WO2016078746A1 - Method for operating an object rating apparatus for a motor vehicle, object rating apparatus for a motor vehicle and motor vehicle having an object rating apparatus - Google Patents

Method for operating an object rating apparatus for a motor vehicle, object rating apparatus for a motor vehicle and motor vehicle having an object rating apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2016078746A1
WO2016078746A1 PCT/EP2015/002179 EP2015002179W WO2016078746A1 WO 2016078746 A1 WO2016078746 A1 WO 2016078746A1 EP 2015002179 W EP2015002179 W EP 2015002179W WO 2016078746 A1 WO2016078746 A1 WO 2016078746A1
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WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
object
motor vehicle
points
plurality
state
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PCT/EP2015/002179
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German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Michael SCHLITTENBAUER
Original Assignee
Audi Ag
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Priority to DE102014017166.3A priority Critical patent/DE102014017166A1/en
Priority to DE102014017166.3 priority
Application filed by Audi Ag filed Critical Audi Ag
Publication of WO2016078746A1 publication Critical patent/WO2016078746A1/en

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/017Gesture based interaction, e.g. based on a set of recognized hand gestures
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K37/00Dashboards
    • B60K37/04Arrangement of fittings on dashboard
    • B60K37/06Arrangement of fittings on dashboard of controls, e.g. controls knobs
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/03Arrangements for converting the position or the displacement of a member into a coded form
    • G06F3/0304Detection arrangements using opto-electronic means
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K2370/00Details of arrangements or adaptations of instruments specially adapted for vehicles, not covered by groups B60K35/00, B60K37/00
    • B60K2370/10Input devices or features thereof
    • B60K2370/12Input devices or input features
    • B60K2370/146Input by gesture
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K2370/00Details of arrangements or adaptations of instruments specially adapted for vehicles, not covered by groups B60K35/00, B60K37/00
    • B60K2370/10Input devices or features thereof
    • B60K2370/12Input devices or input features
    • B60K2370/146Input by gesture
    • B60K2370/14643D-gesture

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for operating an object rating apparatus (20) for a motor vehicle (10), in which at least one object state (24, 26) of an object (22) to be rated is optically captured by at least one sensor (12) of the object rating apparatus (20) and a three-dimensional image (28), based on the capture, of the object (22) is segmented, the segmented three-dimensional image (28) being divided into a plurality of sectors (30, 32, 34, 36). To describe the object state (24, 26), at least one sector point (38) from a plurality of physically distributed sector points of the image (28) that describe the object (22) is used from each of the sectors (30, 32, 34, 36). The plurality of sector points is taken as a basis for determining at least one spherical curvature (40) of the object (22), wherein the object state (24, 26) is rated on the basis of the spherical curvature (40) of the object (22) and the rated object state (24, 26) is used as a state signal for operator control of an appliance (48) of the motor vehicle (10).

Description

Method for operating an object evaluation device for a motor vehicle, object evaluation device for a motor vehicle, and motor vehicle with an object evaluation device

DESCRIPTION:

The invention relates to a method for operating an object evaluation device for a motor vehicle, in which at least one object condition of being valued object by detects at least one sensor of the object evaluation device optically, and based on the detection of three-dimensional image of the object is segmented, the segmented, three-dimensional image is divided into a plurality of sectors. To the invention also includes a corresponding object evaluation device for a motor vehicle, which is configured to perform SEN of the inventive method. Furthermore, one of the invention, a motor vehicle with such an object evaluation device.

Motor vehicles use today to service various built-in or in the motor vehicle mitführbarer devices, so for example, to operate a telephone entry systems, which are based on non-contact operation. Such systems include, for example, the gesture control in which a desired non-contact by the vehicle occupant telephone number is dialed by gesturing input. Such non-contact systems are particularly advantageous as vehicle occupants, in particular the driver of the vehicle may make on the traffic his gaze steadily and yet can be made reliable control of the respective contact-to-use system.

