WO2014171812A2 - A composition for treating waste water - Google Patents

A composition for treating waste water Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2014171812A2
WO2014171812A2 PCT/MY2014/000060 MY2014000060W WO2014171812A2 WO 2014171812 A2 WO2014171812 A2 WO 2014171812A2 MY 2014000060 W MY2014000060 W MY 2014000060W WO 2014171812 A2 WO2014171812 A2 WO 2014171812A2
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
composition
waste water
bentonite
chitosan
cac0
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/MY2014/000060
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
WO2014171812A3 (en
Inventor
Kok Fong NG
Original Assignee
ZAINAL ABIDIN, Roslan Bin
AB. RASHID, Ahmad Suhaimi Bin
LOI, Chin Chin
Palm Biogreen Sdn Bhd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by ZAINAL ABIDIN, Roslan Bin, AB. RASHID, Ahmad Suhaimi Bin, LOI, Chin Chin, Palm Biogreen Sdn Bhd filed Critical ZAINAL ABIDIN, Roslan Bin
Priority to CN201480001546.7A priority Critical patent/CN104903252B/en
Publication of WO2014171812A2 publication Critical patent/WO2014171812A2/en
Publication of WO2014171812A3 publication Critical patent/WO2014171812A3/en

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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/52Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by flocculation or precipitation of suspended impurities
    • C02F1/5236Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by flocculation or precipitation of suspended impurities using inorganic agents
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/52Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by flocculation or precipitation of suspended impurities
    • C02F1/5263Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by flocculation or precipitation of suspended impurities using natural chemical compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/52Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by flocculation or precipitation of suspended impurities
    • C02F1/5281Installations for water purification using chemical agents
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/68Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by addition of specified substances, e.g. trace elements, for ameliorating potable water
    • C02F1/685Devices for dosing the additives
    • C02F1/687Devices for dosing solid compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/52Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by flocculation or precipitation of suspended impurities
    • C02F1/5236Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by flocculation or precipitation of suspended impurities using inorganic agents
    • C02F1/5245Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by flocculation or precipitation of suspended impurities using inorganic agents using basic salts, e.g. of aluminium and iron
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/66Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by neutralisation; pH adjustment
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F11/00Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor
    • C02F11/12Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor by de-watering, drying or thickening
    • C02F11/121Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor by de-watering, drying or thickening by mechanical de-watering
    • C02F11/122Treatment of sludge; Devices therefor by de-watering, drying or thickening by mechanical de-watering using filter presses
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F2001/007Processes including a sedimentation step
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/02Aerobic processes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F9/00Multistage treatment of water, waste water or sewage
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Definitions

  • This invention relates to a composition for treating waste water, and more particularly, to a composition for treating waste water by binding and agglutinating waste water particles.
  • Water covers almost 71 % of the Earth's surface and is essential for all known forms of life. For humans and many other life forms such as aquatic plants and animals, safe drinking water is vital and critically important. Fortunately, for a small amount of waste water and pollution, nature has its own ability to treat such conditions. However, with the increasing rise of industries, houses, and factories which has greatly affect the water quality, it would be too great for the nature itself to cope.
  • One of the ways to overcome the affected water quality and reduce the burden of the nature is to take action to treat water used by homes, industries, and businesses before it is being released back to the environment.
  • Waste water can be defined as used water which includes suspended and dissolved substances and particles from human wastes, food wastes, oils, soaps, drains, rainfall, highway drainage, and industrial sites.
  • the waste water usually contains pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, non-pathogenic bacteria, organic and inorganic particles, animals such as protozoa and insects, macro-solids, gases, emulsions, toxins, and chemicals.
  • pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, non-pathogenic bacteria, organic and inorganic particles, animals such as protozoa and insects, macro-solids, gases, emulsions, toxins, and chemicals.
  • pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, non-pathogenic bacteria, organic and inorganic particles, animals such as protozoa and insects, macro-solids, gases, emulsions, toxins, and chemicals.
  • many treatment plants are installed to reduce pollutants in waste water to a level nature can handle or to a water quality criteria and standard set by a government as a compulsory requirement.
  • Some waste water treatments involve physically, chemically, and/or biologically treatments.
  • Some examples of physical waste water treatment include sedimentation, screening, aeration, filtration, flotation and skimming, degasification, and equalisation.
  • chemical waste water treatment examples include chlorination, ozonation, neutralisation, coagulation, flocculation, adsorption, and ion exchange.
  • Another common example of chemical waste water treatment involves the use of precipitation chemicals to remove chemical oxygen demand, metals, suspended solids, ammonia, and other toxic pollutants.
  • the flocculating agents commonly used for urban waste water treatment include alum and calcium carbonate (CaC0 3 ), and other synthetic polymers. In such treatment, the flocculating agents are only required in small quantity to obtain effective contact with the waste water particles. Effluent treatment system is often under-performed because the treatment chemistry is not revised in line with the effluent it is receiving.
  • Some examples of biological waste water treatment include activated sludge treatment methods (aerobic), aerobic digestion, anaerobic digestion, and septic tanks.
  • the activated sludge process which is based on the maintenance and actions of microorganisms, as disclosed in prior art EP 1 578 696 A1 , is a commonly applied treatment involving biological treatment.
  • the microorganisms will absorb and adsorb the organic matters in the waste water.
  • This process involving microorganisms may be costly depending on the type and extent of used microorganisms, and the safety and health of consumers become a major concern, as there may be a possibility that these microorganisms leach out and cause health problems after consumption. Accordingly, it can be seen in the prior art that there exists a need to provide an improved composition for removing waste water particles from waste water by increasing binding and contact efficiency, and effectiveness with the waste water particles.
  • the present invention provides a composition for efficiently and effectively removing waste water particles and suspended solids in waste water or sludge by enhancing the binding and efficiency contact between the composition and the waste water particles.
  • the present invention provides a cost effective composition for treating waste water which is able to reduce production of sludge and has a shorter retention time.
