WO2014025432A2 - Laser additive repairing of nickel base superalloy components - Google Patents

Laser additive repairing of nickel base superalloy components Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2014025432A2
WO2014025432A2 PCT/US2013/040742 US2013040742W WO2014025432A2 WO 2014025432 A2 WO2014025432 A2 WO 2014025432A2 US 2013040742 W US2013040742 W US 2013040742W WO 2014025432 A2 WO2014025432 A2 WO 2014025432A2
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Prior art keywords
γ
hold
ti
powder
cooling
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PCT/US2013/040742
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French (fr)
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WO2014025432A3 (en
Inventor
Kazim Ozbaysal
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Siemens Energy, Inc.
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Priority to US201261645863P priority Critical
Priority to US61/645,863 priority
Priority to US13/489,863 priority patent/US9347124B2/en
Priority to US13/489,863 priority
Priority to US13/611,034 priority patent/US9272365B2/en
Priority to US13/611,034 priority
Priority to US13/891,314 priority
Priority to US13/891,314 priority patent/US9527162B2/en
Application filed by Siemens Energy, Inc. filed Critical Siemens Energy, Inc.
Priority claimed from KR1020187006086A external-priority patent/KR20180026804A/en
Publication of WO2014025432A2 publication Critical patent/WO2014025432A2/en
Publication of WO2014025432A3 publication Critical patent/WO2014025432A3/en

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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C24/00Coating starting from inorganic powder
    • C23C24/08Coating starting from inorganic powder by application of heat or pressure and heat
    • C23C24/10Coating starting from inorganic powder by application of heat or pressure and heat with intermediate formation of a liquid phase in the layer
    • C23C24/103Coating with metallic material, i.e. metals or metal alloys, optionally comprising hard particles, e.g. oxides, carbides or nitrides
    • C23C24/106Coating with metal alloys or metal elements only
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/10Sintering only
    • B22F3/105Sintering only by using electric current other than for infra-red radiant energy, laser radiation or plasma ; by ultrasonic bonding
    • B22F3/1055Selective sintering, i.e. stereolithography
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/20Bonding
    • B23K26/32Bonding taking account of the properties of the material involved
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/34Laser welding for purposes other than joining
    • B23K26/342Build-up welding
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K35/00Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting
    • B23K35/001Interlayers, transition pieces for metallurgical bonding of workpieces
    • B23K35/007Interlayers, transition pieces for metallurgical bonding of workpieces at least one of the workpieces being of copper or another noble metal
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K35/00Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting
    • B23K35/02Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting characterised by mechanical features, e.g. shape
    • B23K35/0222Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting characterised by mechanical features, e.g. shape for use in soldering, brazing
    • B23K35/0244Powders, particles or spheres; Preforms made therefrom
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K35/00Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting
    • B23K35/22Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting characterised by the composition or nature of the material
    • B23K35/24Selection of soldering or welding materials proper
    • B23K35/30Selection of soldering or welding materials proper with the principal constituent melting at less than 1550 degrees C
    • B23K35/3033Ni as the principal constituent
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C19/00Alloys based on nickel or cobalt
    • C22C19/03Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel
    • C22C19/05Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium
    • C22C19/051Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium and Mo or W
    • C22C19/056Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium and Mo or W with the maximum Cr content being at least 10% but less than 20%
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C19/00Alloys based on nickel or cobalt
    • C22C19/03Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel
    • C22C19/05Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium
    • C22C19/051Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium and Mo or W
    • C22C19/057Alloys based on nickel or cobalt based on nickel with chromium and Mo or W with the maximum Cr content being less 10%
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/10Sintering only
    • B22F3/105Sintering only by using electric current other than for infra-red radiant energy, laser radiation or plasma ; by ultrasonic bonding
    • B22F3/1055Selective sintering, i.e. stereolithography
    • B22F2003/1056Apparatus components, details or accessories
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F7/00Manufacture of composite layers, workpieces, or articles, comprising metallic powder, by sintering the powder, with or without compacting wherein at least one part is obtained by sintering or compression
    • B22F7/06Manufacture of composite layers, workpieces, or articles, comprising metallic powder, by sintering the powder, with or without compacting wherein at least one part is obtained by sintering or compression of composite workpieces or articles from parts, e.g. to form tipped tools
    • B22F7/062Manufacture of composite layers, workpieces, or articles, comprising metallic powder, by sintering the powder, with or without compacting wherein at least one part is obtained by sintering or compression of composite workpieces or articles from parts, e.g. to form tipped tools involving the connection or repairing of preformed parts
    • B22F2007/068Manufacture of composite layers, workpieces, or articles, comprising metallic powder, by sintering the powder, with or without compacting wherein at least one part is obtained by sintering or compression of composite workpieces or articles from parts, e.g. to form tipped tools involving the connection or repairing of preformed parts repairing articles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K2103/00Materials to be soldered, welded or cut
    • B23K2103/18Dissimilar materials
    • B23K2103/26Alloys of Nickel and Cobalt and Chromium
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/20Process efficiency
    • Y02P10/25Process efficiency by increasing the energy efficiency of the process
    • Y02P10/29Additive manufacturing
    • Y02P10/295Additive manufacturing of metals

