WO2014147403A1 - Building apparatus and methods - Google Patents

Building apparatus and methods Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2014147403A1
WO2014147403A1 PCT/GB2014/050874 GB2014050874W WO2014147403A1 WO 2014147403 A1 WO2014147403 A1 WO 2014147403A1 GB 2014050874 W GB2014050874 W GB 2014050874W WO 2014147403 A1 WO2014147403 A1 WO 2014147403A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
frame
building
self
supporting structural
oriented
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/GB2014/050874
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Antony John CORLETT
Robert J Corlett
Original Assignee
Corlett Antony John
Robert J Corlett
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to GB1305209.7 priority Critical
Priority to GB201305209A priority patent/GB2512581A/en
Application filed by Corlett Antony John, Robert J Corlett filed Critical Corlett Antony John
Publication of WO2014147403A1 publication Critical patent/WO2014147403A1/en

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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/348Structures composed of units comprising at least considerable parts of two sides of a room, e.g. box-like or cell-like units closed or in skeleton form
    • E04B1/34815Elements not integrated in a skeleton
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/348Structures composed of units comprising at least considerable parts of two sides of a room, e.g. box-like or cell-like units closed or in skeleton form
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/343Structures characterised by movable, separable, or collapsible parts, e.g. for transport
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04HBUILDINGS OR LIKE STRUCTURES FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSES; SWIMMING OR SPLASH BATHS OR POOLS; MASTS; FENCING; TENTS OR CANOPIES, IN GENERAL
    • E04H1/00Buildings or groups of buildings for dwelling or office purposes; General layout, e.g. modular co-ordination, staggered storeys small buildings
    • E04H1/005Modulation co-ordination
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/348Structures composed of units comprising at least considerable parts of two sides of a room, e.g. box-like or cell-like units closed or in skeleton form
    • E04B2001/34876Structures composed of units comprising at least considerable parts of two sides of a room, e.g. box-like or cell-like units closed or in skeleton form with a sloping or barrel roof

Abstract

A building apparatus comprising: a first self-supporting structural frame comprising: first and second frame portions both oriented substantially in a first direction; and a third frame portion oriented in a second direction substantially perpendicular to the first direction and extending between the first and second frame portions; and the building apparatus further comprising a second self-supporting structural frame comprising: fourth and fifth frame portions oriented substantially in the first direction; and a sixth frame portion extending between the fourth and fifth frame portions and forming an oblique angle with the fourth frame portion.

Description

TITLE
Building apparatus and methods
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
Embodiments of the present invention relate to a building apparatus and methods. In particular, they relate to a building apparatus and methods in modular or volumetric buildings.
BACKGROUND TO THE INVENTION
Buildings are known to comprise many different materials such as concrete, bricks, plasterboard and so on. The construction of buildings can be time consuming.
It may be desirable to improve the way buildings are constructed.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF VARIOUS EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION According to various, but not necessarily all, embodiments of the invention there is provided a building apparatus comprising:
a first self-supporting structural frame comprising:
first and second frame portions both oriented substantially in a first direction; and
a third frame portion oriented in a second direction substantially perpendicular to the first direction and extending between the first and second frame portions; and
the building apparatus further comprising a second self-supporting structural frame comprising:
fourth and fifth frame portions oriented substantially in the first direction; and a sixth frame portion extending between the fourth and fifth frame portions and forming an oblique angle with the fourth frame portion.
According to various, but not necessarily all embodiments of the invention, there is provided a building apparatus comprising:
a first self-supporting structural frame comprising:
first and second frame portions both having first and second ends and both oriented substantially in a first direction; and
a third frame portion oriented in a second direction substantially perpendicular to the first direction and located substantially at and extending between the first end of the first frame portion and the first end of the second frame portion; and
the building apparatus further comprising a second self-supporting structural frame comprising:
fourth and fifth frame portions both having first and second ends and both oriented substantially in the first direction; and
a sixth frame portion oriented substantially in the second direction and extending between the fourth and fifth frame portions, wherein the sixth frame portion is located between the first and second end of the fourth frame portion and the first and second end of the fifth frame portion and the fourth and fifth frame portions both have parts extending either side of the sixth frame portion.
According to various, but not necessarily all, embodiments of the invention, there is provided a building apparatus comprising:
a first self-supporting structural frame comprising:
first and second frame portions both substantially oriented in a first direction; and
a third frame portion oriented in a second direction substantially perpendicular to the first direction and extending between the first and second frame portions; and the building apparatus further comprising a second self-supporting structural frame comprising:
fourth and fifth frame portions both oriented substantially in the first direction and both having first and second ends; and
a sixth frame portion oriented substantially in the second direction and located substantially at and extending between the second end of the fourth frame portion and the second end of the fifth frame portion, wherein the sixth frame portion extends in the second direction beyond the fourth and fifth frame portions.
According to various, but not necessarily all, embodiments of the invention there is provided A method comprising assembling a building apparatus as described above. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
For a better understanding of various examples of embodiments of the present invention reference will now be made by way of example only to the accompanying drawings in which:
Figure 1 illustrates an example of a building apparatus;
Figure 2 illustrates a further example of a building apparatus;
Figure 3 illustrates a further example of a building apparatus;
Figure 4 illustrates a further example of a building apparatus;
Figure 5 illustrates a further example of a building apparatus;
Figure 6 illustrates a further example of a building apparatus;
Figure 7 illustrates a further example of a building apparatus;
Figure 8A illustrates an example of a 'symmetrical A module;
Figure 8B illustrates an example of an 'asymmetrical A module;
Figure 9A illustrates an example of a 'deep H' module;
Figure 9B illustrates an example of a 'shallow H' module;
Figure 10 illustrates an example of a T module; Figure 11 illustrates an example of a 'IT module;
Figure 12 illustrates a further example of a building apparatus;
Figure 13 illustrates an example of a 'IT module being lifted onto a lorry trailer; Figure 14 illustrates examples of 'IT and 'A' modules loaded onto a lorry/trailer;
Figure 15 illustrates an example of a 'IT module being lifted into position;
Figure 16 illustrates a further example of a building apparatus;
Figure 17 illustrates a further example of a building apparatus;
Figure 18 illustrates an example of a large family house;
Figure 19 illustrates an example of a garden room; and
Figure 20 illustrates an example of a method.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF VARIOUS EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION
The Figures illustrate a building apparatus 2 comprising a first self-supporting structural frame 4 comprising first 6 and second 8 frame portions both oriented substantially in a first direction D1 ; and a third frame portion 10 oriented in a second direction D2 substantially perpendicular to the first direction D1 and extending between the first 6 and second 8 frame portions; and the building apparatus 2 further comprising a second self-supporting structural frame 12 comprising fourth 14 and fifth 16 frame portions oriented substantially in the first direction D1 and a sixth frame portion 18 extending between the fourth 14 and fifth 16 frame portions and forming an oblique angle a with the fourth frame portion 14.
