WO2014036010A1 - Shear displacement extensometer - Google Patents

Shear displacement extensometer Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2014036010A1
WO2014036010A1 PCT/US2013/056864 US2013056864W WO2014036010A1 WO 2014036010 A1 WO2014036010 A1 WO 2014036010A1 US 2013056864 W US2013056864 W US 2013056864W WO 2014036010 A1 WO2014036010 A1 WO 2014036010A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
shear
extensometer
arm
mounting
specimen
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US2013/056864
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Sunder RAMASUBBU
Original Assignee
Illinois Tool Works Inc.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Illinois Tool Works Inc. filed Critical Illinois Tool Works Inc.
Publication of WO2014036010A1 publication Critical patent/WO2014036010A1/en

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B5/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of mechanical techniques
    • G01B5/30Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of mechanical techniques for measuring the deformation in a solid, e.g. mechanical strain gauge
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B7/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic techniques
    • G01B7/16Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic techniques for measuring the deformation in a solid, e.g. by resistance strain gauge

Definitions

  • the present invention relates to a shear extensometer for measuring the shear-strain a given specimen.
  • Extensometers are commonly used for measuring very small extensions (axial strain) over a particular gauge length when tensile or compressive force is applied on a test specimen. These small extensions are not readily identifiable with the naked eye, or significant enough that someone can clearly visualize them. The method of measuring such minute variations using extensometers is used extensively in materials testing.
  • Figure 1 a shows two points A and B on a surface. The distance separating them is the gauge length, L. Strain along the axis passing through A and B is termed axial strain. It will be given by the ratio of their relative displacement, -' ⁇ .
  • This is the basis of operation of all axial extensometers used in material characterization to determine axial as well as transverse stress-strain properties. Such extensometers are required in materials testing to characterize material properties including modulus, yield stress, cyclic stress- strain curve, etc.
  • points A and B are aligned with the loading direction indicated by the bi-directional arrow in Fig. 1 a.
  • axial strain If the axis of extensometer mounting is rotated 90° with respect to the loading direction, the same extensometer can measure transverse strain that is essential, for example, to characterize Poisson Ratio. Axial and transverse strain can also be measured by pasting a strain gauge aligned along the targeted strain direction.
  • a strain gauge aligned along the targeted strain direction.
  • shear strain characterizes the sliding response of a material. An easy to comprehend example is the response of a cylinder when twisted around its axis. Another example is when a pure shear force is applied to a specimen of rectangular cross section.
  • UVWX can be correctly measured with conventional axial extensometers because they involve movement of reference points that are not coaxial.
  • FIG 1 b If the line UX is displaced by ⁇ as shown in the figure, UVWX can be treated as having experienced a shear strain given by *L , where L is the gauge length represented by UV or WX. Shear strain is usually measured in materials characterization by pasting a strain gauge along the diagonal D1 or D2.
  • US 5,71 2,430 teaches a strain extensometer with knife-edge arm tips for measuring strain in a test specimen.
  • the mounting tips of the '430 patent target displacement between the centres of their flat sharp tips, with both centres falling on the same axis of expected (axial) displacement.
  • Such an extensometer cannot be used for shear strain measurements because its contact points will always lie on a single plane that is parallel, if not coincident, with the one that passes through the arm axes.
  • the shear extensometer for measuring shear responses of a specimen comprises a first arm having a first mounting tip and a second arm, parallel to the first arm, and having a second mounting tip.
