WO2014177697A1 - Dialyzer for hemodialysis having capillary membranes, spinning system for capillaries, and method for producing capillaries - Google Patents

Dialyzer for hemodialysis having capillary membranes, spinning system for capillaries, and method for producing capillaries Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO2014177697A1
WO2014177697A1 PCT/EP2014/058994 EP2014058994W WO2014177697A1 WO 2014177697 A1 WO2014177697 A1 WO 2014177697A1 EP 2014058994 W EP2014058994 W EP 2014058994W WO 2014177697 A1 WO2014177697 A1 WO 2014177697A1
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
outlet
characterized
profile
membrane
longitudinal direction
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2014/058994
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Oliver GOTTSCHALK
Original Assignee
Nephro-Solutions Ag
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/14Dialysis systems; Artificial kidneys; Blood oxygenators; Reciprocating systems for treatment of body fluids, e.g. single needle systems for haemofiltration, pheris
    • A61M1/16Dialysis systems; Artificial kidneys; Blood oxygenators; Reciprocating systems for treatment of body fluids, e.g. single needle systems for haemofiltration, pheris with membranes
    • A61M1/1621Constructional aspects thereof
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D63/00Apparatus in general for separation processes using semi-permeable membranes
    • B01D63/02Hollow fibre modules
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D69/00Semi-permeable membranes for separation processes or apparatus characterised by their form, structure or properties; Manufacturing processes specially adapted therefor
    • B01D69/08Hollow fibre membranes
    • B01D69/082Hollow fibre membranes characterised by the cross-sectional shape of the fibre
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D69/00Semi-permeable membranes for separation processes or apparatus characterised by their form, structure or properties; Manufacturing processes specially adapted therefor
    • B01D69/08Hollow fibre membranes
    • B01D69/085Details relating to the spinneret

Abstract

The invention relates to a dialyzer, comprising a plurality of capillaries (20), which each extend in a longitudinal direction (L) and are arranged next to each other. Each capillary has a semipermeable membrane (9), which has an inner membrane surface (9a) and an outer membrane surface. The inner membrane surface (9a) is characterized by a profile (37a) that enlarges the inner membrane surface.

Description

Dialyzer for hemodialysis with capillary, spinning plant for capillaries and methods for the preparation of capillaries The invention relates to a dialyzer for blood purification according to the preamble of claim 1 and a spinning plant for the production of capillaries in an inventive dialyzer as well as a process for the preparation of the capillaries according to the invention. Dialyzers are basically known in the prior art. Chronic renal dialysis ill patients are treated in this specialized clinics using the so-called hemodialysis HD. With a share of the treatment of over 89% worldwide, the HD is by far the most common type of renal replacement therapy. Another method of renal replacement therapy is the so-called peritoneal or peritoneal dialysis PD. Hemodialysis requires the use of hemodialysis machines and dialyzers connected as an "artificial kidney" with the help of an extracorporeal blood circulation to the device. Be and also as consumable parts, so-called one-time items need to be replaced. With their help, the removal of uremic retention products succeed and water (ultrafiltration) of the patient's blood (hemodialysis). the majority of the commercially available dialyzers contains more than 10,000 hollow fibers, the wall of which is formed as a membrane and which are referred to as capillary membranes.

In addition, methods for producing cross-sectional profiles having micro hollow fibers are known. Thus, the process for enlarging the outer surface of hollow fiber membranes from the article are "high performance micro-engineered hollow fiber membranes by smart spinneret design" in: known Journal of Membrane Science, 256 (2005) 209- 215 The micro hollow fibers found in gas separation method application there.. is in particular the application of a profile disclosed on the outer wall of a micro-hollow fiber, so as not to drop the distance between the micro hollow fibers to increase efficiency at a minimum distance. it is true that a profile on an inner wall of a micro hollow fiber is in the article in the appendix, however, discloses only for their use in gas separation processes wherein the micro hollow fibers are produced in spinning from a solution of PEI / PVP / NMP at a ratio of 19/1 1/70 wt%, and water is used as coagulum. This micro hollow fibers are already on the basis of their material properties for use in dialyzers in no case suitable. It is therefore an object of the invention in a first aspect to provide a dialyzer for the dialysis is available, which has an improved effect for the same size. In a second aspect, it is an object of the invention to provide a spinning plant for the production of capillary membranes according to the invention for dialyzers are available as well as in a third aspect a method of manufacturing the capillary.