Figure 1 illustrates an example of a building apparatus 2. The building apparatus 2 comprises a first self-supporting structural frame 4 and a second self-supporting structural frame 12.
The self-supporting structural frames 4, 12 may comprise, for example, panels and/or frame elements defining at least one orifice. The self-supporting structural frames 4, 12 may be made of any suitable material(s). For example, the self-supporting structural frames 4, 12 may comprise engineered timber beams, columns and/or portals/rafters, glued laminated columns and/or beams, sawn timber, composite plastics and/or steel beams and/or columns.
The self-supporting structural frames 4, 12 may comprise structural insulated panels (SIPS) (see, for example, figure 12). In general, the self-supporting structural frames may comprise insulated and/or un-insulated panels of any suitable material and thickness. The insulation thickness may depend upon applicable building regulations requirements for habitation.
The self-supporting structural frames 4, 12 have structural integrity and can be lifted, transported and manoeuvred independently of each other. They can be totally or partially manufactured off-site, for example in a factory, transported to site and assembled on site with one or more further self- supporting structural frames 4, 12, 28, 48 to make up a fully habitable, permanent building 56. See, for example, figures 18 and 19.
The first self-supporting structural frame 4 comprises a first frame portion 6, a second frame portion 8 and a third frame portion 10.
The first and second frame portions 6, 8 are both oriented substantially in a first direction D1 as indicated by the coordinate axis illustrated in figure 1 . The direction D1 may be substantially vertical to the surface of the earth and/or substantially vertical to the foundations upon which the building apparatus 2 is assembled.
The third frame portion 10 is oriented in a second direction D2 substantially perpendicular to the first direction D1 . The third frame portion 10 extends between the first frame portion 6 and the second frame portion 8. The first self-supporting structural frame 4 has a substantially 'IT shaped profile and may be referred to as a 'IT module.
In figure 1 the first and second frame portions 6, 8 are substantially flat and extend substantially in the plane defined by the first direction D1 and the third direction D3 and have a depth in the second direction D2. The third frame portion 10 is also substantially flat and extends substantially in the plane defined by the second direction D2 and third direction D3 and has a depth in the first direction D1.
Alternatively, the first, second and/or third frame portions 6, 8, 10 may not be flat and may, for example, be curved and have components that extend in the first, second and third directions D1 , D2 and D3. It can be seen in figure 1 that the first frame portion 6 has a first end 20 and a second end 22. The second frame portion 8 also has a first end 20 and a second end 22.
The first end 20 may be considered the bottom of the first/second frame portions 6, 8 and the second end 22 may be considered the top of the first/second frame portions 6, 8.
In the example of figure 1 , the third frame portion 10 is located substantially at and extends between the first end 20 of the first frame portion 6 and the first end 20 of the second frame portion 8.
The first frame portion 6 comprises a first frame member 6a, a second frame member 6b, a third frame member 6c and a fourth frame member 6d. The first and second frame members 6a, 6b are oriented substantially in the first direction D1 and the third and fourth frame members 6c, 6d are oriented substantially in a third direction D3 that is substantially perpendicular to the first and second directions D1 , D2.
The third and fourth frame members 6c, 6d are located at and extend between the ends of the first and second frame members 6a, 6b. However, in other examples the third and/or fourth frame member(s) 6c, 6d may not be located at the ends of the first and second frame members 6a, 6b. For example, the third and/or fourth frame member(s) 6c, 6d may be located between the ends of the first and second frame members 6a, 6b.
The second frame portion 8 comprises a fifth frame member 8a, a sixth frame member 8b, a seventh frame member 8c and an eighth frame member 8d.
The fifth and sixth frame members 8a, 8b are oriented substantially in the first direction D1 and the seventh and eighth frame members 8c, 8d are oriented substantially in the third direction D3.
The seventh and eighth frame members 8c, 8d are located at and extend between the ends of the fifth and sixth frame members 8a, 8b. However, in other examples the seventh and/or eighth frame member(s) 8c, 8d may not be located at the ends of the fifth and sixth frame members 8a, 8b. For example, the seventh and/or eighth frame member(s) 8c, 8d may be located between the ends of the fifth and sixth frame members 8a, 8b. The third frame portion 10 comprises a ninth frame member 10a and a tenth frame member 10b. The third frame portion 10 is located substantially at and extends between the first end 20 of the first frame portion 6 and the first end 20 of the second frame portion 8. In other examples, the third frame portion 10 may be located between the ends of the first/second frame portions 6, 8. The frame members 6a, 6b, 6d, 6c, 8a, 8b, 8c, 8d, 10a and 10b are connected together to form the first self-supporting structural frame 4.
The frame members may be connected to each other using any suitable means. For example, they may be mechanically connected using, but not limited to, bolts, screws, nails, fixing plates, clips and/or locking mechanisms and/or bonded with suitable adhesives and joining methods.
Although the frame members 6a, 6b, 6d, 6c, 8a, 8b, 8c, 8d, 10a and 10b are illustrated as single, continuous elements in figure 1 one or more of them may comprise multiple elements joined together to form a frame member. For example, frame member 10a may comprise two or more separate elements (not shown) that are joined together to form the frame member 10a. The first self-supporting structural frame 4 may comprise more or fewer frame members than illustrated in figure 1. For example, frame members 6d and 8d may be omitted. Additionally/alternatively the first self-supporting structural frame may 4 comprise one or more additional frame members. For example, there may be one or more additional frame members extending between frame members 6a and 6b and/or 8a and 8b and/or 10a and 10b.
Although frame members 6d and 8d have been described above as being part of the first and second frame portions respectively they can alternatively be considered as being part of the third frame portion 10.
The frame members 6a, 6b, 6d, 6c, 8a, 8b, 8c, 8d, 10a and 10b are illustrated as being straight and oriented substantially in the first, second or third direction D1 , D2, D3. In other examples, one or more of the frame members 6a, 6b, 6d, 6c, 8a, 8b, 8c, 8d, 10a and 10b may not be straight and may be oriented differently. For example, frame member 6d may be curved and/or extend at an angle between frame members 6a and 6b. This applies to all of the frame members 6a, 6b, 6d, 6c, 8a, 8b, 8c, 8d, 10a and 10b. The 'IT module may support a floor of the building apparatus. In examples, flooring joists are suspended between frame members 10a and 10b and filled with insulation. This is finished on the top with a flooring grade surface.
The second self-supporting structural frame 12 comprises a fourth frame portion 14, a fifth frame portion 16 and a sixth frame portion 18.
The fourth and fifth frame portions 14, 16 are both oriented substantially in the first direction D1 .
The sixth frame portion 18 extends between the fourth frame portion 14 and the fifth frame portion 16 and forms an oblique angle a with the fourth frame portion 14. The sixth frame portion 18 also forms an oblique angle γ with the fifth frame portion 16.