  • the mounting tips are profiled to make point contact at diagonally opposite points on parallel, offset axes on the specimen.
  • the arms of the extensometer according to this invention move strictly in the plane described by the arm axes. However, the arm tips make contact with diagonally opposed points on the surface of the specimen.
  • a shear strain gauge is pasted on the specimen between the mounting tips of the shear extensometer of this invention.
  • the shear strain gauge can serve as a reference to calibrate readouts if required and to account for possible errors in estimating effective gauge length of the extensometer, given that the actual mounting tip geometry may not conform to assumed point of geometry. A one-time calibration of the extensometer will suffice until the next scheduled extensometer calibration, since the effective gauge length is unlikely to change when moving from one specimen to another.
  • Figure 1 a shows the schematic of axial displacement
  • Figure 1 b shows the schematic of shear displacement
  • Figure 2 shows the ceramic rods of the shear extensometer according to the present invention
  • Figure 3 shows the close-up view of the shear extensometer arm tips according to this invention
  • Figure 4 shows the shear extensometer mounted on a specimen loaded using the losipescu shear test fixture according to an exemplary embodiment of the invention.
  • Figure 5a shows an arrangement of an extensometer
  • Figure 5b shows the side view of the arrangement of an extensometer
  • Figures 6a and 6b show the different schematics of shear strain
  • Figure 7 shows the shear strain gauge versus shear extensometer output on two different materials.
  • FIGS 2 and 3 illustrate the core concept of the invention, namely, the profile of the extensometer rods (10).
  • the extensometer ceramic rods (10) comprise a first arm (2) having a first mounting tip (6) and a second arm (4) having a second mounting tip (8).
  • the axis (C-C) of the first arm (2) and the axis (C'-C) of the second arm (4) are parallel to each other.
  • the first mounting tip (6) is located away from the axis (C-C) of the first arm (2) and the second mounting tip (8) is located away from the axis (C'-C) of the second arm (4).
  • the arms (2, 4) of the shear extensometer move strictly in the plane described by their axes.
  • the mounting tips (6, 8) are so profiled such that they make contact with diagonally opposed points on parallel, offset axes on a specimen surface, schematically similar to points V and X, or, U and W in figure 1 b.
  • the profile of the mounting tips (6, 8) is the vital element of this invention because it ensures fidelity of shear displacement measurement by strictly measuring the movement of point U as shown in figure 1 b.
  • the relative lateral offset of the two mounting tips (6, 8) constitutes the shear extensometer gauge length.
  • the mounting tips (6, 8) are preferably round and sharp and they measure displacement along offset axes, with each tip sitting on different but parallel axis.
  • the profile of the mounting tips (6, 8) is obtained preferably by a grinding process, but other methods of manufacturing will become readily apparent for a person skilled in the art.
  • arm length affects both sensitivity and linearity of the extensometer.
  • it is mounting tip lateral offset, rather than axial spacing, that determines the gauge length.
  • Positioning a conventional axial extensometer along the diagonal D1 or D2 will not serve the purpose of accurate shear displacement measurement because of the unavoidable rotation of the mounting points (reflected in rotation of diagonals D1 , D2 under shear strain) that will distort the readouts.
  • the shear extensometer of the present invention is outwardly similar to an axial extensometer and, in fact, uses the same sensitive element.
  • the shear extensometer of this invention is radically different from that of an axial extensometer in terms of the profile of its mounting tips (6, 8).
  • An axial extensometer demands zero lateral offset between the two mounting points as a prerequisite for ensuring coaxiality.
  • the lateral spacing of the mounting tips in the shear extensometer of this invention defining the gauge length serves as a prerequisite for shear displacement measurement.
