WO2008090261A1 - A spectrometer and a method for controlling the spectrometer - Google Patents

A spectrometer and a method for controlling the spectrometer Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2008090261A1
WO2008090261A1 PCT/FI2008/050023 FI2008050023W WO2008090261A1 WO 2008090261 A1 WO2008090261 A1 WO 2008090261A1 FI 2008050023 W FI2008050023 W FI 2008050023W WO 2008090261 A1 WO2008090261 A1 WO 2008090261A1
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WO
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Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
spectrometer
accordance
characterized
signal
detector
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/FI2008/050023
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Heikki Saari
Original Assignee
Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J3/00Spectrometry; Spectrophotometry; Monochromators; Measuring colours
    • G01J3/02Details
    • G01J3/10Arrangements of light sources specially adapted for spectrometry or colorimetry
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J3/00Spectrometry; Spectrophotometry; Monochromators; Measuring colours
    • G01J3/12Generating the spectrum; Monochromators
    • G01J3/26Generating the spectrum; Monochromators using multiple reflection, e.g. Fabry-Perot interferometer, variable interference filters
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J3/00Spectrometry; Spectrophotometry; Monochromators; Measuring colours
    • G01J3/28Investigating the spectrum
    • G01J3/42Absorption spectrometry; Double beam spectrometry; Flicker spectrometry; Reflection spectrometry
    • G01J3/433Modulation spectrometry; Derivative spectrometry
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B26/00Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating
    • G02B26/001Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating based on interference in an adjustable optical cavity

Abstract

The invention relates to a spectrometer for material analysis and to a control method for a spectrometer. The spectrometer includes a radiant source (140) formed by multiple single radiation sources (141) having different central wavelengths, for generating a measuring signal, a measurement object (100) containing a material to be analyzed, at least one electrically tunable Fabry-Perot filter (120, 220) for the band pass filtering the measuring signal by at least two pass bands, and a detector (300, 400) for detecting said filtered measuring signals received from the measurement object (100). In accordance with the invention the spectrometer has means (312) for modulating each of the single radiation sources (141) and correspondingly means (307, 309) for demodulating the detected signals such that the signal from each single radiation source can be distinguished from each other in the detector (300, 400), and the spectrometer has means for detecting (300, 400) and demodulating (306, 307) multiple pass bands simultaneously.

Description

A spectrometer and a method for controlling the spectrometer

The present invention relates to a spectrometer in accordance with the preamble of claim 1.

The invention also concerns a method for controlling a spectrometer.

In accordance with the prior art process spectrometers are using LED-light sources with multiple wavelength areas with various interferometer filters positioned in front of them. The detector comprises typically several individual detectors, which respectively have their own interferometers adapted for the target to be measured.

An alternative way for selecting the wavelength bands is to use a rotating filter disc in combination with one detector.

In US 2005/0264808 is described a system, where a tunable excitation source is used in combination with lock-in detection. This solution is complex and does not allow simultaneous detection of multiple wavelengths.

It is an object of the present invention to overcome disadvantages related to the above- described prior-art techniques and to achieve an entirely novel spectrometer and a control method for a spectrometer.

The invention is based on modulated light sources formed by multiple single light sources having different wavelengths in combination with a Fabry-Perot filter of multiple order such that signals from multiple orders are processed simultaneously and the detected signals are demodulated correspondingly.

More specifically, the spectrometer according to the invention is characterized by what is stated in the characterizing part of claim 1.

Furthermore, the method according to the invention is characterized by what is stated in the characterizing part of claim 7. The invention offers significant benefits.

By a simple overall design simultaneous detection of multiple wavelengths can be achieved by a wideband detector. This is an advantage e.g., in concentration measurements using refer- ence channel parallel with the measurement channel. Other applications for the invention are colour and concentration measurements in industrial applications. A third application area concerns reader devices for biological measurements, especially measurements based on fluorescence. In these fluorescence measurements both the light exiting the fluorescence and the actual fluorescent light can be measured simultaneously.

By selecting the wavelengths of the individual light sources such that they overlap with each other over the desired wavelength range, the desired range can be scanned by the Fabry-Perot element.

