WO2005011321A1 - Location estimation of wireless terminals through pattern matching of deduced and empirical signal-strength measurements - Google Patents

Location estimation of wireless terminals through pattern matching of deduced and empirical signal-strength measurements

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Publication number
WO2005011321A1
WO2005011321A1 PCT/US2004/022676 US2004022676W WO2005011321A1 WO 2005011321 A1 WO2005011321 A1 WO 2005011321A1 US 2004022676 W US2004022676 W US 2004022676W WO 2005011321 A1 WO2005011321 A1 WO 2005011321A1
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WO
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
signal
strength
wireless terminal
location
method
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US2004/022676
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
David Stevenson Spain, Jr.
Robert Lewis Martin
Tarun Kumar Bhattacharya
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Polaris Wireless, Inc.
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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W64/00Locating users or terminals or network equipment for network management purposes, e.g. mobility management
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S5/00Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations
    • G01S5/02Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations using radio waves
    • G01S5/0252Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations using radio waves by comparing measured values with pre-stored measured or simulated values

Abstract

A method of estimating the location of a wireless terminal is disclosed. The illustrative embodiment of the present invention is based on the observation that the signal strength of a signal from a transmitter is different at some locations, and, therefore, the location of a wireless terminal can be estimated by comparing the signal strength it currently observes against a map or database that correlates locations to signal strengths. Furthermore, the illustrative embodiment deduces the signal strength of one or more base stations’control channels at the wireless terminal based on the principal of reciprocity, whether or not the wireless terminal can actually receive the base stations’control channels but so long as the base station can receive and measure the uplink signal from the wireless terminal. The deduced signal-strength measurements can then used - alone or in combination with the empirical signal-strength measurements- to estimate the location of the wireless terminal.

Description

Location Estimation of Wireless Terminals Through Pattern Matching of Deduced and Empirical Signal-Strength Measurements

Cross- Reference to Related Applications [oooi] This application claims the benefit of: i. U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/488,866, filed 19 July 2003, and entitled "Location Estimation of Wireless Terminals Through Pattern Matching of Deduced Signal Strengths" (Attorney Docket 465-003us), which application is also incorporated by reference.

Field of the Invention [0002] The present invention relates to telecommunications in general, and, more particularly, to a technique for estimating the location of a wireless terminal.

Background [0003] Figure 1 depicts a map of a geographic region that is serviced by a wireless telecommunications system, which system provides wireless telecommunications service to wireless terminals (e.g., wireless terminal 101) within the region. The heart of the telecommunications system is wireless switching center 110, which might also be known as a mobile switching center ("MSC") or a mobile telephone switching office ("MTSO"). [0004] Typically, wireless switching center 111 is connected through a plurality of intermediate network elements (e.g., base station controllers, etc.) to a plurality of base stations (e.g., base stations 102-1, 102-2, and 102-3), which are dispersed throughout the geographic area serviced by the system. As depicted in Figure 1, base station 102-2 serves wireless terminal 101. [0005] As is well known to those skilled in the art, wireless switching center 111 is responsible for, among other things, establishing and maintaining calls between wireless terminals and between a wireless terminal and a wireline terminal (which is connected to the system via the local and/or long-distance telephone networks and which are not shown in Figure 1). [0006] The salient advantage of wireless telecommunications over wireline telecommunications is the mobility that is afforded to the users of the wireless telecommunications system. On the other hand, the salient disadvantage of wireless telecommunications lies in that fact that because the user is mobile, an interested party might not be able to readily ascertain the location of the user. [0007] Such interested parties might include both the user of the wireless terminal and remote parties. There are a variety of reasons why the user of a wireless terminal might be interested in knowing his or her own location. For example, the user might be interested in telling a remote party where he or she is. [0008] There are a variety of reasons why a remote party might be interested in knowing the location of the user. For example, the recipient of a 911 emergency call from a wireless terminal might be interested in knowing the location of the wireless terminal so that emergency services vehicles can be dispatched to that location. [0009] There are many techniques in the prior art for estimating the location of a wireless terminal. [ooio] In accordance with one technique, the location of a wireless terminal is estimated to be at the center of the cell in which the wireless terminal is located. This technique is advantageous in that it does not require that additional hardware be added to the wireless terminal or to the wireless telecommunications system, and this means that the first technique can be inexpensively implemented in legacy systems. The first technique is only accurate, however, to a few kilometers, and, therefore, it is generally not acceptable for applications (e.g., emergency services dispatch, etc.) that require higher accuracy. [ooii] In accordance with a second technique, the location of a wireless terminal is estimated by triangulating the angle of arrival or the time of arrival of the signals transmitted by the wireless terminal to be located at various receivers. This technique is accurate to within a few hundreds of meters and is advantageous in that it can be used with legacy wireless terminals. It is disadvantageous, however, in that it generally requires that hardware be added to the telecommunication system's base stations, and this is very expensive. [0012] In accordance with a third technique, the location of a wireless terminal is estimated by a radio navigation unit, such as a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, that is incorporated into the wireless terminal. This technique is accurate to within tens of meters and is advantageous in that it does not require that additional hardware be added to the telecommunication system's infrastructure. The third technique is disadvantageous, however, in that it cannot be used with legacy wireless terminals that do not comprise a radio navigation unit. [0013] Therefore, the need exists for a technique for estimating the location of a wireless terminal with higher resolution than the first technique and that can be inexpensively implemented in legacy systems.