Abstract

Ni base superalloy components containing relatively large amounts of Al and Ti are known to be difficult to build up by a weld build up process without cracking. As the Al and Ti content of the superalloy is increased to improve the strength, the susceptibility to cracking is increased. It is shown herein that reducing the γ' phase in the additive built up material improves robustness against cracking. A stepwise, controlled heating and cooling process is described to be used in cooperation with an additive build up process to reduce the γ' present and thereby reduce cracking.

Description

LASER ADDITIVE REPAIRING OF NICKEL BASE SUPERALLOY

COMPONENTS

CLAIM TO PRIORITY

[0001] This is a utility patent application filed pursuant to 35 U.S.C. § 111 (a), and claims priority pursuant to 35 U.S.C. § 119 from provisional patent application serial number 61/645,863 filed May 1 1, 2012. This application is a continuation-in-part of application serial number 13/489,863 filed June, 6, 2012 (claiming priority from provisional patent application 61/556,395 filed November 7, 2011 and claims priority therefrom pursuant to 35 U.S.C. § 120 and/or § 365. This application also incorporates by reference commonly owned application serial number 13/611 ,034, filed September 12, 2012. The entire contents of the aforesaid United States applications are incorporated herein by reference for all purposes.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] 1. Field of the Invention

[0003] The present invention relates to the repair, reshaping and cladding of superalloy components, and more particularly, to the weld build up of nickel base superalloy components containing relatively large amounts of aluminum and/or titanium, employing a hold and cool process so as to reduce susceptibility to cracking, and to the materials so produced.

[0004] 2. Background and Related Art

[0005] Nickel base superalloys (also known as nickel based or nickel-based) are high-temperature materials which display excellent resistance to mechanical and chemical degradation of properties even as temperatures approach the melting points of the materials. Ni base superalloys are based upon nickel(Ni) and typically contain numerous other elements such as chromium (Cr), aluminum (Al), titanium (Ti), tungsten (W), cobalt (Co), tantalum (Ta), carbon (C), among others. Such

high-temperature superalloys found early application in aircraft turbine engines. A higher operating temperature typically leads to increased fuel efficiency and lower carbon emissions, causing superalloys to find increasing uses in ground-bases turbine systems as well. For example, see The Superalloys, by Roger C. Reed, (Cambridge University Press, 2006, particularly Chapter 1. The entire contents of this reference is incorporated herein by reference for all purposes. [0006] The Al and Ti content of Ni base superalloys is typically increased in order to improve the high temperature strength, but at the expense of introducing challenges in welding or weld buildup of such materials. Generally, increased Al and/or Ti content of a Ni base superalloy increases the susceptibility of the material to cracking during welding or weld build up. Our previous work in this field cited above addressed the improvement in the weld repair of such superalloys. The present work addresses the related problem of weld build up of material while reducing the susceptibility to cracking of the materials so constructed.