The second self-supporting structural frame 12 has a substantially 'A' shaped profile, without the horizontal line of the letter A, or a substantially "inverted V" shaped profile. It may be referred to as an Ά module.
In figure 1 the fourth and fifth frame portions 14, 16 are substantially flat and extend substantially in the plane defined by the first direction D1 and the third direction D3 and have a depth in the second direction D2. The sixth frame portion 18 is not flat and has components extending in the first, second and third directions D1 , D2 and D3.
Alternatively, the fourth and/or fifth frame portions 14, 16 may not be flat and may, for example, be curved and have components that extend in the first, second and third directions D1 , D2 and D3.
Furthermore, the sixth frame portion 18 may be flat, see, for example, figure 2. The fourth frame portion 14 has a first end 20 and a second end 22. The fifth frame portion 16 also has a first end 20 and a second end 22. The first end 20 may be considered the bottom of the fourth/fifth frame portions 14, 16 and the second end 22 may be considered the top of the fourth/fifth frame portions 14, 16.
The fourth frame portion 14 comprises an eleventh frame member 14a, a twelfth frame member 14b and a thirteenth frame member 14c.
The eleventh and twelfth frame members 14a, 14b are oriented substantially in the first direction D1 and the thirteenth frame member 14c is oriented substantially in the third direction D3.
The thirteenth frame member 14c is located at and extends between the first end 20 of the eleventh and twelfth frame members 14a, 14b. However, in other examples the thirteenth frame member 14c may not be located at the first end of the eleventh and twelfth frame members 14a, 14b. For example, the thirteenth frame member 14c may be located between the ends of the eleventh and twelfth frame members 14a, 14b or at the second end 22 of the eleventh and twelfth frame members 14a, 14b.
The fifth frame portion 16 comprises a fourteenth frame member 16a, a fifteenth frame member 16b and a sixteenth frame member 16c.
The fourteenth and fifteenth frame members 16a, 16b are oriented substantially in the first direction D1 and the sixteenth and frame member 16c is oriented substantially in the third direction D3.
The sixteenth frame member 16c is located at and extends between the first end 20 of the fourteenth and fifteenth frame members 16a, 16b. However, in other examples the sixteenth frame member 16c may not be located at the first end of the fourteenth and fifteenth frame members 16a, 16b. For example, the sixteenth frame member 16c may be located between the ends of the fourteenth and fifteenth frame members 16a, 16b or at the second end 22 of the fourteenth and fifteenth frame members 16a, 16b.
The sixth frame portion 18 comprises a seventeenth frame member 18a and an eighteenth frame member 18b. The sixth frame portion is located substantially at and extends between the second end 22 of the fourth frame portion 14 and the second end 22 of the fifth frame portion 16.
In the example illustrated in figure 1 , the sixth frame portion 18 comprises a first part forming a first oblique angle a with the fourth frame portion 14 and a second part forming a second oblique angle γ with the fifth frame portion 16. The first part of the sixth frame portion 18 meets the second part of sixth frame portion 18.
The first and second oblique angles α, γ may be substantially the same and the second self-supporting structural frame 12 may be symmetrical about a plane extending in the first and third directions D1 , D3 and located at the midpoint of the sixth frame portion 18.
In figure 1 , the first and second self-supporting structural frames 4, 12 are symmetrical about a plane extending in the first and third directions D1 , D3 and located at the point where the first and second parts of the sixth frame portion 18 meet. In other examples, the first and/or second self-supporting structural frame(s) 4, 12 may not be symmetrical, see, for example, figure 2.
The 'A' module illustrated in figure 1 may be referred to as a 'symmetrical A module'. In the example of figure 1 , the seventeenth and eighteenth frame members 18a, 18b comprise two sections which are joined together to form the frame members 18a, 18b. In other examples, the seventeenth and eighteenth frame members 18a, 18b may comprise more or fewer sections. For example, as illustrated in figure 2 the seventeenth and eighteenth frame members 18a, 18b may be a single, continuous section extending between the fourth and fifth frame portions 14, 16.
The frame members 14a, 14b, 14c, 16a, 16b, 16c, 18a and 18b are connected together to form the second self-supporting structural frame 12.
The frame members may be connected to each other using any suitable means. For example, they may be mechanically connected using, but not limited to bolts, screws, nails, fixing plates, clips and/or locking mechanisms and/or bonded with suitable adhesives and joining methods.
Although the frame members 14a, 14b, 14c, 16a, 16b and 16c are illustrated as single, continuous elements in figure 1 one or more of them may comprise multiple elements joined together to form a frame member. For example, frame member 14c may comprise two or more separate elements (not shown) that are joined together to form the frame member 14c.
The second self-supporting structural frame 12 may comprise more or fewer frame members than illustrated in figure 1 . For example, there may be one or more additional frame members extending between frame members 14a and 14b and/or 16a and 16b and/or 18a and 18b.
The frame members 14a, 14b, 14c, 16a, 16b, 16c, 18a and 18b are illustrated as being straight and oriented substantially in the first, second and/or third direction D1 , D2, D3. In other examples, one or more of the frame members 14a, 14b, 14c, 16a, 16b, 16c, 18a and 18b may not be straight and may be oriented differently. For example, frame member 14c may be curved and/or extend at an angle between frame members 14a and 14b. This applies to all of the frame members 14a, 14b, 14c, 16a, 16b, 16c, 18a and 18b.
The first self-supporting structural frame 4 and the second self-supporting structural frame 12 may be securely coupled together. They may be coupled together by any suitable means/method. For example, they may be connected using, but not limited to, bolts, screws, nails, fixing plates, clips and/or locking mechanisms and/or bonded with suitable adhesives and joining methods. When they are securely coupled they may form at least part of a fully habitable, permanent building 56. See, for example, figures 18 and 19.
The first and second self-supporting structural frames 4, 12 are arranged to be securely coupled together. In the example of figure 1 , the frame members 6c and 14c are arranged to be securely coupled together and the frame members 8c and 16c are arranged to be securely coupled together.
The second self-supporting structural frame 12 may support a ceiling of the building apparatus 2. Figure 2 illustrates another example of a building apparatus 2. The building apparatus of figure 2 comprises a first self-supporting structural frame 4 and a second self-supporting structural frame 12.
The first self-supporting structural frame 4 is a 'IT module as described above with regard to figure 1 . Accordingly, like reference numerals refer to like features.
The second self-supporting structural frame 12 is similar to the 'symmetrical A module' described above with reference to figure 1 and again like reference numerals have been used. The second self-supporting structural frame 12 illustrated in figure 2 also comprises fourth, fifth and sixth frame portions 14, 16, 18. The fifth frame portion 16 extends further in the first direction D1 than the fourth frame portion 14.