In its first aspect, the object is achieved by a dialyzer having the features of claim 1. According to the invention, a dialyzer for hemodialysis having a plurality of in each case in a longitudinal direction is extending, juxtaposed capillaries provided, each with a semi-permeable capillary membrane 7 each having a membrane inner surface and an outer surface membrane. Preferably provided a wall of the capillary is the semipermeable capillary membrane, wherein a membrane an exchange surface enlarging profile is provided on the membrane inner surface. The membrane inner surface is enlarged in comparison with a perpendicular circular in cross-section to the longitudinal direction of the diaphragm inner surface having a same average inner diameter. Wherein among the average inner diameter, a diameter is to be understood that results from full leveling or smoothing of the peaks and valleys of the profile.

The membrane inner surface is different geometrically feasible to increase the membrane exchange surface. The semipermeable membranes consist advantageously of polysulfone (PSU), and / or polyethersulfone (PES). These are materials that are clinically tested and approved for use in dialyzers and approved. The semipermeable membrane can consist entirely of polysulfone and / or polyethersulfone. but it can be selected to build the semipermeable membrane and other membrane polymers. There are suitable for all of the dialysis membrane polymers used, in particular membrane polymers based on modified celluloses such as cellulose acetate and / or polyacrylonitrile and / or polyamide.

In a preferred embodiment of the dialyzer of the present invention, the profile along the entire extent in the longitudinal direction of the diaphragm inner surface of each of the capillaries extends. According to the invention, to design the membrane inner surface at a same average inner diameter as large as possible. This is preferably achieved in that the Membraninnenfiäche has a profile which advantageously extends along the entire capillary in the longitudinal direction.

Each of the capillaries has a cross section perpendicular to the longitudinal direction. In a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention, the profile has a wave shape which extends in the cross-section along an entire circumference of the membrane inner surface. In the waveform may be a sinusoidal wave, but also other types of waveforms such as rectangular waves, sawtooth o. Ä. act, which preferably each have rounded edges. More preferably, the profile in the longitudinal direction is translationally invariant, meaning that the profile has an identical shape in a plurality of cross-sections along the longitudinal direction of the capillary.

Conveniently, the shaft-shaped profile along the circumference of at least 10, preferably at least 30, more preferably at least 60 wave crests on. However, it is also disclosed in waves, any other number. In particular, even a wave or two waves can be provided which already increase the membrane inner surface. The intended wave crests and valleys are designed / depth in its height, that are adsorbed during perfusion with blood as few blood cells. In its second aspect, the object is achieved by a spinning plant having the features of claim 6.

The spinning machine comprises a plurality of spinning nozzles each having a longitudinal direction and each having a first outlet opening for a temporary filling medium and a second outlet for a polymer solution, wherein the second outlet opening preferably completely surrounds the first outlet port in a cross section perpendicular to the longitudinal direction and the first and second outlet port are open in the longitudinal direction, preferably in such a way that the temporary filling medium and the polymer solution exiting the two together in the longitudinal direction of the outlet openings of the spinning nozzle in the same direction. According to the invention an inner wall of the second outlet port in the cross section to a first outlet opening circulating complementary profile. Preferably, the complementary profile runs around the first outlet opening completely.

Preferably, an outlet is provided between the two outlet ports, which is preferably formed annularly in the cross section. Conveniently, an outer wall of the outlet nozzle to the complementary profile, which is then applied to the membrane inner surface during the manufacturing process of the capillary as a profile. Conveniently, an inner wall of the preferably annular outlet stem is smooth and circular in the cross section, preferably exactly circular, whereas the outer wall has the complementary profile.

Preferably, the first outlet opening is circular in the cross section and formed the second outlet is annular and surrounds the first outlet preferably concentrically, and the ring-shaped in the cross section of outlet port is disposed between the two outlet openings, and the complementary profile is provided on the outer wall of the outlet nozzle.