  • the shear extensometer of this invention is similar to an axial extensometer. Therefore, by merely changing the arms, one can use the same transducer to perform both axial as well as shear displacement measurements.
  • the shear extensometer of this invention may be used to characterize shear response of materials including the determination of shear modulus, shear stress vs. strain curve, shear creep, etc. in both static as well as cyclic loading at any given test temperature.
  • Figure 4 shows the shear extensometer according to this invention mounted on a specimen (S) loaded using the losipescu shear test fixture (20) with double V-notch coupons.
  • the same extensometer can be used to characterize shear response of cylindrical and tubular specimens in torsion, provided the diameter of the specimens is much larger than the gauge tip spacing.
  • standard test practice with the losipescu fixture (20) calls for the use of shear strain gauges to monitor shear strain on the specimen (S). With the present invention, these measurements are considerably easier to perform.
  • the arrangement for a typical extensometer is shown in figures 5a and 5b.
  • the arrangement includes a mounting plate (12) on which a linear bearing (13) of the type that prevents rotation is mounted.
  • An extensometer holder (15) is connected to the linear bearing (13), said holder (15) adapted to grip the extensometer (17).
  • the extensometer comprises ceramic rods (10), the profile of which have been explained in the preceding paragraphs.
  • a heat reflector (21 ) is provided proximal to the extensometer (17) to shield the sensitive element of the extensometer (17) from being exposed to excessive heat when used in a high temperature application.
  • Figure 6a shows the "textbook" schematic of shear strain.
  • the square element when subject to shear strain, assumes the shape of a rhombus.
  • the diagonal D1 will experience compressive strain, while D2 will experience tension.
  • a strain gauge (22) is also pasted on the surface where the strain is to be measured. Strain gauges work on the principle of change in electrical resistance due to tension or compression. Thus, by pasting a strain gauge (22) as shown in the middle of the diagonal D2, the extension of this diagonal under shear strain can be estimated and assumed to serve as a measure of shear strain.
  • Figure 6b shows the schematic of shear strain, but with the rhombus rotated to reflect the principle of operation of our invention.
  • a shear strain gauge may be pasted on the specimen surface between the mounting tips of the shear extensometer to serve as a reference to calibrate the readouts, if required, and to account for possible errors in estimating effective gauge length of the extensometer, given that the actual mounting tip geometry may not conform to assumed point geometry.
  • Strain is measured as the ratio of actual displacement to the gauge length over which it is measured. Shear strain in the schematic of figure 6b explained above is given by the ratio *L . This distance (L) cannot be estimated accurately for lack of accuracy in estimating actual lateral offset between rod tips. This problem is overcome by calibration of readout with the strain gauge. Calibration results estimates the value of L such that shear strain measurements match those seen by the strain gauge.
  • shear extensometer can serve the purpose currently served by strain gauges that are by design non-reusable, require skill and effort to instrument and whose application becomes difficult if not impractical in hostile environment, such as elevated temperature.
  • the shear extensometer arms in contrast, can pass through access slots on furnaces, enviro-chambers, etc. There are no restrictions on usage with respect to material, provided the test coupon is in a position to withstand the bearing load from the mounting points of the extensometer.
  • the salient feature of this invention is the lateral offset of extensometer arm mounting (contact) points on the specimen surface.
  • the same purpose can also be served by introducing a lateral offset in the mounting of the arms themselves through a suitable design change to the sensitive element. While this may somewhat change the appearance of the extensometer, the principle of operation of the device would remain unchanged.
  • the drawings described herein are intended to merely describe its operation through a simple change to the arms of a conventional axial extensometer.