The sixth frame portion 18 is located substantially at and extends between the second end 22 of the fourth frame portion 14 and the second end 22 of the fifth frame portion 16. The second self-supporting structural frame 12 illustrated in figure 2 is therefore not symmetrical and may be referred to as an 'asymmetrical 'A' module'.
The 'symmetrical and/or asymmetrical A modules may provide a pitched roof of the building apparatus 2. The roof may have any pitch.
Figure 3 illustrates a further example of a building apparatus comprising first, second and third self-supporting structural frames 4, 12, 28. The first and second self-supporting structural frames are 'IT and 'symmetrical A modules respectively as described above with regard to figure 1 . For the sake of clarity the reference numerals of the first and second self-supporting structural frames 4, 12 have been omitted from figure 3.
The third self-supporting structural frame 28 may comprise, for example, panels and/or frame elements defining at least one orifice. The third self- supporting structural frame 28 may be made of any suitable material(s). For example, the third self-supporting structural frame 28 may comprise engineered timber beams, columns and/or portals/rafters, glued laminated columns and/or beams, sawn timber, composite plastics and/or steel beams and/or columns. The third self-supporting structural frame 28 may comprise structural insulated panels (SIPS). In general, the third self-supporting structural frame 28 may comprise insulated and/or un-insulated panels of any suitable material and thickness. The insulation thickness may depend upon applicable building regulations requirements for habitation.
The third self-supporting structural frame 28 has structural integrity and can be lifted, transported and manoeuvred independently. It can be totally or partially manufactured off-site, for example in a factory, transported to site and assembled on site with one or more further self-supporting structural frames 4, 12, 28, 48 to make up a fully habitable, permanent building 56. See, for example, figures 18 and 19.
The third self-supporting structural frame 28 comprises a seventh frame portion 30, an eighth frame portion 32 and a ninth frame portion 34.
The seventh and eighth frame portions 30, 32 are both oriented substantially in the first direction D1. The ninth frame portion 34 is oriented in the second direction D2 substantially perpendicular to the first direction D1. The ninth frame portion 34 extends between the seventh frame portion 30 and the eighth frame portion 32.
The third self-supporting structural frame 28 has a substantially Ή' shaped profile and may be referred to as an Ή' module.
In figure 3 the seventh and eighth frame portions 30, 32 are substantially flat and extend substantially in the plane defined by the first direction D1 and the third direction D3 and have a depth in the second direction D2. The ninth frame portion 34 is also substantially flat and extends substantially in the plane defined by the second direction D2 and third direction D3 and has a depth in the first direction D1. Alternatively, the seventh, eighth and/or ninth frame portions 30, 32, 34 may not be flat and may, for example, be curved and have components that extend in the first, second and third directions D1 , D2 and D3.
It can be seen in figure 3 that the seventh frame portion 30 has a first end 20 and a second end 22. The eighth frame portion 32 also has a first end 20 and a second end 22. The first end 20 may be considered the bottom of the seventh/eighth frame portions 30, 32 and the second end 22 may be considered the top of the seventh/eighth frame portions 30, 32.
The seventh frame portion 30 comprises a nineteenth frame member 30a, a twentieth frame member 30b, a twenty-first frame member 30c and a twenty- second frame member 30d.
The nineteenth and twentieth frame members 30a, 30b are oriented substantially in the first direction D1 and the twenty-first and twenty-second frame members 30c, 30d are oriented substantially in the third direction D3.
The twenty-first and twenty-second frame members 30c, 30d are located at and extend between the ends of the nineteenth and twentieth frame members 30a, 30b. However, in other examples the twenty-first and/or twenty-second frame member(s) 30c, 30d may not be located at the ends of the nineteenth and twentieth frame members 30a, 30b. For example, the twenty-first and/or twenty-second frame member(s) 30c, 30d may be located between the ends of the nineteenth and twentieth frame members 30a, 30b. The eighth frame portion 32 comprises a twenty-third frame member 32a, a twenty-fourth frame member 32b, a twenty-fifth frame member 32c and a twenty-sixth frame member 32d. The twenty-third and twenty-fourth frame members 32a, 32b are oriented substantially in the first direction D1 and the twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth frame members 32c, 32d are oriented substantially in the third direction D3.
The twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth frame members 32c, 32d are located at and extend between the ends of the twenty-third and twenty-fourth frame members 32a, 32b. However, in other examples the twenty-fifth and/or twenty-sixth frame member(s) 32c, 32d may not be located at the ends of the twenty-third and twenty-fourth frame members 32a, 32b. For example, the twenty-fifth and/or twenty-sixth frame member(s) 32c, 32d may be located between the ends of the twenty-third and twenty-fourth frame members 32a, 32b. The ninth frame portion 34 comprises a twenty-seventh frame member 34a, a twenty-eighth frame member 34b, a twenty-ninth frame member 34c and a thirtieth frame member 34d. The ninth frame portion 34 is located between the first and second end 20, 22 of the seventh frame portion 30 and the first and second end 20, 22 of the eighth frame portion 32 and the seventh and eighth frame portions 30, 32 have parts 36, 38 extending either side of the ninth frame portion 34.
The twenty-seventh and twenty-eighth frame members 34a, 34b are oriented substantially in the second direction D2 and the twenty-ninth and thirtieth frame members 34c, 34d are oriented substantially in the third direction D3.
The twenty-ninth and thirtieth frame members 34c, 34d are located at and extend between the ends of the twenty-seventh and twenty-eighth frame members 34a, 34b. The frame members 30a, 30b, 30d, 30c, 32a, 32b, 32c, 32d, 34a, 34b, 34c and 34d are connected together to form the third self-supporting structural frame 28. The frame members may be connected to each other using any suitable means. For example, they may be mechanically connected using, but not limited to, bolts, screws, nails, fixing plates, clips and/or locking mechanisms and/or bonded with suitable adhesives and joining methods. Although the frame members 30a, 30b, 30d, 30c, 32a, 32b, 32c, 32d, 34a, 34b, 34c and 34d are illustrated as single, continuous elements in figure 3 one or more of them may comprise multiple elements joined together to form a frame member. For example, frame member 34a may comprise two or more separate elements (not shown) that are joined together to form the frame member 34a.
The third self-supporting structural frame 28 may comprise more or fewer frame members than illustrated in figure 3. For example, frame members 34d and 34c may be omitted. Additionally/alternatively the third self-supporting structural frame 28 may comprise one or more additional frame members. For example, there may be one or more additional frame members extending between frame members 30a and 30b and/or 32a and 32b and/or 34a and 34b. Although frame members 34c and 34d have been described above as being part of the ninth frame portion 34 they can alternatively be considered as being part of the seventh and eighth frame portions 30, 32 respectively.