This preferred embodiment of the invention permits a particularly simple manufacture of the spin system of the invention using conventional spinning equipment can be used, in which the spinning nozzle to be replaced. The spinning nozzles each have an outlet, which separates the two outlet orifices from one another and on whose outer wall a complementary profile is applied. Conveniently, the complementary profile in the cross section is formed wave-shaped and extends along the entire circumference of the outer wall of the outlet nozzle. Along the longitudinal direction of the outlet, the complementary profile is preferably provided at least at the outlet of the spinning nozzle, ie at the point at which the liquid emerging from the spinneret, the polymer solution still contacts the outer wall of the outlet to accommodate therein at the embraninnenwandung the complementary profile as a profile can. Conveniently, available from longitudinally from the outlet location noses. These tabs are part of the complementary profile, and can be used to form, for example, elongated troughs in the profile of Membraninnenwandung.

Preferably, an inner wall of the outlet is smooth and strictly circular in the cross section.

Interested meadow, the spinning machine to a first receptacle which is filled with the temporary filling medium and a second container which is filled with the polymer solution. The polymer solution is preferably a polysulfone (PSU), and / or polyethersulfone (PES). However, other polymers can be used. The preferred solvents for PSu or PES is N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and dimethyl acetamide. However, other membrane polymers are chosen for the construction of the semipermeable membrane and corresponding solutions are kept. It is this principle, all suitable for the dialysis membrane polymers used, in particular membrane polymers based on modified celluloses such as cellulose acetate and / or on the basis of polyacrylonitrile and / or polyamide.

In the third aspect, the object is achieved by a method having the features of claim sixteenth

Here, a polymer solution for forming a semipermeable membrane of a first outlet opening of a spinning nozzle is supplied for performing the method, and at the same time a filling to form a temporary core to a second outlet opening of the spinning nozzle is supplied. At an exit point of the spinneret a kapillarförmiger endless hose leaves continuously the spinnerette, and at least at the outlet of the polymer solution passes over a complementary profile, which is preferably attached to an outlet of the spinning nozzle, and when sweeping a profile on a membrane inner surface is formed. The profile on the membrane inner surface is held by the temporary soul in shape. The temporary core preferably generates a variable inner pressure, is pushed to the inside to the membrane inner surface, so that the diaphragm on the one hand does not coincide and, on the other, or at least only very slowly changes or loses its result obtained by the complementary profile profile. By the contact of the filling medium with the polymer solution, the polymer solution, whereby the profile is already stabilized directly after the exit of the spinneret and is prevented from bleeding coagulated. Coagulation the dimensionally stable solidification of the polymer solution is understood in this application.

In a preferred development of the method according to the invention, the capillary endless tube is passed through a Koaguiationsbad after discharge and coagulates there to Endloskapillare, ie that a dimensionally stable semi-permeable membrane forms with the profile at the membrane inner surface, which can then be combined into bundles and cut to then install the capillary bundle in a dialyzer.

In the inventive method, a polysulfone (PSU) or a polyethersulfone (PES) is also used as a polymer solution. but it can be used in the inventive process and solutions with other membrane polymers. There are suitable for all of the dialysis membrane polymers used, in particular membrane polymers based on modified celluloses such as cellulose acetate and / or on the basis of polyacrylonitrile and / or polyamide. The invention is described using a preferred embodiment in eight figures. They show:

Fig. 1 is a flow schematic of a conventional hemodialysis,

Fig. 2a shows a basic structure of a dialyser, Fig. 2b shows a basic structure of a semi-permeable membrane,

Fig. 3 is a schematic view of a spinning plant for carrying out a method according to the invention for producing inventive capillaries, Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken along line IV-IV in Fig. 3,

Fig. 5 is a perspective view of a spinneret according to the invention,

Fig. 6 taken along a capillary according to the invention,

Fig. 7 is a perspective view of the capillary according to the invention, in Fig. 6.

Fig. 1 shows schematically the basic structure of a dialysis apparatus for performing hemodialysis on a patient 1. In this case, the patient's blood is washed extracorporeally.