  • the present invention relates to a composition for treating waste water comprising, by weight percentage, 43.7 - 46.2% bentonite; 24.1 - 25.9% aluminium sulphate (AI 2 (S0 4 )3), wherein the particle size of the AI 2 (S0 4 ) 3 is 18 - 74pm; 19.2 - 20.8% ceramic powder; 4.8 - 5.2% chitosan, wherein the particle size of the chitosan is 44pm; and 4.8 - 5.2% calcium carbonate (CaC0 3 ).
  • the above-mentioned composition comprises, by weight percentage, 45% bentonite; 25% AI 2 (S0 4 )3; 20% ceramic powder; 5% chitosan; and 5% CaC0 3 .
  • the present invention relates to a method of using the aforesaid composition for treating waste water by adding 10 - 15 g/m 3 of the composition into the waste water with pH ranging from 6.5 - 12.
  • an apparatus for dispensing the aforesaid composition comprises a power supply; a controller for controlling the dispense rate; a storage chamber with a bottom opening; a motor attached to a rotating auger that is housed in a case; wherein the bottom opening of the storage chamber is attached to the case for allowing the composition to flow from the storage chamber to the case and said case has an aperture at an end for allowing the composition to be dispensed out.
  • Figure 1 is a drawing showing an apparatus for dispensing the composition of the present invention for treating waste water
  • Figure 2 is a drawing showing an agitator in a tank used for mixing the composition of the present invention with the waste water;
  • Figure 3 depicts a typical waste water treatment plant using polyaluminium chloride (PAC) polymer chemical treatment
  • Figure 4 depicts the working mechanism of the apparatus and the agitator
  • Figure 5 is a graph showing comparison of chemical oxygen demand (COD) between PAC polymer chemical treatment and the composition as introduced herein in 4 different tanks after treatment;
  • Figure 6 depicts a waste water treatment plant using the composition of the present invention.
  • Figure 7 is a flow chart showing waste water analysis in different tanks after being treated by the composition of the present invention.
  • the present invention relates to a composition for treating waste water comprising, by weight percentage, 43.7 - 46.2% bentonite; 24.1 - 25.9% aluminium sulphate (AI 2 (S0 4 )3), wherein the particle size of the AI 2 (S0 4 ) 3 is 18 - 74 ⁇ ; 19.2 - 20.8% ceramic powder; 4.8 - 5.2% chitosan, wherein the particle size of the chitosan is 44pm; and 4.8 - 5.2% calcium carbonate (CaC0 3 ).
  • the amount of said composition added to the waste water for effective and efficient treatment of waste water is in the range of 10 - 15 g/m 3 .
  • the pH of the waste water is adjusted to be in the range of 6.5 - 12, preferably in the range of 8.5 - 10, before the said composition is added.
  • said composition is in granular form.
  • the bentonite is sodium-based bentonite.
  • said composition comprises, by weight percentage, 45% bentonite; 25% AI 2 (S0 4 ) 3 ; 20% ceramic powder; 5% chitosan; and 5% CaC0 3 .
  • Table 1 shows the compounds in the composition of the present invention and its optimum working range.
  • Table 1 Compounds in the composition of the present invention and its optimum working range.
  • said composition disperses in waste water in the following order: bentonite, ceramic powder, CaC0 3 followed by chitosan, and lastly followed by AI 2 (S0 4 )3; wherein bentonite, ceramic powder, and CaC0 3 are to disperse in no particular order.
  • a method of using a composition for treating waste water comprising, by weight percentage, 43.7 - 46.2% bentonite; 24.1 - 25.9% AI 2 (S0 4 ) 3 , wherein the particle size of the AI 2 (S0 ) 3 is 18 - 74 ⁇ ; 19.2 - 20.8% ceramic powder; 4.8 - 5.2% chitosan, wherein the particle size of the chitosan is 44 ⁇ ; and 4.8 - 5.2% CaC0 3 ; the method comprises the step of adding 10 - 15g/m 3 of the composition into the waste water with pH ranging from 6.5 - 12.
  • said composition for treating waste water comprises, by weight percentage, 45% bentonite; 25% AI 2 (S0 4 ) 3 ; 20% ceramic powder; 5% chitosan; and 5% CaCC>3.
  • it further comprises the step of mixing the composition with the waste water by using an agitator located in a tank with a speed of at least 1350rpm.
  • waste water is water mixed with waste matters wherein said waste matters are including but not limited to sources from domestic, municipal, industries, groundwater, urban rainfall, and seawater. Said waste matters including but not limited to, constitutions comprising water, pathogens, non-pathogenic bacteria, organic particles, soluble organic materials, inorganic particles, soluble inorganic materials, animals, macro-solids, gases, emulsions, toxins, and pharmaceutical compounds.
  • sludge which is defined by a mixture of liquid and solid component or a product of waste water treatment, in this specification is referring to, but not limited to, as waste water, wherein same result may be achieved as it has for waste water.
  • bentonite is a binding agent.
  • Bentonite works effectively in adsorbing ions in solution including fats and oils. Bentonite also has an interesting property of adsorbing relatively large amounts of protein molecules from aqueous solutions. These features are advantages of using bentonite in said composition.
  • sodium-based bentonite is used where the sodium as the predominant exchangeable positive ions facilitate transfer of negative ions from contaminants in waste water.
  • the use of bentonite offers ionic surface on bentonite which makes a sticky coating on solid particles and causes clumping of solid particles in aqueous solution.
  • bentonite works as an effective and efficient binding agent.
  • AI 2 (S0 4 )3 is a flocculating agent in said composition.
  • AI 2 (S0 4 ) 3 When AI 2 (S0 4 ) 3 is dissolved in a large amount of neutral or slightly alkaline water, AI 2 (S0 ) 3 produces a gelatinous precipitate of aluminium hydroxide, AI(OH) 3 .
  • the gelatinous precipitate adheres to the dissolved solids by rendering the solids insoluble.
  • AI 2 (S0 4 )3 also reduces the pH level of solution. Due to the properties of AI 2 (S0 4 )3, it is preferred that the AI 2 (S0 4 ) 3 works in the final stage of reaction when said composition dissolves in waste water.
  • AI 2 (S0 4 ) 3 is modified to suit a slower reaction process, that is preferably by having particle size of 18 - 74 ⁇ .
