WO2014173043A1 - Carbon crystal anti-icing method and wind driven generator anti-icing system employing same - Google Patents

Carbon crystal anti-icing method and wind driven generator anti-icing system employing same Download PDF

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WO2014173043A1
WO2014173043A1 PCT/CN2013/081515 CN2013081515W WO2014173043A1 WO 2014173043 A1 WO2014173043 A1 WO 2014173043A1 CN 2013081515 W CN2013081515 W CN 2013081515W WO 2014173043 A1 WO2014173043 A1 WO 2014173043A1
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heating
icing
carbon crystal
blade
layer
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PCT/CN2013/081515
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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彭斌
乔海祥
汪奕
徐新华
杨琼
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湘电新能源有限公司
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Priority to CN2013101490855A priority Critical patent/CN103291560A/en
Priority to CN201310149085.5 priority
Application filed by 湘电新能源有限公司 filed Critical 湘电新能源有限公司
Publication of WO2014173043A1 publication Critical patent/WO2014173043A1/en

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B3/00Ohmic-resistance heating
    • H05B3/20Heating elements having extended surface area substantially in a two-dimensional plane, e.g. plate-heater
    • H05B3/22Heating elements having extended surface area substantially in a two-dimensional plane, e.g. plate-heater non-flexible
    • H05B3/26Heating elements having extended surface area substantially in a two-dimensional plane, e.g. plate-heater non-flexible heating conductor mounted on insulating base
    • H05B3/267Heating elements having extended surface area substantially in a two-dimensional plane, e.g. plate-heater non-flexible heating conductor mounted on insulating base the insulating base being an organic material, e.g. plastic
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D7/00Controlling wind motors
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D80/00Details, components or accessories not provided for in groups F03D1/00 - F03D17/00
    • F03D80/40Ice detection; De-icing means
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B3/00Ohmic-resistance heating
    • H05B3/10Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor
    • H05B3/12Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor characterised by the composition or nature of the conductive material
    • H05B3/14Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor characterised by the composition or nature of the conductive material the material being non-metallic
    • H05B3/145Carbon only, e.g. carbon black, graphite
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B2203/00Aspects relating to Ohmic resistive heating covered by group H05B3/00
    • H05B2203/013Heaters using resistive films or coatings
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B2214/00Aspects relating to resistive heating, induction heating and heating using microwaves, covered by groups H05B3/00, H05B6/00
    • H05B2214/02Heaters specially designed for de-icing or protection against icing
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B2214/00Aspects relating to resistive heating, induction heating and heating using microwaves, covered by groups H05B3/00, H05B6/00
    • H05B2214/04Heating means manufactured by using nanotechnology
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/72Wind turbines with rotation axis in wind direction
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P70/00Climate change mitigation technologies in the production process for final industrial or consumer products
    • Y02P70/50Manufacturing or production processes characterised by the final manufactured product

Abstract

A carbon crystal anti-icing method. The method comprises: printing nanosized conductive carbon crystal on a carrier, preparing a thin carbon crystal electric hot plate with two electrodes by means of curing and hot-pressing technologies, laying the carbon crystal electric hot plate on a surface layer or secondary surface layer of a blade to form a heating layer (5), dividing the heating layer (5) into a plurality of heating areas, performing temperature raising control in each heating area by using a heating controller by on-line temperature monitoring, and keeping a temperature of an outer surface of the anti-icing heating area higher than and approximate to 0 degree Celsius. The heating controller can control the heating areas to work simultaneously or alternately, to perform automatic ice prevention or ice melting. Further disclosed is a wind driven generator anti-icing system employing the method. A carbon crystal electric hot plate is used as an electric heating material of an anti-icing blade, so that a manufacturing technology of the anti-icing system is simple, anti-icing heating is uniform, and structure strength of the blade is also enhanced; in addition, an on-line temperature monitoring closed-loop control is performed, so that the anti-icing system is stable, safe, and energy-saving.

Description

一种碳晶防冰的方法和采用该方法的风力发电机防冰系统Carbon crystal anti-icing method and wind generator anti-icing system using the same
技术领域Technical field
本发明涉及一种室外设备表面防冰的方法,尤其涉及一种风力发电机采用碳晶发热材料进行电加热防冰或融冰的方法及采用该方法的风力发电机的防冰系统,属于风力发电设备技术领域。The invention relates to a method for preventing ice on the surface of an outdoor device, in particular to a method for electrically heating and preventing ice or melting ice by using a carbon crystal heating material for a wind power generator, and an ice protection system for a wind power generator using the same, belonging to wind power Power generation equipment technology field.
背景技术Background technique
2012年冬季,在我国,如南方的一些风电场因风机叶片结冰停运2个多月,造成严重的发电损失;在国外,如俄罗斯、瑞典、加拿大等国家的北部地区,部分风电场因为风机叶片结冰,每年停运长达3个月,一些风场叶片结冰过厚,出现风机倒塌事故;风机叶片结冰是当前迫切需要解决的世界性难题,既影响了现有风力发电机出力,又限制了严寒地区一些优质风资源的开发利用,成为阻碍风电行业发展的技术瓶颈。In the winter of 2012, in China, some wind farms in the south were shut down for more than two months due to icing of wind turbine blades, causing serious power generation losses. In foreign countries, such as Russia, Sweden, Canada and other countries, some wind farms Fan blades are frozen and are shut down for up to 3 months each year. Some wind farm blades are too thick and icy, and wind turbine collapses; wind turbine blade icing is a worldwide problem that needs to be solved urgently, affecting existing wind turbines. The output has limited the development and utilization of some high-quality wind resources in the cold regions, and has become a technical bottleneck that hinders the development of the wind power industry.
