WO2006027623A1 - Combustion process, steam driven apparatus and method for imparting motion to an apparatus - Google Patents

Combustion process, steam driven apparatus and method for imparting motion to an apparatus Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO2006027623A1
WO2006027623A1 PCT/GB2005/003524 GB2005003524W WO2006027623A1 WO 2006027623 A1 WO2006027623 A1 WO 2006027623A1 GB 2005003524 W GB2005003524 W GB 2005003524W WO 2006027623 A1 WO2006027623 A1 WO 2006027623A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
combustion
steam
hydrogen
oxygen
chamber
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/GB2005/003524
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Donald James Highgate
Original Assignee
Itm Fuel Cells Ltd.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to GB0420119.0 priority Critical
Priority to GB0420119A priority patent/GB0420119D0/en
Application filed by Itm Fuel Cells Ltd. filed Critical Itm Fuel Cells Ltd.
Publication of WO2006027623A1 publication Critical patent/WO2006027623A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01KSTEAM ENGINE PLANTS; STEAM ACCUMULATORS; ENGINE PLANTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; ENGINES USING SPECIAL WORKING FLUIDS OR CYCLES
    • F01K25/00Plants or engines characterised by use of special working fluids, not otherwise provided for; Plants operating in closed cycles and not otherwise provided for
    • F01K25/005Plants or engines characterised by use of special working fluids, not otherwise provided for; Plants operating in closed cycles and not otherwise provided for the working fluid being steam, created by combustion of hydrogen with oxygen
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F22STEAM GENERATION
    • F22BMETHODS OF STEAM GENERATION; STEAM BOILERS
    • F22B1/00Methods of steam generation characterised by form of heating method
    • F22B1/003Methods of steam generation characterised by form of heating method using combustion of hydrogen with oxygen

Abstract

A process for the generation of high pressure steam, which comprises subjecting hydrogen and oxygen in a 2: 1 stoichiometic ratio to essentially continuous combustion, a steam-driven apparatus and a method for imparting motion to an apparatus.

Description

COMBUSTION PROCESS, STEAM DRIVEN APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR IMPARTING
MOTION TO AN APPARATUS
Field of the Invention
This invention relates to a combustion process, and in particular to a process that can utilise low/zero carbon footprint hydrogen as a secondary fuel. Background of the Invention
The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels using atmospheric oxygen in open cycle heat engines produces large amounts of atmospheric pollutants, principally carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen. This is the situation irrespective of the type of heat engine (internal combustion or external combustion), the type of thermodynamic cycle used or the standard of maintenance of the device.
It is now recognised that this situation is not acceptable if the quality of the environment is to be maintained, and significant effort is now being directed to the development of improved combustion systems and the replacement of high carbon fuels with hydrocarbons of lower carbon footprint. These developments are typified by the development of catalytic converters for automotive applications, sulphur removal from electric power stations and the replacement of coal and heavy oil fuels by light oils or gas (butane or propane) of reduced carbon footprint.
These methods have contributed to a significant reduction in the UK's carbon dioxide output. However, the reductions necessary to achieve long-term stability in the environment are considerably greater than can be achieved by the simple substitution of gas for heavy oil or coal and, for this reason, alternative energy systems are needed.
The generation of hydrogen by electrolysis, from low carbon footprint primary energy sources, wind power, wave power and nuclear energy is well known. A limitation is the cost and efficiency of the electrolysis plant.
It is normally stated that the efficiency of a fuel cell is significantly greater than that of a heat engine (typically 40-60% compared with 20-30%) and this is the justification for much research in fuel cells; however, if the heat engine can be designed to operate using oxy-hydrogen, the combustion temperature is approximately 3080°K and the theoretical efficiency (the Carnot cycle efficiency) is then in excess of 85%, significantly greater than that available from any existing fuel cell. In addition, if the fuel gases are used in a stoichiometric ratio (as produced by the electrolysis process), the result is pure water.
For these reasons, it is desirable to develop improved means for the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen in heat engines. However, significant difficulties arise inter alia because of:
(i) the very wide combustion limits for hydrogen in oxygen which lie approximately in the region 4%H2:96%02 and 95%H2:5%02; (ii) the high flame front velocity in hydrogen air and hydrogen oxygen; and (iii) the high combustion temperature.
Item (i) above is reflected in the relative difficulty in achieving good charging of an internal combustion engine in which discrete charges of fuel- oxidant mixture must be introduced into a combustion chamber and then ignited. The wide combustion ratio results in pre-ignition in a spark ignition (Otto cycle) engine (simple oxy-hydrogen will not ignite due to compression heating alone, so a pure hydrogen diesel engine is not possible). In addition, the high flame front velocity makes complete combustion difficult, resulting in incomplete combustion of the charge in the cylinder.
For these reasons, engines which employ continuous combustion are simpler and easier to control. Continuous combustion may be employed in a piston engine such as the Stirling engine which is an external steady combustion system, but such devices have limited efficiency due to thermal conduction and heat transfer problems. Alternatively, continuous combustion may be used in gas turbine devices, but the high combustion temperature makes materials choice difficult, and catalytic combustion at reduced temperature is preferred.
In addition, there is a need for transport engines to exhibit high torque at low rates of rotation, such as can be achieved in conventional steam engines or electric motors. Summary of the Invention The present invention is based on an appreciation of the fact that the use of electrolysis (specifically by means of a solid polymer electrolyte electrolyser) results in the production of high purity hydrogen (>99.99% purity) and oxygen in precisely stoichiometric ratios. The hydrogen can be reconverted to useful energy either by the use of a fuel cell or by combustion in a heat engine; in either case, if the oxygen which results from the electrolytic production process is employed, the only resulting by-product is water.
According to the present invention, a steam-generating system, effectively a very low thermal mass high response rate boiler, comprises combusting H and O in stoichiometric ratio (2:1 as produced directly from an electrolyser), to produce high temperature steam with no other products of combustion. Description of the Drawing
The accompanying drawing is a schematic representation of a device that can be used in this invention. Description of the Invention
In one embodiment of a system of the present invention, it may be used directly if appropriate, controlling the fuel feed rate (smoothly and continuously) as necessary to match the input energy generation rate to the output demand. In this case, the operating conditions, principally pressure, temperature and energy production rate, may be varied continuously. Such a simple steam-raising device is shown in the drawing. Because of the relative simplicity of the device, the high operating temperature of oxy-hydrogen may allow the structure to be constructed using ceramic materials (there being no valves or other moving parts).
If necessary or desired, a catalytic combustion process may be employed to reduce the effective burning temperature of the hydrogen-oxygen fuel, although this would reduce the maximum efficiency possible. In another ambodiment of the invention, using continuous hydrogen- oxygen combustion, a valved steam-raising chamber (as shown in the drawing but with a suitable valve in the exit port at point A) may be combined inter alia with a piston and cylinder engine to achieve the advantages of continuous combustion and the simplicity of a piston engine but one in which the torque is not dependent upon the explosive combustion of a fuel charge as in an Otto cycle or Diesel cycle engine. In this application, the combustion rate may be continuous and the fuel feed rate controlled smoothly to achieve the time average energy output required of the system, but the combustion chamber may be valved so that the pressure may change discontinuously as required during any one 'cycle' of the piston engine to which it is attached.
In this case, the fuel feed and combustion are continuous, but the steam- generating chamber is valved and the pressure is allowed to fluctuate in order that there can be an exhaust cycle from the piston/cylinder system.
The cycle may involve a long charge phase during which the steam pressure increases in the cylinder pushing upon the piston, increasing the effective torque of the engine until rotation occurs. The piston then moves down and begins the return stroke, at which point the exhaust valve opens and the steam inlet valve shuts; during this phase the pressure in the steam raising chamber increases. The duration of the exhaust cycle can be reduced by the introduction of, for example, an additional gas cylinder into the primary piston/connecting rod. This device allows the duration of the 'inlet' and 'exhaust' cycles to be controlled to reduce the pressure changes which would otherwise occur in the fuel combustion chamber. An alternative way of operating the engine is to make it a multi-cylinder device in which the duration of the inlet/exhaust phases can be controlled.

