WO2006059939A1 - A medical product comprising a glucagon-like peptide medicament intended for pulmonary inhalation - Google Patents

A medical product comprising a glucagon-like peptide medicament intended for pulmonary inhalation Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO2006059939A1
WO2006059939A1 PCT/SE2005/001648 SE2005001648W WO2006059939A1 WO 2006059939 A1 WO2006059939 A1 WO 2006059939A1 SE 2005001648 W SE2005001648 W SE 2005001648W WO 2006059939 A1 WO2006059939 A1 WO 2006059939A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
dose
medical product
glp
medicament dose
container
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/SE2005/001648
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Thomas Nilsson
Sven Calander
Alf Niemi
Claes Friberg
Lars Kax
Mattias Myrman
Original Assignee
Mederio Ag
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to SE0402976-5 priority Critical
Priority to SE0402976A priority patent/SE0402976L/en
Priority to US11/049,696 priority patent/US20060120969A1/en
Priority to US11/049696 priority
Application filed by Mederio Ag filed Critical Mederio Ag
Priority claimed from JP2007544302A external-priority patent/JP2008521893A/en
Publication of WO2006059939A1 publication Critical patent/WO2006059939A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K9/00Medicinal preparations characterised by special physical form
    • A61K9/0012Galenical forms characterised by the site of application
    • A61K9/007Pulmonary tract; Aromatherapy
    • A61K9/0073Sprays or powders for inhalation; Aerolised or nebulised preparations generated by other means than thermal energy
    • A61K9/0075Sprays or powders for inhalation; Aerolised or nebulised preparations generated by other means than thermal energy for inhalation via a dry powder inhaler [DPI], e.g. comprising micronized drug mixed with lactose carrier particles
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K38/00Medicinal preparations containing peptides
    • A61K38/16Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof
    • A61K38/17Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof from animals; from humans
    • A61K38/22Hormones
    • A61K38/26Glucagons
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K38/00Medicinal preparations containing peptides
    • A61K38/16Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof
    • A61K38/17Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof from animals; from humans
    • A61K38/22Hormones
    • A61K38/28Insulins
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M15/00Inhalators
    • A61M15/0001Details of inhalators; Constructional features thereof
    • A61M15/0003Details of inhalators; Constructional features thereof with means for dispensing more than one drug
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M15/00Inhalators
    • A61M15/0028Inhalators using prepacked dosages, one for each application, e.g. capsules to be perforated or broken-up
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M15/00Inhalators
    • A61M15/0028Inhalators using prepacked dosages, one for each application, e.g. capsules to be perforated or broken-up
    • A61M15/0045Inhalators using prepacked dosages, one for each application, e.g. capsules to be perforated or broken-up using multiple prepacked dosages on a same carrier, e.g. blisters
    • A61M15/0046Inhalators using prepacked dosages, one for each application, e.g. capsules to be perforated or broken-up using multiple prepacked dosages on a same carrier, e.g. blisters characterized by the type of carrier
    • A61M15/0051Inhalators using prepacked dosages, one for each application, e.g. capsules to be perforated or broken-up using multiple prepacked dosages on a same carrier, e.g. blisters characterized by the type of carrier the dosages being arranged on a tape, e.g. strips
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M2202/00Special media to be introduced, removed or treated
    • A61M2202/06Solids
    • A61M2202/064Powder

Abstract

A medical product is disclosed. The medical product basically comprises an accurately metered dose of a GLP medicament intended for pulmonary inhalation put into a moisture-tight, high barrier seal container. The medical product optionally also comprises a dose of insulin. The container is adapted for application into a dry powder inhaler. The dose loaded in the container, is intended for a prolonged delivery by inhalation to the deep lung where the active ingredients are absorbed into the system. Optionally the medical product also may comprise at least one biologically acceptable excipient.

Description

A MEDICAL PRODUCT COMPRISING A GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE MEDICAMENT INTENDED FOR PULMONARY INHALATION

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to a medical product comprising a metered medication dose of a glucagon-like peptide (GLP) in dry powder form and more particularly to a metered GLP dose enclosed in a sealed container adapted for use in a dry powder inhaler, capable of systemic dose delivery.

BACKGROUND Administering systemically acting drugs directly to the lungs of a patient by means of an inhaler is an effective, quick and user-friendly method of drug delivery, especially compared to administration by injections. A number of different inhaler devices have been developed in order to deliver drugs to the lung, e.g. pressurized aerosol inhalers (pMDIs), nebulizers and dry powder inhalers (DPIs).

The lung is an appealing site for systemic delivery of drugs as it offers a large surface area (about 100 m2) for the absorption of the molecules across a thin epithelium, thus having a potential for rapid drug absorption. Pulmonary delivery of drugs has the potential of attaining a high, rapid systemic drug concentration often without the need of penetration enhancers. The feasibility of this route of administration for a particular drug depends on, for example, dose size and extent and ease of systemic absorption through the alveols of the particular drug. The critical factors for the deposition of inhaled particles in the lung are inspiration/ expiration pattern and the particle aerodynamic size distribution. The aerodynamic particle size (AD) of the drug particles is important if an acceptable deposition of the drug within the lung is to be obtained. In order for a particle to reach into the deep lung the aerodynamic particle size should typically be between 1 and 3 μm. Larger particle sizes will easily stick in the mouth and throat and will be swallowed.

Thus, it is important to keep the aerodynamic particle size distribution of the dose within tight limits to ensure that a high percentage of the dose is actually deposited where it will be most effective. The aerodynamic diameter (AD) of a particle is defined as the diameter of a spherical particle having a density of 1 g/cm3 that has the same inertia! properties in air as the particle of interest. If primary particles form aggregates, the aggregates will aerodynamically behave like one big particle in air.

However, finely divided powders, suitable for inhalation, are rarely free flowing but tend to stick to all surfaces they come in contact with and the small particles tend to aggregate into lumps. This is due to van der Waal forces generally being stronger than the force of gravity acting on small particles having diameters of 10 μm or less. There are several micronization technologies known in the art. Two major categories dominate in prior art: breaking of large particles using milling process such as jet milling, pearl- ball milling or high-pressure homogenization and the production of small particles using controlled production processes such as spray drying, lyophilization, precipitation from supercritical fluid and controlled crystallization. The former category produces predominantly crystalline, homogenous particles, the latter more amorphous, light', porous particles. See e.g. "Micron-Size Drug Particles: Common and Novel Micronization techniques" by Rasenack and Muller in Pharmaceutical development and technology, 2004, 9(1): 1-13. See also "Unit Operation-Micronization" prepared by Lee Siang Hua, dept. of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore. In these documents the term 'finely divided powder' refers to inhalable particles in general and does not limit or preclude any method of producing such particles.

Glucagon

Glucagon is a 29 amino acid peptide hormone liberated in the alpha-cells of the islets of Langerhans. It has been established that glucagon opposes the action of insulin in peripheral tissues, particularly the liver, in order to maintain the levels of blood glucose, especially if a state of hypoglycemia threatens. At mealtime, glucagon secretion is generally suppressed in healthy subjects. However, diabetics often exhibit disordered control of glucagon secretion, leading to failure to suppress hepatic glucose production and fasting hyperglycemia. Thus, it is important to determine what mechanisms are at work in relation to glucagon, so that adequate, new drugs may be produced to help the human body to function normally.

Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-I and GLP-2)

GLP- 1 and GLP-2 are synthesized in intestinal endocrine cells and liberated, following posttranslational processing of a single proglucagone precursor. The complex functions of these substances are not fully understood at this point and much research remains before glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) and analogues or derivates thereof can be used e.g. in the treatment of diabetes or obesity. As small and medium-sized molecules, GLPs are suitable for pulmonary delivery to' the system by a dry powder inhaler, provided suitable formulations can be produced, preferably in finely divided, dry powder form.

GLP-I exists in two principal major molecular forms, as GLP- 1(7-36), amide and GLP- 1(7-37). These molecules are secreted in response to nutrient ingestion and play multiple roles in metabolic homeostasis following nutrient absorption. Biological activities include stimulation of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and insulin biosynthesis, inhibition of glucagon secretion and gastric emptying and inhibition of food intake. The substance plays an important role in lowering blood glucose levels in diabetics by stimulating the beta-cells in pancreas to produce insulin. A very interesting effect of GLP- 1 is that it normalizes blood glucose levels in response to hyperglycemic conditions without the risk of ending up in a hypoglycemic condition. Also, GLP-I helps control satiety and food intake. The substance therefore constitutes an interesting pharmacological drug, particularly so for treatment of diabetes, preferably in combination with insulin or even as an alternative to a regimen of insulin. See European Patent EP 0 762 890 Bl.

GLP-I is a relatively small peptide molecule with a great potential for inhalation therapy. Fortunately, provided that the GLP-I powder formulation is constituted of particles of the right size to sediment in the deep lung after inhalation, GLP- 1 has been shown to be soluble in the fluid layer in the deep lung and dissolve, thereby ensuring rapid absorption from the lung into the system before enzymatic inactivation sets in. See for instance U.S. Patent No. 6,720,407.

From a stability point of view, a solid formulation stored under dry conditions is normally the best choice. In the solid state, GLP molecules are normally relatively stable in the absence of moisture or elevated temperatures. GLP and analogues or derivatives thereof in dry powder form are more or less sensitive to moisture depending on the powder formulation.

GLP may be administered to humans by any available route, but oral or parenteral administration may be the most common methods in the art. Frequent injections, necessary for the management of a disease, is of course not an ideal method of drug delivery and often leads to a low patient compliance as they infringe on the freedom of the patient as well as because of psychological factors. Tablets or capsules given orally have a fairly long onset and may suffer from low efficacy because of metabolic degradation of the GLP substance before it passes into the system. Pulmonary absorption is therefore an interesting alternative, which potentially offers a fast onset, less degradation and higher efficacy. Tests have shown that users, given a choice, prefer inhalation of medicaments to self-injection.