  • AI 2 (S0 4 ) 3 may take longer time to solubilise compared to other compounds in said composition. This may allow AI 2 (S0 4 ) 3 to have more time to initiate the flocculation of the tiny flocculates for eventual sedimentation in waste water treatment.
  • ceramic powder is a purifying agent in said composition. It comprises magnesium silicate (Mg 3 Si 4 Oio(OH) 2 ), which is a purifying agent in said composition.
  • Mg 3 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 2 is useful for purifying adsorbent for example poly-oils, and animal and vegetable oils resulted from reaction occurred when bentonite reacted with the solid waste.
  • ceramic powder is a filter for adsorption of colour, free fatty acids, and other polar compounds in waste water.
  • the effective range of ceramic powder may be 19.2 - 20.8 % due to the characteristic of ceramic powder that dilutes faster in waste water compared to other compounds in said composition.
  • Chitosan in said composition may cause fine sediment particles to bind together and may subsequently be removed with the sediment by other compounds present in said composition.
  • Chitosan may be used in clarification process in combination with bentonite and AI 2 (S0 4 ) 3 .
  • the chitosan in said composition removes phosphorus, heavy minerals, and oils from the waste water. Moreover, it improves flocculation process by encapsulating the flocculates and rendering them insoluble by forming chemical chains reaction that bond with the other materials in the waste water.
  • the particle size of 44pm enables chitosan more time to solubilise after other compounds of said composition has solubilised. This ensures the workability of said composition in waste water.
  • CaC0 3 neutralises the waste water and facilitates the precipitation of waste water solids.
  • the effective range of CaC0 3 may be 4.8 - 5.2 % due to the characteristic employed by CaC0 3 that dilutes faster in waste water.
  • each component of said composition is measured to an exact weight by percentage, size, and function, and work by order to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of said composition. Therefore, the order of dispersion in said composition is in the following order: bentonite, ceramic powder, CaC0 3 followed by chitosan, and lastly followed by AI 2 (S04) 3 ; wherein bentonite, ceramic powder, and CaC0 3 are to disperse in no particular order. This order of dispersion is important ensuring the workability of the composition as a whole.
  • the said composition works on the principle of ionic conversion of waste water particles wherein the waste water particles are converted into negatively charged ionic compounds by said composition.
  • ionic compounds are usually formed from a metal combining with a non-metal, they have opposite charges and will attract each other to form a new compound.
  • the colloidal particles in the waste water may have electrical properties which prevent agglomeration and settling.
  • the said composition is introduced to the waste water to neutralise the electrostatic charge so to induce flocculation and precipitation. This ensures the agglomerated settlement as a result from the reaction between the composition and the waste water particles can be handled properly.
  • An apparatus for dispensing a composition for treating waste water comprising, by weight percentage, 43.7 - 46.2% bentonite; 24.1 - 25.9% AI 2 (S0 4 ) 3 , wherein the particle size of the AI 2 (S0 4 ) 3 is 18 - 74 m; 19.2 - 20.8% ceramic powder; 4.8 - 5.2% chitosan, wherein the particle size of the chitosan is 44pm; and 4.8 - 5.2% CaC0 3 ; said apparatus comprises a power supply (101); a controller (102) for controlling the dispense rate; a storage chamber (103) with a bottom opening (104); a motor (105) attached to a rotating auger (106) that is housed in a case (107); wherein the bottom opening (104) of the storage chamber (103) is attached to the case (107) for allowing the composition to flow from the storage chamber (103) to the case (107) and said case (107) has an aperture at an end for allowing the composition to be dispensed out and flow into a
  • the tank (200) comprises an agitator with a speed of at least 1350rpm.
  • the agitator is an independent apparatus, and does not relate or associate to the apparatus for dispensing the composition for treating waste water in any way.
  • the agitator is attached to a power generating means (201).
  • the dispensed composition is in a granular form.
  • the composition of the present invention easily encapsulates various contaminates in waste water including suspended solids, fluoride, and heavy metals. It removes oil, grease, and fluoride more than other chemicals used in waste water treatment.
  • the composition separates contaminates quickly from the waste water, simplifies the operation by using just one product, and reduces overall operating costs.
  • composition of the present invention reduces biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), fluoride and heavy metals quickly and effectively compared to other chemical treatment existing in the market.
  • BOD biochemical oxygen demand
  • COD chemical oxygen demand
  • TDS total dissolved solids
  • TSS total suspended solids
  • fluoride fluoride and heavy metals quickly and effectively compared to other chemical treatment existing in the market.
  • the composition of the present invention may achieve processing speed of up to 2-3 minutes compared to other typical chemicals approach which usually takes about 50 minutes. Moreover, the composition of the present invention only requires a single-step process while some other chemical treatment involves multi-step process. Another advantage of using the present invention is that it emits minimum greenhouse gas. It is with an assurance that the composition of the present invention can produce a consistently good quality of treated water.
  • Example 1 shows the application of the composition of the present invention in treating waste water. It is to be understood that the example below is for illustrative purpose, from which the embodiments and advantages of the present invention may be made clearer. It should not be construed to limit the present invention in any way.
  • Example 2 shows the application of the composition of the present invention in treating waste water. It is to be understood that the example below is for illustrative purpose, from which the embodiments and advantages of the present invention may be made clearer. It should not be construed to limit the present invention in any way.
  • the present invention is implemented in a waste water treatment for an industry that manufactures latex gloves.
  • the present invention is proposed to treat the waste water produced from the industry to meet the waste water discharge standards set by the Department of Environment (DOE) under Standard B of Environmental Quality Act (EQA) 1974/2009 in Malaysia.
  • DOE Department of Environment
  • EQA Standard B of Environmental Quality Act
  • Table 2 shows the characteristics of waste water from the industry in comparison to standard set by DOE under Standard B of EQA 1974/2009.
  • Table 2 Characteristics of waste water from latex glove industry
  • Suspended Solids (mg/l) 1 ,000 - 1 ,400 50 The industry has a treatment plant to treat waste water generated by the production of rubber gloves at the factory.
  • the current installed waste water treatment system is using polyaluminium chloride (PAC) polymer combination of chemicals as its coagulating agent.