A hands-free operation system is known from US 2012/0271370 A1, which is designed there as a gesture controlled interface for a motor vehicle. An imprisoned border in a motor vehicle person can thereby define a gesture acceptance range and teach a gesture control system so that it detects a hand position and hand gesture movement within the acceptable range. WO 2014/009561 A2 from the known is a method in which a gesture-based human-computer interaction by means of individual "points of interest" (POI) a single source can be used. In this case, some are sufficient few points to a gripping, pushing or to recognize a snap of the fingers of the hand and trigger a rating based on device operation.

The DE 10 2007 041 482 A1 discloses a method for automatic detection of a limb, eg. B. WO at the same time a plurality of two-dimensional images of the limb is detected from different directions of a hand gesture formed. The two-dimensional images are combined into a three-dimensional image and analyzed the latter in terms of a gesture feature. The object of the present invention is to provide a highly reliable, non-contact operation of devices.

This object is achieved by a method according to claim 1, by an object evaluation device according to claim 9 and by a motor vehicle according to claim 10 degrees. Advantageous developments of the invention are given by the subclaims.

The inventive method uses the procedure described at the outset, according to which at least one object condition of being valued object optically detected by at least one sensor of the object evaluation device and based on the detection of three-dimensional image of the object is segmented, the segmented, three-dimensional image into a plurality of sectors is divided. According to the invention, a sector point of a plurality descriptive of the object spatially distributed points of the image sector is used to describe the object state from each of said sectors at least. Here, for example, 1,000 points sector for statistical evaluation or four sector points for a concrete evaluation be used. On the basis of the plurality of sector points is at least one spherical curvature of the object, for example a hand, determines the object status is evaluated according to the spherical curvature of the object and the evaluated object state is used as a condition signal for the operation of a device of the motor vehicle. The Objektbewertungsvorrich- processing comprises, for example a camera with a PMD sensor (PMD = Photonic Mixing Device), which is based on the principle of the light transit time method. The detected object by means of the evaluation device object is for example the arm of a vehicle occupant or, as already mentioned a hand to be detected only a few kinds of, and to call the object to be evaluated. Accordingly, is optically detected as an object state, whether, for example, the upper arm completely viewed angled slightly bent or stretched or curved by a fist or open. processing to the segmentation as part of field of digital Bildver- and seeing be wherein content contiguous regions generated by combining adjacent pixel or voxel corresponding to a given homogeneity criterion is to be only in so far dealt with here that in the context of detecting the three-dimensional image by means of the object evaluation device in the segmentation of the altitude differences of the object can be detected. Accordingly, it can be distinguished by means of the segmentation for example, whether zones of a clenched hand be curved outward or pressed together. In dividing the "means of the object evaluation device upon detection of the object derived three-dimensional image into a plurality of sectors dividing into quadrants or circular segments of different surface areas can occur for example, to name just a few ways the division into sectors. For a description of the object state with the use of quadrants for example, 1000 sector points are uniformly distributed on them, so that each quadrant sector 250 points of the three-dimensional image can be used. The respective sector points while individual pixels, each of which sector a minimum pixel distance from each other have (z. B. in the u direction and the v direction at a distance of dp = 5 pixels), respectively. From the spatially distributed sector points and their relationship to each other, a spherical curvature of the object being viewed is determined and evaluated the object status using the spherical curvature of the object. If it is at the observed object, as mentioned above by way of example, a hand, as may be inferred from the spherical curvature thus be detected whether the hand is closed (smaller radius of curvature at the palm) or whether the hand is opened (viewed radii of curvature at the palm compared to the fist considerably larger). Especially in the aforementioned example, the hand is observed object can be seen that (also by comparing different zones of the object by assigning these zones in the sectors or quadrants, for example, quadrant 1 corresponds to Zone 1 = middle finger, ring finger and little finger; quadrant 2 corresponds to zone 2 = index finger and thumb tip; quadrant 3 corresponds to zone 3 = palm below the middle finger, the ring finger and the little finger; quadrant 4 corresponds to zone 4 = palm or thumb joint), a comparison of the state of the zones to each other for evaluation of the object state can be used. By means of the object evaluation device is finally generated from the evaluated state object, a corresponding state signal and transmitted to a device for operating the motor vehicle. Such a device may be a navigation system or an air conditioning system of the vehicle next to a mobile phone, for example, to name just a few possible devices.