Fig. 1 shows only the forearm of a patient 1. The blood is taken from the patient 1 via an access 2 to the forearm of the patient 1 by means of a shunt and pumped by a blood pump 3 via the Internet 2 and supplied to a dialyzer. 4 The patient 1 withdrawn blood is additionally supplied to an anticoagulant in a feeding device 6, and the enriched with the anticoagulant blood is pumped into the dialyzer 4 and washed in the dialyzer. 4 The dialyzer 4 is washed as the actual "artificial kidney", the waste products from the patient's blood and deprives the body of water. The dialyzer 4 is that in a space separate from one bloodstream 7 Diaiysatkreislauf 8 dialysis fluid, and dialysate called, respectively. The blood circulation 7 and the Diaiysatkreislauf 8 are opposite in the dialyzer 4 and separated by semi-permeable membranes 9. the semi-permeable membranes 9 in FIG. 1 only schematically shown by an oblique contact surfaces between the two circuits 7, 8, their actual shape is described further below ,

By semipermeable membranes 9 a small molecule concentration balance between blood and dialysate takes place. Due to the concentration gradient between blood and dialysate, the molecules concerned diffuse from the blood through the semi-permeable membranes 9 in the dialysate and are carried away by the dialysate in Diaiysatkreislauf 8 from the dialyzer. 4 The thus washed blood is returned to the patient. The dialyzer 4 is shown in Fig. 2a substantially of a plurality of parallel disposed side by side in the longitudinal direction L capillaries 20. Under capillaries 20 are to be understood in diameter small, hairline tubes pm an inner diameter of 150 to 240 pm and an outer diameter between 200 pm and> 300 pm have. The capillaries 20 are parallel to each other, preferably without direct contact to each other, arranged in the dialyzer. 4 By a respective lumen 21 of each of the capillaries 20, ie by the respective free inner tube of the capillary 20, the blood flows of the blood circuit 7 of each of the capillaries 20. In an outer space 22 of each of the capillaries 20 flows in the longitudinal direction L in the opposite direction, that is opposite to the the longitudinal direction L, the dialysate in Diaiysatkreislauf 8 to the capillaries 20 pass the outside. The membrane 9 of each capillary is formed semipermeable.

The principal mode of action of the semipermeable membrane 9 is shown in Fig. 2b. FIG. 2b shows on the left side of the flow-through from the blood lumen 21 of the capillary 20 and to the right of the outside space 22 of the capillary 20, the flows through the dialysate. The blood of the patient 1 has a number of substances of different size, of which only some are shown. The semi-permeable membrane 9 has a pore size which does not allow large molecules to pass therethrough. In this sense, large molecules red blood cells 23 (erythrocytes), and large protein molecules such as albumin 24. Water and electrolytes 25, urea, creatinine and phosphate ions as well as medium sized molecules such as ß2-microglobulin 26 are able to pass through the semipermeable membrane. 9 By appropriate preparation of the dialysate, a concentration gradient can be set separately for each molecule. D * A de - for each molecule is J developed due to the concentration gradient, according to Fick's Law =

* - a molecular stream through the semipermeable membrane 9 therethrough when the semipermeable membrane for the respective molecules is permeable. Here, J means the molecular stream D is a diffusion constant, A is the size of the exchange surface of the

de

semi-permeable membrane 9 and-the concentration gradient of the particular molecule.

The concentration of the substances in the dialysate is selected so that water diffuses due to the applied across the machine transmembrane pressure through the semipermeable membrane 9 from the blood in lumen 21 through the semipermeable membrane 9 into the dialysate. Also, diffuse small molecule retention products such as uric acid, urea, creatinine and phosphate ions from the blood in the lumen 21 into the dialysate. Conversely diffuse electrolytes 25 from the dialysate into the blood into it, because the dialysate has a correspondingly higher, individually set to the patient 1 electrolyte concentration. By the dialysate, the absorbed substances are transported in separated from the bloodstream 7 dialysate. 8

According to Fick's law of molecular stream J is critically dependent on the size of the replacement area A for each type of molecule, that is of the size of the area of ​​the semipermeable membrane 9 which is formed by a membrane inner surface 9a. There is also a dependency to the gradient of the concentration of this substance along the distance x in the radial direction. The invention makes use of the idea of ​​use, the size of the replacement area A under otherwise constant outer dimensions of the capillaries 20 to enlarge and thus to increase the molecular stream, thus increasing the effect of the capillary 20, so that passed through the semipermeable membrane 9 volume per unit length of the capillary 20, enlarged. This is made possible in that the restriction of the diffusion linear quadratically the surface obtained, but by a periodic change in thickness of the membrane.