The invention is suitable for a wide spectral range from UV- up to IR-range. The invention suits both for absorption and reflection measurements. The detection can be made either with one detector or several detectors.

If the wavelengths of the individual light sources do not overlap, it is possible to adapt a pass band of the Fabry-Perot interferometer to each wavelength of the individual light sources.

When each of the light sources is modulated at an individual frequency, it is possible to detect simultaneously several pass bands of the Fabry-Perot interferometer.

The invention is next examined in greater detail with the help of exemplifying embodiments illustrated in the appended drawings, in which

Figure Ia shows as a sectioned side view a Fabry-Perot interferometer suitable for a spectrometer in accordance with the invention.

Figure Ib shows as a top view a Fabry-Perot interferometer sectioned between the mirrors in accordance with figure Ia. Figure 2 shows as a block diagram a basic configuration a spectrometer in accordance with the invention.

Figure 3 shows as a block diagram a first modification of a spectrometer in accordance with the invention.

Figure 4 shows as a block diagram a second modification of a spectrometer in accordance with the invention.

Figure 5 shows as a block diagram a third modification of a spectrometer in accordance with the invention.

Figure 6 shows as a block diagram a fourth modification of a spectrometer in accordance with the invention.

Figure 7 shows as a block diagram a fifth modification of a spectrometer in accordance with the invention.

Figure 8 shows as a block diagram a sixth modification of a spectrometer in accordance with the invention.

The following terminology will be used in connection with the reference numerals:

100 Measurement Target or illumination fiber bundle 110 Imaging optics

120 NOSPI Fabry-Perot Interferometer platform

121 Optically transparent plates

122 FPI support structure 124 Piezo actuator 126 sensing electrodes for capacitive gap height measurement

128 Dielectric or metallic front surface mirrors

130 RGB color image sensor (detector), (CMOS or CCD)

140 Illumination LEDs covering the spectral range for the selected application

141 Single radiation source 142 Illumination LEDs

220 Second FPI

300 Measurement Detector

301 Lens 302 Measurement photodetector preamplifier

303 Lens

304 Reference detector

305 Reference photo detector preamplifier

306 Reference detector FFT or multi channel phase locked loop module 307 Measurement detector FFT or multi channel phase locked loop module

308 Data acquisition and processing unit Modulation of each Led is at different freq. And tuned currents Readout of FFT spectra or Phase locked loop signals at each led frequency Setting the gap width of FPI for predefined spectral bands 309 Closed loop control electronics for 3 piezo actuators

310 Piezo actuator DC/DC converter

311 Capacitive position sensor Preamplifiers

312 Multi led drive electronics

313 Beam splitter 400 Detector

401 connecting piece

In accordance with figure Ia the Fabry-Perot interferometer in accordance with the invention is formed by two optically transparent plates 121 positioned parallel to each other. The sur- faces of the plates 121 facing each other are coated by dielectric or metallic layers 128 forming mirrors. The length of the gap between the plates 121 is monitored by sensing electrodes 126. The length of the gap is made electrically adjustable by piezo actuators 124, which are positioned between one plate 121 and the Fabry-Perot support structure 122. Piezo stack actuators 124 are used in commercial nanostages and in some of them a capacitive position sen- sor is integrated into the actuator structure. There are available ring shaped actuators which can provide movement of 2 - 3 μm and stack actuators with a diameter of 3 mm and height of 2 to 20 mm which can provide 2 - 20 μm travel. A possible concept of Fabry-Perot interferometer of figures Ia and Ib is based on three piezo stack actuators 124 and the sensing electrodes 126 for the measurement of the position.

The other plate 121 (in figure the upper one) is fixedly attached to the Fabry-Perot support structure 122. The mirror diameter is typically 5-40 mm and total thickness about 1-5 mm. The length of the gap is typically in the range of 0.25-20 μm and adjustable at least partially in this range.

In accordance with figure Ib the measuring electrodes 126 surround the mirror 128 and the piezo actuators 124 are evenly distributed around the mirror 128.

In accordance with figure 2 the Fabry-Perot element 120 with cavity with changeable gap width provides the means for controlling the spectrum of the light source 140 including multiple individual light sources 141.