The frame members 30a, 30b, 30d, 30c, 32a, 32b, 32c, 32d, 34a, 34b, 34c and 34d are illustrated as being straight and oriented substantially in the first, second or third direction D1 , D2, D3. In other examples, one or more of the frame members 30a, 30b, 30d, 30c, 32a, 32b, 32c, 32d, 34a, 34b, 34c and 34d may not be straight and may be oriented differently. For example, frame member 30d may be curved and/or extend at an angle between frame members 30a and 30b. This applies to all of the frame members 30a, 30b, 30d, 30c, 32a, 32b, 32c, 32d, 34a, 34b, 34c and 34d.
The first self-supporting structural frame 4 ('IT module in figure 3) and the third self-supporting structural frame 28 may be securely coupled together. They may be coupled together by any suitable means/method. For example, they may be connected using, but not limited to, bolts, screws, nails, fixing plates, clips and/or locking methods and/or bonded with suitable adhesives and joining methods.
The second self-supporting structural frame 12 ('A' module in figure 3) and the third self-supporting structural frame 28 may be securely coupled together. They may be coupled together by any suitable means/method. For example, they may be connected using, but not limited to, bolts, screws, nails, fixing plates, clips and/or locking methods and/or bonded with suitable adhesives and joining methods. When the first, second and third self-supporting structural frames 4, 12, 28 are securely coupled they may form at least part of a fully habitable, permanent building 56. See, for example, figures 18 and 19.
The first and third self-supporting structural frames 4, 28 are arranged to be securely coupled together. In the example of figure 3, the frame members 6c and 30d are arranged to be securely coupled together and the frame members 8c and 32d are arranged to be securely coupled together.
Similarly, the second and third self-supporting structural frames 12, 28 are arranged to be securely coupled together. In the example of figure 3, the frame members 30c and 14c are arranged to be securely coupled together and the frame members 32c and 16c are arranged to be securely coupled together.
In the example illustrated in figure 3, the part 36 of the Ή' module extending above the ninth frame portion 34 is longer than the part 38 extending below the ninth frame portion 34. The Ή' module in the example of figure 3 may be referred to as a 'deep H module'.
In other examples, the parts 36, 38 of the seventh and eighth frame portions 30, 32 extending either side of the ninth frame portion 34 may be any length. For example, the part extending above 36 may be shorter than the part extending below 38 (see, for example, figure 4).
The third self-supporting structural frame 28 (Ή' module) provides at least part of a first level 40 of the building apparatus 2 and at least part of a second level 42 of the building apparatus 2.
In the example of figure 3, the third self-supporting structural frame 28 provides part of the lower level of the building apparatus 2 in combination with the first self-supporting structural frame 4. The third self-supporting structural frame 28 also provides part of the upper level of the building apparatus 2 in combination with the second self-supporting structural frame 12. The second self-supporting structural frame 12 provides a pitched roof. In examples, roof make up can be SIPS panels laid between and within the extremities of the diagonal frame members 18a and 18b or joists and insulation or single sheet timber. In examples these may all be finished over with, but not limited to, market supplied roofing materials, for example, tiles on battens on roofing felt. In other words, the 'IT and Ή' modules in combination provide the lower story of the building apparatus and the 'A' and Ή' modules in combination provide the upper story of the building apparatus. The third self-supporting structural frame 28 may support a ceiling of the first level 40 of the building apparatus 2 and may also support a floor of the second level 42 of the building apparatus 2.
In examples, flooring joists are suspended between frame members 34a and 34b and filled with insulation. This is finished on the top with a flooring grade surface and finished below with a ceiling material.
The Figures also illustrate a building apparatus 2 comprising a first self- supporting structural frame 4 comprising first 6 and second 8 frame portions both having first 20 and second 22 ends and both oriented substantially in a first direction D1 and a third frame portion 10 oriented in a second direction D2 substantially perpendicular to the first direction D1 and located substantially at and extending between the first end 20 of the first frame portion 6 and the first end 20 of the second frame portion 8 and the building apparatus 2 further comprising a second self-supporting structural frame 28 comprising fourth 30 and fifth 32 frame portions both having first 20 and second 22 ends and both oriented substantially in the first direction D1 ; and a sixth frame portion 34 oriented substantially in the second direction D2 and extending between the fourth 30 and fifth 32 frame portions, wherein the sixth frame portion 34 is located between the first 20 and second 22 end of the fourth frame portion 30 and the first 20 and second 22 end of the fifth frame portion 32 and the fourth 30 and fifth 32 frame portions both have parts 36, 38 extending either side of the sixth frame portion 34. Figure 4 illustrates an example of a building apparatus comprising a 'IT module and an Ή' module as described above. It is noted that in figure 4 the Ή' module may be considered the second self-supporting structural frame comprising fourth, fifth and sixth frame members instead of a third self- supporting structural frame comprising seventh, eighth and ninth frame members. For the sake of clarity like reference numerals will be used to indicate like features.
It should be noted that the numbering attributed to the various features of the self-supporting structural frames and their components is not intended to be limiting and depends on the elements present in the example being described. In figure 4 the part 36 of the Ή' module extending above the sixth frame portion 34 is longer than the part 38 extending below the sixth frame portion 34. The Ή' module in the example of figure 4 may be referred to as a 'shallow H module'. The 'shallow H module' and the 'IT module may be securely coupled together as described above.
The 'shallow H module' of figure 4 also provides at least part of a first level 40 of the building apparatus 2 and at least part of a second level 42 of the building apparatus 2.
In figure 4, the 'IT and 'shallow H' modules 4, 28 in combination provide the lower story of the building apparatus 2 and the 'shallow H' module 28 also provides a flat roof.
In examples, roof make up can be SIPS panels laid horizontally between and within the extremities of frame members 34a and 34b or joists and insulation or single sheet timber. In examples, these may all be finished over with, but not limited to, market supplied roofing materials, for example, single membrane felt, fiberglass or rubberized material, all with associated flashings and parapet copings, covered over with appropriate flat roof finishing products. In other examples, the building apparatus 2 may comprise further self- supporting structural frames 4, 12, 28, 48. For example, a 'deep H' module 28 as described above may be present between the 'IT module 4 and the 'shallow H' module 28, see figure 6.
The Figures also illustrate a building apparatus 2 comprising a first self- supporting structural frame 4 comprising first 6 and second 8 frame portions both substantially oriented in a first direction D1 and a third frame portion 10 oriented in a second direction D2 substantially perpendicular to the first direction D1 and extending between the first and second frame portions 6, 8 and the building apparatus 2 further comprising a second self-supporting structural frame 48 comprising fourth 50 and fifth 52 frame portions both oriented substantially in the first direction D1 and both having first 20 and second 22 ends and a sixth frame portion 54 oriented substantially in the second direction D2 and located substantially at and extending between the second end 22 of the fourth frame portion 50 and the second end 22 of the fifth frame portion 52, wherein the sixth frame portion 54 extends in the second direction D2 beyond the fourth and fifth frame portions 50, 52.