中国发明专利申请公开说明书CN 102878036 A公开了一种具有电热融冰装置的风力发电机转子叶片,采用电热融冰装置贴附在叶片的表面、内表面以及夹层中,风机叶片的材料一般为不良热导的复合材料,电热融冰装置贴附在叶片的内表面和夹层中容易发生叶片内部过热,热量向外传导速度慢,在叶片内部形成较大的温差梯度,缩短了叶片的使用寿命;其融冰装置包括保温层、电热元件和绝缘层,电热元件包括锌白铜低温软丝或镍铬合金电热丝或铬铝合金电热丝的电热芯片,在布置电热丝线时工艺复杂,电热丝通电后属于体发热,发热集中在内芯,易造成叶片内部或表面局部过热,其叶片采用直接加热融冰,加热过程中没有温度在线监测,属于开环控制模式,叶片存在局部高温着火的隐患,同时该专利描述的电热融冰装置的厚度为2-4 mm贴附在叶片的布置工艺复杂,绝缘散热层为PVC工程塑料,贴附在叶片的表面易发生脱落,贴附在叶片的内表面和夹层中会降低叶片的结构力;叶片在一般冰冻环境条件下,静止状态时防冰或融冰需要消耗的功率通常大于400 W/m2,而该发明描述设置的最大功率仅为400 W/m2,叶片在旋转过程中,叶片融冰以对流热损失为主,叶尖对流热损失最大,最大能超过2000 W/m2,可见该专利脱离了实际,较难实现其在线融冰的效果。Chinese invention patent application publication specification CN 102878036 A discloses a wind turbine rotor blade with an electric ice melting device, which is attached to the surface, the inner surface and the interlayer of the blade by an electric ice melting device. The material of the fan blade is generally a composite material with poor thermal conductivity, and the electric heating and melting The ice device is attached to the inner surface of the blade and the interlayer is prone to overheating of the blade. The heat conduction rate is slow, and a large temperature gradient is formed inside the blade, which shortens the service life of the blade. The ice melting device includes an insulation layer. The electric heating element and the insulating layer, the electric heating element comprises a zinc white copper low temperature soft wire or a nickel chromium alloy electric heating wire or a chrome aluminum alloy electric heating wire electric heating chip, the process is complicated when the electric heating wire is arranged, the heating wire is body heat, and the heat is concentrated. The core is easy to cause local overheating of the inside or the surface of the blade. The blade adopts direct heating and melting ice. There is no temperature online monitoring during the heating process. It belongs to the open loop control mode, and the blade has a hidden danger of local high temperature ignition. At the same time, the electric hot ice melting device described in the patent The thickness is 2-4 The arrangement process of mm attached to the blade is complicated. The insulating heat dissipation layer is PVC engineering plastic. The surface attached to the blade is prone to fall off. Attaching to the inner surface of the blade and the interlayer will reduce the structural force of the blade; the blade is in a general frozen environment. Under conditions, the power required to prevent ice or melt ice at rest is usually greater than 400. W/m2, and the maximum power set by the invention is only 400 W/m2. During the rotation of the blade, the blade melts with convective heat loss, and the tip convective heat loss is the largest, and the maximum energy can exceed 2000. W/m2, it can be seen that the patent is out of the actual situation, and it is difficult to achieve the effect of its online melting ice.
中国实用新型专利 201220245659.X公开了一种风机叶片自动防冰除冰装置,采用在叶片表面涂覆导电涂料或覆设导电膜,在使用过程中受热易发生脱落或者划伤出现局部接触不良打火的现象,同时该专利描述采用红外测温元件动态中测量叶片背风面和迎风面的某一位置的表面温度,不能代表整个叶片的温度情况,同时该红外测温元件处在外界冰冻环境易损坏、测量误差大,并且该装置控制系统复杂、可靠性低,难以实现其防冰的目的。Chinese utility model patent 201220245659.X discloses an automatic anti-icing and deicing device for a fan blade, which adopts a coating method on a surface of a blade to coat a conductive coating or a conductive film, and is exposed to heat during the use process, and the local contact is poorly fired. At the same time, the patent describes the measurement of the surface temperature of a certain position of the leeward surface and the windward surface of the blade by using the infrared temperature measuring component. It does not represent the temperature of the entire blade, and the infrared temperature measuring component is easily damaged in the external freezing environment and the measurement error. Large, and the device control system is complex, low reliability, and it is difficult to achieve its anti-icing purpose.
发明内容Summary of the invention
为了解决上述技术问题,本发明提供一种表面温升均匀、能耗低的采用碳晶电热材料对风力发电机的叶片进行在线加热防冰的方法及一种采用该方法的结构简单、性能稳定可靠、经济节能的风力发电机防冰系统。In order to solve the above technical problem, the present invention provides a method for on-line heating and anti-icing of a blade of a wind power generator by using a carbon crystal electrothermal material with uniform surface temperature rise and low energy consumption, and a simple structure and stable performance by using the method. A reliable, economical and energy-saving wind turbine anti-ice system.