The higher the gap width the more orders there are in the FPI. For the selected gap width dgap and for the order n the center wavelength of the pass band is given by

In accordance with figure 2 the light source 140 comprises multiple individual light sources 141 each having a wavelength differing from other individual light sources 141. The signal is directed to the optical path 180 through a focusing lens 170, Fabry-Perot interferometer 120, measurement target 100 and finally to the detector 400. Graph 160 represents a typical output spectrum or the light source 140 and graph 150 a corresponding spectrum from the output of the spectrometer 120.

As later described in detail a data acquisition and processing unit controls the modulation frequency and drive currents of each LED 141. By using different modulation frequency or time multiplexing for each LED their signals can be readout simultaneously. The intensities of LEDs can be ontrolled by changing their drive currents. The light from Leds is collimated by the lens 170 and directed through the FPI 120 to the target 100 or a fiber bundle if the target is not reachable directly. In accordance with figure 3 one embodiment of the system in accordance with the invention functions as follows:

Each of the individual light sources 141 is modulated by a separate frequency or at the same frequency but at a separate phase such that these signals can be separated from each other in demodulators 306 and 307 after the detectors 300 and 304. In the optical measurement channel 180 is positioned a focusing lens 170 for aligning the light to the measurement path. In the solution of figure 3 there is a beam splitter 313 for guiding (reflecting) part of the measurement signal to the reference channel formed by focusing lens 303, reference detector 304 and preamplifier 305.

The reference photo detector 304 is used to monitor the output intensity of each Led 141. The light transmitted or reflected by the target 100 is focused by a lens 301 on the measurement photo detector 300. The preamplifiers 302 and 305 in the proximity of the measurement and reference detectors 300 and 304 amplify and scale the detector signals to the input signal range of the FFT module or of the multi channel phase locked loop amplifiers 307 and 306. The Data acquisition and processing unit 308 processes the signals of the measurement and reference detectors 300 and 304 and adds the knowledge of the selected wavelengths to the signals of each Led 141. The wavelength knowledge is based on the capacitive position sen- sor 126 output, which gives value of the gap width of the Fabry-Perot interferometer 120. The accuracy and stability of the wavelength scale is dependent on the quality of the capacitive position measurement.

The block 309 is a closed loop control element for controlling the piezo elements 124 and/or the Fabry-Perot element 120. For control purposes this element 309 receives signals from the capacitive gap height sensors 129 through preamplifiers 311 and based on this information controls the three piezo elements 124 via piezo actuator (DC/DC converter) 310 for changing the gap of the Fabry-Perot element.

In accordance with figure 4 on the signal path 180 after the measurement target 100 and before the detector 300 is positioned a second, typically identical Fabry-Perot element 220 with similar control elements 310 and 311 as in figure 3. The benefit of using a second Fabry- Perot interferometer 220 in front the detector 300 is the suppression of light intensity outside the selected wavelength band. In accordance with figure 5 the solution of figure 2 is modified such that the piezo actuators 124 are connected to the optically transparent plate 121 via connecting pieces 401.

Figure 6 depicts a solution, where in the application of figure 4 the piezo elements 124 are implemented as in figure 5. The control elements are not described in this connection.

Figure 7 depicts an embodiment of the invention, where the optical path 180 is slanted. Also in this solution two Fabry-Perot interferometers 120 and 220 are used with an optical element 110. The detection is performed by a RGB color image sensor 130 (detector), (CMOS or CCD).

The solution of figure 7 represents a single point spectrometer, which offers cost effective way to construct an IR spectrometer. In many applications there exists a need for spectral imaging of the target. This can be accomplished by a concept shown in figure 7. The target 100 is illuminated with a multiple LED light source 140 similar to the module explained in previous embodiments. By exposing the target 100 with a short light pulse for one LED at a time and tuning the FPIs 120 of the LED module and the other 220 in front of the linear or array detector 130 to the needed wavelength spectral image of the target can be constructed. When using a linear array in which the signal from each detector can be read out in parallel the similar signal processing as depicted in previous chapter for a single point spectrometer can be used.

In accordance with figure 8 the measurement target 100 is illuminated directly by light sources 142. The Fabry-Perot interferometer is used in connection with the detection only and as a detector is used a RGB color image sensor 130.