[0007] Thus a need exists in the art for improved methods to build up Ni base superalloy materials by a weld build up process, typically a laser additive repair process, particularly for those superalloys including relatively large amounts of Al and/or Ti.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION [0008] It is one objective of the processes described herein to provide a process for build up of Ni based superalloy materials from powder by heating and controlled stepwise cooling of the material so as to produce no more than about 20% γ' phase in any single cool and hold portion of the process, as well as no more than about 20% γ' phase in the final room temperature material. [0009] Nickel base superalloys with large amounts of Al and Ti contents are known to be difficult to weld build up. As the Al and Ti content of a superalloy is increased to improve the component high temperature strength, weldability of the component is drastically reduced. Some embodiments of this invention employ elemental partitioning of Al and Ti to γ and γ' through a controlled step cool and hold process. The

time -temperature protocol of the step cool and hold process is chosen so as to deplete the γ from Al and Ti in order to improve weldability. When the Al and Ti content of the γ in the weld build up is reduced to a weldable region of no more than about 20% γ', the controlled step cool and hold process is replaced with regular weld argon cooling.

[0010] The processes described herein provide for elemental partitioning of Al and Ti during the hold and cool process so as to deplete γ from Al and Ti and to reduce susceptibility to cracking in the material so produced. [001 1] Accordingly and advantageously, these and other advantages are achieved in accordance with the present invention as described in detail below.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS [0012] FIG. 1 is a graphical depiction of the weldability of some superalloys as a function of Ti and Al content.

[0013] FIG. 2 are graphical depictions of details of hold and cool processes pursuant to some embodiments of the present invention:

(2A) Elemental partitioning at full phase equilibrium from Ni-Al pseudo binary phase diagram.

(2B) Shift in TTT (time -temperature-transformation) diagram due to step cool and hold process.

(2C) Anticipated stress relief of a welded interface at each hold temperature during partitioning of Al and Ti.

(2D) Shift of composition of alloy 247 to crack free region due to partitioning. [0014] FIG. 3 is a schematic depiction of typical apparatus for performing a hold and cool process pursuant to some embodiments of the present invention with preplaced powder.

[0015] FIG. 4 is a schematic depiction of typical apparatus for performing a hold and cool process pursuant to some embodiments of the present invention with concurrently placed powder. DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0016] All percentages given herein are weight percent unless otherwise specified.

[0017] Ti and Al are typically added to Ni base superalloys to increase the high temperature strength of the component, but with the disadvantage of drastically increasing the difficulty of producing satisfactory welds or weld build ups. For economy of language we refer hereinafter to Ni base superalloy with relatively high Al, Ti content as simply "Ni base superalloys" or "Ni superalloys." The welds or weld build ups typically produced with such Ni superalloys are susceptible to cracking either during the weld or build up process or in subsequent repair steps involving these materials.

Previous work by the present inventors (cited above) involving a detailed study of factors affecting weldability of Ni base superalloys and their susceptibility to cracking has led the present inventors to conclude that a γ' phase present in an amount generally less than about 20 weight percent is indicative of weldability without unacceptable susceptibility to cracking. A γ' content greater than about 60% is generally indicative of nonweldability

(that is, susceptibility to strain age cracking) while intermediate γ' values typically indicate difficult and expensive welding. Substantially the same conclusions can be drawn for additive or weld build up processes. That is, a γ' phase present in an amount less than about 20 weight percent is indicative of weld build up without unacceptable susceptibility to cracking, γ' greater than about 60% is generally indicative of weld build up having an unacceptable susceptibility to cracking. [0018] Additive manufacturing by laser beam weld build up (also called build-up welding or build up welding) is comparable to plasma build up welding as well as plasma spraying. To be concrete in our description, we discuss herein the important practical case in which a laser beam provides the directed energy to heat the material as desired.

This is not to exclude other sources of directed energy such as plasma, second laser, electron beam, among others as would be apparent to those having ordinary skills in the art. However, for economy of language we refer to all such additive build up processes as laser additive processes or laser weld build up or equivalent language.