  • the treatment plant has waste water discharge of about 45 m 3 /hour. Operating for 24 hours, the total waste water discharge is at 1 ,080 m 3 /day.
  • the main concern with using said treatment plant is the under-designed of the treatment plan which fails to cope with the flow rate of the daily waste water discharge when the chemicals are used.
  • the total retention time set in the reaction tank and flocculation tank is 32 minutes.
  • PAC polymer requires a retention time of at least 50 minutes and requires turbulence for reaction to take place. This has resulted in the non-ideal completion of reaction possibly after the reaction in reaction tank and flocculation tank, with dependency on air blower in the waste water treatment plant to provide the necessary turbulence. This causes the sludge produced from the reactions to be further accumulated from one tank to another. The air turbulence also causes the disintegration of the formed sludge, forming tiny sludge which is more difficult to settle.
  • Figure 3 the process flow of waste water treatment plant used in the industry is as follows. Firstly, waste water is collected. The waste water is subjected to pH adjustment where it is neutralised by using sodium hydroxide (NaOH).
  • the waste water flows into a reaction tank where chemicals and reactants (PAC polymer) are added into it.
  • PAC polymer chemicals and reactants
  • the waste water will pass through a flocculation tank, thereafter to a primary clarifier.
  • a sludge holding tank after the primary clarifier which acts as a sludge reservoir.
  • the sludge collected from the sludge holding tank will then be fed into filter press to be treated again or disposed.
  • the waste water from the primary clarifier will be treated biologically in a biological tank before passing through secondary clarifier for reuse.
  • composition of the present invention which comprises, by weight percentage, 43.7 - 46.2% bentonite; 24.1 - 25.9% AI 2 (S0 4 ) 3 , wherein the particle size of the AI 2 (S0 4 ) 3 is 18 - 74pm;
  • the composition is added into the waste water treatment in approximate amount of 10 - 15g/m 3 .
  • the composition comprises, by weight percentage, 45% bentonite; 25% AI 2 (S0 4 ) 3 ; 20% ceramic powder; 5% chitosan; and 5% CaC0 3 is used in the waste water treatment plant in the industry.
  • the composition is in a granular form.
  • the latex glove industry is also being introduced to an apparatus for dispensing the composition for treating waste water comprising, by weight percentage, 43.7 - 46.2% bentonite; 24.1 - 25.9% AI 2 (S0 4 ) 3 ; 19.2 - 20.8% ceramic powder; 4.8 - 5.2% chitosan; and 4.8 - 5.2% CaC0 3
  • the apparatus comprises a power supply (101); a controller (102); a storage chamber (103) with a bottom opening (104); a motor (105) attached to a rotating auger (106) that is housed in a case (107); wherein the bottom opening (104) of the storage chamber (103) is attached to the case (107) for allowing the composition to flow from the storage chamber (103) to the case (107) and said case (107) has an aperture (109) at an end for allowing the composition to be dispensed and flow into a tank (200).
  • the tank (200) can be referred to as the reaction tank in the waste water treatment plant.
  • the composition requires a retention time of only 10 minutes to complete the flocculation process.
  • the mixture of the composition and the waste water is stirred by an agitator with a minimum speed of at least 1350 rpm to complete the reaction in the reaction tank.
  • the sludge collected after the primary clarifier will be emptied every 4 hours to minimise the amount of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids during the treatment.
  • Figure 5 shows the comparison of COD between PAC polymer treatment and said composition of the present invention in 4 different tanks after treatment.
  • the water quality standard set by DOE in this example is at 200 mg/L.
  • the values exceed the standard requirements except at final discharge which is at 111 mg/L
  • the values exceed only at the beginning, particularly at the first tank namely the equalising (EQ) tank, and then are reduced within the standard requirement until the final stage with a value of 68mg/L
  • waste water obtained from the industry is allowed to flow into the equalising sump to be mixed well. Then the waste water is pumped into the pH adjustment tank where NaOH is added to neutralise the waste water to pH 9 ⁇ 0.3. Afterwards, the waste water will flow into the reaction tank, where the composition as described above is dispensed into the reaction tank to blend well and react with the waste water. The waste water will then flow into the flocculation tank, forming flocculates. The waste water is termed as treated water after undergoing reaction with the composition in the reaction tank. At the primary clarifier, preferably inclined plate clarifiers, sludge will settle at sludge holding tank.
  • the treated water from the primary clarifier will flow into aeration tank for oxygen and further reduction in BOD and COD. Then, the treated water flows into the secondary clarifier for the final clarification before reuse, or recharged. If water is to be reused, a carbon filter is required for final polishing process.
  • the sludge which is collected at the sludge holding tank will be fed to the filter press to produce filtrate and is emptied every 4 hours. The filtrate will then flow back into the equalising sump to be mixed with other collected waste water.
  • Figure 7 is a flow chart showing the analysis result of waste water in different tanks after being treated by said composition.

Abstract

The present invention relates to a composition for treating waste water comprises, by weight percentage,: 43.7 - 46.2% bentonite; 24.1 - 25.9% aluminium sulphate (AI2(SO4)3), wherein the particle size of the AI2(SO4)3 is 18 - 74pm; 19.2 - 20.8% ceramic powder; 4.8 - 5.2% chitosan, wherein the particle size of the chitosan is 44μm; and 4.8 - 5.2% calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Further disclosed is a method of using the composition for treating waste water. In another further disclosure, there is introduced an apparatus for dispensing the composition into the waste water.

Description

A COMPOSITION FOR TREATING WASTE WATER
TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates to a composition for treating waste water, and more particularly, to a composition for treating waste water by binding and agglutinating waste water particles.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Water covers almost 71 % of the Earth's surface and is essential for all known forms of life. For humans and many other life forms such as aquatic plants and animals, safe drinking water is vital and critically important. Fortunately, for a small amount of waste water and pollution, nature has its own ability to treat such conditions. However, with the increasing rise of industries, houses, and factories which has greatly affect the water quality, it would be too great for the nature itself to cope. One of the ways to overcome the affected water quality and reduce the burden of the nature is to take action to treat water used by homes, industries, and businesses before it is being released back to the environment.