In an advantageous embodiment of the invention, a radius of spherical curvature and a center of the spherical curvature is determined by the spherical curvature of the object. This has a particularly simple and reliable description of the curvature is possible, with a particularly low memory requirements for the curvature sufficiently descriptive data is needed the advantage. In other words, by the radius of the center point as well as by those sector points through which the spherical curvature is fixed or defined, particularly resource-saving manner (low memory requirements and low computing power requirement in the object evaluation apparatus) both a unique position of the considered curvature, and the corresponding degree of curvature are recorded. In the spherical curvature may also be a multi-radius curvature, which are defined by the respective sector points in relation to the center. If there are several radii more sector points accordingly to capture regard to their position is firm, so complete description of the curvature radii with multiple surfaces to enable. In other words, the number of terms of your situation to be recognized for the unique description of the curve sector points to the number of different radii of curvature depends.

As a further, it has shown to be advantageous when at least a portion of the plurality are used by describing the object sector points as respective coordinates of a sphere and for the evaluation of the object state a sphere radius will be used. In other words, while the considered sector points are expressed as coordinates of a spherical ball and the spherical curvature formed by the sector points simplified as a sphere. To describe a sphere rich in principle already four points from sector. This enables a particularly resource-efficient description of the local curvature of the object, wherein the ball is a geometrically particularly easy to be described by reference.

It is also advantageous, when at least four points are selected randomly from the plurality of sector points, each of which is associated with one of the sectors, based on this random points a ball radius and a center of the sphere are determined as the characteristics of an envelope sphere. The considered envelope sphere can be understood as the envelope of the object on the one hand, with the radius of the envelope sphere varies with the object condition. Accordingly, for example, the envelope sphere of an extended arm significantly greater (larger radius of the envelope sphere that includes the whole arm) than the envelope sphere of an angled arm (of smaller radius). However, the envelope sphere can alternatively also be defined to so that they just encloses the respectively considered random dots and thereby results in an envelope sphere randomly determined on the basis of random dots, which includes no means the whole object, but only for example individual zones. Such a zone would, for example, the elbow of the arm. The use of random dots is particularly advantageous, as this also lead inclined positions of the observed object relative to the object evaluation device to a reliable operation of the device. The object evaluation device can therefore detect an inclined position and reliably detect the respective gen Repair using other random points.

It is also advantageous if at least one other envelope sphere of the type mentioned is determined. The determination of further enveloping spheres is particularly advantageous to effect a reliable operation of the device even with irregularly formed objects. An illustrative example here represents a greatly swollen hand that can still be used by the use of multiple enveloping spheres to a reliable operation of the equipment. Accordingly, the one sector in which, for example, a heavily swollen finger is, for example, identified as an outlier and used only the other sectors with the further enveloping spheres to operate the equipment.

In a further advantageous embodiment of the invention, a plurality is determined by the object described spherical curvatures and used a frequency distribution of the plurality of spherical curvatures for describing the object description of the object state. By using a plurality of spherical curves having a different radius to each other, for example, a particularly fine gradation between multiple object states can be made. In other words, not only can be detected by the plurality of spherical curvature, for example, whether the arm is flexed or extended, or the hand open, or clenched is (closed), but which is present degree of opening. This allows the implementation of many functions of the device to control, each opening degree triggers a specific function of the device.

Another advantage is when a state of a side is recognized as the object state. Accordingly, for example, the opening degree of a hand can be so calculated is determined by determining the curvature, in order to use the corresponding device of the vehicle. The physically correct localization ability of the occupant (eg., By a Time Of Flight camera with a PMD sensor) or of body parts (such as the hand) of the occupant allow Handpose to detect. the difference between fully open hand and closed hand, for example, recognized as a grasping gesture. The hand can be analyzed particularly simple example, as a spherical object on the basis of four sector points on the hand surface and are determined from the radius of the sphere and the sphere.

