WO2008086832A1 - Method and device for the non-invasive analysis of a body with ultrasound radiation - Google Patents

Method and device for the non-invasive analysis of a body with ultrasound radiation

Info

Publication number
WO2008086832A1
WO2008086832A1 PCT/EP2007/008535 EP2007008535W WO2008086832A1 WO 2008086832 A1 WO2008086832 A1 WO 2008086832A1 EP 2007008535 W EP2007008535 W EP 2007008535W WO 2008086832 A1 WO2008086832 A1 WO 2008086832A1
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
body
magnetic
ultrasonic
data
measuring
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2007/008535
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Stefan Gassner
Original Assignee
Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/05Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnosis by means of electric currents or magnetic fields; Measuring using microwaves or radiowaves
    • A61B5/053Measuring electrical impedance or conductance of a portion of the body
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B8/00Diagnosis using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
    • A61B8/13Tomography
    • A61B8/14Echo-tomography
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B8/00Diagnosis using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
    • A61B8/44Constructional features of the ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic diagnostic device
    • A61B8/4416Constructional features of the ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic diagnostic device related to combined acquisition of different diagnostic modalities, e.g. combination of ultrasound and X-ray acquisitions

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for the non-invasive analysis of a region inside a body and under the body surface by means of ultrasound radiation, characterized in that ultrasound radiation is directed into the inside of the body through the body surface. The ultrasound radiation reflected by the internal body structures is measured and conclusions are drawn with respect to the arrangement of the internal body structures. In order to render the measurement results largely independent from the nature of the intermediary tissue structures, it is proposed that eddy currents are induced in the region to be analyzed by applying an external, primary alternating magnetic field, the generated secondary magnetic fields induced by said eddy currents are measured outside the body, data on the basis of the obtained measurement data of the secondary magnetic fields with respect to the nature of the tissue adjacent to the body surface, to its arrangement, distribution and/or thickness is derived and said data are taken into consideration during the evaluation of the measurement results of the reflected ultrasound radiation.

Description

METHOD AND DEVICE FOR NON-INVASIVE ANALYSIS OF A BODY WITH ULTRASOUND RADIATION

The invention relates to a method for non-invasive investigation of a lying inside a body of the body surface area with ultrasonic radiation, wherein the directed ultrasonic radiation through the body surface into the interior of the body, the radiation reflected from the internal body structures of the body measures ultrasonic radiation and conclusions as to the arrangement the internal body structures draws.

Such methods are widely used and have the advantage that non-invasive body structures inside the body can be examined, however, where there is a certain problem in that the ultrasonic radiation when passing through the tissue structures in different types of tissue will be absorbed differently and is reflected and also have a different propagation speed can. Therefore, when the tissue structures between the body surface and to be examined body structure, such as a bony structure is not formed homogeneously and when the composition of which is not known, it is difficult, from the reflected ultrasonic radiation and the duration of the ultrasonic radiation between the transmission and reception of the reflected ultrasonic radiation to evaluate the measurement results accurate. In order to obtain reliable measuring results on the position of body structures, in which the ultrasonic radiation is reflected, would be information about the type of the lying between the body surface and body to be examined structure fabric layers need their distribution, thickness, and assembly.

It is an object of the invention to design a generic method that the information on internal body structures by providing information on the type, distribution and / or arrangement of the layers of tissue inside the body reached by the ultrasound can be improved.

This object is achieved with a method of the type described at the outset according to the invention in that one induced by an external, primary alternating magnetic field in the under examination area eddy currents, measures the secondary magnetic fields generated by these eddy currents outside the body from the measurement data of the secondary magnetic fields data about the nature of the adjacent to the body surface tissue derives its arrangement, distribution and / or thickness and takes into account this data in the evaluation of the measuring results of the reflected ultrasonic radiation.