本发明解决上述技术问题的技术方案是:一种碳晶防冰的方法,包括以下步骤:根据运转中风机叶片不同半径位置的线速度的变化设置不同功率的碳晶电热板铺设在叶片的表层或次表层,形成加热层,将叶片上不同位置的加热层分成至少一个加热区域,每个加热区域的碳晶电热板采用并联或者串联或者串并组合接线方式与对应的加热控制器的电源输出端连接,在贴近碳晶电热板和加热区域表面设置温度传感器,通过树脂真空灌注工艺将碳晶电热板、温度传感器和其它组成层在叶片模具内浇注为一整体,每个加热区域的温度传感器与加热控制器对应区域的信号输入端相连,用于检测环境的温度、湿度、风速的测定仪与加热控制器的信号采集输入端相连,加热控制器根据环境温度、湿度、风速的信号和加热区域的温度控制各加热区域碳晶电热板的工作,维持防冰加热区域的外表面温度大于0摄氏度且接近0摄氏度。The technical solution of the present invention to solve the above technical problem is: a carbon crystal anti-icing method, comprising the steps of: setting different power carbon crystal electric heating plates on the surface of the blade according to the change of the linear velocity of the fan blade at different radial positions during operation; Or subsurface layer, forming a heating layer, dividing the heating layer at different positions on the blade into at least one heating zone, and the carbon crystal electric heating plate of each heating zone adopts parallel or series or serial combination wiring mode and corresponding power output of the heating controller The end connection is provided with a temperature sensor on the surface of the carbon crystal electric heating plate and the heating area, and the carbon crystal electric heating plate, the temperature sensor and other constituent layers are cast into a whole in the blade mold by a resin vacuum infusion process, and the temperature sensor of each heating zone is used. Connected to the signal input end of the corresponding area of the heating controller, the measuring instrument for detecting the temperature, humidity and wind speed of the environment is connected with the signal collecting input end of the heating controller, and the heating controller is based on the ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed signal and heating. The temperature of the zone controls the operation of the carbon crystal electric heating plate in each heating zone Maintaining the heated anti-icing region is greater than the outer surface temperature close to 0 degrees Celsius and 0 degrees Celsius.
一种采用碳晶防冰的风力发电机防冰系统,包括防冰叶片和防冰控制系统,所述防冰控制系统包括电源、轮毂滑环、加热控制器,所述防冰叶片包括外蒙皮、芯材、内蒙皮,所述内蒙皮的内面为腔体,腔体内设有粘接在内蒙皮上的腹板,内蒙皮外层为芯材, 所述芯材的外层为外蒙皮, 其特征在于:外蒙皮的表层或次表层设置有碳晶电热板,构成加热层,将叶片上不同位置的加热层分成至少一个加热区域,加热区域的碳晶电热板的功率根据所处半径位置防冰所需最大功率进行设置,每个加热区域的碳晶电热板采用并联或者串联或者串并组合接线方式与对应该区域的加热控制器的电源输出端连接,在碳晶电热板的表面、加热区域的表面和非加热区域的表面设置有温度传感器,每个加热区域的温度传感器与对应该区域的加热控制器的信号输入端相连,检测环境温度、湿度、风速的传感器与加热控制器的信号采集端连接,加热控制器综合分析环境温度、湿度、风速以及每个加热区域的温度传感器的信号,进而控制各加热区域的碳晶电热板的工作,维持叶片的外表面温度大于0摄氏度且接近0摄氏度,进行自动防冰或融冰。A wind turbine anti-icing system using carbon crystal anti-icing, comprising an anti-icing blade and an anti-icing control system, the anti-icing control system comprising a power source, a hub slip ring, a heating controller, and the anti-icing blade comprises an outer Mongolian The inner surface of the inner skin is a cavity, the inner body of the inner skin is provided with a web bonded to the inner skin, and the outer layer of the inner skin is a core material. The outer layer of the core material is an outer skin, The utility model is characterized in that: the surface layer or the sub-surface layer of the outer skin is provided with a carbon crystal electric heating plate to form a heating layer, and the heating layer at different positions on the blade is divided into at least one heating region, and the power of the carbon crystal electric heating plate in the heating region is according to the radius The maximum power required for positional anti-icing is set. The carbon crystal electric heating plates of each heating zone are connected in parallel or in series or in series and in combination with the power output end of the heating controller corresponding to the area, on the surface of the carbon crystal electric heating plate. The surface of the heating zone and the surface of the non-heating zone are provided with temperature sensors, and the temperature sensor of each heating zone is connected with the signal input end of the heating controller corresponding to the zone, and the sensor and the heating controller for detecting the ambient temperature, humidity and wind speed are provided. The signal acquisition end is connected, and the heating controller comprehensively analyzes the ambient temperature, the humidity, the wind speed, and the signal of the temperature sensor of each heating zone, thereby controlling the operation of the carbon crystal electric heating plate of each heating zone, and maintaining the outer surface temperature of the blade to be greater than 0 degrees Celsius. And close to 0 degrees Celsius for automatic anti-icing or melting ice.