[0019] Previous work by this inventor (cited above) focused on reducing cracking in the welding of Ni base superalloys. The work described herein relates to the additive build up of a layer of material (typically from about 1 millimeter (mm) to about 50 mm in thickness). The present discussion is directed to the repair build up (typically l-50mm thick) that has favorable welding characteristics, that is, reduced susceptibility to cracking. Thus, the present description relates to the fabrication of a Ni base superalloy material or component having favorable welding properties. It is anticipated that such materials or components can be fabricated for use in myriad applications apparent to one having ordinary skill in the art.

[0020] FIG. 1 is a graphical depiction of the weldability of typical Ni base superalloys as functions of the Al and Ti content. Those alloys lying above line 100 in FIG. 1 are generally considered not to be weldable, and hence, not amenable to weld build up. In practice, this typically means that materials having compositions above line 100 produce materials susceptible to strain age cracking in the fusion zone (FZ). Thus, whenever such components in commercial equipment require repair, they are typically replaced rather than repaired since the susceptibility to cracking will result in a large fraction of failed repairs. [0021] Conversion of the compositions given in FIG. 1 to the fraction of various phases present shows that nonweldable alloys generally have more than about 60% γ' phase in their final structure. In contrast, the weldable Ni base superalloys depicted in FIG. 1 have generally less than about 20% γ' phase in their final structure, below line 101 in FIG. 1. Therefore, it is anticipated that Ni base superalloys with less than about 20% γ' will be weldable without detrimental amounts of strain age cracking in the FZ.

[0022] Heat affected zone (HAZ) cracking in high strength Ni base superalloys occurs due to the presence of grain boundaries containing low melting point elements. A large heat input during laser build up thus creates a large HAZ and results in a large amount of HAZ cracking due to melting at the grain boundaries. This is a common problem in previous build up processes in which a laser beam typically interacts with the base metal during powder deposition. Thus, an important problem in the field of additive build up of superalloys is to produce crack free, near 100% base metal laser build up, particularly on the important commercial use of superalloys for gas turbine components. As described in detail herein, one advantage of the present processes relates to the creation of a relatively small HAZ, typically no more than about 100 μηι HAZ (μηι = micron = 10"6 meter).

[0023] Typical embodiments of the welding apparatus 200 present invention include placing a component substrate 201 into a chamber 210 containing an inert

atmosphere 220 and predepositing the powder 230 to be melted in front of the moving laser 240 onto the substrate 201 having substantially the same composition as the powder 230, as depicted schematically in FIG. 3. Other embodiments include concurrent deposition of the powder 230 before and/or after the application of the

laser 240 energy dQ, as depicted in FIG. 4. To be concrete in our description, we describe in most detail the example of preplaced powder depicted in FIG. 3,

understanding thereby that modifications to handle concurrent powder placement

(FIG. 4), are modifications of the techniques described for preplaced powder, apparent to one having ordinary skill in the art.

[0024] In contrast to typical weld build up processes, the processes described herein include some or all of the following steps: a: Preplacing the powder 230 onto a component substrate or substrate 201 where a buildup of the same composition is desired and both powder and substrate have substantially the same composition (FIG. 3), or laying the powder in front and behind the moving laser beam 242 (or other directed energy beam, as shown in FIG. 4.

b: Heating the preplaced powder 230 to above about 1200 deg. C.

c: Laser 240 melting the preplaced powder 230 so as to produce a heat affected zone (HAZ less than about 100 microns in extent).

d: Producing a known fraction of γ' during each cooling step in the cooling of the solidified powder 250, resulting in;

e: Partitioning Al and Ti between γ and γ' to reduce fusion zone (FZ) cracking susceptibility.

[0025] These procedures represent an improvement over conventional build up techniques for superalloys that are generally not completely successful in eliminating strain age cracking and incipient melting. To avoid cracking, some previous techniques employ a lower-temperature method such as brazing but this typically has the

disadvantage of lowering strength.

[0026] Nearly all commonly used laser build up processes include interaction of the laser beam with the base material. This process causes the HAZ to be large and increases the susceptibility of the base metal to grain boundary cracking. Some embodiments of the present invention preplaces powder of the same or similar composition as the component onto the surface of the component where build up is needed to a thickness of about 1.0 mm to 50 mm (millimeter). Powder size is typically in the range from about 10 microns to about 100 microns.