The ultrasonic inspection method is thus combined with a further non-invasive examination method in which the electrical conductivity of the different tissue regions in the body is determined indirectly by induced in the tissue layers eddy currents. This conductivity, in turn, provides information about the nature of the tissue, the distribution of different types, tissue, across the layer thickness and / or the arrangement of certain tissue layers. This information can then be used directly to modify the measurement results of ultrasonic examination and to adapt to the actual conditions in the traversed by the ultrasonic radiation area of ​​the body.

A method for studying the biological tissue by induced eddy currents are known per se, but are primarily used to give up-circuit skin irritation, the course of wound healing or the presence of edema (Dissertation Dipl.-Ing. Claudia H. Riedel "Planar Inductive impedance measurement procedures in medical technology "July 15, 2004, Faculty of Electrical engineering and information technology at the University Fridericiana Karlsruhe). A combination of such a method with an ultrasonic examination now yields a combined method, in which can the tissue-specific data in the examination zone which is traversed by the ultrasonic radiation collect and use non-invasive, in order to adapt the measurement data of the ultrasonic radiation to the individual tissue formation in the region between the body surface and investigated internal body structure so as to obtain in this way the ultrasound examinations even if differently shaped, the internal body structure covering fabric layers significantly increased significance.

It is favorable if one compensates for the action of the primary alternating magnetic field on the measuring device of the secondary magnetic field in the measurement of the secondary magnetic field. Thereby, the measurement accuracy can be considerably increased, since the size of the secondary magnetic field generated by the eddy currents is substantially smaller than the size of the primary alternating magnetic field, depending on the spacing and configuration of the apparatus used, the secondary magnetic field of the order of 10 "2 and 10 '6 of the primary alternating magnetic field lie.

According to a particularly preferred embodiment it is provided that is used primary alternating magnetic fields having different frequencies, for example at frequencies of 500 kHz and 1 MHz, and in principle can be found frequencies in the range between 20 kHz and 10 MHz using. The advantage of using different frequencies is that the induction of the eddy currents vary in size under the influence of the primary alternating magnetic field, and thus the generation of the secondary magnetic field in different types of tissue depending on the frequency, that is different types of fabric wear at different frequencies different strongly contribute to the generation of the eddy currents and thus the secondary magnetic field. This makes it possible to obtain information on the nature of the fabric layers by measuring with several frequencies, in which the eddy currents are generated.

It is convenient when storing empirical values ​​for the magnitude of the induced eddy currents for different tissue types in a data memory and if the arrangement, distribution and / or thickness uses these values ​​to determine the nature of the adjacent to the body surface tissue, due to the secondary magnetic fields.

The invention further relates to a device for investigation of a lying inside a body of the body surface area with ultrasonic radiation with an ultrasonic radiation through the body surface directing in the interior of the body ultrasonic transmitter, the ultrasonic radiation reflected from the internal body structures measuring ultrasonic receiver and a data processing device, which is so programmed that it determines from the measurement data of the reflected ultrasonic radiation, the arrangement of the internal body structures.

Starting from such a device of the invention is also based on the object to further develop such a device that, even with different tissue structures between the body surface and to be examined internal body structure accurate results can be obtained. This object is achieved in a device of the type described above according to the invention characterized in that it additionally includes an exciter for an external, primary alternating magnetic field, by which eddy currents are induced in the subject to be examined area, as well as a receiver generated by these eddy currents secondary magnetic fields outside the body measures, and that the data processing means is programmed to from the measurement data of the secondary magnetic data about the nature of the adjacent to the body surface tissue derives its arrangement, distribution and / or thickness, and this data in the evaluation of the measurement results of the reflected ultrasonic radiation considered.

In such a device the data determined by the ultrasonic radiation are automatically modified in accordance with the data resulting from the different tissue structure between the body surface and to be examined internal body structure, so that one independently example of the distribution of skin, fat and muscle tissue in the investigated area is given accurate information about the geometry of the examined by the ultrasonic radiation internal body structure.