Figure 5 illustrates a further example of a building apparatus 2 comprising first and second self-supporting structural frames 4, 48. The first self-supporting structural frame is a 'IT module as described above. For the sake of clarity most of the reference numerals of the first self-supporting structural frame 4 have been omitted from figure 5.
The second self-supporting structural frame 48 illustrated in figure 5 may comprise, for example, panels and/or frame elements defining at least one orifice. The second self-supporting structural frame 48 in figure 5 may be made of any suitable material(s). For example, the second self-supporting structural frame 48 may comprise engineered timber beams, columns and/or portals/rafters, glued laminated columns and/or beams, sawn timber, composite plastics and/or steel beams and/or columns.
The second self-supporting structural frame 48 in figure 5 may comprise structural insulated panels (SIPS). In general, the second self-supporting structural frame 48 in figure 5 may comprise insulated and/or un-insulated panels of any suitable material and thickness. The insulation thickness may depend upon applicable building regulations requirements for habitation. The second self-supporting structural frame 48 in figure 5 has structural integrity and can be lifted, transported and manoeuvred independently. It can be totally or partially manufactured off-site, for example in a factory, transported to site and assembled on site with one or more further self- supporting structural frames 4, 12, 28, 48 to make up a fully habitable, permanent building 56. See, for example, figures 18 and 19.
The second self-supporting structural frame 48 in figure 5 comprises a fourth frame portion 50, a fifth frame portion 52 and a sixth frame portion 54. The fourth and fifth frame portions 50, 52 are both oriented substantially in the first direction D1 .
The sixth frame portion 54 is oriented in the second direction D2 substantially perpendicular to the first direction D1 . The sixth frame portion 54 extends between the fourth frame portion 50 and the fifth frame portion 52. The sixth frame portion 54 extends in the second direction D2 beyond the fourth 50 and fifth 52 frame portions.
The second self-supporting structural frame 48 in figure 5 has a substantially T shaped profile and may be referred to as a T module. In figure 5 the fourth and fifth frame portions 50, 52 are substantially flat and extend substantially in the plane defined by the first direction D1 and the third direction D3 and have a depth in the second direction D2. The sixth frame portion 54 is also substantially flat and extends substantially in the plane defined by the second direction D2 and third direction D3 and has a depth in the first direction D1 .
Alternatively, the fourth, fifth and/or sixth frame portions 50, 52, 54 may not be flat and may, for example, be curved and have components that extend in the first, second and third directions D1 , D2 and D3.
It can be seen in figure 5 that the fourth frame portion 50 has a first end 20 and a second end 22. The fifth frame portion 52 also has a first end 20 and a second end 22.
The first end 20 may be considered the bottom of the fourth/fifth frame portions 50, 52 and the second end 22 may be considered the top of the fourth/fifth frame portions 50, 52. The fourth frame portion 50 in figure 5 comprises an eleventh frame member 50a, a twelfth frame member 50b and a thirteenth frame member 50c.
The eleventh and twelfth frame members 50a, 50b are oriented substantially in the first direction D1 and the thirteenth frame member 50c is oriented substantially in the third direction D3.
The thirteenth frame member 50c is located at and extends between the first end 20 of the eleventh and twelfth frame members 50a, 50b. However, in other examples the thirteenth frame member 50c may not be located at the first end 20 of the eleventh and twelfth frame members 50a, 50b. For example, the thirteenth frame member 50c may be located between the ends of the eleventh and twelfth frame members 50a, 50b. The fifth frame portion 52 in figure 5 comprises a fourteenth frame member 52a, a fifteenth frame member 52b and a sixteenth frame member 52c. The fourteenth and fifteenth frame members 52a, 52b are oriented substantially in the first direction D1 and the sixteenth frame member 52c is oriented substantially in the third direction D3.
The sixteenth frame member 52c is located at and extends between the first end 20 of the fourteenth and fifteenth frame members 52a, 52b. However, in other examples the sixteenth frame member 52c may not be located at the first end 20 of the fourteenth and fifteenth frame members 52a, 52b. For example, the sixteenth frame member 52c may be located between the ends of the fourteenth and fifteenth frame members 52a, 52b.
The sixth frame portion 54 in figure 5 comprises a seventeenth frame member 54a and an eighteenth frame member 54b. The sixth frame portion 54 is located substantially at and extends between and beyond the second end 22 of the fourth frame portion 50 and the second end 22 of the fifth frame portion 52.
The seventeenth and eighteenth frame members 54a, 54b are oriented substantially in the second direction D2. The frame members 50a, 50b, 50c, 52a, 52b, 52c, 54a, 54b are connected together to form the second self-supporting structural frame 48 in figure 5.
The frame members may be connected to each other using any suitable means. For example, they may be mechanically connected using, but not limited to, bolts, screws, nails, fixing plates, clips and/or locking mechanisms and/or bonded with suitable adhesives and joining methods. Although the frame members 50a, 50b, 50c, 52a, 52b, 52c, 54a, 54b are illustrated as single, continuous elements in figure 5 one or more of them may comprise multiple elements joined together to form a frame member. For example, frame member 54a may comprise two or more separate elements (not shown) that are joined together to form the frame member 54a.
The second self-supporting structural frame 48 in figure 5 may comprise more or fewer frame members than illustrated in figure 5. For example, the second self-supporting structural frame 48 may comprise one or more additional frame members. For example, there may be one or more additional frame members extending between frame members 50a and 50b and/or 52a and 52b and/or 54a and 54b.
The frame members 50a, 50b, 50c, 52a, 52b, 52c, 54a, 54b are illustrated as being straight and oriented substantially in the first, second or third direction D1 , D2, D3. In other examples, one or more of the frame members 50a, 50b, 50c, 52a, 52b, 52c, 54a, 54b may not be straight and may be oriented differently. For example, frame member 50c may be curved and/or extend at an angle between frame members 50a and 50b. This applies to all of the frame members 50a, 50b, 50c, 52a, 52b, 52c, 54a, 54b.
The first self-supporting structural frame 4 ('IT module in figure 5) and the second self-supporting structural frame 48 (T module in figure 5) may be securely coupled together. They may be coupled together by any suitable means/method. For example, they may be connected using, but not limited to, bolts, screws, nails, fixing plates, clips and/or locking mechanisms and/or bonded with suitable adhesives and/or joining methods.
When the first and second structural frames 4, 48 are securely coupled they may form at least part of a fully habitable, permanent building 56. See, for example, figures 18 and 19. The first and second self-supporting structural frames 4, 48 are arranged to be securely coupled together. In the example of figure 5, the frame members 6c and 50c are arranged to be securely coupled together and the frame members 8c and 52c are arranged to be securely coupled together.