上述的风力发电机防冰系统中,所述碳晶电热板的功率设置是根据风机叶片在冬季结冰最严重的工况下额定转速时保持叶片表面温度大于0摄氏度的加热功率进行设置,碳晶电热板的功率在400 W/m2~4000 W/m2范围内。In the above-mentioned wind power generator anti-icing system, the power setting of the carbon crystal electric heating plate is set according to the heating power of the fan blade to maintain the blade surface temperature greater than 0 degrees Celsius at the rated rotational speed under the most severe freezing conditions in winter. The power of the crystal hot plate is 400 W/m2 ~ 4000 W / m2 range.
上述的风力发电机防冰系统中,所述叶片的外蒙皮的表层或次表层全部或部分为碳晶电热板构成加热层。In the wind turbine anti-icing system described above, all or part of the surface layer or the sub-surface layer of the outer skin of the blade is a carbon crystal electric heating plate to form a heating layer.
上述的风力发电机防冰系统中,所述碳晶电热板设有孔或槽,孔的直径为1~10 mm,或槽的宽度为1~10 mm。In the above-mentioned wind power generator anti-icing system, the carbon crystal electric heating plate is provided with a hole or a groove, the diameter of the hole is 1 to 10 mm, or the width of the groove is 1 to 10 Mm.
上述的风力发电机防冰系统中,所述碳晶电热板包括载体和粘附在载体上的碳晶,载体采用与叶片外蒙皮材料相同体系的互融合的材料制成。 In the above-described wind power generator anti-icing system, the carbon crystal electric heating plate comprises a carrier and a carbon crystal adhered to the carrier, and the carrier is made of a material of the same system as the outer skin material of the blade.
上述的风力发电机防冰系统中,所述碳晶电热板的厚度范围为0.2 mm~1 mm。 In the wind turbine anti-icing system described above, the carbon crystal electric heating plate has a thickness ranging from 0.2 mm to 1 mm.
上述的风力发电机防冰系统中,所述叶片的表面涂有涂料。In the wind turbine anti-icing system described above, the surface of the blade is coated with a coating.
本发明的技术效果在于:1)在本发明中,碳晶电热板包括载体和粘附在载体上的碳晶,载体采用与叶片外蒙皮材料相同体系的互融合的材料制成,便于与叶片融合为一整体,碳晶为纯电阻特性的电热材料,也便于印刷不同功率的碳晶电热板,碳晶电热板为面发热,温升迅速且均匀,热抗老化能力强,克服了导体热源热量集中、加热不均匀、表面温升控制复杂的问题。2)本发明根据运转中风机叶片不同半径位置的线速度的变化设置不同功率的碳晶电热板铺设在叶片的表层或次表层,形成加热层,并将加热层分成至少一个以上的加热区域分别控制,确保了防冰叶片在各种冰冻气候条件下加热层提供的热量能满足表面热量损失,可使防冰叶片的表面温度维持0摄氏度以上。The technical effects of the present invention are as follows: 1) In the present invention, the carbon crystal electric heating plate comprises a carrier and a carbon crystal adhered to the carrier, and the carrier is made of a material of the same system as the outer skin material of the blade, which is convenient for The blade is fused into a whole body. The carbon crystal is an electrothermal material with pure resistance characteristics. It is also convenient for printing carbon crystal electric heating plates of different power. The carbon crystal electric heating plate is surface heating, the temperature rise is rapid and uniform, the thermal anti-aging ability is strong, and the conductor is overcome. The heat source is concentrated, the heating is uneven, and the surface temperature rise is complicated to control. 2) According to the invention, the carbon crystal electric heating plate with different powers is arranged on the surface layer or the sub-surface layer of the blade according to the change of the linear velocity at different radial position of the fan blade during operation, forming a heating layer, and dividing the heating layer into at least one heating region respectively The control ensures that the heat provided by the heating layer of the anti-icing blade can satisfy the surface heat loss under various freezing weather conditions, and the surface temperature of the anti-icing blade can be maintained above 0 degrees Celsius.
综上所述,本发明具有结构简单,防冰效果好、能耗低,实现了风力发电机在旋转过程中自动在线防冰或融冰。In summary, the invention has the advantages of simple structure, good anti-icing effect and low energy consumption, and realizes that the wind power generator automatically prevents ice or melt ice during the rotation process.
附图说明DRAWINGS
图1为 本发明中防冰系统的原理框图。BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Figure 1 is a block diagram showing the principle of the anti-icing system of the present invention.
图2为 本发明中防冰叶片的截面示意图。Fig. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing an anti-icing blade of the present invention.
图3为 本图2中A处的层状结构示意图。Fig. 3 is a schematic view showing the layered structure at A in Fig. 2.
图4为 本发明中防冰叶片在次表层设置加热层的结构示意图。Fig. 4 is a structural schematic view showing the arrangement of a heating layer in the subsurface layer of the anti-icing blade of the present invention.
图5为 本发明中防冰叶片采用全面积设置加热层且分为七个加热区域的结构示意图。Fig. 5 is a structural schematic view showing that the anti-icing blade of the present invention adopts a full-area heating layer and is divided into seven heating regions.
图6为 本发明中碳晶电热板的结构示意图。Fig. 6 is a schematic view showing the structure of a carbon crystal electric heating plate in the present invention.
图7为 本发明中碳晶电热板的截面示意图。Fig. 7 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing a carbon crystal electric heating plate of the present invention.