Abstract

The invention relates to a shear extensometer for measuring the shear strain on a given specimen. The extensometer according to this invention comprises a first and second arm parallel to each other. Each arm has a mounting tip having a unique geometry and profile, such that, the contact of the mounting tips is at diagonally opposite points on parallel, offset axes on the specimen and that the relative lateral offset of the mounting tips determines the gauge length. The arms of the extensometer according to this invention move strictly in the plane described by the arm axes. However, the arm mounting tips make contact with diagonally opposed points on the surface of the specimen.

Description

SHEAR DISPLACEMENT EXTENSOMETER
FIELD OF INVENTION
The present invention relates to a shear extensometer for measuring the shear-strain a given specimen.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Extensometers are commonly used for measuring very small extensions (axial strain) over a particular gauge length when tensile or compressive force is applied on a test specimen. These small extensions are not readily identifiable with the naked eye, or significant enough that someone can clearly visualize them. The method of measuring such minute variations using extensometers is used extensively in materials testing.
Consider the schematic of an axial displacement as illustrated in figure 1 a. Figure 1 a shows two points A and B on a surface. The distance separating them is the gauge length, L. Strain along the axis passing through A and B is termed axial strain. It will be given by the ratio of their relative displacement, -'Ί . This is the basis of operation of all axial extensometers used in material characterization to determine axial as well as transverse stress-strain properties. Such extensometers are required in materials testing to characterize material properties including modulus, yield stress, cyclic stress- strain curve, etc. During a tensile test, points A and B are aligned with the loading direction indicated by the bi-directional arrow in Fig. 1 a. Hence, the definition of axial strain. If the axis of extensometer mounting is rotated 90° with respect to the loading direction, the same extensometer can measure transverse strain that is essential, for example, to characterize Poisson Ratio. Axial and transverse strain can also be measured by pasting a strain gauge aligned along the targeted strain direction. Consider the schematic of a shear displacement as illustrated in figure 1 b. As opposed to axial strain that characterizes the extension or compression across a given gauge length, shear strain characterizes the sliding response of a material. An easy to comprehend example is the response of a cylinder when twisted around its axis. Another example is when a pure shear force is applied to a specimen of rectangular cross section. Neither of these responses can be correctly measured with conventional axial extensometers because they involve movement of reference points that are not coaxial. Consider the rectangle UVWX as shown in figure 1 b. If the line UX is displaced by ^ as shown in the figure, UVWX can be treated as having experienced a shear strain given by *L , where L is the gauge length represented by UV or WX. Shear strain is usually measured in materials characterization by pasting a strain gauge along the diagonal D1 or D2.
Conventional high temperature axial extensometers equipped with ceramic arms are used for measurements of axial displacement up to 1 200°C. These ceramic rods typically have a tapered edge that ensure line contact on flat specimen surfaces and point contact on cylindrical specimens. The contact points of the two rods with the specimen surface constitute points A and B mentioned earlier with reference to figure 1 a. Such an extensometer cannot be used for shear strain measurements because its contact points will always lie on a plane that is parallel, if not coincident, with the one that passes through the arm axes.
US 5,71 2,430 teaches a strain extensometer with knife-edge arm tips for measuring strain in a test specimen. The mounting tips of the '430 patent target displacement between the centres of their flat sharp tips, with both centres falling on the same axis of expected (axial) displacement. Such an extensometer cannot be used for shear strain measurements because its contact points will always lie on a single plane that is parallel, if not coincident, with the one that passes through the arm axes.
Thus, there remains a need to provide an extensometer that would serve the purpose of measuring shear displacement across a gauge length. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The invention is based on the very nature of pure shear, which, over a gauge length, can be characterized by the relative movement of two diagonally positioned points, as shown in figure 1 b. The movement of these points is strictly along parallel axes, whose spacing remains unchanged. It would follow, that an extensometer suitably designed to make contact at points lying on parallel but offset axes, such as points U and W of figure 1 b would serve the purpose of measuring shear displacement across a gauge length determined by the lateral spacing of its mounting points. Accordingly, the shear extensometer for measuring shear responses of a specimen according to this invention comprises a first arm having a first mounting tip and a second arm, parallel to the first arm, and having a second mounting tip. The mounting tips are profiled to make point contact at diagonally opposite points on parallel, offset axes on the specimen. The arms of the extensometer according to this invention move strictly in the plane described by the arm axes. However, the arm tips make contact with diagonally opposed points on the surface of the specimen.