Waste water can be defined as used water which includes suspended and dissolved substances and particles from human wastes, food wastes, oils, soaps, drains, rainfall, highway drainage, and industrial sites. The waste water usually contains pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, non-pathogenic bacteria, organic and inorganic particles, animals such as protozoa and insects, macro-solids, gases, emulsions, toxins, and chemicals. In order to cope with the waste water, many treatment plants are installed to reduce pollutants in waste water to a level nature can handle or to a water quality criteria and standard set by a government as a compulsory requirement. There are many processes introduced in the market to treat waste water depending on the type and extent of contamination.
Some waste water treatments involve physically, chemically, and/or biologically treatments. Some examples of physical waste water treatment include sedimentation, screening, aeration, filtration, flotation and skimming, degasification, and equalisation.
Some examples of chemical waste water treatment include chlorination, ozonation, neutralisation, coagulation, flocculation, adsorption, and ion exchange. Another common example of chemical waste water treatment involves the use of precipitation chemicals to remove chemical oxygen demand, metals, suspended solids, ammonia, and other toxic pollutants. The flocculating agents commonly used for urban waste water treatment include alum and calcium carbonate (CaC03), and other synthetic polymers. In such treatment, the flocculating agents are only required in small quantity to obtain effective contact with the waste water particles. Effluent treatment system is often under-performed because the treatment chemistry is not revised in line with the effluent it is receiving. Thus, it is important to have a new and effective composition, improving inventions of the same field of technology, as disclosed in prior art US 7,384,573 B2 and US 4,415,467, to reduce treatment costs, reduce pH correction, minimise the amount of sludge, increase contact and binding efficiency, and reduce side-effects from the use of chemicals to both workers and consumers. Unfortunately, these are poorly achieved by said prior art. Chlorination is also another common chemical treatment. However, chlorination treatment has a few disadvantages including unpleasant taste and smell emitted from the reaction between chlorine and water, and chlorine compounds and inorganic chloramines may harm aquatic livings.
Some examples of biological waste water treatment include activated sludge treatment methods (aerobic), aerobic digestion, anaerobic digestion, and septic tanks. The activated sludge process, which is based on the maintenance and actions of microorganisms, as disclosed in prior art EP 1 578 696 A1 , is a commonly applied treatment involving biological treatment. The microorganisms will absorb and adsorb the organic matters in the waste water. This process involving microorganisms may be costly depending on the type and extent of used microorganisms, and the safety and health of consumers become a major concern, as there may be a possibility that these microorganisms leach out and cause health problems after consumption. Accordingly, it can be seen in the prior art that there exists a need to provide an improved composition for removing waste water particles from waste water by increasing binding and contact efficiency, and effectiveness with the waste water particles.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention provides a composition for efficiently and effectively removing waste water particles and suspended solids in waste water or sludge by enhancing the binding and efficiency contact between the composition and the waste water particles. The present invention provides a cost effective composition for treating waste water which is able to reduce production of sludge and has a shorter retention time.
Accordingly, the aforesaid can be achieved by following the embodiments of the present invention. The present invention relates to a composition for treating waste water comprising, by weight percentage, 43.7 - 46.2% bentonite; 24.1 - 25.9% aluminium sulphate (AI2(S04)3), wherein the particle size of the AI2(S04)3 is 18 - 74pm; 19.2 - 20.8% ceramic powder; 4.8 - 5.2% chitosan, wherein the particle size of the chitosan is 44pm; and 4.8 - 5.2% calcium carbonate (CaC03).
In a preferred embodiment, the above-mentioned composition comprises, by weight percentage, 45% bentonite; 25% AI2(S04)3; 20% ceramic powder; 5% chitosan; and 5% CaC03.
Further, the present invention relates to a method of using the aforesaid composition for treating waste water by adding 10 - 15 g/m3 of the composition into the waste water with pH ranging from 6.5 - 12.
In a further disclosure of the present invention, it is introduced herein an apparatus for dispensing the aforesaid composition comprises a power supply; a controller for controlling the dispense rate; a storage chamber with a bottom opening; a motor attached to a rotating auger that is housed in a case; wherein the bottom opening of the storage chamber is attached to the case for allowing the composition to flow from the storage chamber to the case and said case has an aperture at an end for allowing the composition to be dispensed out.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Figure 1 is a drawing showing an apparatus for dispensing the composition of the present invention for treating waste water;
Figure 2 is a drawing showing an agitator in a tank used for mixing the composition of the present invention with the waste water;
Figure 3 depicts a typical waste water treatment plant using polyaluminium chloride (PAC) polymer chemical treatment;
Figure 4 depicts the working mechanism of the apparatus and the agitator;
Figure 5 is a graph showing comparison of chemical oxygen demand (COD) between PAC polymer chemical treatment and the composition as introduced herein in 4 different tanks after treatment;
Figure 6 depicts a waste water treatment plant using the composition of the present invention; and
Figure 7 is a flow chart showing waste water analysis in different tanks after being treated by the composition of the present invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Detailed embodiments of the present invention are disclosed in this section. The embodiments disclosed herein are exemplary of the invention, which may be embodied in various forms. Therefore, the disclosed details including the specific structural and functional details are not intended to limit the invention but merely serve as a basis for claims. It should be understood that the detailed description and drawings of the invention are not limiting but to cover all possible modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims. As used throughout this application, the word "may" is used in a permissive sense, rather than the mandatory sense. Similarly, the words "include," "including," and "includes" mean including, but not limited to. The words "a" or "an" mean "at least one" and the word "plurality" means one or more, unless otherwise mentioned. Where the abbreviations or technical terms are used, these indicate the commonly accepted meanings as known in the technical field. The present invention will now be described with reference to Figures 1 - 7.