附图1-7中:1—外蒙皮、2—芯材、3—内蒙皮、4—涂料、5—加热层、6—叶尖、7—叶根、8—后缘、9—前缘、10—电极、11—槽、12—载体、13—碳晶、14—腹板、15—腔体、16—温度传感器。1-7: 1 - outer skin, 2 - core material, 3 - inner skin, 4 - paint, 5 - heating layer, 6 - leaf tip, 7 - leaf root, 8 - trailing edge, 9 - front Edge, 10-electrode, 11-groove, 12-carrier, 13-carbon crystal, 14-web, 15-cavity, 16-temperature sensor.
具体实施方式detailed description
下面结合附图和实施例,对本发明作详细的说明。The invention will now be described in detail in conjunction with the drawings and embodiments.
参见图1至7,本发明一种碳晶防冰的方法的步骤为:将纳米级的可导电的碳晶13印刷在载体12上,通过固化、热压工艺制成较薄的具有两个铜条或者表面渡有银的电极10的碳晶电热板,并将碳晶电热板设置为叶片组成层的一个层面,作为加热层5,在风机叶片制造过程中,根据运转中风机叶片不同半径位置的线速度的变化设置不同功率的碳晶电热板铺,并设在叶片的表层或次表层,如根据从叶根7至叶尖6的方向随着线速度增加对流的热损失增大,防冰需要的单位面积功率增加,同样在叶片的后缘8至前缘9方向的对流热损失也不同,综合考虑这两方面的对流热损失差异进行合理布置合适功率的碳晶电热板,形成防冰叶片的加热层5,加热层5至少分成一个加热区域,图5为一种分成七个加热区域的实施案例,每个加热区域的碳晶电热板采用并联或者串联或者串并组合的接线方式与对应的加热控制器的电源输出端连接,在贴近碳晶电热板和加热区域外表面设有温度传感器16,通过树脂真空灌注工艺将碳晶电热板、温度传感器和其它组成层在叶片模具内浇注为一整体,每个加热区域的温度传感器与加热控制器对应区域的信号输入端相连,用于检测环境的温度、湿度、风速的测定仪与加热控制器的信号采集输入端相连,加热控制器根据预先设置的模型综合分析环境温度、湿度、风速的信号来判断和控制防冰系统的启停,防冰系统启动,电能通过轮毂滑环送到加热控制器,加热控制器依据采集的各加热区域的温度信号,由加热控制器来执行控制对应区域碳晶电热板的加热功率,加热控制器可对各加热区域控制为同时或交替工作模式,进行自动防冰或融冰。Referring to FIGS. 1 to 7, a carbon crystal anti-icing method of the present invention comprises the steps of: printing a nano-scale conductive carbon crystal 13 on a carrier 12, and forming a thinner two by a curing and hot pressing process. a copper strip or a carbon crystal electric heating plate having a silver electrode 10 and a carbon crystal electric heating plate as a layer of the blade layer, as the heating layer 5, in the fan blade manufacturing process, according to the different radius of the fan blade during operation The change of the linear velocity of the position is set by the carbon crystal electric heating plate of different power, and is disposed on the surface layer or the sub-surface layer of the blade, for example, according to the direction from the blade root 7 to the tip 6 increasing the heat loss of the convection with increasing linear velocity, The power per unit area required for anti-icing increases, and the convective heat loss in the direction from the trailing edge 8 to the leading edge 9 of the blade is also different. Considering the difference in convective heat loss between the two aspects, a carbon crystal electric heating plate with appropriate power is appropriately arranged to form The heating layer 5 of the anti-icing blade, the heating layer 5 is divided into at least one heating zone, and FIG. 5 is an embodiment in which the heating zone is divided into seven heating zones, and the carbon crystal electric heating plates of each heating zone are connected in parallel or in series or in series. The combined wiring mode is connected with the power output end of the corresponding heating controller, and the temperature sensor 16 is disposed on the outer surface of the carbon crystal electric heating plate and the heating area, and the carbon crystal electric heating plate, the temperature sensor and other components are formed by the resin vacuum infusion process. The layer is cast into a whole in the blade mold, and the temperature sensor of each heating zone is connected with the signal input end of the corresponding area of the heating controller, and is used for detecting the temperature, humidity, wind speed of the environment and the signal acquisition input of the heating controller. Connected to the end, the heating controller comprehensively analyzes the ambient temperature, humidity, and wind speed signals according to the preset model to judge and control the start and stop of the anti-icing system. The anti-icing system starts, and the electric energy is sent to the heating controller through the hub slip ring, and the heating control is performed. According to the temperature signal of each heating zone collected, the heating controller controls the heating power of the corresponding carbon crystal electric heating plate, and the heating controller can control each heating zone to operate simultaneously or alternately to perform automatic anti-icing or melting. ice.