In an optional embodiment, a shear strain gauge is pasted on the specimen between the mounting tips of the shear extensometer of this invention. The shear strain gauge can serve as a reference to calibrate readouts if required and to account for possible errors in estimating effective gauge length of the extensometer, given that the actual mounting tip geometry may not conform to assumed point of geometry. A one-time calibration of the extensometer will suffice until the next scheduled extensometer calibration, since the effective gauge length is unlikely to change when moving from one specimen to another. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Referring now to the drawings wherein the showings are for the purpose of illustrating a possible embodiment of the invention only, and not for the purpose of limiting the same,
Figure 1 a shows the schematic of axial displacement; Figure 1 b shows the schematic of shear displacement;
Figure 2 shows the ceramic rods of the shear extensometer according to the present invention;
Figure 3 shows the close-up view of the shear extensometer arm tips according to this invention; Figure 4 shows the shear extensometer mounted on a specimen loaded using the losipescu shear test fixture according to an exemplary embodiment of the invention.
Figure 5a shows an arrangement of an extensometer;
Figure 5b shows the side view of the arrangement of an extensometer;
Figures 6a and 6b show the different schematics of shear strain; Figure 7 shows the shear strain gauge versus shear extensometer output on two different materials.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Figures 2 and 3 illustrate the core concept of the invention, namely, the profile of the extensometer rods (10). The extensometer ceramic rods (10) comprise a first arm (2) having a first mounting tip (6) and a second arm (4) having a second mounting tip (8). The axis (C-C) of the first arm (2) and the axis (C'-C) of the second arm (4) are parallel to each other. The first mounting tip (6) is located away from the axis (C-C) of the first arm (2) and the second mounting tip (8) is located away from the axis (C'-C) of the second arm (4).The arms (2, 4) of the shear extensometer move strictly in the plane described by their axes. The mounting tips (6, 8) are so profiled such that they make contact with diagonally opposed points on parallel, offset axes on a specimen surface, schematically similar to points V and X, or, U and W in figure 1 b. The profile of the mounting tips (6, 8) is the vital element of this invention because it ensures fidelity of shear displacement measurement by strictly measuring the movement of point U as shown in figure 1 b. The relative lateral offset of the two mounting tips (6, 8) constitutes the shear extensometer gauge length. The mounting tips (6, 8) are preferably round and sharp and they measure displacement along offset axes, with each tip sitting on different but parallel axis. The profile of the mounting tips (6, 8) is obtained preferably by a grinding process, but other methods of manufacturing will become readily apparent for a person skilled in the art. As in other (axial) extensometers, arm length affects both sensitivity and linearity of the extensometer. However, it is mounting tip lateral offset, rather than axial spacing, that determines the gauge length. Positioning a conventional axial extensometer along the diagonal D1 or D2 (of fig. 1 b) will not serve the purpose of accurate shear displacement measurement because of the unavoidable rotation of the mounting points (reflected in rotation of diagonals D1 , D2 under shear strain) that will distort the readouts.
The shear extensometer of the present invention is outwardly similar to an axial extensometer and, in fact, uses the same sensitive element. However, the shear extensometer of this invention is radically different from that of an axial extensometer in terms of the profile of its mounting tips (6, 8). An axial extensometer demands zero lateral offset between the two mounting points as a prerequisite for ensuring coaxiality. On the contrary, the lateral spacing of the mounting tips in the shear extensometer of this invention defining the gauge length serves as a prerequisite for shear displacement measurement. In all other respects, including the design of the sensitive element, wiring etc. the shear extensometer of this invention is similar to an axial extensometer. Therefore, by merely changing the arms, one can use the same transducer to perform both axial as well as shear displacement measurements.
The shear extensometer of this invention may be used to characterize shear response of materials including the determination of shear modulus, shear stress vs. strain curve, shear creep, etc. in both static as well as cyclic loading at any given test temperature. Figure 4 shows the shear extensometer according to this invention mounted on a specimen (S) loaded using the losipescu shear test fixture (20) with double V-notch coupons. Also, the same extensometer can be used to characterize shear response of cylindrical and tubular specimens in torsion, provided the diameter of the specimens is much larger than the gauge tip spacing. It may be noted that standard test practice with the losipescu fixture (20) calls for the use of shear strain gauges to monitor shear strain on the specimen (S). With the present invention, these measurements are considerably easier to perform.