Another advantage is when an opening degree of the hand is determined by the object state. The consideration of the hand as an object allows the detection of a high number of object states in the form of different degrees of opening the hand. In addition, various Fingerbe- can movements or the abduction of individual fingers are used to define different object states. This opens up a significant scope of operation of the device, so the reaction of a high number of functions through the various states detected object hand. The object evaluation device according to the invention for a motor vehicle allows a particularly safe and reliable detection of different object states of the observed object. The invention, equipped with an object evaluation device motor vehicle can be operated in a particularly reliable contact, the vehicle occupant can direct his full attention on the traffic simultaneously.

The advantages described for the inventive method preferred embodiments also apply to the inventive object evaluation device as well as for the motor vehicle and vice versa. Further advantages, features and details of the invention result from the claims, the following description of preferred embodiments and from the drawings.

The invention is explained again using a concrete exemplary embodiment. This is shown:

Fig. 1 is a schematic perspective view of an interior of a

Motor vehicle, are detected by means of an object evaluation device different object states of a presently embodied as a hand object;

Figures 2 to 4 are each a schematic perspective view illustrating an embodiment of the method according to the invention. and

Fig. 5 and 6 are mutually different frequency distributions as

Sequence of mutually different object states of a detected object by means of the evaluation device object. In the embodiment explained below is a preferred embodiment of the invention. In the embodiment, but the described components of the embodiment respectively represent individual, to be considered independently of each other features of the invention which are the invention WEI terbilden each independently of each other and thus individually or to be considered part of the invention other than the combination shown , Furthermore, the embodiment described can be supplemented by other features of the already described of the invention. In the figures, functionally identical elements are provided with the same reference numerals.

Fig. 1 shows in a schematic perspective view of a portion of an interior of a motor vehicle 10. The motor vehicle 10 in the present case comprises an object evaluation device 20, by means of which different object states 24, 26 of the present case designed as a hand of a vehicle occupant object 22 are detected. In the example shown in FIG. 1, the object state 24 the open hand, which is recognizable by the dot-dash lines, corresponds to the ironed finger. The further object state 26, however, corresponds to the closed, shaped into a fist hand. The object evaluation device 20 comprises in the present embodiment a sensor 12, which is designed as a PMD sensor, a camera 14 and a calculation unit 16 (ECU). The sensor 12 is part of the camera 14, wherein a by the camera 14 of- the object (hand) 22-derived three-dimensional image 28 evaluated by means of the calculation unit 16, and thereby the object 22, or the three-dimensional image 28 of the object states 24, is assigned to the 26th A the detected object state 24, 26 corresponding state signal is then transmitted from the calculation unit 16 to a vehicle architecture 18, which is formed for example as a CAN bus, and the vehicle architecture 18 in accordance with the state signal, a device 48 which, for example, a navigation device, or corresponds to an air conditioning system of the motor vehicle 10 operates. In other words, so 48 different settings are made by different object states 24 are detected by the object evaluation apparatus 20 and 26 are communicated to the object states 24, 26 corresponding state signals via the vehicle architecture 18 to the device 48 on the device.