In the example of figure 5, the second self-supporting structural frame 48 provides a flat roof. In examples, roof make up can be SIPS panels laid horizontally between and within the extremities of frame members 54a and 54b or joists and insulation or single sheet timber. In examples, these may all be finished over with, but not limited to, market supplied roofing materials, for example, single membrane felt, fiberglass or rubberized material, all with associated flashings and parapet copings, covered over with appropriate flat roof finishing products. The second self-supporting structural frame 48 may support a ceiling of the building apparatus 2.
The passages above generally describe self-supporting structural frames, that may be referred to as 'IT, TV, Ή' and T modules, in examples of combinations and variations. A building apparatus 2 may comprise any number and any combination of these modules. The building apparatus comprising the modules may be a fully habitable, permanent building 56.
The 'IT, TV, Ή' and T modules may be arranged to securely couple to any other 'ΙΙ', TV, Ή' and T module.
The figures illustrate other possible combinations of the modules.
Figure 6 illustrates an example of a building apparatus comprising a 'IT module, a 'deep H' module and a 'shallow H' module. The 'IT module and 'deep H' module in combination provide a lower level of the building apparatus 2 and the 'deep H' module and 'shallow H' module in combination provide an upper level of the building apparatus 2. The 'shallow H' module also provides a flat roof of the building apparatus 2.
Figure 7 illustrates an example of a building apparatus comprising a 'IT module, a 'deep H' module and a T module.
The 'IT module and 'deep H' module in combination provide a lower level of the building apparatus 2 and the 'deep H' module and T module in combination provide an upper level of the building apparatus 2. The T module also provides a flat roof of the building apparatus 2.
Figure 8A illustrates an example of a 'symmetrical A' module on its own. Figure 8B illustrates an example of an 'asymmetrical A' module on its own.
Figure 9A illustrates an example of a 'deep H' module on its own. Figure 9B illustrates an example of a 'shallow H' module on its own. Figure 10 illustrates an example of a T module on its own.
Figure 11 illustrates an example of a 'IT module on its own.
Figure 12 illustrates a further example of a building apparatus 2 comprising a 'IT module and a 'symmetrical A module. The 'symmetrical A module is positioned on top of the 'IT module and the two modules are securely coupled together.
The 'IT and 'symmetrical A modules comprise Structural Insulated Panels (SIPS) to meet current building regulations For example : Part L of The Building Regulations (UK). In other examples the modules may comprise insulated or un-insulated panels of any material and thickness. This applies to all of the modules described above.
The building apparatuses 2 described above may be considered as being horizontally split. For example, as illustrated in the example of figure 12, the building apparatus 2 is horizontally split along a line below the 'symmetrical A' module that provides a pitched roof.
The building apparatuses 2 described above may be referred to as Horizontally Split Modular Buildings (HSMB). HSMB are Horizontally Split into a combination of self-supporting structural frames 4, 12, 28, 48 ('IT, TV, Ή' and T modules).
In examples a 'IT module provides the ground floor and walls of an HSMB, an 'A' module provides a pitched roof of an HSMB having any pitch and symmetrical or asymmetrical, an Ή' module provides secondary floor and walls and part of the ground floor walls or provides a flat roof of an HSMB and a T module provides a flat roof of an HSMB. In some examples, the 'IT, TV, Ή' and modules are horizontally split below the ceiling line and may be plan sized to meet standard transport width and length regulations. For example, the modules may conform to a national standard for lorry widths and lengths such as the UK Road Vehicles (Construction and Use) Regulations 1986.
The modules may, for example, be within a height and width restriction as noted in The UK Road Vehicles (Construction and Use) Regulations of 1986.
This means that the HSMB modules may be fully transportable on standard lorries without the need for specialist vehicles, police escorts or road closures. The modules may be totally or partially manufactured in a controlled factory environment and easily transported to a site where they may be easily and quickly assembled into a full habitable, permanent building 56. Figure 13 illustrates an example of a 'IT module being lifted onto a lorry trailer. A 'symmetrical A' module has already been loaded onto the lorry trailer.
Figure 14 illustrates examples of 'IT and Ά modules loaded onto a lorry/trailer.
Figure 15 illustrates an example of a 'IT module being lifted into position. The 'IT module is being craned into position next to two further 'IT and Ά modules that have already been positioned and connected together. As described above, the 'IT, Ή', Ά and T modules may be arranged to be securely coupled together one on top of another. However, any of the modules may also be arranged to be securely coupled together side by side as illustrated for the 'IT and Ά modules in figure 15. The modules may be securely coupled side by side in using any suitable means/method. For example, they may be mechanically fixed together. In examples they may be connected using, but not limited to, bolts, screws, nails, fixing plates, clips and/or locking mechanisms and/or bonded with suitable adhesives and joining methods A building apparatus 2 may comprise any number of one or more of the 'IT, Ά, Ή' and T modules described above. Further examples of possible combinations are illustrated in figures 16 and 17.
Figure 16 illustrates an example of a building apparatus 2 in which two 'asymmetrical A modules sit on top of two 'IT modules to form a wide single story building. Figure 17 illustrates an example of a building apparatus 2 comprising a plurality of 'LI', TV and Ή' modules with insulated SIP panels. The 'IT, TV and Ή' modules have been arranged to form a house. The 'IT, TV, Ή' and T modules have many, varied uses and may be used to construct large family houses as illustrated in the example of figure 18 and small garden rooms as illustrated in the example of figure 19.
The building apparatuses 2 illustrated in figures 18 and 19 are fully habitable and are fully insulated and air-tight to at least meet current building regulations. For example: Part L of The Building Regulations (UK).
Figure 20 illustrates an example of a method 80 of manufacturing, transporting and assembling a building apparatus 2.
At block 82 at least one self-supporting structural frame as described above is manufactured. For example, one or more of a 'IT, Ά', Ή' and T module may be manufactured. The self-supporting structural frame may be manufactured at a location that is remote from the location where the building apparatus is to be assembled. For example, the self-supporting structural frame may be manufactured in a factory or other controlled environment.
At block 84, at least one self-supporting structural frame as described above, for example, one or more of a 'IT, Ά', Ή' or T module, is transported on a lorry conforming to a national standard for lorry widths and lengths. The self- supporting structural frame may the same or different to the at least one self- supporting structural frame manufactured at step 82.
At block 86 a building apparatus 2 as described above is assembled. The assembled building apparatus 2 may comprise any combination of the self- supporting structural frames as described above. The block illustrated in figure 20 may be carried out by the same or different entities, for example a person/people and/or a company/companies.
As a more detailed example, a HSMB building apparatus may be assembled as follows.
Pre-constructed foundations ready on site.
Required HSMB modules loaded onto flat-bed lorry/lorries.
HSMB modules delivered to site, lifted into position on pre-constructed foundations and mechanically fixed together.
Final joining procedure to ensure weather tightness.