The assessment and simulations performed proved that it is possible to control the spectrum of a multi Led illuminator via Fabry-Perot interferometer whose gap width can be tuned in the range 1 - 5 μm. The mirror coating can be made with Ag, which is rather standard coating material. The metal coating is preferred because the multilayer dielectric mirrors only have high reflectance at a rather limited spectral range. A suitable wavelength area for the LEDs in accordance with the invention is e.g., in the rang e of 200 - 5000 nm.

Claims

Claims:
1. A spectrometer for material analysis comprising
- a radiant source (140) formed by multiple single radiation sources (141) having different central wavelengths, for generating a measuring signal,
- a measurement object (100) containing a material to be analyzed,
- at least one electrically tunable Fabry-Perot filter (120, 220) for the band pass filtering the measuring signal by at least two pass bands for the used signal wavelength range, and
- a detector (300, 400) for detecting said filtered measuring signals received from the measurement object (100),
characterized in that
- the spectrometer has means (312) for modulating each of the single radiation sources (141) and correspondingly means (307, 309) for demodulating the detected signals such that the signal from each single radiation source can be distinguished from each other in the detector (300, 400), and
- the spectrometer has means for detecting (300, 400) and demodulating (306,
307) multiple pass bands simultaneously.
2. A spectrometer in accordance with claim 1, characterized in that the means for modulating and demodulating are based on frequency modulation.
3. A spectrometer in accordance with claim 1, characterized in that the means for modulating and demodulating are based on time division modulation.
4. A spectrometer in accordance with claim 1, characterized in that the means for modulating and demodulating are based on phase modulation.
5. A spectrometer in accordance with any previous claim, characterized in that it includes a second Fabry-Perot interferometer (220) in vicinity of the detector (300, 400).
6. A spectrometer in accordance with any previous claim, characterized in that the multiple single radiation sources (141) are LEDs.
7. A control method for a spectrometer for material analysis, which method comprises the following steps:
- generating a measurement signal is by a radiant source (140) formed by multiple single radiation sources (141) having different central wavelengths, for generating a measuring signal,
- directing the measurement signal to a measurement object (100) containing a material to be analyzed,
- filtering the measurement signal by at least one electrically tunable Fabry-
Perot filter (120, 220) by at least two pass bands for the used signal wavelength range, and
- detecting (300, 400) said filtered measuring signals received from the meas- urement obj ect ( 100),
characterized in that it comprises further steps for
- modulating (312) each of the single radiation sources (141) and correspond- ingly
- demodulating (307, 309) the detected signals such that the signal from each single radiation source can be distinguished from each other in the detector (300, 400) and - detecting (300, 400) and demodulating (306, 307) multiple pass bands simultaneously.
8. A method in accordance with claim 7, characterized in that the modulation and demodulation are performed by frequency modulation.
9. A method in accordance with claim 7, characterized in that the modulation and demodulation are performed by time division modulation.
10. A method in accordance with claim 7, characterized in that the modulation and demodulation are performed by phase modulation.
11. A method in accordance with any previous claim, characterized in that a second Fabry- Perot interferometer (220) is used in vicinity of the detector (300, 400).
12. A method in accordance with any previous claim, characterized in that the signal is formed by the multiple single LED radiation sources (141).
PCT/FI2008/050023 2007-01-26 2008-01-23 A spectrometer and a method for controlling the spectrometer WO2008090261A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

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GB0701536A GB2445956B (en) 2007-01-26 2007-01-26 A spectrometer and a method for controlling the spectrometer

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US12524335 US8233147B2 (en) 2007-01-26 2008-01-23 Spectrometer and a method for controlling the spectrometer
EP20080701723 EP2106537A4 (en) 2007-01-26 2008-01-23 A spectrometer and a method for controlling the spectrometer

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FR2933193A1 (en) * 2008-12-23 2010-01-01 Continental Automotive France Light beam spectrum measuring device e.g. mini spectrometer, for sensor, to detect quality of e.g. fuel, in motor vehicle, has wave length filter located behind measure cell and associated to measure detector
WO2010112679A1 (en) * 2009-04-02 2010-10-07 Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus System and method for optical measurement of a target
EP2444791A1 (en) * 2010-10-25 2012-04-25 General Electric Company Gas analyzer for measuring at least two components of a gas
CN104501956A (en) * 2014-12-30 2015-04-08 华中科技大学 Ultra wide wave band atlas correlation detecting device and method