Fig. 2 shows the state object 26, that is formed into a fist, closed hand, which in the present 'embodiment corresponds to the object 22. Fig. 3 shows the state object 24, that is, the open, substantially flat hand (object 22). The object states 24, 26 can now with- means of the object evaluation device 20 thereby be distinguished from each other, that the three-dimensional image 28 of the object 22 (the hand), as shown in Fig. 4, in various sectors 30, 32, 34, 36 which are are designed here as a quadrant, divided and a sector is allocated from a plurality descriptive ends of the object 22, spatially distributed points of the image sector 28 38 at least each of the quadrants. On the basis of the plurality of sector points a spherical curvature 40 of the object 22 is determined at least. In other words, a spatial curvature of the hand is detected and evaluated as a specific object state 24, 26 on the basis of sector points 38th The respective object state 24, 26 is thus evaluated from the spherical curvature 40 of the object 22 and the evaluated object state 24, 26 used as the state signal for operating the device 48 of the motor vehicle 10. Based on the spherical curvature 40 of the object 22 (the hand), a corresponding radius R r of the spherical curvature 40 and a center M of the spherical curvature is determined. Fig. 2 shows for this purpose, the spherical curvature 40, which is in the closed hand (Faust, object state 26) returns to the small radius r, and Fig. 3 shows the spherical curvature 40 which extends to the in comparison to the radius r larger radius R is obtained. Toggle handle these respective curvature 40 can be particularly easily evaluated by the object evaluation device 20 so that the object states 24, is present 26th As further shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, may additionally or alternatively to the spherical curvature 40 also discrimination of the object states 24, carried out 26 by at least a portion of the plurality used by the object 22 described sector points as respective coordinates of a ball 52 be and the assessment of the object state 24, 26 a spherical radius R ', n is used. " The plurality of sector points corresponds to a point cloud 50 which is defined in each of the sectors 30, 32, 34, 36th and at least four random points may be selected from the plurality of sector points (point cloud 50) additionally or alternatively be selected 46, each of which is one of the sectors 30, 32, 34, is assigned to the 36th A sphere radius R H, R H and a ball center M H as a parameter an envelope sphere 42 determines on the basis of this random points 46th In other words, the envelope sphere is defined H and their sphere center M H on the basis of the random points 46 with respect to their spherical radius R H, r 42nd In other words, these are thus random points 46 on the envelope sphere 42 and place it firmly in terms of their spatial and their relative position to the object 22nd As shown in Fig. 3, at least one additional envelope sphere 44 can be determined according to the type mentioned. Although the combination of FIGS. 2 and Fig. 3 shows that the enveloping spheres shown there, 42, 44, the respective closed and open hand enveloping, and thereby the different radii RH, ΓΗ the respective enveloping spheres 42, yield 44 based on which the respective object state 24, it is judged 26th However, the enveloping spheres 42, 44 can encase any part of the observed object 22, that is the hand, for example when the random points 46 lie on the palm of the hand or on the back of the hand. Consequently, many of the enveloping spheres 42, 44, for example, N = 1000 enveloping spheres are used as a whole, wherein then from the resulting data (N x [radius, center], the enveloping spheres) a particularly revealing and divisible even in different state levels evaluation of object states 24 can be derived 26. the enveloping spheres 42, 44 in addition to the state of individual limbs, so fingers of the observed hand (object 22) 26 may further describe, in which case a plurality descriptive of the object 22, the spherical curvature is determined 40, and the description of the object state 24, a frequency distribution shown in FIG. 5 or FIG. 6, 54, 56 of the plurality is used by the object 22 described spherical curvatures 40th The frequency distribution 54 shown in Figure 5. Corresponds to a broad distribution lung with large radii of the enveloping spheres 42, 44, in other words, an open hand, in which the object state 24 is present and thus the degree of opening of the hand is big. In contrast, Fig. 6 shows the frequency distribution 56, which (26 object state) arises in the clenched hand. an accordingly arises when the frequency distribution 56 is an acute mean in general smaller radii. Thus, while the classes X of the illustrated histogram in Fig. 5 (frequency distribution 54) have a broad distribution with a large radius, the classes show X of that shown in Fig. 6 histogram (frequency distribution 56) has a distribution with a pointed mean and small radii.

By evaluating means of the frequency distributions 54, 56, the cohesion of the hand can (object 22) applications simply and cost by the Calculation of the respective radii and midpoints of the enveloping spheres 42, 44 and additionally or alternatively the balls 52nd

The following is an example of the type of algorithm used to determine the closeness of the hand is described.