Summary of the Invention [0014] The present invention enables the estimation of the location of a wireless terminal without the addition of hardware to either the wireless terminal or to the telecommunication system's base stations. Some embodiments of the present invention are, therefore, ideally suited for use with legacy telecommunications systems. [0015] The illustrative embodiment of the present invention is based on the observation that the signal strength of a signal from a transmitter is different at some locations, and, therefore, the location of a wireless terminal can be estimated by comparing the signal strength it currently observes against a map or database that correlates locations to signal strengths. For example, if a particular radio station is known to transmit a strong signal to a first location and a weak signal to a second location, and a given wireless terminal at an unknown location is receiving the radio station with a weak signal, it is more likely that the wireless terminal is at the second location than it is at the first location. [0016] The accuracy of the estimate of the location of a wireless terminal can be enhanced when the principle uses multiple transmitters and multiple signals. A simplified example illustrates this point. A first radio station, Radio Station A, transmits a strong signal to Location 1 and Location 2, but a weak signal to Location 3 and Location 4, and a second radio station, Radio Station B, transmits a strong signal to Location 1 and Location 3, but a weak signal to Location 2 and Location 4. This information is summarized in the table below and forms the basis for a map or database that correlates locations to signal strength.

Table 1 - Illustrative Signal Strength Database (Absolute Signal Strength)