The capillaries 20 invention are prepared in the form of hair-thin Kapillarendlosschläuchen 20a in spinning plants 30th The basic structure of a spinning apparatus 30 is shown in Fig. 3a. The spinning machine 30 includes a plurality of adjacent, aligned in the longitudinal direction L spinneret 31, one of which is shown in principle in Fig. 3. The longitudinal direction L corresponds to the direction of gravity. The spinneret 31 are supplied to two media, on the one hand a polymeric solution 32, which is coagulated in the further course of the method of semi-permeable membrane 9, as well as a temporary filling medium 33, such as water or air, which forms temporarily during the manufacturing process, a core 38 and the capillary endless tube 20a opened keeps up the capillary endless tube 20a by coagulation sufficient stability has won, no more changing its shape or collapsing. The pressure with which the temporary filling medium is conveyed into the spinning nozzle 31 is variably controlled so as to facilitate the formation of the desired cross-section. The spinneret 31 has a first, vertical circular in cross-section to the longitudinal direction L outlet opening 34 which is intended for the feeding of the temporary filling medium 33 and a perpendicular annular in cross-section to the longitudinal direction L second outlet port 35, the first outlet port 34 is substantially concentrically surrounds and which is intended for discharging the polymer solution 32nd At an exit point 36 of the spinnerette 31, the polymer solution 32, and the filling medium 33 meet. At this moment, a coagulation of the polymer solution 32 at the membrane inner surface 9a of semi-permeable membrane 9. Fig begins. Figure 4 shows in principle the construction of 9a at the membrane inner surface of coagulating but not yet fully coagulated capillary endless hose 20a directly after emerging from the spinneret 31 . the capillary endless tube 20a has at this point to an outer annular teilkoagulierte polymer solution 32a, which forms by further continuous coagulation to the semi-permeable membrane 9 and thereafter forms the actual capillary 20. An inner surface of the teilkoagulierten polymer solution 32a, which corresponds to structure of the membrane inner surface 9a, has a wave-like profile 37a, which in the cross section perpendicular to the longitudinal direction L of the capillary 20 along the entire circumference of the inner surface of the teilkoagulierten polymer solution 32a which is already in the structure membrane inner surface 9a corresponding extends. The temporary core 38 of the capillary tube 20a is formed by endless temporary filling medium 33rd This may for example be water that holds the capillary endless tube 20a opened by a variable internal pressure and which stabilizes the wave-shaped by the forming already at the collision of temporary filling medium 33 and the polymer solution 32 coagulation profile 37a of the membrane inner surface 9a in its shape. The filling medium 33 is of a temporary nature, that it leaves the capillary 20 in the further course of the process, preferably after it is fully coagulated.

The spinneret 31 is arranged as shown in FIG. 3 by a precipitation section I above a coagulation bath. 39 The beam emerging from the spinneret capillary 31 endless tube 20a falls by gravity into the coagulation bath 39. There is also a coagulated membrane outer surface 9b. The capillary endless tube 20a is led out through guide rollers 40 from the coagulation bath 39 and washed in a plurality of continuously arranged baths. The coagulated capillary endless tube 20a is wound so that parallel juxtaposed capillaries 20 are formed as a bundle. The capillaries 20 are further processed in a conventional manner and arranged side by side in the dialyzer 4 and the parallel.

Fig. 5 shows an enlarged view of the exit point 36 of the spinneret according to the invention 31. There, the first outlet 34 and second outlet openings 35 shown. The two outlet openings 34, 35 are separated by a substantially annular connecting piece 50th Through the first outlet port 34, the temporary filling medium 33 is discharged through the second outlet port 35, the polymer solution 32. According to the invention is applied a wave-shaped complementary profile 37b on an outer wall 50b of the outlet 50th It is located in a cross section perpendicular to the longitudinal direction L along the entire circumference of the outer wall 50b extending wave-shaped complementary profile 37b. The wave-shaped complementary profile 37b is provided in particular directly at the outlet 36, ie at the point where the polymer solution 32 leaves the spinneret 31 and where it can come in contact already with the temporary medium 33rd The wave-shaped complementary profile 37b in a piece extends far preferably 0.5 mm, 1 mm, or 1, 5 mm against the longitudinal direction L along the outer wall 50b of the outlet 50. In any case, the length of the wave-shaped complementary profile 37b dimensioned so that the polymer solution 32 which flows along the outer wall 50b of the outlet 50, 37a can assume a wave-shaped profile that 37b of the wave-shaped complementary profile is straight opposite complementary. An inner wall 50a of the outlet 50 is, however, formed in cross-section perpendicular to the longitudinal direction L circular.