It is favorable when the excitation of the primary alternating magnetic field, and the receiver of the secondary magnetic field are arranged in a magnetic measuring head. In this case, the user may contact and non-invasively examine the nature of the tissue layers adjacent to the body surface with said magnetic sensing head, which data are processed in the data processing means for modifying the ultrasound data.

According to a preferred embodiment, this magnetic sensor can be combined with the ultrasonic transmitter and the ultrasonic receiver in a common men measuring head in which the measurement is performed either sequentially or simultaneously.

It is favorable when the excitation of the primary alternating magnetic field, and the receiver of the secondary magnetic fields are formed such that a signal generated by the radiated from the excitation primary alternating magnetic field at the receiver of the secondary magnetic field measurement signal is compensated is. This can be done relative to the transmitter coils, or, for example, by a vertical array of receiver coils by the provision of a plurality of receiver coils that are connected such that the signals produced in them by the primary alternating magnetic field cancel each other, while this is not the in the secondary magnetic field signals is the case.

It can be provided that the exciter generates the primary alternating magnetic fields having different frequencies, for example at frequencies of about 500 kHz and about 1 MHz.

In a particularly preferred embodiment it is provided that the data processing device is a data storage associated with the empirical value of the magnitude of induced eddy currents for different types of tissue stores, and that the data processing means is programmed so that these values ​​to determine the nature of the adjacent to the body surface tissue whose arrangement, distribution and / or thickness is used due to the secondary magnetic fields.

The following description of preferred embodiments of the invention serves in conjunction with the drawings for a more detailed explanation. In the drawings: Figure 1 is a schematic overall view of a patient with a

An inspection apparatus having an ultrasonic head, and an impedance measuring head and a measuring heads associated data processing means, and

2 shows a schematic view of an impedance measuring head in addition to a range to be examined of the body with different types of tissue.

For examining a patient 1, which may be stored, for example on an operating table 2, a measuring device 3 is used, comprising an ultrasonic measuring head 4 and an impedance measuring head. 5 In the embodiment of Figure 1 of the ultrasonic measuring head 4 and the impedance measuring head 5 are configured as independently movable parts, but it could also be provided that the ultrasonic measuring head 4 and the impedance measuring head 5 are arranged in a common housing, so that a combined probe for ultrasonic measurement and is formed for impedance measurement.

Both the ultrasonic measuring head 4 and the impedance measuring head 5 are connected via a data line 6 and 7, with a data processing device 8, also is the impedance measuring head 5 with a high frequency generator 9 via an excitation line 11 in connection, the RF generator 9 is also connected via a control line 10 connected to the data processing means. 8 The data processing device 8 is associated with a display unit 12, for example, a conventional flat panel display.

The ultrasonic measuring head 4 is of conventional design and will, in general a greater number of not shown in the drawing ultrasonic transmitters which are arranged in the form of an array or a matrix, and when creating the ultrasound probe 4 on the body surface 13 of the patient ultrasonic radiation into the interior align the patient first This ultrasonic radiation penetrates into the body and passes through the disposed at the inlet of tissue structures. As can be seen from the illustration of Figure 2, these tissue structures are not a homogeneous structure, but they are composed of the skin 14 and from other tissue types, which are shown in the illustration of Figure 2 simply as different layers, namely a layer of fat 15 and a muscle layer 16. Also located in the body bony structures 17, to which the ultrasonic radiation is typically reflected as they penetrate the skin, fat layer and the muscle layer is substantially unimpaired.

The light reflected at the bony structure 17 ultrasonic radiation is then irradiated to the outside again and there received by the ultrasonic probe 4, and in this arranged ultrasonic receivers. Between the transmission and reception of ultrasonic pulses passes a certain time, this depends on the distance of the reflecting layer, that is, the bony structure 17, from the ultrasonic measuring head, but is also influenced by the nature of the layers of tissue between the ultrasonic measuring head 4 and the bone structure 17 because the speed of sound is different in the skin, the fat layer and muscle layer - and of course in other tissues, such as body fluid, blood, etc., which are not specifically mentioned here for simplicity.