Connection of water and electrical supplies to pre-installed systems.
Connection of drainage to pre-installed systems.
Final joining procedure to ensure integrity of internal and external finishes.
A finished and fully habitable house may, for example, be provided quickly from delivery of the HSMB modules on site.
The HSMB assembly may also reduce the number of site operatives required on site compared to alternative building apparatuses. For example, in the above detailed example a minimum number of site operatives may be required.
The HSMB modules may be partially or fully finished in a factory or other controlled environment. For example, there may be, but not limited to, three stages:
Stage 1 - to include structural frame and insulated SIP panels.
Stage 2 - As stage 1 plus external battening and membranes in weather-tight condition to accept wall cladding and roof finishing and internal battening to accept internal wall finishes. Stage 3 - As stage 1 and 2 and being fully completed with minimal site works - including all external cladding and roofing, windows, doors, rainwater goods and all internal wall finishes, fittings, kitchen, bathrooms and electrical, plumbing and public health installations and fitments.
The self-supporting structural frames described above may be completed to stage 1 , stage 2 or stage 3 in a factory or other controlled environment.
The blocks illustrated in the Figure 20 may represent steps in a method. The illustration of a particular order to the blocks does not necessarily imply that there is a required or preferred order for the blocks and the order and arrangement of the block may be varied. Furthermore, it may be possible for some steps to be omitted. Although embodiments of the present invention have been described in the preceding paragraphs with reference to various examples, it should be appreciated that modifications to the examples given can be made without departing from the scope of the invention as claimed. Features described in the preceding description may be used in combinations other than the combinations explicitly described.
Although functions have been described with reference to certain features, those functions may be performable by other features whether described or not.
Although features have been described with reference to certain embodiments, those features may also be present in other embodiments whether described or not.
Whilst endeavoring in the foregoing specification to draw attention to those features of the invention believed to be of particular importance it should be understood that the Applicant claims protection in respect of any patentable feature or combination of features hereinbefore referred to and/or shown in the drawings whether or not particular emphasis has been placed thereon. l/we claim:

Claims

Claims:
1 . A building apparatus comprising:
a first self-supporting structural frame comprising:
first and second frame portions both oriented substantially in a first direction; and
a third frame portion oriented in a second direction substantially perpendicular to the first direction and extending between the first and second frame portions; and
the building apparatus further comprising a second self-supporting structural frame comprising:
fourth and fifth frame portions oriented substantially in the first direction; and
a sixth frame portion extending between the fourth and fifth frame portions and forming an oblique angle with the fourth frame portion.
2. A building apparatus as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the first frame portion has first and second ends, the second frame portion has first and second ends and the third frame portion is located substantially at and extends between the first end of the first frame portion and the first end of the second frame portion.
3. A building apparatus as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein the sixth frame portion forms an oblique angle with the fifth frame portion.
4. A building apparatus as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein the fourth frame portion has first and second ends, the fifth frame portion has first and second ends and extends further in the first direction than the fourth frame portion and the sixth frame portion is located substantially at and extends between the second end of the fourth frame portion and the second end of the fifth frame portion.
5. A building apparatus as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the sixth frame portion comprises a first part forming a first oblique angle with the fourth frame portion and a second part forming a second oblique angle with the fifth frame portion, the first part meeting the second part.
6. A building apparatus as claimed in claim 5, wherein the first and second angles are substantially the same.
7. A building apparatus as claimed in any preceding claim, further comprising:
a third self-supporting structural frame comprising:
seventh and eighth frame portions both having first and second ends and both oriented substantially in the first direction; and
a ninth frame portion oriented substantially in the second direction and extending between the seventh and eighth frame portions, wherein the ninth frame portion is located between the first and second end of the seventh frame portion and the first and second end of the eighth frame portion and the seventh and eighth frame portions have parts extending either side of the ninth frame portion.
8. A building apparatus as claimed in any of claims 1 to 7, wherein the first self-supporting structural frame and the third self-supporting structural frame are securely coupled together, and the second self-supporting structural frame and the third self-supporting structural frame are securely coupled together.
9. A building apparatus as claimed in any of claims 1 to 7, wherein the first self-supporting structural frame and the second self-supporting structural frame are securely coupled together.
10. A building apparatus comprising:
a first self-supporting structural frame comprising: first and second frame portions both having first and second ends and both oriented substantially in a first direction; and
a third frame portion oriented in a second direction substantially perpendicular to the first direction and located substantially at and extending between the first end of the first frame portion and the first end of the second frame portion; and
the building apparatus further comprising a second self-supporting structural frame comprising:
fourth and fifth frame portions both having first and second ends and both oriented substantially in the first direction; and
a sixth frame portion oriented substantially in the second direction and extending between the fourth and fifth frame portions, wherein the sixth frame portion is located between the first and second end of the fourth frame portion and the first and second end of the fifth frame portion and the fourth and fifth frame portions both have parts extending either side of the sixth frame portion.
1 1 . A building apparatus as claimed in claim 10, wherein the second self- supporting structural frame provides at least part of a first level of the building apparatus and at least part of a second level of the building apparatus.
12. A building apparatus as claimed in claim 1 1 , wherein the second self- supporting structural frame supports a ceiling of the first level and a floor of the second level.
13. A building apparatus as claimed in claim 10, 1 1 or 12, wherein the first self-supporting structural frame and the second self-supporting structural frame are securely coupled together.
14. A building apparatus comprising:
a first self-supporting structural frame comprising: first and second frame portions both substantially oriented in a first direction; and
a third frame portion oriented in a second direction substantially perpendicular to the first direction and extending between the first and second frame portions; and
the building apparatus further comprising a second self-supporting structural frame comprising:
fourth and fifth frame portions both oriented substantially in the first direction and both having first and second ends; and
a sixth frame portion oriented substantially in the second direction and located substantially at and extending between the second end of the fourth frame portion and the second end of the fifth frame portion, wherein the sixth frame portion extends in the second direction beyond the fourth and fifth frame portions.
15. A building apparatus as claimed in claim 14, wherein the first self- supporting structural frame and the second self-supporting structural frame are securely coupled together.
16. A building apparatus as claimed in any previous claim, wherein the building apparatus is a fully habitable, permanent building.
17. A building apparatus as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein the self-supporting structural frames conform to a national standard for lorry widths and heights.
18. A method comprising:
assembling a building apparatus as claimed in any of claims 1 to 17.
19. A method as claimed in claim 18, further comprising transporting at least one of the self-supporting structural frames on a lorry conforming to a national standard for lorry widths and heights.
20. A method as claimed in claim 17 or 18 further comprising manufacturing at least one of the self-supporting structural frames at a location that is remote from the location where the building apparatus is assembled.
PCT/GB2014/050874 2013-03-21 2014-03-20 Building apparatus and methods WO2014147403A1 (en)

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