碳晶防冰方法的风力发电机防冰系统,包括防冰叶片和防冰控制系统,所述防冰控制系统包括电源、轮毂滑环、加热控制器,所述防冰叶片包括外蒙皮1、芯材2、内蒙皮3,所述内蒙皮3的内面为腔体15,腔体内设有粘接在内蒙皮上的腹板14,内蒙皮外层为芯材2, 所述芯材2的外层为外蒙皮1,外蒙皮1的表层或次表层设置有碳晶电热板,如图3,在外蒙皮1的次表层设置有碳晶电热板,构成加热层5, 如图4,在所述加热层5中分成七个加热区域,加热区域的碳晶电热板的功率根据所处半径位置防冰所需最大功率进行设置,每个加热区域的碳晶电热板采用并联接线方式与对应该区域的加热控制器的电源输出端连接,碳晶层13、加热区域的表面和非加热区域的表面设置有多个温度传感器16,每个加热区域的温度传感器与对应该区域的加热控制器的信号输入端相连,为提高温度传感器测量的准确度,采用同区域同作用的多个温度传感器测量的平均值,检测环境温度、湿度、风速的传感器与加热控制器的信号采集输入端连接,加热控制器根据预先设置的模型综合分析环境温度、湿度、风速的信号来判断和控制防冰系统的启停,防冰系统启动,加热控制器分析各加热区域采集的温度信号,加热控制器及时调整碳晶电热板的加热功率,保持加热区域的外表面温度大于0摄氏度且接近0摄氏度,加热控制器可对各加热区域控制为同时或交替工作模式,进行自动防冰或融冰,加热控制器将当前工作状态信息传输到主机通讯,再由主机通讯传输到主机监控,便于运行人员集中监视系统的运行状况,同时运行人员可以通过主机监控来设置或操作防冰系统的运行。The wind crystal anti-icing system of the carbon crystal anti-icing method comprises an anti-icing blade and an anti-icing control system, the anti-icing control system comprises a power source, a hub slip ring, a heating controller, and the anti-icing blade comprises an outer skin 1 , the core material 2, the inner skin 3, the inner surface of the inner skin 3 is a cavity 15, the cavity is provided with a web 14 bonded to the inner skin, and the inner skin of the inner skin is a core material 2, The outer layer of the core material 2 is an outer skin 1, and the surface layer or the sub-surface layer of the outer skin 1 is provided with a carbon crystal electric heating plate. As shown in FIG. 3, a carbon crystal electric heating plate is arranged on the subsurface layer of the outer skin 1 to constitute heating. Layer 5, As shown in FIG. 4, the heating layer 5 is divided into seven heating regions, and the power of the carbon crystal electric heating plate in the heating region is set according to the maximum power required for anti-icing at the radial position, and the carbon crystal electric heating plate of each heating region is adopted. The parallel wiring mode is connected to the power output end of the heating controller corresponding to the area, and the surface of the carbon crystal layer 13, the surface of the heating area and the surface of the non-heating area are provided with a plurality of temperature sensors 16, and the temperature sensors of each heating area correspond to each other. The signal input end of the heating controller of the area is connected. In order to improve the accuracy of the temperature sensor measurement, the average value measured by multiple temperature sensors in the same area is used to detect the signal of the ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed sensor and the heating controller. The input terminal is connected, and the heating controller comprehensively analyzes the ambient temperature, humidity, and wind speed signals according to the preset model to judge and control the start and stop of the anti-icing system, the anti-icing system starts, and the heating controller analyzes the temperature signals collected in each heating area. The heating controller adjusts the heating power of the carbon crystal electric heating plate in time to maintain the appearance of the heating area The temperature is greater than 0 degrees Celsius and close to 0 degrees Celsius. The heating controller can control each heating zone to operate in simultaneous or alternating mode for automatic anti-icing or ice melting. The heating controller transmits the current working status information to the host communication, and then communicates with the host. Transfer to host monitoring, so that the operating personnel can monitor the running status of the system in a centralized manner, and the operating personnel can set or operate the anti-icing system through host monitoring.
本发明中,加热层的碳晶电热板的功率设置是根据风机叶片在冬季结冰最严重的工况下额定转速时保持叶片表面温度大于0摄氏度的加热功率进行设置,根据叶片防冰模拟计算和实验测试分析,碳晶电热板的功率在400 W/m2~4000 W/m2范围内。In the present invention, the power setting of the carbon crystal electric heating plate of the heating layer is set according to the heating power of the fan blade to maintain the blade surface temperature greater than 0 degrees Celsius at the rated rotational speed under the most severe freezing conditions in winter, according to the blade anti-icing simulation calculation. And experimental test analysis, the power of carbon crystal electric heating plate is 400 W/m2 ~ 4000 W / m2 range.
本发明中,如图5采用叶片的外蒙皮的次表层全部为碳晶电热板,构成加热层5,同时可以根据使用风场的具体气候条件,选择采用表层全部为碳晶电热板或表层部分为碳晶电热板或次表层部分为碳晶电热板,构成加热层5,在结冰并不严重的风场中,采用在防冰叶片外蒙皮的部分重点的表层或次表层为碳晶电热板构成加热层,降低产品生产成本,同样能达到理想防冰效果。In the present invention, as shown in Fig. 5, the outer skin layers of the outer skin of the blade are all carbon crystal electric heating plates, which constitute the heating layer 5. At the same time, according to the specific climatic conditions of the wind field, all the surface layers are selected as carbon crystal electric heating plates or surface layers. Part of the carbon crystal electric heating plate or the sub-surface layer is a carbon crystal electric heating plate, which constitutes the heating layer 5. In the wind field where the freezing is not serious, the partial or sub-surface layer of the outer skin of the anti-icing blade is carbon. The crystal electric heating plate constitutes a heating layer, which reduces the production cost of the product and can also achieve the ideal anti-icing effect.
