of Utilization of High Dielectric Constant (HDC) Materials for Reducing SAR and Enhancing SNR in MRI
US20110281535A1 (en) * 2010-05-14 2011-11-17 Qualcomm Incorporated Controlling field distribution of a wireless power transmitter
US20130063143A1 (en) * 2011-09-01 2013-03-14 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Local SAR Constrained Parallel Transmission RF Pulse in Magnetic Resonance Imaging
US20130169348A1 (en) * 2012-01-04 2013-07-04 Futurewei Technologies, Inc. SAR Control Using Capacitive Sensor and Transmission Duty Cycle Control in a Wireless Device
US20140375255A1 (en) * 2013-05-10 2014-12-25 DvineWave Inc. Wireless power transmission with selective range
US20160164563A1 (en) * 2014-12-05 2016-06-09 Microsoft Technology Licensing, Llc Selective specific absorption rate adjustment

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
KR20180095707A (en) 2018-08-27 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US9124125B2 (en) Wireless power transmission with selective range
US20110148687A1 (en) Adjustable antenna
US9438046B1 (en) Methods and systems for maximum power point transfer in receivers
US20160099614A1 (en) External or Internal Receiver for Smart Mobile Devices
US20160099602A1 (en) Tracking Surface for Determining Optimal Charging Position
US20160191121A1 (en) Systems and methods for wireless power transmission
US20100264746A1 (en) Wireless power transmitting system, power receiving station, power transmitting station, and recording medium
US20120299541A1 (en) Sender controller for wireless power transfer
US20170077764A1 (en) Systems and methods of object detection in wireless power charging systems
US20170077765A1 (en) Systems and methods of object detection in wireless power charging systems
US20110117973A1 (en) Radiated power control systems and methods in wireless communication devices
US7812719B2 (en) RFID system and method for localizing and tracking a moving object with an RFID tag
US7307595B2 (en) Near field location system and method
US20120280575A1 (en) Wireless power transmission and reception system
US20070007821A1 (en) Untethered power supply of electronic devices
US20130040655A1 (en) Maintenance of mobile device rf beam
US6456856B1 (en) Mobile radio equipment forming antenna pattern to project user from radiation
US7925308B2 (en) Radio-frequency (RF) power portal
US20150022009A1 (en) Method for 3 dimensional pocket-forming
US20150171658A1 (en) Wireless charging device
US20160094092A1 (en) Wireless Power Transmission
Mercuri et al. Analysis of an indoor biomedical radar-based system for health monitoring
US20170110914A1 (en) Systems and methods for real time or near real time wireless communications between electronic devices
US6967462B1 (en) Charging of devices by microwave power beaming
WO2014209587A1 (en) Methodology for multiple pocket-forming

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application

Ref document number: 16882696

Country of ref document: EP

Kind code of ref document: A1

NENP Non-entry into the national phase in:

Ref country code: DE

ENP Entry into the national phase in:

Ref document number: 20187021892

Country of ref document: KR

Kind code of ref document: A

ENP Entry into the national phase in:

Ref document number: 2016882696

Country of ref document: EP

Effective date: 20180730