Ball by four points

A circle is clearly defined by three different points of his bow. Conversely define three different points that do not lie on a straight line, a unique circle. This also applies in the room, because three points that do not lie on a straight line (non-collinear position) span a plane on which then is the circle. now three such points in three-dimensional space, imagine and through them circle.

In all balls (enveloping spheres 42, 44, and ball 52), these three points are on the surfaces thereof, the circle must lie on the spherical surface. In addition, are all centers of the balls, which can be formed to the circuit on a line perpendicular to the circle through the center.

By a single additional, ie a fourth surface point, the ball is fixed. However, this point may not lie in the plane of the circle: Either all then are the points on a circle, then the ball is not clearly defined, or they do not lie on a circle, then there is no corresponding ball.

For four given points (random points 46 and sector points 38) thus can be precisely then a ball (enveloping spheres 42, 44, and ball 52) find the points lie on the surface thereof, if they are all different, if not three of them lie on a straight line and not all four in one plane.

All points (random points 46 and sector 38 points) on the spherical surface having the same from the center distance, which corresponds to the radius (R K, R K, R or H, r H). Pythagoras, the relationship applies

Radius = vx 2 + y 2 + z 2)

or Radius 2 = x 2 + y 2 + z.

If the origin of the coordinate system is the center of the circle, the coordinates, the direction component of the distance of from the center. The point by Pythagoras (2 | | 4 5) has the spacing v (22 + 42 + 52) from the center, so radius v = (4 + 16 + 25) = ^ 5 ~ 6.7082

A sphere of radius 8 thus loading around the origin of the coordinate system is located, the equation x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 64 If the ball (envelope sphere 42, 44, and ball 52) shifted, ie not located in its center origin, then the new conditions on this equation can be traced back by the component-wise differences between the coordinates of the surface points and the coordinates of the center point (x m, y m, z m) are used in "Pythagoras":

(x - x m) 2 + (y - y m) 2 + (z - z m) 2 = radius 2

By this expression it is considered that the observed object 22 can be located within the detection range of the sensor 12 at an arbitrary position.

M + y m 2 2 + yy z 2 - - x 2 - m 2 + xx x m 2 + y 2 2 + z-zz m m 2 = radius of 2: When dissolving the brackets, one obtains

Find a ball by four points to four given points will now be determined, the center and the radius of the associated ball. For this purpose, in the last equation, the terms are the unknown variables (x m, y m, z m and radius) placed on the left side and all the other terms on the right side: x 2 - 2 xx m + x m 2 + y 2 - 2-yy m + y m 2 + z 2 - 2 zz m + z m 2 = radius 2

m 2 + y m 2 + z m 2 - r 2 - x 2 x m - 2 y m -y - z m 2 z = - (x 2 + y 2 + z 2)

If one now uses: A: = x m 2 + y m 2 + z m 2 - r 2, B: = -2 x m, C: = y m -2, and D: = -

2 z m, the result is:

A + Bx + Cy + Dz = - (x 2 + y 2 + z 2)

Since each four pairs are known for x, y and z and four unknowns (A, B, C and D) are present, can be establish a system of linear equations with four The same deviations, with which one can calculate A, B, C and D :

A + B + C-Xi-yi + D ZT = - (x \ 2 + zi + 2) A + B x C 2 + y 2 + z D 2 = - (x 2 2 + y 2 2 + z 2 2) A + B x 3 + Cy + D 3 z 3 (X3 2 + Y s 2 + z 3 2) A + B- X4 + C y 4 + D Z4 (X4 2 + y 4 2 + Z4 2)

When one is ready, that is, A, B, C and D has determined are obtained x m = - B / 2, y m = -C / 2, for m = -D / 2, and finally r 2 = x 2 + m y m 2 + z m 2 - A

The following describes the determination of sphere radius will now be presented on the basis of exemplary selected numerical values. It is to be found the bullet passing through the points (- 1 1 130.8 | 52.4); (30 | 29 | -46); (38 | 26.6 | 46.8) and (-34 | -27 | 5 NC) goes.