[0027] This preplaced powder is heated under an inert atmosphere with a first heat source to about 1200 deg. C and held at that temperature for a minimum of 5 minutes to dissolve substantially all γ' phase. An induction coil 260 may advantageously be used as this first heat source as depicted in FIG. 3. This is by way of illustration and not limitation as other first heat sources could also be employed as would be apparent to one having ordinary skill in the art.

[0028] A second heat source such as a laser 240 generating a laser beam 242 or other directed energy source, scans the preplaced powder 230 and heats the powder. The powder 230 thus melts and solidifies to a certain first depth 250 as depicted in FIG. 3A. To avoid producing an overly large HAZ, the laser power dQ is advantageously adjusted so that more than one laser scan is typically required to melt and solidify the preplaced powder. That is, the laser power dQ is adjusted so that a relatively small amount of dilution with the base metal occurs when the melting process of the preplaced

powder 230 is finished, understanding that small dilution means a small HAZ.

[0029] FIG. 3 is a schematic depiction of typical melting apparatus 201 for preplaced powder 230 (FIG. 3) and for concurrently placed powder 230 (FIG. 4). Preplaced powder 230 prevents the fully intense laser beam 242 from interacting with the substrate 201 base metal and causing a large HAZ. Preheating the powder 230 is aimed at reducing the FZ cracks. Preplacing the powder 230 is aimed at preventing the laser beam 242 from interacting with the substrate 201 base metal and reducing grain boundary cracking.

[0030] In FIG. 4, a thin layer of preplaced powder 230 is heated to approximately 1200 deg. C by the induction preheater and, once the laser begins scanning, further heating of the preplaced powder occurs. A laser beam 242 moves over and melts this preplaced powder 230, fusing it to the base material while additional powder 232 is continuously preplaced in front of and behind the moving laser. The process is repeated for as many layers of powder as desired. This embodiment depicted schematically in FIG. 4 likewise employs the concept of the laser beam 242 striking the powder 230 and not the substrate. [0031] In the first pass over the preplaced powder 230 (FIG. 3), only the top portion of the preplaced powder is melted 250, typically only a few microns per pass. Following passes melt layers 252 having similar thicknesses until the final layer in contact with the substrate 201 base metal is melted and fusion is accomplished. This method significantly reduces the HAZ thickness since direct contact of the laser beam 242 with the substrate 201 base metal is substantially reduced.

[0032] Once the melting process for the preplaced powder 230 is finished and the molten powder solidifies to a temperature of no less than 1200 deg. C, the solidified powder 250 is held at that temperature a minimum of one minute followed by a hold and cool process.

[0033] The hold and cool process employs the elemental partitioning of Al and Ti to γ and γ' in full thermodynamic phase equilibrium to accomplish no more than 20% γ' formation at any time during the joining and build up process. The process depletes the γ from Al and Ti. The final γ composition is moved to the weldable region at the end of the SCH (stepwise hold and cool) process as shown in FIG. 2 to prevent strain age cracking (FZ cracking)

[0034] FIG. 2 is a schematic depiction of metallurgical reactions for high strength Ni base superalloys which are laser built up with processes described herein. When the laser melting operation is finished the heat source (e.g., the induction coil 260 in FIG. 3, or similar heat source) is operational and the following process is utilized.

a. Hold at Ti for 1-3 minutes.

b. Cool to T2 and hold for 2-15 min: Produce less than 20% γ' c. Cool to T3 and hold for 2-30 min: Produce less than 20% γ' d. Cool to T4 and hold for 0.1-2 hrs: Produce less than 20% γ'

Cool to Tn and hold for 1-20 hrs (n=l-20): Produce less than 20% γ' Cool to room temperature to produce final γ' content, which is less than about 20%.

[0035] It is anticipated that some embodiments of the present invention can be used for laser build up of high temperature nickel base superalloys typically having more than about 20% γ' in their room temperature structure but, pursuant to some embodiments of the present invention, result in γ' less than about 20% at each hold and cool step. These nonweldable superalloys include each superalloy listed above the nonweldable line 100 in FIG. 1, but improved pursuant to some embodiments of the present invention to lie closer to the weldable zone.