Claims

Claims
1. A process for the generation of high pressure steam, which comprises subjecting hydrogen and oxygen in a 2:1 stoichiometic ratio to essentially continuous combustion.
2. A process according to claim 1 , in which the hydrogen and oxygen are produced by an electrolyser from input electricity of low carbon footprint.
3. A process according to claim 1 or claim 2, which is conducted in the presence of a catalyst, whereby the combustion temperature is controlled and lowered.
4. A process according to any preceding claim, in which the combustion is conducted within a valved chamber.
5. A method for imparting motion to apparatus, e.g. a piston engine, driven by high pressure steam, in which the steam is generated by a process according to any preceding claim, i
6. Steam-driven apparatus comprising a combustion chamber supplied by an electrolyser supplying hydrogen and oxygen in a 2:1 stoichiometic ratio.
7. Apparatus according to claim 6, wherein the combustion chamber is valved.
8. Apparatus according to claim 6 or claim 7, which is a piston engine.
9. Apparatus according to claim 8, which additionally comprises a sealed gas chamber in the primary piston-connecting rod, thereby allowing the use of combustion in conjuction with a piston engine cycle.
PCT/GB2005/003524 2004-09-10 2005-09-12 Combustion process, steam driven apparatus and method for imparting motion to an apparatus WO2006027623A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB0420119.0 2004-09-10
GB0420119A GB0420119D0 (en) 2004-09-10 2004-09-10 Improvements to combustion processes

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2006027623A1 true WO2006027623A1 (en) 2006-03-16

Family

ID=33186803

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/GB2005/003524 WO2006027623A1 (en) 2004-09-10 2005-09-12 Combustion process, steam driven apparatus and method for imparting motion to an apparatus

Country Status (2)

Country Link
GB (1) GB0420119D0 (en)
WO (1) WO2006027623A1 (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2499952C2 (en) * 2011-08-22 2013-11-27 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Кузбасский государственный технический университет имени Т.Ф. Горбачева" (КузГТУ) Steam generator and method to produce high-temperature water steam
US8708280B2 (en) 2010-06-15 2014-04-29 Airbus Operations Limited Telescopic strut