The present invention relates to a composition for treating waste water comprising, by weight percentage, 43.7 - 46.2% bentonite; 24.1 - 25.9% aluminium sulphate (AI2(S04)3), wherein the particle size of the AI2(S04)3 is 18 - 74μιτι; 19.2 - 20.8% ceramic powder; 4.8 - 5.2% chitosan, wherein the particle size of the chitosan is 44pm; and 4.8 - 5.2% calcium carbonate (CaC03). In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the amount of said composition added to the waste water for effective and efficient treatment of waste water is in the range of 10 - 15 g/m3.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the pH of the waste water is adjusted to be in the range of 6.5 - 12, preferably in the range of 8.5 - 10, before the said composition is added.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, said composition is in granular form.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the bentonite is sodium-based bentonite. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, said composition comprises, by weight percentage, 45% bentonite; 25% AI2(S04)3; 20% ceramic powder; 5% chitosan; and 5% CaC03. Table 1 shows the compounds in the composition of the present invention and its optimum working range.
Table 1 : Compounds in the composition of the present invention and its optimum working range.
Figure imgf000007_0001
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, said composition disperses in waste water in the following order: bentonite, ceramic powder, CaC03 followed by chitosan, and lastly followed by AI2(S04)3; wherein bentonite, ceramic powder, and CaC03 are to disperse in no particular order.
A method of using a composition for treating waste water comprising, by weight percentage, 43.7 - 46.2% bentonite; 24.1 - 25.9% AI2(S04)3, wherein the particle size of the AI2(S0 )3 is 18 - 74μιτι; 19.2 - 20.8% ceramic powder; 4.8 - 5.2% chitosan, wherein the particle size of the chitosan is 44μιτι; and 4.8 - 5.2% CaC03; the method comprises the step of adding 10 - 15g/m3 of the composition into the waste water with pH ranging from 6.5 - 12. In a preferred embodiment of the aforesaid method, said composition for treating waste water comprises, by weight percentage, 45% bentonite; 25% AI2(S04)3; 20% ceramic powder; 5% chitosan; and 5% CaCC>3. In another embodiment of the aforesaid method, it further comprises the step of mixing the composition with the waste water by using an agitator located in a tank with a speed of at least 1350rpm.
As described in this specification, the term waste water is water mixed with waste matters wherein said waste matters are including but not limited to sources from domestic, municipal, industries, groundwater, urban rainfall, and seawater. Said waste matters including but not limited to, constitutions comprising water, pathogens, non-pathogenic bacteria, organic particles, soluble organic materials, inorganic particles, soluble inorganic materials, animals, macro-solids, gases, emulsions, toxins, and pharmaceutical compounds. The term sludge which is defined by a mixture of liquid and solid component or a product of waste water treatment, in this specification is referring to, but not limited to, as waste water, wherein same result may be achieved as it has for waste water. According to the present invention, bentonite is a binding agent. Bentonite works effectively in adsorbing ions in solution including fats and oils. Bentonite also has an interesting property of adsorbing relatively large amounts of protein molecules from aqueous solutions. These features are advantages of using bentonite in said composition. In a preferred embodiment, sodium-based bentonite is used where the sodium as the predominant exchangeable positive ions facilitate transfer of negative ions from contaminants in waste water. The use of bentonite offers ionic surface on bentonite which makes a sticky coating on solid particles and causes clumping of solid particles in aqueous solution. Thus, in the preferred embodiment, bentonite works as an effective and efficient binding agent.
According to the present invention, AI2(S04)3 is a flocculating agent in said composition. When AI2(S04)3 is dissolved in a large amount of neutral or slightly alkaline water, AI2(S0 )3 produces a gelatinous precipitate of aluminium hydroxide, AI(OH)3. The gelatinous precipitate adheres to the dissolved solids by rendering the solids insoluble. AI2(S04)3 also reduces the pH level of solution. Due to the properties of AI2(S04)3, it is preferred that the AI2(S04)3 works in the final stage of reaction when said composition dissolves in waste water. Therefore, it is preferred that AI2(S04)3 is modified to suit a slower reaction process, that is preferably by having particle size of 18 - 74μιη. With the preferred particle size, AI2(S04)3 may take longer time to solubilise compared to other compounds in said composition. This may allow AI2(S04)3 to have more time to initiate the flocculation of the tiny flocculates for eventual sedimentation in waste water treatment.
According to the present invention, ceramic powder is a purifying agent in said composition. It comprises magnesium silicate (Mg3Si4Oio(OH)2), which is a purifying agent in said composition. Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 is useful for purifying adsorbent for example poly-oils, and animal and vegetable oils resulted from reaction occurred when bentonite reacted with the solid waste. Further, ceramic powder is a filter for adsorption of colour, free fatty acids, and other polar compounds in waste water. The effective range of ceramic powder may be 19.2 - 20.8 % due to the characteristic of ceramic powder that dilutes faster in waste water compared to other compounds in said composition.
Chitosan in said composition may cause fine sediment particles to bind together and may subsequently be removed with the sediment by other compounds present in said composition. Chitosan may be used in clarification process in combination with bentonite and AI2(S04)3. According to the present invention, the chitosan in said composition removes phosphorus, heavy minerals, and oils from the waste water. Moreover, it improves flocculation process by encapsulating the flocculates and rendering them insoluble by forming chemical chains reaction that bond with the other materials in the waste water. In a preferred embodiment, the particle size of 44pm enables chitosan more time to solubilise after other compounds of said composition has solubilised. This ensures the workability of said composition in waste water. According to the present invention, CaC03 neutralises the waste water and facilitates the precipitation of waste water solids. The effective range of CaC03 may be 4.8 - 5.2 % due to the characteristic employed by CaC03 that dilutes faster in waste water.
Further described herein, each component of said composition is measured to an exact weight by percentage, size, and function, and work by order to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of said composition. Therefore, the order of dispersion in said composition is in the following order: bentonite, ceramic powder, CaC03 followed by chitosan, and lastly followed by AI2(S04)3; wherein bentonite, ceramic powder, and CaC03 are to disperse in no particular order. This order of dispersion is important ensuring the workability of the composition as a whole.
The said composition works on the principle of ionic conversion of waste water particles wherein the waste water particles are converted into negatively charged ionic compounds by said composition. As ionic compounds are usually formed from a metal combining with a non-metal, they have opposite charges and will attract each other to form a new compound. The colloidal particles in the waste water may have electrical properties which prevent agglomeration and settling. The said composition is introduced to the waste water to neutralise the electrostatic charge so to induce flocculation and precipitation. This ensures the agglomerated settlement as a result from the reaction between the composition and the waste water particles can be handled properly.