本发明中,如图6,所述碳晶电热板还设有槽11,槽的宽度范围为1~10 mm,通过开槽的宽度和间距改变来调整碳晶电热板的功率,同时碳晶电热板上的槽有利于叶片生产时树脂真空灌注工艺中树脂流动的均匀性,提高了叶片的结构强度。In the present invention, as shown in FIG. 6, the carbon crystal electric heating plate is further provided with a groove 11 having a width ranging from 1 to 10 Mm, the power of the carbon crystal electric heating plate is adjusted by the change of the width and the spacing of the groove, and the groove on the carbon crystal electric heating plate is favorable for the uniformity of the resin flow in the resin vacuum infusion process during the blade production, and the structural strength of the blade is improved.
本发明中,碳晶电热板包括载体12和粘附在载体上的碳晶13,载体采用与叶片外蒙皮材料相同体系的互融合的材料制成,便于与叶片融合为一整体,碳晶为纯电阻特性的电热材料,也便于印刷不同功率的碳晶电热板,碳晶电热板为面发热,温升迅速且均匀,热抗老化能力强,克服了导体热源热量集中、加热不均匀、表面温升控制复杂的问题。In the present invention, the carbon crystal electric heating plate comprises a carrier 12 and a carbon crystal 13 adhered to the carrier, and the carrier is made of a material of the same system as the outer skin material of the blade, so as to be integrated with the blade as a whole, the carbon crystal It is an electrothermal material with pure resistance characteristics, and it is also convenient to print carbon crystal electric heating plates with different powers. The carbon crystal electric heating plate is surface heating, the temperature rise is rapid and uniform, and the heat aging resistance is strong, which overcomes the heat concentration of the conductor heat source and uneven heating. Surface temperature rise controls complex problems.
本发明中,碳晶电热板的厚度范围为0.2 mm~1 mm,便于碳晶电热板在叶片生产过程中的布置。 In the present invention, the thickness of the carbon crystal electric heating plate ranges from 0.2 mm to 1 mm, which facilitates the arrangement of the carbon crystal electric heating plate in the blade production process.
本发明中,叶片的表层涂有涂料4,涂料具有防腐、防磨、抗紫外线的作用。In the present invention, the surface layer of the blade is coated with the coating 4, and the coating has anti-corrosion, anti-wear and anti-ultraviolet effects.
本发明的优点:防冰系统结构简单,控制系统采用温度在线监测闭环控制模式,运行稳定、安全,采用碳晶电热材料在叶片的表层或次表层设置加热层,叶片生产工艺简单,同时也提高了叶片的结构强度,防冰加热均匀、温升迅速、能耗小,实现了风力发电机在旋转过程中自动在线防冰或融冰。The invention has the advantages that the anti-icing system has a simple structure, the control system adopts a temperature online monitoring closed-loop control mode, and the operation is stable and safe. The carbon crystal electrothermal material is used to set the heating layer on the surface layer or the sub-surface layer of the blade, and the blade production process is simple and also improved. The structural strength of the blade, uniform heating against ice, rapid temperature rise, and low energy consumption enable automatic wind-proof or ice-melting of the wind turbine during the rotation process.

Claims (8)

  1. 一种碳晶防冰的方法,包括以下步骤:根据运转中风机叶片不同半径位置的线速度的变化设置不同功率的碳晶电热板铺设在叶片的表层或次表层,形成加热层,将叶片上不同位置的加热层分成至少一个加热区域,每个加热区域的碳晶电热板采用并联或者串联或者串并组合接线方式与对应的加热控制器的电源输出端连接,在贴近碳晶电热板和加热区域表面设置温度传感器,通过树脂真空灌注工艺将碳晶电热板、温度传感器和其它组成层在叶片模具内浇注为一整体,每个加热区域的温度传感器与加热控制器对应区域的信号输入端相连,用于检测环境的温度、湿度、风速的测定仪与加热控制器的信号采集输入端相连,加热控制器根据环境温度、湿度、风速的信号和加热区域的温度控制各加热区域碳晶电热板的工作,维持防冰加热区域的外表面温度大于0摄氏度且接近0摄氏度。A carbon crystal anti-icing method comprises the steps of: setting a carbon crystal electric heating plate of different power according to a change of a linear velocity at a different radial position of a fan blade during operation, laying a surface layer or a subsurface layer of the blade to form a heating layer, and forming the heating layer The heating layer at different positions is divided into at least one heating region, and the carbon crystal electric heating plates of each heating region are connected to the power output end of the corresponding heating controller in parallel or in series or in series and in combination, in close proximity to the carbon crystal electric heating plate and heating. A temperature sensor is arranged on the surface of the area, and the carbon crystal electric heating plate, the temperature sensor and other constituent layers are cast into a whole in the blade mold by a resin vacuum infusion process, and the temperature sensor of each heating zone is connected with the signal input end of the corresponding area of the heating controller. The measuring instrument for detecting the temperature, humidity and wind speed of the environment is connected with the signal collecting input end of the heating controller, and the heating controller controls the carbon crystal electric heating plate of each heating zone according to the ambient temperature, the humidity, the wind speed signal and the temperature of the heating zone. Work to maintain the outer surface temperature of the anti-ice heating zone is greater than 0 It is close to 0 degrees Celsius.