Without knowledge of the structure of the fabric layers thus resulting inaccuracies in the ultrasonic measurement, so that the data processing device 8 has to specify the location of the examined bony structures 17 with a certain inaccuracy on the display unit 12th

In the impedance measuring head 5 is located an exciter 18, such as a larger, flat coil which is connected to the output of the RF generator 9 and which can be flowed through by a high frequency alternating current, the RF generator 9 provides. By this current flow of the exciter 18 produces a corresponding high-frequency alternating primary magnetic field.

Also located in the impedance measuring head 5, two receiver coils 19, 20 which are disposed at equal intervals above and below the exciter 18 and parallel to this. These receiver coils 19, 20 are, for example, wound in opposite directions so that the induced from the exciter 18 in the receiver coils 19, 20 signals compensate.

If the impedance measuring head 5 is arranged in the manner shown in Figure 2, directly on the body surface 13, penetrates the primary alternating magnetic field, a induced in the skin 14, the fat layer 15, the muscle layer 16 and the bony structure 17. In this area, the high frequency alternating magnetic field, eddy currents, which turns out in practice that the strength of the induced eddy currents depends heavily on the nature of the tissue: in the skin relatively small eddy currents are induced in the bony substance almost none at all, while in the fat layer 15 and are induced in the muscle layer 16 significantly higher eddy currents in the muscle layer 16, the induced eddy currents are again significantly greater than in the layer of fat 15 °.

These induced eddy currents are a measure of the conductivity of the tissue structures and thus the impedance of this tissue structures. The induced eddy currents are also high-frequency alternating currents, and therefore in turn generate an alternating magnetic field, hereinafter referred to as the secondary magnetic field. This secondary magnetic field can be picked up by the receiver coils 19, 20, characterized in that an alternating voltage is induced which is proportional to the occurring eddy currents. Since the receiver coils 19, 20 have a different distance from the body surface 13, the voltage induced in those receiving coils 19, 20 by the secondary magnetic fields voltage at the two receiver coils 19, 20 is different, so the result is a difference signal which is proportional to the secondary magnetic field is. This magnetic field measurement signal is supplied via the data line 7 of the data processing device 8, which also receives the measuring signals of the ultrasound probe 4 through the data line. 6

Depending on the distribution of the skin 14, the fat layer 15 and muscle layer 16 and the thickness of these layers, of course, different values ​​for the induced eddy currents and hence different signals to the receiver coils 19 and 20. In order for the 19 and 20 is provided by the receiver coils signal is a signal which is affected by this distribution and thickness, and hence also this distribution and thickness information.

An additional information can be obtained in that the high frequency generator 9 operates at different frequencies, for example alternating with a frequency of 500 kHz and 1 MHz. It has been found that the generation of eddy currents in the individual fabric layers occupies a different ratio at different frequencies, that is, by measurements at different frequencies can be additional information about the distribution of the different types of tissue in the examined body region obtained.

The data obtained in this way can be compared in the data processing device 8 with empirical values ​​which are stored in a data memory 21 of the data processing means 8, and making it possible by comparing the experience values ​​with the measured values ​​of the distribution of the fabric layers, the thickness and arrangement in the irradiated to maintain body area information. This information can be used by the data processing device 8, to modify the ultrasonic signals of the ultrasound probe 4 so that even with different distribution of skin, fat layer 15 and muscle layer 16 and at different thickness of the tissue layers a reliable indication of the geometrical arrangement of the bony structure 17 can be made.

It is sufficient to either one after the other at the corresponding part of the body with the ultrasonic measuring head 4 and to the impedance measuring head 5 carry out a measurement. Especially with a measuring head which combines the ultrasonic measuring head 4 and the impedance measuring head 5 in a case, these measurements could also take place simultaneously.