Hence, there is a demand for precisely matched, therapeutic pulmonary dosages of GLP-based medicaments, especially in dry powder formulations and optionally in combination with insulin, and high efficacy devices for delivering dosages to the system by inhalation.

SUMMARY The present invention discloses a medical product comprising an accurately metered dose of a GLP medicament intended for pulmonary inhalation filled in a dose container, which is effectively sealed against ingress of moisture for a specified in-use time. The medical product optionally also comprises a dose of insulin. The container is adapted for application in a dry powder inhaler. The dose loaded into the container, is intended for a prolonged delivery by inhalation to the deep lung where the active ingredients are absorbed into the system. Optionally the medical product also comprises at least one biologically acceptable excipient.

In a preferred embodiment, the present invention presents a medicament containing as active ingredient a therapeutically effective amount of a physiologically acceptable salt of a GLP agent including GLP analogues and derivates.

The active GLP agent exists in dry powder form suitable for administration by inhalation, optionally comprising at least one biologically acceptable excipient.

In a further aspect of the present invention the GLP agent or medicament is combined with an active insulin agent, whereby the dry powder medication combination of a GLP dosage and an insulin dosage are administered by inhalation as dry powder(s) in a regimen of therapeutically effective dosages to a user in need thereof. Particularly, the combined dosages may be administered together as a single formulation, a single preparation, an inter- mixture of powders or administered separately as part-doses in a single inhalation or administered separately by separate inhalation of each part- dose.

The present invention offers the following advantages: - provides a medical product comprising an active GLP agent that is prepared in a dry powder dose for a prolonged, pulmonary delivery of the active agent by inhalation; provides a medical product in which a well-defined dosage of an active GLP agent and optionally an insulin agent is efficiently delivered to the deep lung by a user-driven suction effort in a single inhalation process; provides a medical product that is intended for application in a single dose inhaler, which entirely relies on the power of the inhalation for de- aggregating and aerosolizing the dose, with no further external source of power necessary; and provides a medical product that protects the active GLP and optional insulin agents from deteriorating during a specified in-use time period.

Other advantages offered by the present invention will be appreciated upon reading of the below description of the embodiments of the invention.

SHORT DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The invention together with further objects and advantages thereof, may best be understood by making reference to the following description taken together with the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 illustrates in a timing diagram the concentration of GLP in the system of a diabetic user after inhalation of a small dose in connection with meals during a day, compared to a big dose once a day

FIG. 2 illustrates in a timing diagram the concentration of insulin in the system of a diabetic user after inhalation of a combined dose of

GLP and insulin in connection with meals during a day;

FIG. 3 illustrates in two timing diagrams a typical inhalation and dose delivery of the medical product according to the present invention;

FIG. 4 illustrates in perspective, top and side views a first embodiment of a medical product comprising a dose loaded into a high barrier seal container;

FIG. 5 illustrates in top and side views a second embodiment of a medical product comprising a dose loaded into a high barrier seal container, here illustrated in an opened state; FIG. 6 illustrates in a top view a third embodiment of several similar medical products comprising differently sized doses loaded into identical high barrier seal containers; and

FIG. 7 illustrates in top and side views a second embodiment of a medical product comprising a combined dose loaded into two separate high barrier seal containers, adapted for insertion together into a DPI.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present invention discloses an improved medical product comprising: an accurately metered medication dose of an active glucagon-like peptide (GLP) agent filled in a sealed container. The GLP dose is adequately protected by the sealed container from ingress of moisture for a specified in-use time period. The active GLP agent may optionally include at least one biologically acceptable excipient. The dose is intended for systemic delivery by oral inhalation and pulmonary absorption. The improved medical product is preferably adapted for a prolonged pulmonary dose delivery using a dry powder inhaler device. An objective of the present invention is to deliver an exact, high efficacy powder dosage of an active GLP agent to the system of a user via the deep lung.

The pharmacological actions of glucagon-like peptide or analogues and derivates thereof, in this document generically denoted GLP, include stimulation of insulin release, suppression of glucagon release and inhibition of gastric emptying. These actions provide the basis for this invention, where we have surprisingly found that it is possible to treat type 1 as well as type 2 diabetes by pulmonary administration of therapeutically effective amounts of GLP alone or preferably in combination with a regimen of inhalable insulin. It will be understood by a person skilled in the art that various modifications and changes may be made to the present invention without departure from the scope thereof, which is defined by the appended claims. o

A particular peptide agonist acting as a GLP agent to be used in the present invention is described in U.S. Patent No. 6,528,486, which hereby is included in this document in its entirety as a reference. This GLP agent embodiment has any one of the following sequences: Ri-Gly-Glu-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Leu-Ser-Lys-Gln-Met-Glu-Glu-

Glu-Ala-Val-Arg-Leu-Phe-Ile-Glu-Trp-Leu-Lys-Asn-Gly-Gly-Pro-Ser-Ser-Gly- AIa-R2 (SEQ ID NO: 1), wherein

R1- is selected from a group consisting of His-, (Lys)β-His- and Asn-(Glu)s- His-

-R2 is selected from a group consisting of -Pro-Pro-Ser-(Lys)6, -Ser and -Ser- (Lys)e.

Another particular GLP derivate, which may be used in the present invention is described in U.S. Patent No. 6,268,343, which hereby is included in. this document in its entirety as a reference. This GLP agent embodiment has any one of the following sequences:

His-Ala-Glu-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Val-Ser-Ser-Tyr-Leu-Glu-Gly- Gln-Ala-Ala-Rs-Glu-Phe-Ile-Ala-Trp-Leu-Val-Arg-Gly-Arg-Gly (SEQ ID NO: 2) wherein R3 is selected from a group consisting of Lys and Lys in which the ε- amino group is substituted with a lipophilic substituent, optionally via a spacer. Preferred lipophilic substituents include CH3(CH2)nCO-, wherein n is 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 or 22, HOOC(CH2)mCO-, wherein m is 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 or 22, and lithochoyl. Preferred optional spacers include an unbranched alkane α,ω-dicarboxylic acid group having from 1 to 7 methylene groups, an amino acid residue except Cys, and γ-aminobutanoyl.

Another particular GLP derivate, a GLP-I antagonist, which may be used in the present invention is described in US Application No. 2005/0153890, which hereby is included in this document in its entirety as a reference. This

GLP agent embodiment has any one of the following sequences:

His-Ala-Glu-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Val-Ser-Ser-Tyr-Leu-Glu-Gly- GIn-AIa-AIa-LyS-GIu-PhC-IIe-AIa-TrP-LeU-VaI-LyS-GIy-R4 (SEQ ID NO: 3) wherein -R4 is selected from a group consisting of -Arg, -Arg-Gly;

His-Ser-Gln-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Tyr-Ala-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Asp-Ala-Arg- Arg-Ala-Lys-Glu-Phe-Ile-Ala-Trp-Leu-Val-Lys-Cys-Arg-Gly (SEQ ID NO: 4);

His-Ser-Gln-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Tyr-Ala-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Asp-Ala-Arg- Arg-Ala-Lys-Glu-Phe-Ile-Ala-Trp-Leu-Val-Lys-Gly-Cys-Gly (SEQ ID NO: 5);

His-Ser-Gln-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Tyr-Ala-Rs-Tyr-Leu-Asp-Ala-Rβ- Ry-Ala-Rs-Glu-Phe-Ile-Rg-Trp-Leu-Val-Rio-Gly-Rπ (SEQ ID NO: 6) wherein

R5 is selected from a group consisting of Lys, Arg, Ala Re is selected from a group consisting of Arg, Lys, Ala

R7 is selected from a group consisting of Arg, Lys Rs is selected from a group consisting of Lys, Ala Rg is selected from a group consisting of Ala, Lys Rio is selected from a group consisting of Lys, Gys, Arg -Rn is selected from a group consisting of -Arg, -Arg-Gly, -Arg-Cys, -Arg-Gly-

Lys

Other particular GLP derivates and -analogues, which may be used in the present invention are described in US2005/ 0014681, which hereby is included in this document in its entirety as a reference. This GLP agent embodiment is selected from a group consisting of: GLP-I, GLP-I amide, GLP-I (7-36) amide, GLP-I (7-37), [VaF]-GLP-I (7-36) amide, [Val8]-GLP-1 (7-37); [Lys26, ε-NH{γ-Glu(N-α-palmitoyl)}] -GLP-I (7-37), GLP-I (9-36) amide, GLP-I (9-37) and GLP-2.

Another particular GLP-I sequence, which may be used in the present invention is described in US Application No.2003 /0220243, which hereby is included in this document in its entirety as a reference. This GLP agent embodiment has any one of the following sequences: His-Ri2-Glu-Gly-Ri3-Ri4-Thr-Ser-Asp-Ri5-Ser-Ser-Tyr-Leu-Glu-Ri6-Ri7-

Ri8-Ala-Ri9-R20-Phe-Ile-R2i-Trp-Leu-R22-R23-R24-R25-R26 (SEQ ID NO: 7) wherein

R12 is selected from a group consisting of GIy, Ala, VaI, Leu, He, Ser, Thr Λ

Ri3 is selected from a group consisting of Asp, GIu, Arg, Thr, Ala, Lys, His

Ri4 is selected from a group consisting of His, Trp, Phe, Tyr

R1S is selected from a group consisting of Leu, Ser, Thr, Trp, His, Phe, Asp,

VaI, Tyr, GIu, Ala Ri6 is selected from a group consisting of GIy, Asp, GIu, GIn, Asn, Lys, Arg,

Cys, cysteic acid

Rn is selected from a group consisting of His, Asp, Lys, GIu, GIn, Arg

Ri8 is selected from a group consisting of GIu, Arg, Ala, Lys

Ri9 is selected from a group consisting of Trp, Tyr, Phe, Asp, Lys, GIu, His R20 is selected from a group consisting of Ala, GIu, His, Phe, Tyr, Trp, Arg,

Lys

R21 is selected from a group consisting of Ala, GIu, Asp, Ser, His

R22 is selected from a group consisting of Asp, Arg, VaI, Lys, Ala, GIy, GIu

R23 is selected from a group consisting of GIu, Lys, Asp R24 is selected from a group consisting of Thr, Ser, Lys, Arg, Trp, Tyr, Phe,

Asp, GIy, Pro, His, GIu

R25 is selected from a group consisting of Thr, Ser, Asp, Trp, Tyr, Phe, Arg,

GIu, His

-R26 is selected from a group consisting of -Lys, -Arg, -Thr, -Ser, -GIu, -Asp, - Trp, -Tyr, -Phe, -His, -NH2, -GIy, -Gly-Pro, -Gly-Pro-NH2 or is deleted.