The arrangement for a typical extensometer is shown in figures 5a and 5b. The arrangement includes a mounting plate (12) on which a linear bearing (13) of the type that prevents rotation is mounted. An extensometer holder (15) is connected to the linear bearing (13), said holder (15) adapted to grip the extensometer (17). The extensometer comprises ceramic rods (10), the profile of which have been explained in the preceding paragraphs. A heat reflector (21 ) is provided proximal to the extensometer (17) to shield the sensitive element of the extensometer (17) from being exposed to excessive heat when used in a high temperature application.
Figure 6a shows the "textbook" schematic of shear strain. As shown, the square element, when subject to shear strain, assumes the shape of a rhombus. In this event, the diagonal D1 will experience compressive strain, while D2 will experience tension. A strain gauge (22) is also pasted on the surface where the strain is to be measured. Strain gauges work on the principle of change in electrical resistance due to tension or compression. Thus, by pasting a strain gauge (22) as shown in the middle of the diagonal D2, the extension of this diagonal under shear strain can be estimated and assumed to serve as a measure of shear strain. Figure 6b shows the schematic of shear strain, but with the rhombus rotated to reflect the principle of operation of our invention. It can be readily shown that there is a unique trigonometric relationship between the measurement of ^ according to this invention and the extension along D2 or the response of a shear strain gauge as shown in figure 6a. Indeed, there is a linear calibration between shear strain gauge response and the response of our invention. As seen in figure 6b, the diagonals D1 , D2 do rotate, but the contact points do not rotate under shear.
In an optional embodiment, a shear strain gauge may be pasted on the specimen surface between the mounting tips of the shear extensometer to serve as a reference to calibrate the readouts, if required, and to account for possible errors in estimating effective gauge length of the extensometer, given that the actual mounting tip geometry may not conform to assumed point geometry. Strain is measured as the ratio of actual displacement to the gauge length over which it is measured. Shear strain in the schematic of figure 6b explained above is given by the ratio *L . This distance (L) cannot be estimated accurately for lack of accuracy in estimating actual lateral offset between rod tips. This problem is overcome by calibration of readout with the strain gauge. Calibration results estimates the value of L such that shear strain measurements match those seen by the strain gauge. As this distance is unlikely to change when moving from one specimen to another, a one time calibration will suffice until next scheduled extensometer calibration. Such a comparison carried out on any material can serve as measurements for any other material or testing condition because the correlation is geometric by nature and therefore independent of material response. This has been shown by comparing shear extensometer readout versus strain gauge readout obtained on identical AL-alloy and Nimonic alloy specimens tested on a losipescu fixture. Figure 7 shows the calibration of shear strain gauge versus shear extensometer output on Al-alloy and Nimonic alloy.
It follows that the shear extensometer can serve the purpose currently served by strain gauges that are by design non-reusable, require skill and effort to instrument and whose application becomes difficult if not impractical in hostile environment, such as elevated temperature. The shear extensometer arms, in contrast, can pass through access slots on furnaces, enviro-chambers, etc. There are no restrictions on usage with respect to material, provided the test coupon is in a position to withstand the bearing load from the mounting points of the extensometer. The foregoing description shows and describes preferred embodiments of the present invention. It should be appreciated that this embodiment is described for purpose of illustration only, and that numerous alterations and modifications may be practiced by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. It is intended that all such modifications and alterations be included insofar as they come within the scope of the invention as claimed or the equivalents thereof.
The salient feature of this invention is the lateral offset of extensometer arm mounting (contact) points on the specimen surface. The same purpose can also be served by introducing a lateral offset in the mounting of the arms themselves through a suitable design change to the sensitive element. While this may somewhat change the appearance of the extensometer, the principle of operation of the device would remain unchanged. The drawings described herein are intended to merely describe its operation through a simple change to the arms of a conventional axial extensometer.