There are also various other embodiments of the wave-shaped complementary profile 37b and the wave-shaped profile 37a conceivable. The wave-shaped profile 37a need not have perpendicular to the longitudinal direction L of a sinusoidal wave shape in cross section. It may also be rectangular or sawtooth waveforms that are not sinusoidal profile, for example, rectangular shapes with rounded corners o. Ä find use.

The outer wall 50b of the outlet 50 of the spinneret 31 can be provided, for example in lithographic printing method with the wave-shaped complementary profile 37b. A process for the preparation of such micro or nano structures are known for example from WO 02/43937 A2. In this case 50 extending in the longitudinal direction L complementary waveforms may also be printed on the outer wall 50b of the outlet. There are of course other techniques for producing the wave-shaped complementary profile 37b conceivable such. As the milling of recesses in the outer wall 50b of the outlet 50th

Fig. 6 shows the membrane inner surface 9a of the capillary 20 with the wave-shaped profile 37a. In FIG. 6, a wave profile 64 is shown with sine waves. The sinusoidal wave profile of FIG. 6 causes compared to a circular cross-section an enlargement of the membrane inner surface 9a of 350%. With 41 waves of growth in the size of the membrane inner surface would 9a 285%. There are of course all other wave numbers conceivable; it is even possible that the capillary 20 comprises only one shaft or two shafts, as well as any other number of waves and a significantly higher number than the shafts 68 above.

Fig. 7 shows that the capillary 20 according to the invention in a perspective schematic view. Due to the considerable increase of the size of the membrane inner surface 9a at a constant length and the same average inner diameter of the capillary 20, the effect of the capillaries 20 is increased accordingly. As the molecular stream J A is proportional to the magnitude of the exchange surface according to the above Fick's law, this results in an increase in the effect of the capillary 20 with the same length corresponding to the magnification of the membrane inner surface 9b in the above examples to 285% and 350 %.

LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS

1 patient

2 access

3 Biutpumpe

4 dialyzer

feeding

blood circulation

Dialysis circuit

semipermeable membrane

Membrane inner surface

Membrane outer surface 20 capillaries

20a (coagulated) Kapillarendlosschlauch

21 lumen

22 exterior capillary

23 red blood cells

24 albumin

25 electrolytes

26 ß2-microglobulin

30 spinning plant

31 spinnerets

32 polymer solution

32a teilkoagulierte polymer solution

33 temporary filling medium

First outlet 34, second outlet opening 35 circularly annularly

36 outlet of the spinneret

37a (wave-shaped) profile

37b (wavy) complementary profile

38 soul

39 coagulation bath 40 deflection rollers

50 socket

50a inner wall of the neck

50b outer wall of the connecting piece

I precipitation section

x distance in the radial direction

A (size of the) exchange surface of the semipermeable membrane diffusion constant D

J molecular stream longitudinal direction L dc / dx gradient of the concentration of each molecule