A particular peptide agonist acting as a GLP agent to be used in the present invention is described in U.S. Application No. 2003/0199672. This GLP agent embodiment has any one of the following sequences: His-R27-R28-Gly-R29-Phe-Thr-R30-Asp-R3i-R32-R33-R34-R35-R36-R37-R38-

R39-R40-R41-R42-Phe-Ile-R43-R44-R45-R46-R47-R48-R49-R50-R51-R52-R53-R54-R55-

R56-R57-R58 (SEQ ID NO: 8) wherein

R27 is selected from a group consisting of Ala, GIy, Ser, Thr, Leu, lie, VaI, GIu, Asp, Lys

R28 is selected from a group consisting of GIu, Asp, Lys

R29 is selected from a group consisting of Thr, Ala, GIy, Ser, Leu, He, VaI,

GIu, Asp, Lys R3o is selected from a group consisting of Ser, Ala, GIy, Thr, Leu, He, VaI,

GIu, Asp, Lys

R31 is selected from a group consisting of VaI, Ala, GIy, Ser, Thr, Leu, He,

Tyr, GIu, Asp, Lys R32 is selected from a group consisting of Ser, Ala, GIy, Thr, Leu, He, VaI,

GIu, Asp, Lys

R33 is selected from a group consisting of Ser, Ala, GIy, Thr, Leu, He, VaI,

GIu, Asp, Lys

R34 is selected from a group consisting of Tyr, Phe, Trp, GIu, Asp, Lys R35 is selected from a group consisting of Leu, Ala, GIy, Ser, Thr, Leu, He,

VaI, GIu, Asp, Lys

R36 is selected from a group consisting of GIu, Asp, Lys

R37 is selected from a group consisting of GIy, Ala, Ser, Thr, Leu, He, VaI,

GIu, Asp, Lys R38 is selected from a group consisting of GIn, Asn, Arg, GIu, Asp, Lys

R39 is selected from a group consisting of Ala, GIy, Ser, Thr, Leu, He, VaI,

Arg, GIn, Asp, Lys

R40 is selected from a group consisting of Ala, GIy, Ser, Thr, Leu, He, VaI,

GIu, Asp, Lys R41 is selected from a group consisting of Lys, Arg, GIn, Asp, His

R42 is selected from a group consisting of GIn, Asp, Lys

R43 is selected from a group consisting of Ala, GIy, Ser, Thr, Leu, He, VaI, GIu, Asp, Lys

R44 is selected from a group consisting of Trp, Phe, Tyr, GIu, Asp, Lys R45 is selected from a group consisting of Leu, GIy, Ala, Ser, Thr, He, VaI,

GIu, Asp, Lys

R46 is selected from a group consisting of VaI, GIy, Ala, Ser, Thr, Leu, He, GIu, Asp, Lys R47 is selected from a group consisting of Lys, Arg, GIu, Asp, His R48 is selected from a group consisting of GIy, Ala, Ser, Thr, Leu, He, VaI,

GIu, Asp, Lys

R49 is selected from a group consisting of Arg, Lys, GIu, Asp, His Rso is selected from a group consisting of GIy, Ala, Ser, Thr, Leu, He, VaI, GIu, Asp, Lys or is deleted

R51 is selected from a group consisting of Arg, Lys, GIu, Asp, His or is deleted R52 is selected from a group consisting of Arg, Lys, GIu, Asp, His or is deleted R53 is selected from a group consisting of Asp, GIu, Lys or is deleted

R54 is selected from a group consisting of Phe, Trp, Tyr, GIu, Asp, Lys or is deleted

R55 is selected from a group consisting of Pro, Lys, GIu, Asp or is deleted R56 is selected from a group consisting of GIu, Asp, Lys or is deleted R57 is selected from a group consisting of GIu, Asp, Lys or is deleted

-R58 is selected from a group consisting of -VaI, -GIu, -Asp, -Lys or is deleted

Another particular GLP-I sequence, which may be used in the present invention is described in PCT Application No. WO2005/ 066207. This GLP agent embodiment has any one of the following sequences:

Rsg-His-Reo-Glu-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Val-Ser-Ser-Tyr-Rei-Glu-Gly- Gln-Ala-Ala-Lys-R62-Phe-Ile-R63-Trp-Leu-R64 (SEQ ID NO: 9) wherein R59 is selected from a group consisting of H, a linear or branched unsaturated Ci-Cβ acyl group, an optionally substituted arylcarbonyl, an optionally cycloalkylcarbonyl, an optionally substituted arylalkylcarbonyl Rβo is selected from a group consisting of Ala, 1-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib), VaI, GIy

Rβi is selected from a group consisting of Leu and GIy having a C6-C20 alkyl side chain

Rβ2 is selected from a group consisting of Ala, Leu, VaI, He, GIu

Rβ3 is selected from a group consisting of GIu, Asp, Asn, GIn, Ala

-Rβ4 is selected from a group consisting of -Lys-Asn-Aib-OH, -Lys-Asn-Aib-

NH2, -Val-Lys-Asn-OH, - VaI-Ly s-Asn-NH2, -Lys-Asn-OH, -Lys-Asn-NH2, -VaI- Lys-Gly-Arg-NH2, -Val-Lys-Aib-Arg-OH, -VaI-Ly s-Aib-Arg-NH2, -Lys-Asn-Gly-

OH, -Lys-Asn-Gly-NH2 Another particular GLP-I sequence, which may be used in the present invention is described in PCT Application No.WO2004/ 029081. This GLP agent embodiment has any one of the following sequences:

Rβs-His-Ala-Glu-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Val-Ser-Ser-Tyr-Leu-Glu-Gly- Gln-Ala-Ala-Lys-Glu-Phe-Ile-Ala-Trp-Leu-Val-Lys-Gly-Arg-Rδβ (SEQ ID NO:

10) wherein Rδ5 is a rigidifying hydrophobic moiety selected from the group consisting of

C1-CiO alkenoic acid, optionally substituted by at least one substituent selected from the group consisting of straight or branched Ci-Ce alkyl, C3-C6 cycloalkyl, aryl and substituted aryl;

C1-CiO alkynoic acid;

C3-C10 cycloalkanoic acid, or heterocycloalkanoic acid comprising an heteroatom selected from O, S and N; C5-C14 arylcarboxylic or arylalkanoic acid optionally substituted, by at least one substituent selected from the group consisting of lower alkyl, lower alkoxy, lower alkylthio, halo, hydroxy, trifluoromethyl, amino, -NH(lower alkyl), -N(lower alkyl)2, di- and tri-substituted phenyl, 1-naphtyl and 2- naphtyl substituted with a substituent selected from the group consisting of methyl, methoxy, methylthio, halo, hydroxy and amino;

C5-C14 heteroarylcarboxylic or heteroarylalkanoic acid comprising a heteoatom selected from O, S and N, and being optionally substituted by at least one substituent selected from the group consisting of lower alkyl, lower alkoxy, lower alkylthio, halo, hydroxy, trifluoromethyl, amino, -NH(lower alkyl), -N(lower alkyl)2, di- and tri-substituted phenyl, 1-naphtyl and 2- naphtyl substituted with a substituent selected from the group consisting of methyl, methoxy, methylthio, halo, hydroxy and amino -Rδβ is selected from a group consisting of -OH, -NH2, -GIy-OH.

In a particular aspect of the present invention a GLP agent is selected, which is long-acting following pulmonary delivery. In a particular aspect of the present invention a GLP medicament is used as an alternative to subcutaneous insulin in the treatment of early diabetes type 2, where a regimen of the GLP medicament, optionally in combination with insulin, through a pulmonary route of administration eliminates the use of subcutaneous insulin to a user.

In a further aspect of the present invention a GLP medicament is used in combination with insulin in the treatment of diabetes type 1 and 2, such that a regimen of inhaled GLP and insulin for instance in connection with meals three or four times per day is well adapted to the needs of a diabetic user with the objective of improving glycemic control for the user and eliminating subcutaneous insulin altogether.

Self-administration of peptides, such as insulin, by subcutaneous injection is part of everyday life for many patients with diabetes. Normally, the user needs to administer insulin several times daily based on close monitoring of the glucose level. Incorrect timing of the administration or incorrect dosing may lead to hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. Also, there are pharmacokinetic limitations when using the subcutaneous route. Absorption of insulin after a subcutaneous injection is slow. It sometimes takes up to an hour before the glucose level in the blood begins to be significantly reduced. This inherent problem with subcutaneous insulin delivery cannot be solved with a more frequent administration. In order to obtain plasma insulin concentrations that are physiologically correct over time it is advantageous to choose another route of administration, such as inhalation.

In yet another particular aspect of the present invention GLP, administered by inhalation for pulmonary absorption into the system, optionally in combination with insulin, improves user quality of life and user compliance with a prescribed dosing regimen based on inhalation of medicaments, compared to injections or a mixture of oral administration and injections. Systemic delivery by pulmonary absorption is faster and more accurate than by subcutaneous injection, partly because of the difficulty in the latter method to control exactly where the dose will be located in the subcutaneous tissue and as a consequence the systemic concentration over time will vary considerably from one injection to the next. Furthermore, GLP has a rather small therapeutic window, i.e. a too small dose will have no effect at all whereas a too big dose will often cause the user to feel sick and even cause the user to vomit. The pulmonary route for GLP is thus to be preferred because of fast on-set, exactness, user comfort and reduced adverse side effects.