An apparatus for dispensing a composition for treating waste water comprising, by weight percentage, 43.7 - 46.2% bentonite; 24.1 - 25.9% AI2(S04)3, wherein the particle size of the AI2(S04)3 is 18 - 74 m; 19.2 - 20.8% ceramic powder; 4.8 - 5.2% chitosan, wherein the particle size of the chitosan is 44pm; and 4.8 - 5.2% CaC03; said apparatus comprises a power supply (101); a controller (102) for controlling the dispense rate; a storage chamber (103) with a bottom opening (104); a motor (105) attached to a rotating auger (106) that is housed in a case (107); wherein the bottom opening (104) of the storage chamber (103) is attached to the case (107) for allowing the composition to flow from the storage chamber (103) to the case (107) and said case (107) has an aperture at an end for allowing the composition to be dispensed out and flow into a tank (200) (referring to Figures 1 and 2).
Referring now to Figure 2, the tank (200) comprises an agitator with a speed of at least 1350rpm. The agitator is an independent apparatus, and does not relate or associate to the apparatus for dispensing the composition for treating waste water in any way. As it can be seen from Figure 2, the agitator is attached to a power generating means (201).
In a preferred embodiment that relates to the apparatus, the dispensed composition is in a granular form. The advantages of the present invention
The composition of the present invention easily encapsulates various contaminates in waste water including suspended solids, fluoride, and heavy metals. It removes oil, grease, and fluoride more than other chemicals used in waste water treatment. The composition separates contaminates quickly from the waste water, simplifies the operation by using just one product, and reduces overall operating costs.
The composition of the present invention reduces biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), fluoride and heavy metals quickly and effectively compared to other chemical treatment existing in the market.
The composition of the present invention may achieve processing speed of up to 2-3 minutes compared to other typical chemicals approach which usually takes about 50 minutes. Moreover, the composition of the present invention only requires a single-step process while some other chemical treatment involves multi-step process. Another advantage of using the present invention is that it emits minimum greenhouse gas. It is with an assurance that the composition of the present invention can produce a consistently good quality of treated water.
The following example shows the application of the composition of the present invention in treating waste water. It is to be understood that the example below is for illustrative purpose, from which the embodiments and advantages of the present invention may be made clearer. It should not be construed to limit the present invention in any way. Example
The present invention is implemented in a waste water treatment for an industry that manufactures latex gloves. The present invention is proposed to treat the waste water produced from the industry to meet the waste water discharge standards set by the Department of Environment (DOE) under Standard B of Environmental Quality Act (EQA) 1974/2009 in Malaysia.
Table 2 shows the characteristics of waste water from the industry in comparison to standard set by DOE under Standard B of EQA 1974/2009. Table 2: Characteristics of waste water from latex glove industry
DOE
Parameter Waste water
Requirement
1. pH 3.0 - 10.0 5.5 - 9.0
2. Temperature (°C) 50 - 60 < 40
3. Biochemical oxygen demand
100 - 220 50 (BOD) for 5 days (ppm)
4. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD),
300 - 900 200 ppm
5. Suspended Solids (mg/l) 1 ,000 - 1 ,400 50 The industry has a treatment plant to treat waste water generated by the production of rubber gloves at the factory. The current installed waste water treatment system is using polyaluminium chloride (PAC) polymer combination of chemicals as its coagulating agent. The treatment plant has waste water discharge of about 45 m3/hour. Operating for 24 hours, the total waste water discharge is at 1 ,080 m3/day. The main concern with using said treatment plant is the under-designed of the treatment plan which fails to cope with the flow rate of the daily waste water discharge when the chemicals are used. By referring to the treatment plant used by the industry as illustrated in Figure 3, the total retention time set in the reaction tank and flocculation tank is 32 minutes. However, PAC polymer requires a retention time of at least 50 minutes and requires turbulence for reaction to take place. This has resulted in the non-ideal completion of reaction possibly after the reaction in reaction tank and flocculation tank, with dependency on air blower in the waste water treatment plant to provide the necessary turbulence. This causes the sludge produced from the reactions to be further accumulated from one tank to another. The air turbulence also causes the disintegration of the formed sludge, forming tiny sludge which is more difficult to settle. Referring now to Figure 3, the process flow of waste water treatment plant used in the industry is as follows. Firstly, waste water is collected. The waste water is subjected to pH adjustment where it is neutralised by using sodium hydroxide (NaOH). After neutralisation, the waste water flows into a reaction tank where chemicals and reactants (PAC polymer) are added into it. The waste water will pass through a flocculation tank, thereafter to a primary clarifier. There is a sludge holding tank after the primary clarifier which acts as a sludge reservoir. The sludge collected from the sludge holding tank will then be fed into filter press to be treated again or disposed. The waste water from the primary clarifier will be treated biologically in a biological tank before passing through secondary clarifier for reuse.
To overcome the situation faced by the industry above, the composition of the present invention which comprises, by weight percentage, 43.7 - 46.2% bentonite; 24.1 - 25.9% AI2(S04)3, wherein the particle size of the AI2(S04)3 is 18 - 74pm;
19.2 - 20.8% ceramic powder; 4.8 - 5.2% chitosan, wherein the particle size of the chitosan is 44pm; and 4.8 - 5.2% CaC03, is introduced. The composition is added into the waste water treatment in approximate amount of 10 - 15g/m3. Preferably, the composition comprises, by weight percentage, 45% bentonite; 25% AI2(S04)3; 20% ceramic powder; 5% chitosan; and 5% CaC03 is used in the waste water treatment plant in the industry. The composition is in a granular form.