Claims

claims
Dialyzer for hemodialysis with
a plurality of in each case in a longitudinal direction (L) extending,
adjacent capillaries (20) each having a semipermeable membrane (9) with a membrane inner surface (9a) and a membrane outer surface, characterized by the membrane inner surface (9a) enlarging profile (37a).
A dialyzer according to claim 1,
characterized in that the profile (37a) along the entire extent in the longitudinal direction (L) of the membrane inner surface (9a) of each of the capillaries (20).
A dialyzer according to claim 1 or 2,
characterized in that each of the capillaries (20) has a cross section perpendicular to the longitudinal direction (L) and in that the profile (37a) having a shaft shape extending in the cross-section along an entire circumference
Membrane inner surface (9a) extends.
A dialyzer according to claim 3,
characterized in that the undulating profile (37a) along the circumference of at least 10, preferably at least 30, more preferably at least 60, particularly preferably at least 90 wave crests.
A dialyzer according to any preceding claim,
characterized in that the semi-permeable membranes (9) Polysulfone (PSU), and / or polyether sulfone (PES) and / or modified celluloses, more particularly cellulose acetate, and / or polyacrylonitrile and / or polyamide or consist thereof.
Spinning plant with
a plurality of spinnerets (31)
in each case a longitudinal direction (L) and
in each case a first outlet opening (34) for a temporary filling medium (33) and a second outlet port (35) for a polymer solution (32), wherein the second outlet port (35) the first outlet port (34) vertically in a cross section to the longitudinal direction (L) rotates and the first and second outlet opening (34, 35) in the longitudinal direction (L) are open, and an inner wall of the second outlet opening (35) in the cross-section of a the first outlet port (34) revolving
having complementary profile (37b).
7. Spinning plant according to claim 6,
characterized in that the complementary profile (37b) completely surrounds the inner wall of the second outlet opening (35) in the cross section.
8. Spinning plant according to claim 6 or 7,
characterized in that the first outlet opening (34) in cross section is circular and the second outlet port (35) is annular and surrounds the first outlet port (34) and a cross-sectionally annular outlet (50) between the two outlet openings (34, 35 ) and the complementary profile (37b) on an outer wall (50b) of the
is provided outlet port (50).
9. Spinning plant according to claim 6, 7 or 8,
characterized in that the complementary profile (37b) is shaped wavy in cross section and in the cross section along the entire circumference of the outer wall (50b) of the outlet (50).
10. Spinning plant according to any one of claims 6 to 9,
characterized in that the outlet (50) the complementary profile (37b) at least at one exit point (36) of the spinning nozzle (31).
11. Spinning plant according to any one of claims 6 to 10,
characterized in that in the longitudinal direction (L) of the nasal outlet point of the outer wall (50b) exit of the outlet (50). 12. Spinning plant according to any one of claims 6 to 11,
characterized, in that the complementary profile (37b) opposite to the longitudinal direction (L) from the exit point (36) of the spinneret along the
Outer wall (50b) of the outlet (50). 13. Spinning plant according to any one of claims 6 to 12,
characterized in that an inner wall (50a) is formed of the outlet (50) smooth and circular in the cross section. Spinning plant according to any one of claims 6 to 13,
characterized by a first container which is filled with the temporary filling medium and a second container which is filled with the polymer solution.
Spinning plant according to any one of claims 6 to 14,
characterized in that the polymer solution (PES) and / or is a polysulfone (PSU), and / or a modified cellulose polyethersulfone solution, in particular a cellulose acetate solution, and / or polyacrylonitrile and / or polyamide solution.
A process for the production of capillary membranes (20) by,
a polymer solution (32) to form a semipermeable membrane (9) a first outlet opening (34) of a spinneret (31) is supplied,
simultaneously a filler medium (33) to form a temporary core (38) under variable pressure to a second outlet opening (35) is fed to the spinneret (31), a kapillarförmiger endless hose (20a) continuously leaves the exit point (36) of the spinneret (31) and the polymer solution (32) a complementary profile (37b) to an outlet (50) of the spinneret (31) sweeps and when
Sweeping a profile (37a) on a membrane inner surface (9a) forms and the
Profile (37a) by the temporary core (38) is held in its shape.
A method according to claim 16,
characterized in that the polymer solution (32) (37a) coagulates while maintaining the wave-shaped profile by contact with the filling medium (33).
The method of claim 16 or 17
characterized in that the capillary endless tube (20a) by a
Coagulation bath (39) is out and there completely while maintaining the
coagulated geometry of the profile.
The method of claim 16, 17 or 18,
characterized in that the capillary endless hose (20a) in the capillaries (20) of appropriate length for incorporation in a dialyzer (4) is cut to length.
A method according to any one of claims 16 to 19,
characterized in that a polysulfone (PSU) or a
Polyamide solution is used polyethersulfone (PES) and / or based on modified cellulose solution, in particular cellulose acetate solution, and / or polyacrylonitrile and / or.
PCT/EP2014/058994 2013-05-03 2014-05-02 Dialyzer for hemodialysis having capillary membranes, spinning system for capillaries, and method for producing capillaries WO2014177697A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE202013004189.7 2013-05-03
DE201320004189 DE202013004189U1 (en) 2013-05-03 2013-05-03 Semipermeable capillary membrane with wave-shaped design of internal active exchange surface

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2014177697A1 true true WO2014177697A1 (en) 2014-11-06

Family

ID=48794953

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/EP2014/058994 WO2014177697A1 (en) 2013-05-03 2014-05-02 Dialyzer for hemodialysis having capillary membranes, spinning system for capillaries, and method for producing capillaries