[0036] Some embodiments of this invention advantageously employ two heat sources. First heat source is used to melt the preplaced powder, typically a laser beam 240 or other directed energy beam, as depicted schematically in FIG. 3. A second heat source is used for pre -heating deposited powder and for the controlled cool and hold portion of the process. This second heat source is conveniently taken to be an induction coil 260 as depicted in FIGs. 3 and 4 but other heating sources are not excluded. This induction coil 260 or other second heat source adjusts the temperature of the weld build up in order to produce 20% or less γ' from the γ at any hold temperature. Elemental partitioning of Al and Ti into γ and γ' is calculated from the processing conditions employed making use of available thermodynamic data. Conditions are chosen so as to produce a

maximum 20% γ' formation at any hold temperature. Hold times to reach 20% γ' are calculated from known phase transformation kinetics of the γ-γ' system such as those available through the JMatPro thermodynamic software available through Sente

Software, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA.

[0037] Thus, briefly stated, some embodiments of the present invention relate to the laser build up of Ni base superalloy materials generally considered to be non-weldable as would be useful, for example, in the build up of substantially crack free, near 100% base metal build up on gas turbine components. [0038] The welding process described herein makes use of elemental partitioning of Al and Ti into γ and γ' phases through a step cool and hold process. This depletes the γ phase from Al in a controlled fashion and Ti and improves weldability, typically be achieving a low weight % of γ'. When the Al and Ti content of the stress relieved γ in the joint is reduced to weldable values, the step cool and hold process is terminated and replaced with conventional weld argon cooling.

[0039] Typical embodiments of this invention use two heat sources. One heat source (the first) is used for melting/joining as in a conventional welding process. A laser heat source 240 is advantageously used as this first heat source but other heat sources are not inherently excluded such as arcs, discharges, electron beams, particle beams, among others.

[0040] The other (second) heat source is used for an initial heating of prepositioned powder and for the hold and cool portion of the process. This second heat source adjusts the isothermal hold temperature of the joint to produce no more than about 20% γ' at any isothermal hold temperature. An induction heat source 260 is advantageously used as this second heat source but other heat sources are not inherently excluded. Of course, when the powder 230 is deposited concurrently with the melting step, as depicted in FIG. 4 for example, preheating temperature is not known precisely. However, even with concurrent deposition of powder, the preplaced powder quickly reaches the temperature of the bare metal of the substrate 201.

[0041] One important goal of the concurrent deposition of powder as depicted in FIG. 4 is to prevent the laser beam 242 from interacting directly with the bare metal substrate 201. However, it is important for success of the step, hold and cool process to start at a temperature of about 1200 deg. C or above. The concurrent deposition process achieves this start temperature by the use of an induction heater 260 as well as the heating of the powder by the adjacent laser-generated melt pool 250. [0042] Elemental partitioning of Al and Ti is calculated from available

thermodynamic data that allows a maximum 20% γ' formation at any isothermal hold temperature. Hold times needed to achieve 20% γ' are calculated from the known phase transformation kinetics of the γ- γ' system. Alloys of particular interest here include those noted on FIG. 1.

[0043] Cooling of a Ni base γ' superalloy from its melting temperature results in such superalloys going through a transition from γ phase to γ + γ' phases. The hold and cool process described herein employs the elemental partitioning of Al and Ti into γ and γ' phases in full thermodynamic phase equilibrium to produce no more than 20% γ' at any hold time during the hold and cool process. This depletes the γ phase from Al and Ti and moves the final γ composition into the weldable region as depicted in FIG. 1.

[0044] In this process as depicted in FIG. 2, γ is depleted from Al and Ti through elemental partitioning until its final composition is reduced below the weldable line 100 in FIG. 2D. Compositional change of γ is shown with spots Ti - Tn in FIG. 2A. FIGs. 2B and 2C show the anticipated shift in the cooling curves and the stress vs. time curve after each hold step due to stress relief of the weld at each hold step. [0045] It is expected that the general hold and cool process as described herein can be used on almost any superalloy that experiences strain age cracking. Elemental partitioning of Al and Ti during the hold portions of the process reduces the likelihood of strain age cracking and hot cracking. Such partitioning also significantly reduces the tendency towards strain age cracking during post weld heat treatment since γ is substantially depleted from Al and Ti, and stress relieved, at each step of the hold and cool process.