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JP5569002B2 (en) * 2010-01-21 2014-08-13 セイコーエプソン株式会社 Analytical instruments and characteristic measuring method
JP5724557B2 (en) * 2011-04-07 2015-05-27 セイコーエプソン株式会社 Variable wavelength interference filter, an optical module, and an optical analyzer
CN103608654A (en) * 2011-06-21 2014-02-26 奥林巴斯株式会社 Spectral image capturing device
US9279722B2 (en) 2012-04-30 2016-03-08 Agilent Technologies, Inc. Optical emission system including dichroic beam combiner
GB201207881D0 (en) 2012-05-04 2012-06-20 Isis Innovation Active chemical sensing using optical microcavity
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US9952096B2 (en) 2012-06-05 2018-04-24 President And Fellows Of Harvard College Ultra-thin optical coatings and devices and methods of using ultra-thin optical coatings
US9255844B2 (en) 2012-09-12 2016-02-09 Teknologian Tutkimuskeskus Vtt System and method for optical measurement of a target at multiple positions
US9429474B2 (en) * 2012-10-08 2016-08-30 Si-Ware Systems Fourier transform micro spectrometer based on spatially-shifted interferogram bursts
FI125762B (en) * 2012-10-11 2016-02-15 Teknologian Tutkimuskeskus Vtt Oy Method for determining the calibration parameters for a spectrometer
FR2992425A1 (en) * 2013-05-17 2013-12-27 Continental Automotive France On-board spectrometer for measuring spectrum wavelength of fuel in car, has capacitance measuring unit measuring capacitance between conductive elements, and storage unit storing capacitance value as function of wavelength to select
WO2015059353A1 (en) * 2013-10-21 2015-04-30 Teknologian Tutkimuskeskus Vtt Device and method for optical measurement of a target
CN103873014B (en) * 2014-03-13 2016-09-28 青岛市光电工程技术研究院 One kind of ultra-narrowband filtering means
WO2015191690A1 (en) * 2014-06-12 2015-12-17 Colorado State University Research Foundation Apparatus and method for measurement of optical frequency shifts
EP3268709A1 (en) * 2015-03-09 2018-01-17 California Institute of Technology Mid-infrared hyperspectral spectroscopy systems and methods thereof
FI20165213A (en) 2016-03-15 2017-03-15 Teknologian Tutkimuskeskus Vtt Oy Hyperspektrikuvausjärjestely

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2933193A1 (en) * 2008-12-23 2010-01-01 Continental Automotive France Light beam spectrum measuring device e.g. mini spectrometer, for sensor, to detect quality of e.g. fuel, in motor vehicle, has wave length filter located behind measure cell and associated to measure detector
WO2010112679A1 (en) * 2009-04-02 2010-10-07 Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus System and method for optical measurement of a target
US8792100B2 (en) 2009-04-02 2014-07-29 Teknologian Tutkimu Skeskus VTT System and method for optical measurement of a target
EP2414794A4 (en) * 2009-04-02 2017-12-20 Teknologian Tutkimuskeskus VTT System and method for optical measurement of a target
EP2444791A1 (en) * 2010-10-25 2012-04-25 General Electric Company Gas analyzer for measuring at least two components of a gas
CN102455286A (en) * 2010-10-25 2012-05-16 通用电气公司 Gas analyzer for measuring at least two components of a gas
US8642966B2 (en) 2010-10-25 2014-02-04 General Electric Company Gas analyzer for measuring at least two components of a gas
CN104501956A (en) * 2014-12-30 2015-04-08 华中科技大学 Ultra wide wave band atlas correlation detecting device and method

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US20100097613A1 (en) 2010-04-22 application
GB0701536D0 (en) 2007-03-07 grant
EP2106537A1 (en) 2009-10-07 application
US8233147B2 (en) 2012-07-31 grant
EP2106537A4 (en) 2013-12-04 application
GB2445956B (en) 2009-12-02 grant
GB2445956A (en) 2008-07-30 application

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