Advantageously, GLP is inhaled several times daily in connection with meals, so that the GLP effect on the pancreatic insulin production is not too small nor leading to too high concentration in the blood, but so that the GLP concentration is kept within the optimal therapeutic window, thereby leading to a better control of glucose concentration in the blood. See Figure 1, showing two curves, A and B over time T, representing plasma concentration of GLP, where curve A is the result of a single, high dose administered in the morning compared to 3 smaller doses administered in direct connection with meals during the day as in curve B. Curve A shoots over the permitted maximum level L, which causes unwanted adverse effects in a subject, such as nausea or inducing vomiting attacks. Clearly, a better way to achieving glycemic control is to administer GLP in relatively small doses in connection with meals.

In a particular embodiment of the present invention the medical product is arranged such that a selected, effective dose of GLP is combined with a dose of insulin, where the size of the insulin dose is selected before each administration by a diabetic user based on an estimation or actual measurement of the present level of glucose in the blood and with a regard for the imminent meal. A dry powder inhaler is thus to be loaded by the said user with a sealed container carrying a dose of GLP and the same or a similar container carrying a titratable dose of insulin, e.g. containing the equivalence of from 1 to 100 insulin units (IU). Thus, a therapeutically effective insulin dose mass is normally in a range from 100 μg to 25 mg. Both doses are then administered in a single inhalation. See Figures 7a and 7b illustrating two carriers, 41 and 42, each carrying a sealed container 33 (seal 31) containing a dose 21 of GLP and a dose 22 of insulin respectively. The doses are hidden from view by the respective sealed container, but nevertheless indicated in the illustration for the benefit of the reader. For instance, the user has been supplied with a number of identical GLP dose containers and a collection of insulin dose containers representing three different dose sizes, low, medium and high, plus empty dose containers. For example, differently sized doses 21 may be loaded into identical or similar sealed containers 33 (seal 31) and fitted to carriers 41 as illustrated in

Figures 6a, 6b and 6c. Based on the need of the user in the course of a day, he or she decides, e.g. based on a measurement of blood sugar level, what combination is required at each instance of administration and composes an adequate combination of GLP and insulin, where the GLP dose is fixed but the insulin dose is variable. The flexibility of the medical product will permit

GLP to stimulate the self production of insulin and only add a minimum of exogenous insulin to help control blood sugar. See Figure 2 for graphic representations of insulin plasma concentration partly from GLP stimulated endogenous insulin 1, exogenous insulin 2 and the combined insulin concentration 3 over time during a day, if a combined dose of GLP and insulin is administered in connection with meals.

In another embodiment of the invention a GLP dose is loaded in the same dose container as a dose of insulin, and the combined doses are then delivered by a dry powder inhaler in a single inhalation from the single dose container. This embodiment is possible providing the GLP and the insulin do not detrimentally affect each other during transport and storage. See our U.S. Application No. 2004/0258625, which is hereby included by reference.

There are many advantages in combining GLP and insulin in a medical product intended for administration by inhalation in the treatment of diabetes 1 and 2, such as:

• Substantial reduction of insulin doses is possible • Big improvement in glycemic control

• Endogenous insulin secretion is stimulated

• Risk of hyperglycemia is substantially reduced

• Partial or complete inhibition of insulin injections is possible • Less adverse side effects

• Big improvement in user quality of life

• Better user compliance

In short, a combined therapy comprising GLP and insulin results in better medical status and higher quality of life for the user.

Besides diabetes 1 and 2, other important and interesting therapeutic areas, where GLP may be a highly effective drug, especially in combination with other medicaments, such as insulin, are cardiovascular disorders, conditions of obesity, dyslipidemia and lipodystrophy.

From the disclosure herein, however, it is clear that the quality of a delivered GLP dose, as well as an insulin dose, to the lung needs to be very high in terms of fine particle fraction. As has been pointed out in the foregoing, particles need to be 5 μm or less in aerodynamic diameter (AD) to have a reasonable chance of reaching into the deep lung when inhaled. Large particles may impact and stick in the mouth or further down in the airways before they reach the deep lung. In the deep lung, small particles may be absorbed by the alveoli and delivered to the system. AD of particles should preferably be in a range from 0.5 to 5 μm and more preferably in a range 1 to 3 μm for a rapid and successful delivery to the system through the lung.

Particles of this size sediment in the lung provided that the inhalation is deep and not too short. For maximum lung deposition, the inspiration must take place in a calm manner to decrease air speed and thereby reduce deposition by impaction in the upper respiratory tracts. Small particles are more easily absorbed by the alveoli, which is a further reason for the delivered dose, according to the disclosure, to present a high fine particle fraction (FPF), i.e. the fine particle dose (FPD) of the delivered dose mass should be as high as possible. The advantages of using the inhalation power of the user to full potential in a prolonged, continuous dose delivery interval within the inhalation cycle is disclosed in our US Patent No. US 6,622,723 (WO 01/34233 Al), which is hereby incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. An objective of a prolonged dose delivery is to achieve a very high level of particle de- aggregation when the dose is in the process of being released from the container where it is deposited. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the medical product is optimized for a prolonged dose delivery.

Prior art dry powder inhalers begin aerosolizing a dose by uncontrolled spreading of energy to the powder in the dose. In prior art the supplied energy may be of different kinds, e.g. mechanical, electric or pneumatic to name a few and combinations of different kinds are common, e.g. where the inhalation energy provided by the user is re-enforced by external sources of power to accomplish particle de-aggregation and aerosolization of the dose. But the energy thus provided is directed to the whole dose for a short time. Surprisingly, we have found that the energy thus provided becomes unevenly distributed onto and in the dose, i.e. the energy density (Ws/m3) is too low in parts of the dose for de-aggregation to come about. Thus, significant parts of the dose are aerosolized as aggregated particles and delivered as aggregates to a user. However, these aggregates are aerodynamically too big to reach the deep lung. This is why the delivered fine particle doses (FPD) out of blisters or capsules or aerosolizing chambers of prior art inhalers are too low, representing only 20 - 30 % of the metered dose mass.

According to the present invention, a particular solution to this problem of individually releasing all particles of the dose, is to optimize the use of available inhalation energy over time. An initial build-up of suction power establishes an airflow, which is then directed onto the dose in a piecemeal fashion. The particles in the dose are thus released and aerosolized by the high level of energy density (Ws/m3) supplied to the dose in a gradual manner. Thus, a preferred embodiment of the medical product is adjusted to accommodate and facilitate a gradual release of the enclosed GLP dose and an optional dose of insulin by a dry powder inhaler. Surprisingly, we have found that if the inhalation power of a user is first allowed to build up to a certain level and then applied for a prolonged period to a single or combined dose, no other external source of power is necessary for a complete release and aerosolization of the dose(s). A minimum level of power has been determined to be 2 kPa of suction and a normal range of suction power is 2 to 6 kPa, but typically a suction not less than 2 kPa and not greater than 4 kPa is quite satisfactory for complete particle by particle release of a single or combined dose. Preferably, the suction produces an inspiration air stream in a range 20 to 60 1/min and more preferably in a range 20 to 40 1/min. Arranging the medical product, according to the invention, for a prolonged delivery in this way results in an FPD value several times higher than in prior art. Since the dose is aerosolized gradually, the dose is delivered over an interval, thereby resulting in a prolonged pulmonary dose delivery.

Typically, a prolonged pulmonary dose delivery lasts from 0,1 s to 5 s, depending on dose mass in the medical product and design and efficiency of the dry powder inhaler that is used. Two typical inhalation sequences are illustrated in Figures 3a and 3b, carried out by two subjects. Diagram curve Y represents the suction power in kPa provided by the respective subject over time X and curve Z represents dose delivery from 0 to 100 % from a DPI. As can be seen, delivery of the dose does not begin until the suction is near the peak at about 4 to 5 kPa. The respective dose is fully delivered before the suction power has dropped below 4 kPa. In one embodiment of the invention the medicament dose is made available in a dry powder inhaler and a user provides the suction effort to the inhaler, whereby the dose is released in a resulting single inhalation operation. In another embodiment of the invention the medicament dose is made available in a dry powder inhaler and a machine operated means provides the suction effort to the inhalation operation whereby the dose is released and pulmonary delivery is mimicked by a mechanical in-vitro means. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention the prolonged delivery is accomplished within a time period of not less than 0.1 second and not more than 5 seconds by the inhaler device.

In another embodiment of the present invention the prolonged delivery is accomplished within a time period of not less than 0.2 second and not more than 2 seconds by the inhaler device.

In a different embodiment of the present invention the prolonged delivery is accomplished within a time period of not less than 0.2 seconds and not more than 5 seconds and the dose is delivered in a manner where at least 50 % of the dose by mass is emitted within a time frame of 0.2 - 1 seconds by the inhaler device.

In yet another embodiment of the present invention the prolonged delivery is accomplished within a time period of not less than 0.2 seconds and not more than 5 seconds and the dose is delivered in a manner where at least 75 % of the dose by mass is emitted within a time frame of 0.2 - 2 seconds by the inhaler device.

Surprisingly, we have found that aerosolizing the dose gradually leads to less irritation of the mucous membranes and airways of the user, with a reduced risk of coughing or choking during an inhalation. This beneficial effect is due to a reduced concentration of particles per liter inspiration air, compared to prior art combinations of dose packages and inhalers. In a further aspect of the present invention the medical product is intended for application in a single dose inhaler, which entirely relies on the power of the inhalation for de-aggregating and aerosolizing the dose, with no further external source of power necessary. See Figures 7a and 7b for an example of a medical product comprising a combination of GLP and selectable insulin doses.

The disclosure herein is by way of example and a person of ordinary skill in the art may of course find alternative methods of energy optimization, 4-i JL

whereby de-aggregation power of sufficient strength may be distributed evenly and efficiently onto the dose, which methods, however, are still within the scope of the present invention. See our US Patent Nos. 6,571,793, 6,881,398, 6,840,239 and 6,892,727, which are hereby incorporated herein by reference.