[0046] Although various embodiments which incorporate the teachings of the present invention have been shown and described in detail herein, those skilled in the art can readily devise many other varied embodiments that still incorporate these teachings.

Claims

What is claimed is: 1. A method of repair additive build up of a nickel ( i) base superalloy with significant titanium (Ti) and aluminum (Al) content comprising:
a) preplacing a Ni base superalloy powder having substantial Ti and Al content onto a substrate of substantially the same or similar composition as the Ni base superalloy powder;
b) preheating the preplaced powder to a temperature above about 1200 deg. C with a first heat source;
c) melting the preplaced powder with one or more passes of a directed energy beam second heat source so as to produce a heat affected zone having a width less than about 100 microns, removing the second heat source when melting is completed;
d) performing a controlled step and hold cooling of the melted preplaced powder with the first heat source such that a known fraction of the γ' phase is formed during the step and hold cooling; and,
e) adjusting the step and hold cooling process such that the partition of Al and Ti between the γ and γ' phases in the additive build up causes a reduction in cracking susceptibility. 2. A method as in claim 1 wherein the step and hold cooling process produces no more than about 20 weight percent γ' phase. 3. A method as in claim 1 wherein the thickness of the additive build up is in the range from about 1 millimeter to about 10 millimeters. 4. A method as in claim 1 wherein the preplaced powder has a particle size in the range from about 10 microns to about 100 microns.
5. A method as in claim 1 wherein the superalloy of said nickel base superalloy components is selected from the group consisting of: 713C, 247, PW1480, MARM200, R77, PW1483, R80, U720, 738 or mixtures thereof 6. A method as in claim 1 wherein the controlled step and hold cooling from an initial temperature Ti to room temperature consists of a plurality of steps:
a. Holding at Ti for a time in the range from about 1 min to about 3 min;
b. Cooling to a temperature T2 lower than Ti and hold for a time in the range from about 2 min to about 15 min so as to produce less than about 20 weight percent γ' phase;
c. Cooling to a temperature T3 lower than T2 and hold for a time in the range from about 2 min to about 30 min so as to produce less than about 20 weight percent γ' phase;
d. Cooling to a temperature T4 lower than T3 and hold for a time in the range from about 6 min to about 120 min so as to produce less than about 20 weight percent γ' phase; and
e. Cooling to room temperature in a plurality of cooling steps from T4 to room temperature wherein the temperature at each step is maintained from about 1 hour to about 20 hours, so as to produce less than about 20 weight percent γ'. 7. A nickel ( i) base super alloy material with significant titanium (Ti) and aluminum (Al) content produced by an additive build up process on a substrate comprising:
a) placing a Ni base super alloy powder on a substrate of substantially the same or similar composition;
b) preheating the preplaced powder to a temperature above about 1200 deg. C with a first heat source;
c) melting the preplaced powder with a single pass of a second moving laser heat source so as to produce a heat affected zone having a width less than about 100 microns while powder is concurrently preplaced in front of and behind the second moving laser heat source; c-1) scanning the second moving laser heat source and concurrently preplacing powder for a plurality of repetitions until the desired thickness of material is achieved;
c-2) turning off the second moving laser heat source;
d) performing a controlled step and hold cooling of the melted preplaced powder with the first heat source such that a known fraction of the γ' phase is formed during the step and hold cooling;
e) adjusting the step and hold cooling process such that the partition of Al and Ti between the γ and γ' phases in the additive build up causes a reduction in cracking susceptibility; and
f) adjusting the step and hold cooling process such that the partition of Al and Ti between the γ and γ' phases in the additive build up causes a reduction in cracking susceptibility. 8. A material as in claim 7 wherein the step and hold cooling process produces no more than about 20 weight percent γ' phase. 9. A material as in claim 7 wherein the thickness of the additive build up is in the range from about 1 millimeter to about 50 millimeters. 10. A material as in claim 7 wherein the preplaced powder has a particle size in the range from about 10 microns to about 100 microns. 11. A material as in claim 7 wherein the superalloy of said nickel base superalloy components is selected from the group consisting of: 713C, 247, PW1480, MARM200, R77, PW1483, R80, U720, 738 or mixtures thereof.
12. A material as in claim 7 wherein the controlled step and hold cooling from an initial temperature Ti to room temperature consists of a plurality of steps:
a. Holding at Ti for a time in the range from about 1 min to about 3 min; b. Cooling to a temperature T2 lower than Ti and hold for a time in the range from about 2 min to about 15 min so as to produce less than about 20 weight percent γ' phase;
c. Cooling to a temperature T3 lower than T2 and hold for a time in the range from about 2 min to about 30 min so as to produce less than about 20 weight percent γ' phase;
d. Cooling to a temperature T4 lower than T3 and hold for a time in the range from about 6 min to about 120 min so as to produce less than about 20 weight percent γ' phase; and
e. Cooling to room temperature in a plurality of cooling steps from T4 to room temperature wherein the temperature at each step is maintained from about 1 hour to about 20 hours, so as to produce less than about 20 weight percent γ'. 13. A method of additive build up of a nickel (Ni) base superalloy with significant titanium (Ti) and aluminum (Al) content comprising:
a) placing a Ni base super alloy powder on a substrate of substantially the same or similar composition;
b) preheating the preplaced powder to a temperature above about 1200 deg. C with a first heat source;
c) melting the preplaced powder with one or more passes of a directed energy beam second heat source so as to produce a heat affected zone having a width less than about 100 microns, removing the second heat source when melting is completed; d) performing a controlled step and hold cooling of the melted preplaced powder with the first heat source such that a known fraction of the γ' phase is formed during the step and hold cooling; and,
e) adjusting the step and hold cooling process such that the partition of Al and Ti between the γ and γ' phases in the additive build up causes a reduction in cracking susceptibility.
PCT/US2013/040742 2011-11-07 2013-05-13 Laser additive repairing of nickel base superalloy components WO2014025432A2 (en)