If a given wireless terminal at an unknown location receives Radio Station A with a weak signal and Radio Station B with a strong signal, it is more likely that the wireless terminal is at Location 3 than it is at either Location 1, 2, or 4. [0017] Furthermore, the accuracy of the estimate of the location of a wireless terminal can be enhanced when the signal strength of each signal at each location is quantified. A simplified example illustrates this point. If a particular radio station is known to be received in one location with a strength of -50 dBm, at a second location with a strength of -53 dBm, and at a third location with a strength of -55 dBm, then the reception of the signal with a strength of -56 dBm suggests that the wireless terminal is more likely at the third location than at either the first or second location. [0018] In the prior art, a wireless terminal measures the signal strength of the control channels of the base stations that it can receive and that are not serving it and reports some or all of those signal-strength measurements back to the wireless switching center. In the prior art this is performed so that the wireless switching center can intelligently decide which base station the wireless terminal should be served by. In accordance with the illustrative embodiment of the present invention, these signal- strength measurements are also used, in conjunction with a map or database that correlates locations to signal strength, to estimate the location of the wireless terminal. [0019] In general, more signal-strength measurements provide a better estimate of the location of the wireless terminal than fewer signal-strength measurements, and, therefore, the acquisition of additional signal-strength measurements is typically advantageous. One way of acquiring an additional signal- strength measurement is to actually physically measure a signal at the wireless terminal, but most legacy terminals are not equipped to measure and report on an arbitrary number of signals. [0020] Another way of acquiring a "signal-strength measurement" is by inference or deduction based on other information, and this is what the illustrative embodiment does. [0021] In particular, the illustrative embodiment deduces the signal strength of one or more base stations' control channels at the wireless terminal based on the principal of reciprocity, whether or not the wireless terminal can actually receive the base stations' control channels but so long as the base station can receive and measure an uplink traffic channel signal from the wireless terminal. This is accomplished in accordance with the principal of reciprocity. The principal of reciprocity states that the attenuation of a signal transmitted from Point A to Point B is the same as that for a signal that is transmitted from Point B to Point A. [0022] In other words, the signal strength of the base station's control channel signal at the wireless terminal, RD, can be deduced from the strength at which the control channel signal is transmitted by the base station, TD, and the attenuation of that signal between the base station and the wireless terminal, AD, by the function : RD = TD - AD (Eq. 1) [0023] The principal of reciprocity indicates that the attenuation of the signal between the base station and the wireless terminal, AD, equals the attenuation of that signal between the wireless terminal and the base station, Aυ, as represented by Equation 2: AD = Au (Eq. 2) [0024] The attenuation of the signal between the wireless terminal and the base station, Aυ, is equal to the strength at which the signal is transmitted by the wireless terminal, Tυ, minus the signal strength of the signal as measured by the base station, Rυ, as represented by Equation 3: Au = Tu - Rυ (Eq. 3) [0025] By substituting Equation 3 into Equation 2 and Equation 2 into Equation 1, the signal strength of the base station's control channel signal at the wireless terminal, RD, can be deduced from the strength at which the control channel signal is transmitted by the base station, TD, the strength at which the signal is transmitted by the wireless terminal, Tυ, and the signal strength of the uplink traffic channel signal from the wireless terminal as measured by the base station, RUr as represented by Equation 4: [0026] The deduced signal-strength measurements can then used - alone or in combination with the empirical signal-strength measurements - to estimate the location of the wireless terminal. [0027] The illustrative embodiment comprises: receiving a signal-strength measurement for a first downlink signal that is received by a wireless terminal and a signal-strength measurement for an uplink signal that is transmitted by the wireless terminal; and estimating the location of the wireless terminal based on the signal- strength measurement for the first downlink signal and on the signal-strength measurement for the uplink signal. Brief Description of the Drawings [0028] Figure 1 depicts a map of a portion of a wireless telecommunications system in the prior art. [0029] Figure 2 depicts a map of the illustrative embodiment of the present invention. [0030] Figure 3 depicts a block diagram of the salient components of location system 212. [0031] Figure 4 depicts a broad overview of the salient operations performed by the illustrative embodiment in ascertaining the location of wireless terminal 201 in geographic region 200. [0032] Figure 5 depicts a flowchart of the salient operations performed in operation 401. [0033] Figure 6 depicts a map of how geographic region 200 is partitioned into 500 locations in accordance with the illustrative embodiment of the present invention. [0034] Figure 7a depicts a graph that shows that the signal strength of an electromagnetic signal decreases, in general, as a function of the distance from the transmitter and in an environment with no radio frequency obstacles. [0035] Figure 7b depicts a graph that shows that the signal strength of an electromagnetic signal decreases, in general, as a function of the distance from the transmitter and in an environment with two radio frequency obstacles. [0036] Figure 8 depicts a map of the signal-strength measurements of the signal radiated from base station 202-1 at each location in geographic region 200. [0037] Figure 9 depicts a map of the signal-strength measurements of the signal radiated from base station 202-2 at each location in geographic region 200. [0038] Figure 10 depicts a map of the signal-strength measurements of the signal radiated from base station 202-3 at each location in geographic region 200. [0039] Figure 11 depicts a flowchart of the salient operations performed in operation 402 [0040] Figure 12 depicts a flowchart of the salient operations performed in operation 1102. [0041] Figure 13 depicts a flowchart of the salient operations performed in operation 1103. [0042] Figure 14 depicts a flowchart of the salient operations performed in operation 404.