Claims

WE CLAIM
1. A shear extensometer for measuring shear responses of a specimen, comprising:
a first arm having a first mounting tip;
a second arm parallel to the first arm, said second arm having a second mounting tip,
wherein the mounting tips are profiled to make point contact at diagonally opposite points on parallel, offset axes on the specimen.
2. The shear extensometer according to claim 1 , wherein the first mounting tip is located away from the axis of the first arm and the second mounting tip is located away from the axis of the second arm, so as to enable measurement along the lateral offset axis of the mounting tips.
3. The shear extensometer according to claim 2, wherein the relative lateral offset of the mounting tips determines the gauge length.
4. The shear extensometer according to claim 2, wherein the first and second arms are capable of moving strictly in a plane described by the arm axes.
5. The shear extensometer according to claim 1 , wherein a shear strain gauge is pasted on the specimen between the mounting tips to calibrate readings of the shear extensometer.
PCT/US2013/056864 2012-08-28 2013-08-27 Shear displacement extensometer WO2014036010A1 (en)

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IN3555CH2012 2012-08-28

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WO2017074543A1 (en) * 2015-10-28 2017-05-04 Illinois Tool Works Inc. A force measurement device
WO2018002747A1 (en) * 2016-06-29 2018-01-04 Illinois Tool Works, Inc. A testing system with real-time compensation of varying system parameters
PL423265A1 (en) * 2017-10-25 2019-05-06 Instytut Mech Gorotworu Polskiej Akademii Nauk Method and the device for measuring relative displacements of an object elements

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FR2616901A1 (en) * 1987-06-22 1988-12-23 Onera (Off Nat Aerospatiale) Multiaxial extensometer, in particular triaxial extensometer
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US6907677B1 (en) * 2002-01-18 2005-06-21 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Stable LVDT extensometer

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3317240C1 (en) * 1983-05-11 1984-10-04 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V., 8000 München Deformation sensor for combined strain and shear loading at high temperatures
FR2616901A1 (en) * 1987-06-22 1988-12-23 Onera (Off Nat Aerospatiale) Multiaxial extensometer, in particular triaxial extensometer
US5537754A (en) * 1993-11-07 1996-07-23 Deutsche Forschungsanstalt Fur Luft-Und Raumfahrt E.V. Extensometer and support for an extensometer
US6907677B1 (en) * 2002-01-18 2005-06-21 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Stable LVDT extensometer

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2017074543A1 (en) * 2015-10-28 2017-05-04 Illinois Tool Works Inc. A force measurement device
CN108369146A (en) * 2015-10-28 2018-08-03 伊利诺斯工具制品有限公司 Device for measuring force
US10746619B2 (en) 2015-10-28 2020-08-18 Illinois Tool Works Inc. Force measurement device
US11828666B2 (en) 2015-10-28 2023-11-28 Illinois Tool Works Inc. Force measurement device
WO2018002747A1 (en) * 2016-06-29 2018-01-04 Illinois Tool Works, Inc. A testing system with real-time compensation of varying system parameters
JP2019526045A (en) * 2016-06-29 2019-09-12 イリノイ トゥール ワークス インコーポレイティド Inspection system with real-time compensation of changing system parameters
US10866176B2 (en) 2016-06-29 2020-12-15 Illinois Tool Works Inc. Testing system with real-time compensation of varying system parameters
JP2022087101A (en) * 2016-06-29 2022-06-09 イリノイ トゥール ワークス インコーポレイティド Testing system with real-time compensation of varying system parameters
JP7348977B2 (en) 2016-06-29 2023-09-21 イリノイ トゥール ワークス インコーポレイティド Inspection system with real-time compensation of changing system parameters
PL423265A1 (en) * 2017-10-25 2019-05-06 Instytut Mech Gorotworu Polskiej Akademii Nauk Method and the device for measuring relative displacements of an object elements

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