  2. 一种采用权利要求1所述的碳晶防冰的方法的风力发电机防冰系统,包括防冰叶片和防冰控制系统,所述防冰控制系统包括电源、轮毂滑环、加热控制器,所述防冰叶片包括外蒙皮、芯材、内蒙皮,所述内蒙皮的内面为腔体,腔体内设有粘接在内蒙皮上的腹板,内蒙皮外层为芯材, 所述芯材的外层为外蒙皮, 其特征在于:外蒙皮的表层或次表层设置有碳晶电热板,构成加热层,将叶片上不同位置的加热层分成至少一个加热区域,加热区域的碳晶电热板的功率根据所处半径位置防冰所需最大功率进行设置,每个加热区域的碳晶电热板采用并联或者串联或者串并组合接线方式与对应该区域的加热控制器的电源输出端连接,在碳晶电热板的表面、加热区域的表面和非加热区域的表面设置有温度传感器,每个加热区域的温度传感器与对应该区域的加热控制器的信号输入端相连,检测环境温度、湿度、风速的传感器与加热控制器的信号采集端连接,加热控制器综合分析环境温度、湿度、风速以及每个加热区域的温度传感器的信号,进而控制各加热区域的碳晶电热板的工作,维持叶片的外表面温度大于0摄氏度且接近0摄氏度,进行自动防冰或融冰。A wind power generator anti-icing system using the carbon crystal anti-icing method according to claim 1, comprising an anti-icing blade and an anti-icing control system, the anti-icing control system comprising a power source, a hub slip ring, a heating controller, The anti-icing blade comprises an outer skin, a core material and an inner skin, wherein the inner surface of the inner skin is a cavity, the inner body of the inner skin is provided with a web bonded to the inner skin, and the outer layer of the inner skin is a core material. The outer layer of the core material is an outer skin, The utility model is characterized in that: the surface layer or the sub-surface layer of the outer skin is provided with a carbon crystal electric heating plate to form a heating layer, and the heating layer at different positions on the blade is divided into at least one heating region, and the power of the carbon crystal electric heating plate in the heating region is according to the radius The maximum power required for positional anti-icing is set. The carbon crystal electric heating plates of each heating zone are connected in parallel or in series or in series and in combination with the power output end of the heating controller corresponding to the area, on the surface of the carbon crystal electric heating plate. The surface of the heating zone and the surface of the non-heating zone are provided with temperature sensors, and the temperature sensor of each heating zone is connected with the signal input end of the heating controller corresponding to the zone, and the sensor and the heating controller for detecting the ambient temperature, humidity and wind speed are provided. The signal acquisition end is connected, and the heating controller comprehensively analyzes the ambient temperature, the humidity, the wind speed, and the signal of the temperature sensor of each heating zone, thereby controlling the operation of the carbon crystal electric heating plate of each heating zone, and maintaining the outer surface temperature of the blade to be greater than 0 degrees Celsius. And close to 0 degrees Celsius for automatic anti-icing or melting ice.
  3. 根据权利要求2所述的风力发电机防冰系统,其特征在于:所述碳晶电热板的功率设置是根据风机叶片在冬季结冰最严重的工况下额定转速时保持叶片表面温度大于0摄氏度的加热功率进行设置,碳晶电热板的功率在400 W/m2~4000 W/m2范围内。The wind power generator anti-icing system according to claim 2, wherein the power setting of the carbon crystal electric heating plate is such that the blade surface temperature is greater than 0 according to the rated speed of the fan blade under the most severe freezing conditions in winter. The heating power of Celsius is set, and the power of the carbon crystal electric heating plate is 400. W/m2 ~ 4000 W / m2 range.
  4. 根据权利要求3所述的风力发电机防冰系统,其特征在于:所述叶片的外蒙皮的表层或次表层全部或部分为碳晶电热板构成加热层。The wind power generator anti-icing system according to claim 3, wherein all or part of the surface layer or the sub-surface layer of the outer skin of the blade is a carbon crystal electric heating plate to form a heating layer.
  5. 根据权利要求4所述的风力发电机防冰系统,其特征在于:所述碳晶电热板设有孔或槽,孔的直径为1~10 mm,或槽的宽度为1~10 mm。The anti-icing system for a wind power generator according to claim 4, wherein the carbon crystal electric heating plate is provided with a hole or a groove, and the diameter of the hole is 1 to 10 Mm, or the width of the groove is 1 to 10 mm.
  6. 根据权利要求5所述的风力发电机防冰系统,其特征在于:所述碳晶电热板包括载体和粘附在载体上的碳晶,载体采用与叶片外蒙皮材料相同体系的互融合的材料制成。 The wind power generator anti-icing system according to claim 5, wherein the carbon crystal electric heating plate comprises a carrier and a carbon crystal adhered to the carrier, and the carrier is interfused with the same system as the outer skin material of the blade. Made of materials.
  7. 根据权利要求6所述的风力发电机防冰系统,其特征在于:所述碳晶电热板的厚度范围为0.2 mm~1 mm。The wind power generator anti-icing system according to claim 6, wherein the carbon crystal electric heating plate has a thickness ranging from 0.2 mm to 1 Mm.
  8. 根据权利要求2所述的风力发电机防冰系统,其特征在于:所述叶片的表面涂有涂料。 The wind power generator ice protection system according to claim 2, wherein the surface of the blade is coated with a paint.
PCT/CN2013/081515 2013-04-26 2013-08-15 Carbon crystal anti-icing method and wind driven generator anti-icing system employing same WO2014173043A1 (en)

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