Detailed Description [0043] Figure 2 depicts a map of the illustrative embodiment of the present invention, which comprises: wireless switching center 211, location system 212, base stations 202-1, 202-2, and 202-3, and wireless terminal 201, which are interconnected as shown. The illustrative embodiment provides wireless telecommunications service to most of geographic region 200, in well-known fashion, and is also capable of estimating the location of wireless terminal 201 within geographic region 200. [0044] The illustrative embodiment operates in accordance with the Global System for Mobile Communications (formerly known as the Groupe Speciale Mobile), which is ubiquitously known as "GSM." After reading this disclosure, however, it will be clear to those skilled in the art how to make and use embodiments of the present invention that operate in accordance with other protocols, such as the Universal Mobile Telephone System ("UMTS"), CDMA-2000, and IS-136 TDMA. [0045] Wireless switching center 211 is a switching center as is well-known to those skilled in the art in most respects but is different in that it is capable of communicating with location system 212 in the manner described below. After reading this disclosure, it will be clear to those skilled in the art how to make and use wireless switching center 211. It will also be clear to those skilled in the art that a wireless switching center is also known by other names, such as a mobile switching center, a mobile telephone switching office, etc. [0046] The illustrative embodiment comprises one wireless switching system, but after reading this specification it will be clear to those skilled in the art how to make and use embodiments of the present invention that use two or more systems to obtain signal-strength measurements. Typically, this is useful when a wireless terminal is near the boundary of one or more systems. When two or more systems are used to obtain signal-strength measurements, one wireless switching center can use the IS-41 protocol messages HandoffMeasurementRequest and HandoffMeasurementRequest2 to elicit signal-strength measurements from another. [0047] Base stations 202-1, 202-2, and 202-3 are well-known to those skilled in the art and communicate with wireless switching center 211 through cables and other equipment (e.g., base station controllers, etc.) that are not shown in Figure 2. As depicted in Figure 2, wireless terminal 201 is serviced by base station 202-2. Although the illustrative embodiment comprises three base stations, it will be clear to those skilled in the art how to make and use embodiments of the present invention that comprise any number of base stations. [0048] Each of base stations 202-1, 202-2, and 203-3 is capable, in well-known fashion, of: i. measuring the signal strength of an uplink traffic channel signal as transmitted by wireless terminal 201 and reporting that measurement to wireless switching center 211; and ii. informing wireless switching center 211 of the strength at which it transmits the control channel. The first of these capabilities is performed, for example, by the Digital Locate Radio in IS-136 TDMA systems. It will be clear to those skilled in the art how to make and use alternative embodiments of the present invention in which some of the base stations measure another uplink signal, such as an uplink signaling channel signal, etc. [0049] In accordance with the illustrative embodiment, base station 202-1 receives and measures the signal strength of the uplink signal S (depicted as a dashed zig-zag arrow in Figure 2) from wireless terminal 201. Base station 202-1 is in the vicinity of wireless terminal 201, but base station 202-1 is neither (1) the serving base station for wireless terminal 201 nor (2) on wireless terminal 201's list of neighboring base stations. Although the illustrative embodiment depicts only one base station in the vicinity of wireless terminal 201 for receiving and measuring the strength of the uplink signal S and that is neither (1) the serving base station nor (2) on wireless terminal 201's list of neighboring base stations, it will be clear to those skilled in the art how to make and use embodiments of the present invention that have any number of such base stations. [0050] In accordance with the illustrative embodiment, base station 202-2 is the serving base station for wireless terminal 201 and, therefore, base station 202-2 receives and measures the signal strength of the uplink signal S (depicted as a dashed zig-zag arrow in Figure 2) from wireless terminal 201. In accordance with the illustrative embodiment, wireless terminal 201 does not measure the signal strength of the control channel from base station 202-2. In accordance with the illustrative embodiment, wireless terminal 201 receives a downlink traffic channel (depicted as a solid zig-zag arrow in Figure 2) from base station 202-2. Although the illustrative embodiment depicts only one serving base station for wireless terminal 201, it will be clear to those skilled in the art how to make and use embodiments of the present invention that have one or more serving base stations (e.g., in IS-95 Code-Division Multiple Access systems, etc.). [0051] In accordance with the illustrative embodiment, base station 202-3 is on wireless terminal 201's list of neighboring base stations, and, therefore, wireless terminal 201 receives and measures the signal strength of the control channel (depicted as a