In another aspect of the invention it is important to protect a moisture- sensitive dose, such as GLP or insulin, up to the very point of delivery to a user. Therefore, the medical product of the present invention must be protected from ingress of moisture for a specified in-use period. Preferably, the container of the medical product of the present invention is not opened until a user performs an inhalation. In such case the time of exposing the dose powder to the atmosphere is approximately the time it takes for the delivery to take place. Any adverse effect, which depends on exposing the dose to the ambient atmosphere is thereby minimized and in practice negligible. A particular embodiment of the present invention is illustrated in Figure 4a, 4b and 4c. Figure 4a shows a sealed container 33 (seal 31) put into a protective carrier 41 adapted for insertion into a dry powder inhaler. Figure 4b shows a top view of the carrier/ container and indicates depositions of dry powder making up a metered dose inside the container 33 under a seal 31 , for the benefit of the reader. Figure 4c illustrates a side view of the carrier/ container in Figure 4b. Figure 5a and 5b illustrate the container 33 in an opened state, where the seal 31 has been slit open and folded upwards, away from the dose 21 inside the container 33. Dose 21 is in the embodiment made up of four separate depositions 22 of dry powder.

Depositions 22 may comprise same or different powders, such that the combined depositions either represent a single, metered GLP dose or a combined dose of GLP and insulin. A skilled person would realize that the number of depositions depends, inter alia, on the total dose mass and the relation between masses of different powders together making up a combined dose. The fine particle fraction (FPF) of the finely divided active peptide agent, GLP and optionally insulin, if present, in the metered medicament dose is to be as high as possible, having a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) below 3 μm and a particle size distribution having at least 70 % and preferably more than 80 % and most preferably more than 90 % by mass with AD between 1 and 3 μm. After forming a metered dose, it is very important to protect the dose from negative influences, which may otherwise detrimentally affect FPF of GLP as well as insulin. Moisture constitutes a particular risk in this respect, because moisture increases the tendency of powders to form agglomerates, which reduces the FPF of the powder. So, in order to protect the dose according to the present invention against moisture, the medical product either comprises a primary dose package constituting a high barrier seal container, or the medical product is put in a suitable secondary package, whereby the FPF of GLP as well as optional insulin is protected from ingress of moisture from the point of manufacture to the point of administering a dose, through the steps of transporting, storing, distributing and consuming.

Methods of dose forming of peptide powder formulations, e.g. GLP and insulin according to the present invention, include conventional mass, gravimetric or volumetric metering and devices and machine equipment well known to the pharmaceutical industry for filling blister packs, for example. Electrostatic forming methods may also be used, or combinations of methods mentioned. A most suitable method of depositing microgram and milligram quantities of dry powders uses electric field technology (ELFID) as disclosed in our U.S. Patent No. 6,592,930 B2, which is hereby incorporated in this document in its entirety as a reference.

Insulin according to the present invention is defined as insulin, insulin analogue and insulin derivates, preferably recombinant, human insulin.

Prior art methods of producing a powder formulation of a medicament intended for inhalation, such as insulin or GLP, generally involves micronizing e.g. by jet milling or spray-drying, freeze-drying, vacuum drying oo

or open drying. Prior art methods include the addition of excipients, e.g. surfactants, stabilizers and penetration enhancers, in the manufacturing process with the object of improving the bioavailability, speed of systemic absorption and efficacy of the medicament, for instance insulin. Methods also include making porous or hollow particles, preferably spherical in shape and geometrically bigger than 10 μm in diameter, but with AD less than 5 μm. The objectives are to get a flowable powder, which makes handling and dose forming and metering easier and yet to provide a powder, which is easy to de-aggregate when inhaled and which offers a high delivered FPD.

A particular method of preparing a dry, crystalline medicament powder before an optional mixing step, is to jet mill or otherwise micronize the ingredients of the medicament at least once and preferably twice in order to get a small mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) for the finely divided powder in a range 1 - 3 μm with as small tails of particles outside this range as possible. The powder is then optionally mixed with one or more excipients, for example in order to dilute the potency of the active ingredient(s) to get a final powder preparation well adapted to chosen methods of metering and forming doses.

In another aspect of the present invention of combining GLP and insulin in treatment of diabetes, it is advantageous to include more than one formulation of recombinant, human insulin, or human insulin analogue, powder in the insulin dose, e.g. in order to improve the insulin delivery into the blood circulation, such that the natural course of insulin production in a healthy person is mimicked more closely than would be possible when using only one insulin formulation. Different formulations of recombinant insulin and insulin analogue present different absorption delays and blood concentrations over time, e.g. Lantus from Sanofy-Aventis, which is slow- acting but long duration and insulin lispro Humalog from Eli Lilly, the latter having fast on-set. Therefore, a use of two or more insulin analogues in a combined dose with GLP is well suited with the objective of adjusting the systemic concentration of insulin in the blood of a diabetic user over time by the combined action of the active ingredients. This treatment comes very close to bringing about the natural concentration curve in a healthy subject. When insulin is combined with administration of GLP, the choice of suitable insulin formulations and dosage sizes must be carefully adjusted by a person skilled in the art for best possible combination result. A typical combined therapy and dosing regimen of GLP and insulin lets the diabetic user take a combined dose by inhalation just before or in connection with each meal, such as breakfast, lunch and dinner. The insulin and the GLP ingredients are within minutes of inhalation absorbed into the system. The insulin helps reduce the spike of glucose following intake of food and the

GLP stimulates the beta-cells in pancreas to produce insulin and helps the body to keep a normal level of glucose in the blood until it is time for the next meal. In this therapy the objective of controlling a normal glucose level in the user during the day is fulfilled. Optionally, depending on the diabetic status of the user, additional doses of GLP and/ or insulin may be required in order to control the level of glucose during the day and night.

According to the present invention, mixing of two or more active agents into a homogenous powder mixture, optionally including one or more excipients, may be done in any order of all possible permutations, before the resulting powder mixture is used in a method of metering and forming doses. For instance, insulin may be mixed with GLP first and then this mixture may be added to a mixture of excipients, if needed, but any permutation of the mixing steps may be used. The properties of the final powder mixture are decisive for the choice of mixing method, such that e.g. peptide stability is maintained, risk of particle segregation by size is eliminated and dose to dose relative standard deviation (RSD) is kept within specified limits, usually within 5 %. Naturally, the ingredients must not adversely affect each other in the mixture. If there is any risk of degradation or other adverse effect in a component resulting from the mixing, then that component must not be included in the mixture, but separately administered, although preferably in a single inhalation operation, if technically possible. In another aspect of the present invention separate dry powder dosages of GLP and insulin respectively, each optionally comprising excipients, may be arranged onto a common dose carrier for insertion into an adapted inhaler and delivered to the lungs of a user, preferably in the course of a single inhalation. In a particular embodiment the separated dosages are separately enclosed onto the dose carrier in individually sealed enclosures, such as compartments, containers, capsules or blisters, known in the art. In another embodiment the separated dosages share a common enclosure onto the dose carrier. A common, sealed enclosure may be used to simplify the manufacturing process if the dosages of GLP and insulin have no adverse effect on each other after deposition and sealing onto the carrier for the shelf-life of the product. The combined dosages according to the disclosure may be advantageously used in the treatment of diabetes type 1 and type 2, providing at least one of the advantages listed in the foregoing.

It is a further objective of the present invention to deliver a fine particle dose (FPD) of the at least one GLP powder and optionally insulin powder if included in a combined dose, where the delivered fine particle dose amounts to at least 50 % by mass, preferably at least 60 % by mass, more preferably at least 70 % by mass and most preferably at least 80 % by mass of the active GLP ingredient and optional insulin ingredient of the respective ingredients of the metered dose.

In another aspect of the invention at least one excipient is in a formulation where the MMAD of the particles is 10 μm or more, such that the at least one excipient acts as a carrier for the finely divided particles of the at least one active GLP agent of the metered dose. Besides diluting the potency of the active GLP ingredient(s), excipients contribute to acceptable metering and dose forming properties of the powder mixture. When the metered dose is delivered to a user by means of a dry powder inhaler device (DPI), almost all of the excipient particle mass is deposited in the mouth and upper airways, because the AD of excipient particles are generally too big to follow the inspiration air into the lung. Therefore, excipients acting as carriers and/ or diluents are selected inter alia with a view to being harmless when deposited in these areas.

Suitable carrier or diluent excipients for inclusion in a GLP formulation are to be found among the groups of monosaccarides, disaccarides, oligo- and polysaccarides, polylactides, polyalcohols, polymers, salts or mixtures from these groups, e.g. glucose, arabinose, lactose, lactose monohydrate, lactose anhydrous [i.e., no crystalline water present in lactose molecule], saccharose, maltose, dextrane, sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, sodium chloride, calcium carbonate. A particular excipient is lactose.

In our experience many dry powder peptides are sensitive to moisture. Thus, the moisture properties of any proposed excipient must be checked before it is chosen to be included in a formulation comprising GLP and/ or insulin, regardless of the intended function of the proposed excipient. If an excipient gives off much water, after dose forming, it will negatively affect the active ingredients in the dose, such that the FPD deteriorates rapidly after dose forming. Therefore, excipients are to be selected among acceptable excipients, which have good moisture properties in the sense that the excipient will not adversely affect the FPD of the active ingredients for the shelf life of the product, regardless of normal changes in ambient conditions during transportation and storage. Suitable "dry" excipients are to be found in the above-mentioned groups. In a particular embodiment of a GLP dose, optionally also comprising insulin, lactose is selected as the preferred dry excipient and preferably lactose monohydrate. A reason for selecting lactose as excipient, is its inherent property of having a low and constant water sorption isotherm. Excipients having a similar or lower sorption isotherm can also be considered for use, provided other required qualities are met.