With A: = x m 2 + y m 2 + z m 2 - radius 2, B: = -2 x m, C: = y m -2, and D: = z m -2, we create the four points a respective equation A + B x + C y + z = D - (x 2 + y 2 + z 2):

A - 1 1 + B-C + 30.8 52.4 · D = -3815.4

A + 30 B + 29 C - 46 D = -3857

A + 38 B + C + 26.6-46,8- D = -4341, 8

A - 34 B - 27 C + 50 D = -4385

The corresponding coefficient matrix is:

1 -1 1 30.8 52.4 -3815.4

1 30 29 -46 -3857

1 38 26.6 46.8 -4341, 8

1 -34 -27 50 -4385

By appropriate row operations we obtain:

1 0 0 0 -4147

0 1 0 0 -10

0 0 1 0 14

0 0 0 1 -4 and thus A = -4147, B = -10, C = 14 and D = -4, from which it follows: x m = -B / 2 = 5

y m = -C / 2 = -7

z m = D / 2 = 2 r 2 = x m 2 + y m 2 + z m 2 - A = 25 + 49 + 4 - (-4147) = 4225

r = ^ 225 = 65

The sphere has thus the center (5 | -7 | 2) and the radius 65. Total shows the example described, such as (radius) can be provided by the invention a calculation of the opening degree of a hand by determining the curvature.

Claims

CLAIMS:
Method for operating an object evaluation device (20) for a motor vehicle (10), wherein at least one object condition (24, 26) of a to be evaluated object (22) is optically detected by at least one sensor (12) of the object evaluation device (20) and one on the detection based, three-dimensional image (28) of the object (22) is segmented, the segmented, three-dimensional image (28) into a plurality of sectors (30, 32, 34, 36) is divided, characterized in that
for describing the object status (24, 26) from each of the sectors (30, 32, 34, 36) at least one sector point (38) of a plurality of the object (22) is used descriptive, spatially distributed sector points of the image (28) and is determined from the plurality of sector points at least one spherical curvature (40) of the object (22), wherein the object state (24, 26) with reference to the spherical curvature (40) of the object (22) is evaluated and the evaluated object state (24, 26 ) is used as a condition signal to operate a device (48) of the motor vehicle (10).
The method of claim,
characterized, in that
based on the spherical curvature (40) of the object (22) has a radius (R, r) of the spherical curvature (40) and a center (M) of the spherical curvature (40) is determined.
The method of claim 1 or 2,
characterized, in that
at least a portion of the plurality of the object (22) descriptive sector points are used as the respective coordinates of a ball (52) and (24, 26) for the evaluation of the object state, a spherical radius (R K, r ") is used.
Method according to one of the preceding claims,
characterized, in that
is selected from the plurality of sector points at least four random points (46), each of which is one of the sectors (30, 32, 34, 36) associated with said random points (46) based on a spherical radius (RH, ΠΗ) and a ball center ( MH) are determined as characteristics of an envelope sphere (42).
5. The method according to claim 4,
characterized, in that
5 at least one additional envelope sphere (44) is determined the type mentioned.
6. The method according to any one of the preceding claims,
characterized, in that
a plurality of the object (22) describing spherical Krüm-0 rules (40) is determined and used to describe the object state
(24, 26) a frequency distribution (54, 56) of the plurality of describing the object (22) spherical curvatures (40) is used. 5 7. The method according to any one of the preceding claims,
characterized, in that
as the object state (24, 26) a state of a hand is detected.
8. The method according to claim 7,
O thereby, in that
an opening degree of the hand is determined based on the object status (24, 26).
9. object evaluation device (20) for a motor vehicle (0), which is configured zur5 carrying out a method according to any one of claims 1 to. 8
10. A motor vehicle (10) having an object evaluation device (20) according to claim. 9
PCT/EP2015/002179 2014-11-20 2015-10-30 Method for operating an object rating apparatus for a motor vehicle, object rating apparatus for a motor vehicle and motor vehicle having an object rating apparatus WO2016078746A1 (en)

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DE102014017166.3 2014-11-20

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