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2354511A1 (en) * 1976-06-07 1978-01-06 Combustion Eng Generating plant with nuclear fueled boiler - directly combusts hydrogen-oxygen mixt. in superheater and includes electrolysis plant for hydrogen and oxygen prodn.
US4942733A (en) * 1987-03-26 1990-07-24 Sundstrand Corporation Hot gas generator system
US5088450A (en) * 1989-11-04 1992-02-18 Deutsche Forschungsanstalt Fuer Luft- Und Raumfahrt E.V. Steam generator
US5177952A (en) * 1991-03-01 1993-01-12 Rockwell International Corporation Closed cycle power system
US20040069245A1 (en) * 2002-09-17 2004-04-15 Timothy Griffin Method for generating steam, in particular ultrapure steam, and steam generator

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2354511A1 (en) * 1976-06-07 1978-01-06 Combustion Eng Generating plant with nuclear fueled boiler - directly combusts hydrogen-oxygen mixt. in superheater and includes electrolysis plant for hydrogen and oxygen prodn.
US4942733A (en) * 1987-03-26 1990-07-24 Sundstrand Corporation Hot gas generator system
US5088450A (en) * 1989-11-04 1992-02-18 Deutsche Forschungsanstalt Fuer Luft- Und Raumfahrt E.V. Steam generator
US5177952A (en) * 1991-03-01 1993-01-12 Rockwell International Corporation Closed cycle power system
US20040069245A1 (en) * 2002-09-17 2004-04-15 Timothy Griffin Method for generating steam, in particular ultrapure steam, and steam generator

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8708280B2 (en) 2010-06-15 2014-04-29 Airbus Operations Limited Telescopic strut
RU2499952C2 (en) * 2011-08-22 2013-11-27 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Кузбасский государственный технический университет имени Т.Ф. Горбачева" (КузГТУ) Steam generator and method to produce high-temperature water steam

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB0420119D0 (en) 2004-10-13

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US4112875A (en) Hydrogen-fueled engine
CA1171672A (en) Hydrogen-oxygen thermochemical combustion initiation
USRE42875E1 (en) Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger
US20050048345A1 (en) Hybrid fuel cell system with internal combustion reforming
CN103827475A (en) Fuel production apparatus
JP2013524077A (en) Low-specific emission decomposition
WO2011125976A1 (en) Heat engine and power generation system using the heat engine
Dimitriou et al. A fully renewable and efficient backup power system with a hydrogen-biodiesel-fueled IC engine
RU2386825C2 (en) Method to operate multi-fuel thermal engine and compressor and device to this effect (versions)
WO2006027623A1 (en) Combustion process, steam driven apparatus and method for imparting motion to an apparatus
Chitragar et al. Use of hydrogen in internal combustion engines: A comprehensive study
KR102073708B1 (en) an appropriate rate mixed fuel of fossil fuel and water electrolysis gas to enhance the fuel efficiency
US2376479A (en) Internal-combustion engine and combustion mixture therefor
RU2263799C2 (en) Method of operation of heat internal combustion engine and device for implementing the method
US20210164407A1 (en) Zero emission propulsion systems and generator sets using ammonia as fuel
KR101371955B1 (en) Internal combustion engine generating system using hydrogen
CN110821719A (en) Ignition type internal combustion engine and hydrogen fuel cell hybrid power system and fuel supply method thereof
Mohandas et al. Review of Six Stroke Engine and Proposal for Alternative Fuels
Rabinovich et al. Plasmatron internal combustion engine system for vehicle pollution reduction
RU2204727C2 (en) Method of operation of multicylinder four-stroke internal combustion engine
CN208396810U (en) A kind of untransferable arc plasma multifunctional cleaning pollution-free engine
Power et al. Jenbacher type 6
Ichikawa et al. An Exhaust Gas Temperature Increase Technique Using EGR Device for the Application of Waste Heat Recovery Technology on a Lean Burn Gas Engine
Momin et al. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF HYDROGEN FUELLED HOMOGENEOUS CHARGE COMPRESSION IGNITION (HCCI) ENGINE
Rogers An Internal Combustion Engine for the Future.

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AK Designated states

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): AE AG AL AM AT AU AZ BA BB BG BR BW BY BZ CA CH CN CO CR CU CZ DE DK DM DZ EC EE EG ES FI GB GD GE GH GM HR HU ID IL IN IS JP KE KG KM KP KR KZ LC LK LR LS LT LU LV MA MD MG MK MN MW MX MZ NA NG NI NO NZ OM PG PH PL PT RO RU SC SD SE SG SK SL SM SY TJ TM TN TR TT TZ UA UG US UZ VC VN YU ZA ZM ZW

AL Designated countries for regional patents

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): BW GH GM KE LS MW MZ NA SD SL SZ TZ UG ZM ZW AM AZ BY KG KZ MD RU TJ TM AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IS IT LT LU LV MC NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR BF BJ CF CG CI CM GA GN GQ GW ML MR NE SN TD TG

121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application
NENP Non-entry into the national phase in:

Ref country code: DE

122 Ep: pct app. not ent. europ. phase