The dose size depends on the type of disorder and the selected GLP agent for adequate therapy, but naturally age, weight, gender and severity of the medical condition of the subject undergoing therapy are important factors. According to the present invention, a delivered fine particle dose (FPD) of the active ingredient administered by inhalation herein is not limited, and may generally be in a range from 10 μg to 25 mg. Normally, of course, a physician prescribes a proper dose size. Depending on the potency of the active substance, such as GLP and human insulin agents, the active dose mass is optionally diluted by adding a pharmacologically acceptable excipient to the formulation to suit a particular method of dose forming and to achieve a pre- metered dose in the inhaler, preferably exceeding 100 μg. Besides acting as a diluent, the excipient may optionally be selected to give desired electrical qualities to the powder mixture constituting the drug. A method for preparing a powder or powder mixture to bring about suitable electrostatic properties of the prepared powder to make the powder apt for a filling process is described in our US Patent No. US 6,696,090, which is hereby incorporated in this document in its entirety by reference.

Further, the correct metered dose loaded into an inhaler for administration must be adjusted for predicted losses such as retention and fine particle fraction (FPF) of the inhaled dose. A practical lower limit for volumetric dose forming is in a range 0.5 to 1 mg. Doses smaller than an order of 1 mg are difficult to produce while maintaining a low relative standard deviation between doses of the order of at least 5 %. Typically, though, dose masses for inhalation are in a range from 1 to 50 mg.

Ambient conditions during dose forming, metering and container sealing should be closely controlled. The ambient temperature is preferably limited to 25 0C maximum and relative humidity preferably limited to 15 % Rh maximum, although some drug formulations must be filled in very dry conditions of only a few percent relative humidity. As already mentioned in the foregoing it is very important to control the electric properties of the powder and thereby controlling the use of electric charging and discharging of particles, regardless of which method of dose forming is to be used. Fine powders pick up static electric charges extremely easily, which can be advantageously used in dose forming, if the charging and discharging is under proper control. o

"High barrier seal" means a dry packaging construction or material or combinations of materials. A high barrier seal is wherein it represents a high barrier against moisture and that the seal itself is 'dry', i.e. it cannot give off measurable amounts of water to the load of powder. A high barrier seal may for instance be made up of one or more layers of materials, i.e. technical polymers, aluminum or other metals, glass, silicon oxides etc that together constitutes the high barrier seal. If the high barrier seal is a foil, a 50 μm PCTFE/ PVC pharmaceutical foil is the minimum required high barrier foil if a two-week in-use stability for a moisture sensitive medicament shall be achieved. For longer in-use stabilities metal foils like aluminum foils from Alcan Singen can be used.

The medical product disclosed comprises a dose container as primary package, which may be a "high barrier seal container". The disclosed dose container is a mechanical construction made to harbor and enclose a dose of e.g. GLP or insulin or a dose combination or a mixture thereof, which may be sensitive to humidity. The design of the dose container and the materials used must be adequate for the drug considering the sensitivity to humidity and the specified in-use time for the container as primary package. A sealed dose container can be made up of one or more layers of materials, i.e. technical polymers, aluminum or other metals, glass, silicon oxides etc and may exist in many different shapes, e.g. completely or partly spherical, cylindrical, box-like etc. However, the volume of the container is preferably not bigger than necessary for loading and enclosing a metered dose or dose combination, thereby minimizing the amount of moisture enclosed in the atmosphere. Another requirement is that the container is designed to facilitate opening thereof, preferably in a way that makes the enclosed dose accessible for direct release, aerosolization and entrainment of the powder in inspiration air during an inhalation. The time the dose is exposed to ambient air is thereby minimized. A high barrier seal container is built using high barrier seals constituting the enclosing, i.e. walls of the container. The sealed, dry container of the present invention that is directly loaded with a GLP dose may be in the form of a blister and it may e.g. comprise a flat dose bed or a formed cavity in aluminum foil or a molded cavity in a polymer material, using a seal foil against ingress of moisture, e.g. of plastic or aluminum or a combination of aluminum and polymer materials. The sealed, dry, container may form a part of an inhaler device or it may form a part of a separate item intended for insertion into an inhaler device for administration of pre-metered doses. A particular embodiment of a sealed high barrier container used in an adapted DPI has the following data: Container internal volume: 100 mm3

Effective diffusion area: 46 mm2

. Diffusion constant: 0.044 g/m2 for 24 hours at 23 0C and differential Rh = 50 % Rh

In a further aspect of the present invention the medical product comprises at least one GLP agent and at least one insulin agent in a combined metered dose, optionally including at least one biologically acceptable excipient, loaded and sealed into a dose container. A GLP dosage and an insulin dosage, which together constitute a combined dose, may be sharing the same dose container or the dosages may be separated into separate dose containers. Methods of producing the combined dose are known in the art and include spray-drying, lyophilizing, vacuum drying, open drying, jet milling and mixing. Each ingredient may be produced as separate formulations or may be introduced into a selected process producing a combined formulation of the ingredients, if safe with regard to chemical and biological stability and toxicology. It is further possible, according to the disclosure herein, to make the resulting formulation(s) as powder, optionally powder inter-mixtures, of finely divided particles, or large-sized porous particles. The sealed dose container of the medical product is thus protecting the combined dose from ingress of moisture and other foreign matter, thereby preserving the FPD of the combined peptide medicament for the specified in-use time period. Deterioration of the FPD is further protected by enclosing only an insignificant quantity of moisture inside the container together with the dose by keeping the humidity in the atmosphere during dose metering and forming to a sufficiently low level, and optionally by choosing the biologically acceptable excipient with as low sorption coefficient as possible. For instance, the humidity in the atmosphere where the powder is handled immediately prior to metering and forming should be kept below

15 % Rh and preferably below 10 % Rh, more preferably below 5 % Rh and most preferably below 1 % Rh. The disclosed medical product warrants that the quality of the delivered dose is high and intact over the full shelf life period and the in-use period of the product.

In Figures , 4, 5, 6 and 7 reference numbers 11 - 42 of the drawings same numbers indicate like elements throughout the different embodiments of the medical product, presented here as non-limiting examples.

As used herein, the phrases "selected from the group consisting of," "chosen from," and the like include mixtures of the specified materials. All references, patents, applications, tests, standards, documents, publications, brochures, texts, articles, instructions, etc. mentioned herein are incorporated herein by reference. Where a numerical limit or range is stated, the endpoints are included. Also, all values and sub-ranges within a numerical limit or range are specifically included as if explicitly written out.

In the context of this document all references to ratios, including ratios given as percentage numbers, are related to mass, if not explicitly said to be otherwise.

Claims

CLAIMS 1. A medical product comprising a sealed dose container comprising: a metered, dry powder medicament dose of an active, glucagon-like peptide, GLP, agent; the medicament dose further comprising an active insulin agent, the insulin agent comprising at least one peptide of recombinant, human insulin or insulin analogue; the medicament dose optionally further comprising at least one biologically acceptable excipient; the medical product is adapted for a prolonged, pulmonary delivery of the medicament dose by inhalation from a dry powder inhaler, and the medicament dose of the medical product is arranged to be aerosolized and entrained into inspiration air directly from the container when opened by the inhaler, the medicament dose is further arranged to be aerosolized exclusively by the inhalation power of a user for the prolonged pulmonary delivery, whereby more than 50 % by mass of each of the respective active agents of the medicament dose leaves the inhaler as a fine particle dose, FPD.
2. The medical product according to claim 1, wherein the active agents of the medicament dose are provided as an inter-mixture in the container, the inter-mixture optionally further comprising at least one biologically acceptable excipient.
3. The medical product according to claim 2, wherein the active agents of the medicament dose are provided separately in the container, each active agent optionally further comprising at least one biologically acceptable excipient.
4. The medical product according to any of the claims 1 to 3, wherein the medical product comprises an amount of insulin agent in a range from 100 μg to 25 mg in the medicament dose.
5. A medical product comprising a sealed dose container comprising: a metered, dry powder, medicament dose of an active, glucagon-like peptide, GLP, agent; the medicament dose optionally further comprising at least one biologically acceptable excipient; the medical product is adapted for a prolonged pulmonary delivery of the medicament dose by inhalation from a dry powder inhaler, and the medicament dose of the medical product is arranged to be aerosolized and entrained into inspiration air directly from the container when opened by the inhaler, the medicament dose is further arranged to be aerosolized exclusively by the inhalation power of a user for the prolonged pulmonary delivery, whereby more than 50 % by mass of the active agent of the medicament dose leaves the inhaler as fine particle dose, FPD.
6. The medical product according to claim 5, wherein the GLP agent and the optional at least one biologically acceptable excipient of the medicament dose are provided as an inter-mixture in the container.
7. The medical product according to claim 6, wherein the GLP agent and the optional at least one biological acceptable excipient of the medicament dose are provided separately in the container.
8. The medical product according to any of the claims 1 to 7, wherein the GLP agent is selected from a GLP sequence or a pharmaceutically acceptable analogue or derivate thereof.
9. The medical product according to any of the claims 1 to 8, wherein the GLP agent comprises GLP-I or a pharmaceutically acceptable analogue or derivate thereof.
10. The medical product according to any of the claims 1 to 9, wherein the GLP agent comprises GLP-2 or a pharmaceutically acceptable analogue or derivate thereof. OO
11. The medical product according to any of the claims 1 to 10, wherein the prolonged pulmonary delivery of a dose of the medical product takes place in a period of not less than 0.1 s and not more than 5 s.
12. The medical product according to any of the claims 1 to 11, wherein the required inhalation power for de-aggregating and aerosolizing a dose of the medical product is not less than 2 kPa and not more than 6 kPa of air pressure resulting in an inspiration air flow of not less than 20 1/min and not more than 60 1/min.
13. The medical product according to any of the claims 1 to 12, wherein more than 60 % by mass, preferably more than 70 % by mass and most preferably more than 80 % by mass of the active agent or each of the respective active agents of the medicament dose leaves the inhaler as a FPD.
14. The medical product according to any of the claims 1 to 13, wherein a total mass of the GLP agent in the medicament dose of the medical product is in a range from 10 μg to 25 mg of a total dose mass in a range from 1 mg to 50 mg.
15. The medical product according to any of the claims 1 to 14, wherein the dry powder medicament dose has a mass median aerodynamic diameter in a range from 1 to 3 μm.
16. The medical product according to any of the claims 1 to 15, wherein the at least one, optional dry excipient of the medical product comprises particles having a diameter of 25 μm or more in an amount of more than 40 % by mass based on total mass of excipient, and the at least one, optional dry excipient further comprises an excipient selected from a group consisting of monosaccarides, disaccarides, polylactides, oligo- and polysaccarides, polyalcohols, polymers, salts or mixtures thereof.
17. The medical product according to any of the claims 1 to 16, wherein the container of the medical product constitutes a high barrier seal container protecting the medicament dose from ingress of moisture and other harmful substances, whereby the integrity of the medicament dose is fully protected for the shelf- life of the medical product.
18. A dry powder inhaler comprising a medical product according to any of the claims 1 to 17.
19. A method of producing a medical product, said method comprising the steps of providing a dry powder medicament dose of an active, glucagon-like peptide, GLP, agent, an active insulin agent, the insulin agent comprising at least one peptide of recombinant, human insulin or insulin analogue, and optionally at least one biologically acceptable excipient in a dose container; and sealing the dose container, wherein the medical product is adapted for a prolonged, pulmonary delivery of the medicament dose by inhalation from a dry powder inhaler, and the medicament dose of the medical product is adapted to be aerosolized and entrained into inspiration air exclusively by the inhalation power of a user directly from the container when opened by the inhaler .
20. A method of producing a medical product, said method comprising the steps of providing a dry powder medicament dose of an active, glucagon-like peptide, GLP, agent, and optionally at least one biologically acceptable excipient in a dose container; sealing the dose container, wherein the medical product is adapted for a prolonged, pulmonary delivery of the medicament dose by inhalation from a dry powder inhaler, and o _
the medicament dose of the medical product is adapted to be aerosolized and entrained into inspiration air exclusively by the inhalation power of a user directly from the container when opened by the inhaler.
21. A method of emitting a dry powder medicament dose of a medical product according to any of the claims 1 to 18 comprising the steps of: arranging the medical product in a dry powder inhaler in such a way that the medicament dose of the medical product is aerosolized and entrained into inspiration air directly from the container when opened by the inhaler; and applying a suction effort to the inhaler, whereby the medicament dose is aerosolized exclusively by the inhalation power provided by the suction effort for a prolonged pulmonary delivery, whereby more than 50 % by mass of each of the respective active agents of the medicament dose leaves the inhaler as a fine particle dose, FPD.
22. The method according to claim 21 comprising the further steps of: providing the suction effort by machine operated means, and mimicking pulmonary delivery by a mechanical in-vitro means.
PCT/SE2005/001648 2004-12-03 2005-11-02 A medical product comprising a glucagon-like peptide medicament intended for pulmonary inhalation WO2006059939A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
SE0402976-5 2004-12-03
SE0402976A SE0402976L (en) 2004-12-03 2004-12-03 medical product
US11/049,696 US20060120969A1 (en) 2004-12-03 2005-02-04 Medical product for inhalation containing glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)
US11/049696 2005-02-04