Country Status (2)

Country Link
DE (1) DE202013004189U1 (en)
WO (1) WO2014177697A1 (en)

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2002043937A2 (en) 2000-12-02 2002-06-06 Aquamarijn Holding B.V. Method of making a product with a micro or nano sized structure and product
US6805730B2 (en) * 2002-01-29 2004-10-19 Amersham Biosciences Membrane Separations Corp. Convoluted surface hollow fiber membranes

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2002043937A2 (en) 2000-12-02 2002-06-06 Aquamarijn Holding B.V. Method of making a product with a micro or nano sized structure and product
US6805730B2 (en) * 2002-01-29 2004-10-19 Amersham Biosciences Membrane Separations Corp. Convoluted surface hollow fiber membranes

Non-Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
"High performance micro-engineered hollow fiber membranes by smart spinneret design", JOURNAL OF MEMBRANE SCIENCE, vol. 256, 2005, pages 209 - 215
B. SEIFERT ET AL: "Polyetherimide: A New Membrane-Forming Polymer for Biomedical Applications", ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, vol. 26, no. 2, 1 February 2002 (2002-02-01), pages 189 - 199, XP055131039, ISSN: 0160-564X, DOI: 10.1046/j.1525-1594.2002.06876.x *
NIJDAM W ET AL: "High performance micro-engineered hollow fiber membranes by smart spinneret design", JOURNAL OF MEMBRANE SCIENCE, ELSEVIER SCIENTIFIC PUBL.COMPANY. AMSTERDAM, NL, vol. 256, no. 1-2, 1 July 2005 (2005-07-01), pages 209 - 215, XP027869567, ISSN: 0376-7388, [retrieved on 20050701] *

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
DE202013004189U1 (en) 2013-06-13 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US6103117A (en) Polysulfone hollow fiber semipermeable membrane
US6918886B1 (en) Membrane module for the hemodiafiltration with integrated pre- or postdilution of the blood
US3728256A (en) Crossflow capillary dialyzer
EP0568045A1 (en) Polysulfone-based hollow fiber membrane and process for manufacturing the same
US5232601A (en) High flux hollow fiber membrane
US5851394A (en) Module for blood purification, blood purification membrane and its production
US4874522A (en) Polysulfone hollow fiber membrane and process for making the same
JP2007289886A (en) Polymeric porous hollow fiber membrane
EP2113298A1 (en) Hollow fibre membrane with improved permeability and selectivity
US20060108288A1 (en) Plasma purification membrane and plasma purification system
US7585412B2 (en) Specialized hollow fiber membranes for plasmapheresis and ultrafiltration
WO2004056459A1 (en) Permselective membrane and process for manufacturing thereof
US6042783A (en) Hollow yarn membrane used for blood purification and blood purifier
US20030141238A1 (en) Spiraled surface hollow fiber membranes
JP2001170167A (en) Method of manufacturing dialyzer and method of sterilization
JP3551971B1 (en) Polysulfone permselective hollow fiber membrane
US20040238445A1 (en) Vortex-enhanced filtration devices
JP2000254222A (en) Hollow fiber membrane for hematocatharsis and hollow fiber membrane type artificial kidney
US20030140790A1 (en) Convoluted surface hollow fiber membranes
WO2004056460A1 (en) Perm selective asymmetric hollow fibre membrane for the separation of toxic mediators from blood
US5084349A (en) Hollow cellulose fibers, method for making, and fluid processing apparatus using same
US4082670A (en) Hollow fiber permeability apparatus
JP2004525755A (en) Asymmetric hollow fiber membranes
US4380520A (en) Process for producing hollow fibres having a uniform wall thickness and a non-uniform cross-sectional area
US5863501A (en) Oxygenator priming method

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application

Ref document number: 14721838

Country of ref document: EP

Kind code of ref document: A1

NENP Non-entry into the national phase in:

Ref country code: DE

32PN Ep: public notification in the ep bulletin as address of the adressee cannot be established

Free format text: FESTSTELLUNG EINES RECHTSVERLUSTS NACH REGEL 112(1) EPUE (EPA FORM 1205A VOM 09/03/2016).

122 Ep: pct application non-entry in european phase

Ref document number: 14721838

Country of ref document: EP

Kind code of ref document: A1