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US201261645863P true 2012-05-11 2012-05-11
US61/645,863 2012-05-11
US13/489,863 US9347124B2 (en) 2011-11-07 2012-06-06 Hold and cool process for superalloy joining
US13/489,863 2012-06-06
US13/611,034 2012-09-12
US13/611,034 US9272365B2 (en) 2012-09-12 2012-09-12 Superalloy laser cladding with surface topology energy transfer compensation
US13/891,314 2013-05-10
US13/891,314 US9527162B2 (en) 2011-11-07 2013-05-10 Laser additive repairing of nickel base superalloy components

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CN201380029025.8A CN104364045B (en) 2012-05-11 2013-05-13 The laser additive of nickel-based superalloy component is repaired
EP13798417.5A EP2846958B1 (en) 2012-05-11 2013-05-13 Laser additive repairing of nickel base superalloy components
JP2015511797A JP6005850B2 (en) 2012-05-11 2013-05-13 Additional laser repair of nickel-based superalloy parts
KR1020147034888A KR20150008487A (en) 2012-05-11 2013-05-13 Laser additive repairing of nickel base superalloy components
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EP3305444A1 (en) * 2016-10-08 2018-04-11 Ansaldo Energia IP UK Limited Method for manufacturing a mechanical component
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US10421142B2 (en) 2011-03-31 2019-09-24 Norsk Titanium As Method and arrangement for building metallic objects by solid freeform fabrication using plasma transferred arc (PTA) torches
EP3445882A4 (en) * 2016-04-20 2019-11-13 Arconic Inc Fcc materials of aluminum, cobalt, nickel and titanium, and products made therefrom
WO2018007042A1 (en) * 2016-07-08 2018-01-11 Norsk Titanium As Method and arrangement for building metallic objects by solid freeform fabrication with two welding guns
EP3305444A1 (en) * 2016-10-08 2018-04-11 Ansaldo Energia IP UK Limited Method for manufacturing a mechanical component

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