Applications Claiming Priority (7)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2007544302A JP2008521893A (en) 2004-12-03 2005-11-02 Medical products, including glucagon-like peptide drug for pulmonary inhalation
EP20050801482 EP1827381A1 (en) 2004-12-03 2005-11-02 A medical product comprising a glucagon-like peptide medicament intended for pulmonary inhalation
MX2007006533A MX2007006533A (en) 2004-12-03 2005-11-02 A medical product comprising a glucagon-like peptide medicament intended for pulmonary inhalation.
BRPI0518600 BRPI0518600A2 (en) 2004-12-03 2005-11-02 medical product comprising a glucagon peptide drug designed for pulmonary inalaÇço
CA 2589118 CA2589118A1 (en) 2004-12-03 2005-11-02 A medical product comprising a glucagon-like peptide medicament intended for pulmonary inhalation
AU2005310367A AU2005310367A1 (en) 2004-12-03 2005-11-02 A medical product comprising a glucagon-like peptide medicament intended for pulmonary inhalation
IL18362307A IL183623D0 (en) 2004-12-03 2007-06-03 A medical product comprising a glucagon-like peptide medicament intended for pulmonary inhalation

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2006059939A1 true WO2006059939A1 (en) 2006-06-08

Family

ID=36565328

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/SE2005/001648 WO2006059939A1 (en) 2004-12-03 2005-11-02 A medical product comprising a glucagon-like peptide medicament intended for pulmonary inhalation

Country Status (5)

Country Link
EP (1) EP1827381A1 (en)
KR (1) KR20070095927A (en)
AU (1) AU2005310367A1 (en)
CA (1) CA2589118A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2006059939A1 (en)

Cited By (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2011500850A (en) * 2007-10-24 2011-01-06 マンカインド コーポレイション How to prevent the side effects of Glp-1
US8921311B2 (en) 2003-08-01 2014-12-30 Mannkind Corporation Method for treating hyperglycemia
US9078866B2 (en) 2003-08-01 2015-07-14 Mannkind Corporation Method for treating hyperglycemia with GLP-1
US9192675B2 (en) 2008-06-13 2015-11-24 Mankind Corporation Dry powder inhaler and system for drug delivery
US9220687B2 (en) 2008-12-29 2015-12-29 Mannkind Corporation Substituted diketopiperazine analogs for use as drug delivery agents
US9233159B2 (en) 2011-10-24 2016-01-12 Mannkind Corporation Methods and compositions for treating pain
US9241903B2 (en) 2006-02-22 2016-01-26 Mannkind Corporation Method for improving the pharmaceutic properties of microparticles comprising diketopiperazine and an active agent
US9283193B2 (en) 2005-09-14 2016-03-15 Mannkind Corporation Method of drug formulation based on increasing the affinity of crystalline microparticle surfaces for active agents
US9364436B2 (en) 2011-06-17 2016-06-14 Mannkind Corporation High capacity diketopiperazine microparticles and methods
US9364619B2 (en) 2008-06-20 2016-06-14 Mannkind Corporation Interactive apparatus and method for real-time profiling of inhalation efforts
US9630930B2 (en) 2009-06-12 2017-04-25 Mannkind Corporation Diketopiperazine microparticles with defined specific surface areas
US9662461B2 (en) 2008-06-13 2017-05-30 Mannkind Corporation Dry powder drug delivery system and methods
US9675674B2 (en) 2004-08-23 2017-06-13 Mannkind Corporation Diketopiperazine salts for drug delivery and related methods
US9700690B2 (en) 2002-03-20 2017-07-11 Mannkind Corporation Inhalation apparatus
US9706944B2 (en) 2009-11-03 2017-07-18 Mannkind Corporation Apparatus and method for simulating inhalation efforts
US9796688B2 (en) 2004-08-20 2017-10-24 Mannkind Corporation Catalysis of diketopiperazine synthesis
US9802012B2 (en) 2012-07-12 2017-10-31 Mannkind Corporation Dry powder drug delivery system and methods
US9801925B2 (en) 1999-06-29 2017-10-31 Mannkind Corporation Potentiation of glucose elimination
US9821036B2 (en) 2008-06-27 2017-11-21 Duke University Therapeutic agents comprising a GLP-2 peptide and elastin-like peptides
US9925144B2 (en) 2013-07-18 2018-03-27 Mannkind Corporation Heat-stable dry powder pharmaceutical compositions and methods
US9943571B2 (en) 2008-08-11 2018-04-17 Mannkind Corporation Use of ultrarapid acting insulin
US9983108B2 (en) 2009-03-11 2018-05-29 Mannkind Corporation Apparatus, system and method for measuring resistance of an inhaler
US10159644B2 (en) 2012-10-26 2018-12-25 Mannkind Corporation Inhalable vaccine compositions and methods
US10258700B2 (en) 2005-12-20 2019-04-16 Duke University Methods and compositions for delivering active agents with enhanced pharmacological properties

Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2001000223A2 (en) * 1999-06-25 2001-01-04 Minimed Inc. Multiple agent diabetes therapy
US20010012829A1 (en) * 2000-01-11 2001-08-09 Keith Anderson Transepithelial delivery GLP-1 derivatives
US20020160008A1 (en) * 1994-02-12 2002-10-31 John Dupre Treatment of diabetes
US6526969B2 (en) * 2001-04-05 2003-03-04 Microdrug Ag Method and device for releasing powder
US6528486B1 (en) * 1999-07-12 2003-03-04 Zealand Pharma A/S Peptide agonists of GLP-1 activity
WO2003035099A1 (en) * 2001-10-19 2003-05-01 Eli Lilly And Company Biphasic mixtures of glp-1 and insulin
US20030182540A1 (en) * 2002-03-21 2003-09-25 International Business Machines Corporation Method for limiting physical resource usage in a virtual tag allocation environment of a microprocessor
US20040120897A1 (en) * 1998-08-28 2004-06-24 Hughes Benjamin Lee Method for administering insulinotropic peptides
US6810873B1 (en) * 1999-04-23 2004-11-02 Innovata Biomed Limited Powder inhaler for combined medicament
US20050052862A1 (en) * 2003-09-09 2005-03-10 Bruwer Frederick Johannes Flashlight

Patent Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20020160008A1 (en) * 1994-02-12 2002-10-31 John Dupre Treatment of diabetes
US20040120897A1 (en) * 1998-08-28 2004-06-24 Hughes Benjamin Lee Method for administering insulinotropic peptides
US6810873B1 (en) * 1999-04-23 2004-11-02 Innovata Biomed Limited Powder inhaler for combined medicament
WO2001000223A2 (en) * 1999-06-25 2001-01-04 Minimed Inc. Multiple agent diabetes therapy
US6528486B1 (en) * 1999-07-12 2003-03-04 Zealand Pharma A/S Peptide agonists of GLP-1 activity
US20010012829A1 (en) * 2000-01-11 2001-08-09 Keith Anderson Transepithelial delivery GLP-1 derivatives
US6526969B2 (en) * 2001-04-05 2003-03-04 Microdrug Ag Method and device for releasing powder
WO2003035099A1 (en) * 2001-10-19 2003-05-01 Eli Lilly And Company Biphasic mixtures of glp-1 and insulin
US20030182540A1 (en) * 2002-03-21 2003-09-25 International Business Machines Corporation Method for limiting physical resource usage in a virtual tag allocation environment of a microprocessor
US20050052862A1 (en) * 2003-09-09 2005-03-10 Bruwer Frederick Johannes Flashlight