Claims

1. A method for non-invasive examination of a lying inside a body of the body surface area with ultrasonic radiation, wherein the directed ultrasonic radiation through the body surface into the interior of the body, the radiation reflected from the internal body structures of the body measures ultrasonic radiation and conclusions as to the arrangement of the internal pulls body structures, since you rch ge ken nzeich net that is induced by an external, primary alternating magnetic field in the under examination area eddy currents, the secondary magnetic fields generated by these eddy currents outside the body measures, from the measurement data of the secondary magnetic data on the type of adjacent the body surface of the fabric, its arrangement, distribution and / or thickness is derived and taken into account this data in the evaluation of the measuring results of the reflected ultrasonic radiation.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it compensates for the action of the primary alternating magnetic field on the measuring device of the secondary magnetic field in the measurement of the secondary magnetic field.
3. A method according to any one of claims 1 or 2, characterized in that one uses a primary alternating magnetic fields having different frequencies.
4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that one uses a primary alternating magnetic fields at frequencies of about 500 kHz and 1 MHz.
5. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that one stores experience values ​​for the size of induced eddy currents for different tissue types in a data memory and these values ​​to determine the nature of the adjacent to the body surface tissue, the arrangement, distribution and / or thickness due to the secondary magnetic fields used.
6. A device for investigation of a lying inside a body of the body surface area with ultrasonic radiation with an ultrasonic radiation through the body surface into the interior of the body directing ultrasonic transmitter, reflected from the internal body structures ultrasonic radiation measuring ultrasonic receiver and a data processing means which is programmed to to the arrangement of the internal body structures determined from the measurement data of the reflected ultrasonic radiation, characterized in that it additionally includes an exciter (18) for an external, primary alternating magnetic field, by which in the (to be examined region 14, 15, 16, 17), eddy currents are induced and a receiver (19, 20) which measures generated by these eddy currents secondary magnetic fields outside the body, and that the data processing device (8) is programmed so that they from the measured data of the seku ndären magnetic data on the type of the body surface (13) adjacent the fabric (14, 15, 16) derives its arrangement, distribution and / or thickness and takes into account this data in the evaluation of the measuring results of the reflected ultrasonic radiation.
7. Apparatus according to claim 6, characterized in that the exciter (18) of the primary alternating magnetic field and the receiver (19, 20) of the secondary magnetic field in an impedance measuring head (5) are arranged.
8. Apparatus according to claim 7, characterized in that the impedance measuring head (5) and the ultrasonic transmitter and the ultrasonic receiver (ultrasonic measuring head 4) are combined in a common measuring head.
9. Device according to one of claims 6 to 8, characterized in that the exciter (18) of the primary alternating magnetic field and the receiver (19, 20) of the secondary magnetic fields are formed such that an emitted by the from the exciter (18) primary alternating magnetic field at the receiver (19, 20) of the secondary magnetic field generated measurement signal is compensated.
10. Device according to one of claims 6 to 9, characterized in that the exciter (18) generates the primary alternating magnetic fields having different frequencies.
11. The device according to claim 10, characterized in that the frequencies of the primary alternating magnetic field at about 500 kHz and are from about 1 MHz.
12. Device according to one of claims 6 to 11, characterized in that the data processing device (8) is associated with a data memory (21), the empirical values ​​for the size of induced alternating currents for different types of tissue stores, and that the data processing device (8) is programmed to that these values ​​to determine the nature of the body surface (13) adjacent the fabric (14, 15, 16), the arrangement, distribution and / or thickness is used due to the secondary magnetic fields.
PCT/EP2007/008535 2007-01-18 2007-10-02 Method and device for the non-invasive analysis of a body with ultrasound radiation WO2008086832A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

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US9597008B2 (en) 2011-09-06 2017-03-21 Ezono Ag Imaging probe and method of obtaining position and/or orientation information

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US9257220B2 (en) 2013-03-05 2016-02-09 Ezono Ag Magnetization device and method
US9459087B2 (en) 2013-03-05 2016-10-04 Ezono Ag Magnetic position detection system

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