By referring to Figures 1 , 2 and 4, the latex glove industry is also being introduced to an apparatus for dispensing the composition for treating waste water comprising, by weight percentage, 43.7 - 46.2% bentonite; 24.1 - 25.9% AI2(S04)3; 19.2 - 20.8% ceramic powder; 4.8 - 5.2% chitosan; and 4.8 - 5.2% CaC03, the apparatus comprises a power supply (101); a controller (102); a storage chamber (103) with a bottom opening (104); a motor (105) attached to a rotating auger (106) that is housed in a case (107); wherein the bottom opening (104) of the storage chamber (103) is attached to the case (107) for allowing the composition to flow from the storage chamber (103) to the case (107) and said case (107) has an aperture (109) at an end for allowing the composition to be dispensed and flow into a tank (200). The tank (200) can be referred to as the reaction tank in the waste water treatment plant. In the present example, the composition requires a retention time of only 10 minutes to complete the flocculation process. The mixture of the composition and the waste water is stirred by an agitator with a minimum speed of at least 1350 rpm to complete the reaction in the reaction tank. The sludge collected after the primary clarifier will be emptied every 4 hours to minimise the amount of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids during the treatment.
Figure 5 shows the comparison of COD between PAC polymer treatment and said composition of the present invention in 4 different tanks after treatment. The water quality standard set by DOE in this example is at 200 mg/L. As illustrated in Figure 5, in PAC polymer treatment, the values exceed the standard requirements except at final discharge which is at 111 mg/L As for the present invention, the values exceed only at the beginning, particularly at the first tank namely the equalising (EQ) tank, and then are reduced within the standard requirement until the final stage with a value of 68mg/L
The process of treating waste water using the composition is explained herein, as an embodiment of the present invention. By referring to Figure 6, waste water obtained from the industry is allowed to flow into the equalising sump to be mixed well. Then the waste water is pumped into the pH adjustment tank where NaOH is added to neutralise the waste water to pH 9 ± 0.3. Afterwards, the waste water will flow into the reaction tank, where the composition as described above is dispensed into the reaction tank to blend well and react with the waste water. The waste water will then flow into the flocculation tank, forming flocculates. The waste water is termed as treated water after undergoing reaction with the composition in the reaction tank. At the primary clarifier, preferably inclined plate clarifiers, sludge will settle at sludge holding tank. The treated water from the primary clarifier will flow into aeration tank for oxygen and further reduction in BOD and COD. Then, the treated water flows into the secondary clarifier for the final clarification before reuse, or recharged. If water is to be reused, a carbon filter is required for final polishing process. The sludge which is collected at the sludge holding tank will be fed to the filter press to produce filtrate and is emptied every 4 hours. The filtrate will then flow back into the equalising sump to be mixed with other collected waste water. Figure 7 is a flow chart showing the analysis result of waste water in different tanks after being treated by said composition.
It is to be understood that the drawings and processes of the preferred embodiments of the present example is not to limit the invention to the particular form disclosed, but the invention is to cover all modification, equivalents and alternatives falling within the scope of the present invention as described in the specification and defined by the following claims. According to the present invention, below is the description of the reference numerals used in the accompanying drawings. Reference Numerals Description
101 Power supply
102 Controller
103 Storage chamber
104 Bottom opening
105 Motor
106 Rotating auger
107 Case
200 Tank
201 Power generating means

Claims

A composition for treating waste water comprises, by weight percentage,: a) 43.7 - 46.2% bentonite;
b) 24.1 - 25.9% aluminium sulphate (AI2(S04)3), wherein the particle size of the AI2(S04)3 is 18 - 74pm;
c) 19.2 - 20.8% ceramic powder;
d) 4.8 - 5.2% chitosan, wherein the particle size of the chitosan is 44pm; and
e) 4.8 - 5.2% calcium carbonate (CaC03).
A composition according to claim 1 comprises, by weight percentage, 45% bentonite; 25% AI2(S04)3; 20% ceramic powder; 5% chitosan; and 5% CaC03,
A composition according to claims 1 and 2, wherein the effective amount of said composition is in the range of 10 - 15g/m3.
A composition according to claims 1 and 2, wherein the pH of the waste water is in the range of 6.5 - 12.
5. A composition according to claims 1 and 2, wherein the pH of the waste water is in the range of 8.5 - 10. 6. A composition according to claims 1 and 2 is in granular form.
A composition according to claims 1 and 2, wherein the bentonite sodium-based bentonite.
A composition according to claims 1 and 2 disperses in the waste water in the following order: bentonite, ceramic powder, CaC03 followed by chitosan, and lastly followed by AI2(S04)3; wherein bentonite, ceramic powder, and CaC03 are to disperse in no particular order. A method of using a composition for treating waste water comprising, by weight percentage, 43.7 - 46.2% bentonite; 24.1 - 25.9% aluminium sulphate (AI2(SC>4)3), wherein the particle size of the AI2(S04)3 is 18 - 74pm; 19.2 - 20.8% ceramic powder; 4.8 - 5.2% chitosan, wherein the particle size of the chitosan is 44pm; and 4.8 - 5.2% calcium carbonate (CaC03); comprises the step of adding 10 - 15g/m3 of the composition into the waste water with pH ranging from 6.5 - 12.
A method according to claim 9, wherein said composition comprises, by weight percentage, 45% bentonite; 25% AI2(S04)3; 20% ceramic powder; 5% chitosan; and 5% CaC03.
A method according to claims 9 or 10, wherein said composition is mixed with the waste water by an agitator with a speed of at least 1350rpm.
An apparatus for dispensing a composition for treating waste water comprising, by weight percentage, 43.7 - 46.2% bentonite; 24.1 - 25.9% aluminium sulphate (AI2(S04)3), wherein the particle size of the AI2(S04)3 is 18 - 74pm; 19.2 - 20.8% ceramic powder; 4.8 - 5.2% chitosan, wherein the particle size of the chitosan is 44pm; and 4.8 - 5.2% calcium carbonate (CaC03); the said apparatus comprises:
a) a power supply (101);
b) a controller (102) for controlling the dispense rate;
c) a storage chamber (103) with a bottom opening (104) for storing the composition; and
d) a motor (105) attached to a rotating auger that is housed in a case (107) (108);
wherein the bottom opening (104) of the storage chamber (103) is attached to the case (107) for allowing the composition to flow from the storage chamber (103) to the case (107) and said case (107) has an aperture at an end for allowing the composition to be dispensed out. An apparatus according to claim 12, wherein the dispensed composition in granular form.
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