Cited By (38)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9801925B2 (en) 1999-06-29 2017-10-31 Mannkind Corporation Potentiation of glucose elimination
US9700690B2 (en) 2002-03-20 2017-07-11 Mannkind Corporation Inhalation apparatus
US8921311B2 (en) 2003-08-01 2014-12-30 Mannkind Corporation Method for treating hyperglycemia
US9078866B2 (en) 2003-08-01 2015-07-14 Mannkind Corporation Method for treating hyperglycemia with GLP-1
US9796688B2 (en) 2004-08-20 2017-10-24 Mannkind Corporation Catalysis of diketopiperazine synthesis
US10130685B2 (en) 2004-08-23 2018-11-20 Mannkind Corporation Diketopiperazine salts for drug delivery and related methods
US9675674B2 (en) 2004-08-23 2017-06-13 Mannkind Corporation Diketopiperazine salts for drug delivery and related methods
US9446001B2 (en) 2005-09-14 2016-09-20 Mannkind Corporation Increasing drug affinity for crystalline microparticle surfaces
US9283193B2 (en) 2005-09-14 2016-03-15 Mannkind Corporation Method of drug formulation based on increasing the affinity of crystalline microparticle surfaces for active agents
US9717689B2 (en) 2005-09-14 2017-08-01 Mannkind Corporation Method of drug formulation based on increasing the affinity of crystalline microparticle surfaces for active agents
US10143655B2 (en) 2005-09-14 2018-12-04 Mannkind Corporation Method of drug formulation
US10258700B2 (en) 2005-12-20 2019-04-16 Duke University Methods and compositions for delivering active agents with enhanced pharmacological properties
US9241903B2 (en) 2006-02-22 2016-01-26 Mannkind Corporation Method for improving the pharmaceutic properties of microparticles comprising diketopiperazine and an active agent
US10130581B2 (en) 2006-02-22 2018-11-20 Mannkind Corporation Method for improving the pharmaceutic properties of microparticles comprising diketopiperazine and an active agent
JP2011500850A (en) * 2007-10-24 2011-01-06 マンカインド コーポレイション How to prevent the side effects of Glp-1
US10201672B2 (en) 2008-06-13 2019-02-12 Mannkind Corporation Dry powder inhaler and system for drug delivery
US9192675B2 (en) 2008-06-13 2015-11-24 Mankind Corporation Dry powder inhaler and system for drug delivery
US9662461B2 (en) 2008-06-13 2017-05-30 Mannkind Corporation Dry powder drug delivery system and methods
US9339615B2 (en) 2008-06-13 2016-05-17 Mannkind Corporation Dry powder inhaler and system for drug delivery
US9511198B2 (en) 2008-06-13 2016-12-06 Mannkind Corporation Dry powder inhaler and system for drug delivery
US9446133B2 (en) 2008-06-13 2016-09-20 Mannkind Corporation Dry powder inhaler and system for drug delivery
US9364619B2 (en) 2008-06-20 2016-06-14 Mannkind Corporation Interactive apparatus and method for real-time profiling of inhalation efforts
US9821036B2 (en) 2008-06-27 2017-11-21 Duke University Therapeutic agents comprising a GLP-2 peptide and elastin-like peptides
US9943571B2 (en) 2008-08-11 2018-04-17 Mannkind Corporation Use of ultrarapid acting insulin
US10172850B2 (en) 2008-12-29 2019-01-08 Mannkind Corporation Substituted diketopiperazine analogs for use as drug delivery agents
US9220687B2 (en) 2008-12-29 2015-12-29 Mannkind Corporation Substituted diketopiperazine analogs for use as drug delivery agents
US9655850B2 (en) 2008-12-29 2017-05-23 Mannkind Corporation Substituted diketopiperazine analogs for use as drug delivery agents
US9983108B2 (en) 2009-03-11 2018-05-29 Mannkind Corporation Apparatus, system and method for measuring resistance of an inhaler
US9630930B2 (en) 2009-06-12 2017-04-25 Mannkind Corporation Diketopiperazine microparticles with defined specific surface areas
US9706944B2 (en) 2009-11-03 2017-07-18 Mannkind Corporation Apparatus and method for simulating inhalation efforts
US9364436B2 (en) 2011-06-17 2016-06-14 Mannkind Corporation High capacity diketopiperazine microparticles and methods
US10130709B2 (en) 2011-06-17 2018-11-20 Mannkind Corporation High capacity diketopiperazine microparticles and methods
US9233159B2 (en) 2011-10-24 2016-01-12 Mannkind Corporation Methods and compositions for treating pain
US10258664B2 (en) 2011-10-24 2019-04-16 Mannkind Corporation Methods and compositions for treating pain
US9610351B2 (en) 2011-10-24 2017-04-04 Mannkind Corporation Methods and compositions for treating pain
US9802012B2 (en) 2012-07-12 2017-10-31 Mannkind Corporation Dry powder drug delivery system and methods
US10159644B2 (en) 2012-10-26 2018-12-25 Mannkind Corporation Inhalable vaccine compositions and methods
US9925144B2 (en) 2013-07-18 2018-03-27 Mannkind Corporation Heat-stable dry powder pharmaceutical compositions and methods

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
EP1827381A1 (en) 2007-09-05
AU2005310367A1 (en) 2006-06-08
CA2589118A1 (en) 2006-06-08
KR20070095927A (en) 2007-10-01

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US5941240A (en) Inhaled insulin dosage control delivery enhanced by controlling total inhaled volume
Shoyele et al. Prospects of formulating proteins/peptides as aerosols for pulmonary drug delivery
CN1212830C (en) Delivery of solid drug compositions
ES2655921T3 (en) A dry powder inhaler and drug delivery system for
JP4378057B2 (en) Flow resistance regulated aerosolized active agent delivery
JP5667041B2 (en) Dry powder inhalation system
US6921528B2 (en) Highly efficient delivery of a large therapeutic mass aerosol
US6737045B2 (en) Methods and compositions for the pulmonary delivery insulin
US5915378A (en) Creating an aerosolized formulation of insulin
EP0818991B1 (en) Controlled release insufflation carrier for medicaments comprising xanthan gum and locust bean gum
Owens New horizons—alternative routes for insulin therapy
RU2571331C1 (en) Systems and methods for dry powder drug delivery
RU2467741C2 (en) Active substance delivery
CN104619369B (en) Dry powder drug delivery systems and methods
KR101066737B1 (en) Aerosolization apparatus with capsule puncture alignment guide
RU2144819C1 (en) Powder-like preparations containing melecitose as diluting agent
US20020055496A1 (en) Formulation and system for intra-oral delivery of pharmaceutical agents
US5672581A (en) Method of administration of insulin
ES2310722T3 (en) inhaler system improved dry powder.
AU2005209199B2 (en) Sublingual drug delivery device
ES2305057T3 (en) Device for oral drug delivery.
ES2383367T3 (en) Spray apparatus aerosol with air inlet protection
US7931022B2 (en) Method and apparatus for dispensing inhalator medicament
AU2006230576B2 (en) Control of blood glucose in diabetes treatment using pulmonarily administered insulin in combination with basal insulin
AU2004294886B2 (en) A medical product comprising tiotropium in a moisture-proof container

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AL Designated countries for regional patents

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): BW GH GM KE LS MW MZ NA SD SL SZ TZ UG ZM ZW AM AZ BY KG KZ MD RU TJ TM AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IS IT LT LU LV MC NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR BF BJ CF CG CI CM GA GN GQ GW ML MR NE SN TD TG

AK Designated states

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): AE AG AL AM AT AU AZ BA BB BG BR BW BY BZ CA CH CN CO CR CU CZ DE DK DM DZ EC EE EG ES FI GB GD GE GH GM HR HU ID IL IN IS JP KE KG KM KN KP KR KZ LC LK LR LS LT LU LV LY MA MD MG MK MN MW MX MZ NA NG NI NO NZ OM PG PH PL PT RO RU SC SD SE SG SK SL SM SY TJ TM TN TR TT TZ UA UG US UZ VC VN YU ZA ZM ZW

121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application
DPE1 Request for preliminary examination filed after expiration of 19th month from priority date (pct application filed from 20040101)
WWE Wipo information: entry into national phase

Ref document number: MX/a/2007/006533

Country of ref document: MX

Ref document number: 2007544302

Country of ref document: JP

Ref document number: 2589118

Country of ref document: CA

WWE Wipo information: entry into national phase

Ref document number: 183623

Country of ref document: IL

WWE Wipo information: entry into national phase

Ref document number: 12007501163

Country of ref document: PH

NENP Non-entry into the national phase in:

Ref country code: DE

WWE Wipo information: entry into national phase

Ref document number: 4567/DELNP/2007

Country of ref document: IN

WWE Wipo information: entry into national phase

Ref document number: 2005310367

Country of ref document: AU

Ref document number: 555903

Country of ref document: NZ

WWE Wipo information: entry into national phase

Ref document number: 2005801482

Country of ref document: EP

WWE Wipo information: entry into national phase

Ref document number: 2007124795

Country of ref document: RU

Ref document number: 1020077015300

Country of ref document: KR

ENP Entry into the national phase in:

Ref document number: 2005310367

Country of ref document: AU

Date of ref document: 20051102

Kind code of ref document: A

WWP Wipo information: published in national office

Ref document number: 2005310367

Country of ref document: AU

WWE Wipo information: entry into national phase

Ref document number: 200580047648.3

Country of ref document: CN

WWP Wipo information: published in national office

Ref document number: 2005801482

Country of ref document: EP

ENP Entry into the national phase in:

Ref document number: PI0518600

Country of ref document: BR