dotted zig-zag arrow in Figure 2) from base station 202-3. Although the illustrative embodiment depicts only one base station on wireless terminal 201's list of neighboring base stations, it will be clear to those skilled in the art how to make and use embodiments of the present invention in which a wireless terminal has any number of base stations in it's list of neighboring base stations. [0052] Base station 202-3 is in the vicinity of wireless terminal 201, and, therefore, base station 202-3 receives and measures the signal strength of the uplink signal S (depicted as a dashed zig-zag arrow in Figure 2) from wireless terminal 201. This is not a necessary consequence of base station 202-3 being on wireless terminal 201's list of neighboring base stations, but is merely a result of the proximity of base station 202-3 and wireless terminal 201. In some embodiments of the present invention a base station on a wireless terminal's list of neighboring base stations will be able to receive and measure the signal strength of the uplink signal S from wireless terminal 201 and in some cases it will not. It will be clear to those skilled in the art how to make and use embodiments of the present invention in which some, none, or all of the base stations on a wireless terminal's list of neighboring base stations are able to receive and measure the signal strength of the uplink signal S from wireless terminal 201. [0053] Wireless terminal 201 is a standard GSM wireless terminal as it is currently manufactured and used throughout the world. Wireless terminal 201 is equipped, in well-known fashion, with the hardware and software necessary to measure and report to wireless switching center 211 on the signal strength of signals from the base stations that are on its Hst of neighboring base stations. [0054] A GSM wireless terminal, such as wireless terminal 201, is capable of reporting the signal strength of a signal as one of 64 levels between -47 dBm and -110 dBm. Any signal stronger than -47 dBm is reported as -47 dBm, and any signal weaker than -110 dBm is reported as -110 dBm. [0055] In accordance with the illustrative embodiment of the present invention all of the specific portions of the radio frequency spectrum fall within the same band that wireless terminal 201 uses to communicate with base stations 202-1, 202-2, and 202-3. In some alternative embodiments of the present invention, however, some or all of the specific portions of the radio frequency spectrum are outside the band that wireless terminal 201 uses to communicate with base stations 202-1, 202-2, and 202-3. In any case, it will be clear to those skilled in the art how to make and use wireless terminal 201. [0056] Location system 212 is a computer system that is capable of estimating the location of wireless terminal 201, as described in detail below. Although the illustrative embodiment depicts location system 212 as estimating the location of only one wireless terminal, it will be clear to those skilled in the art that location system 212 is capable of estimating the location of any number of wireless terminals serviced by wireless switching center 211. [0057] Furthermore, although location system 212 is depicted in Figure 2 as being distinct from wireless switching center 211, this is done principally to highlight the distinction between the functions performed by wireless switching center 211 and the functions performed by location system 212. In other words, it will be clear to those skilled in the art how to make and use embodiments of the present invention in which location system 212 resides within or without wireless switching center 211 or is a fully- integrated part of wireless switching center 211. [0058] Furthermore, although - again for pedagogical purposes - wireless switching center 211, location system 212, and base stations 202-1, 202-2, and 202-3 are depicted in Figure 2 as being within geographic region 200 (i.e., the region of candidate locations for wireless terminal 201), this is not necessarily so, and it will be clear to those skilled in the art how to make and use embodiments of the present invention in which some or all of these pieces of equipment are not within the region of location estimation. [0059] Figure 3 depicts a block diagram of the salient components of location system 212 in accordance with the illustrative embodiment. [0060] As shown in Figure 3, location system 212 comprises: processor 301, signal-strength database 302, receiver 303, and transmitter 304, which are interconnected as shown. [0061] Receiver 303 receives information from wireless switching center 211, as disclosed below and with respect to Figure 4, and forwards this information to processor 302. [0062] Processor 301 is a general-purpose processor as is well-known in the art that is capable of performing the operations described below and with respect to Figure 4. Processor 302 receives input from receiver 303 and sends output to transmitter 304 in well-known fashion. [0063] Signal-strength database 302 is a non-volatile memory that stores signal-strength measurements as described below and with respect to Figure 4. [0064] Transmitter 304 receives output from processor 301 and transmits this output to wireless switching center 211 in well-known fashion. [0065] Overview - Figure 4 depicts a broad overview of the salient operations performed by the illustrative embodiment in ascertaining the location of wireless terminal 201 in geographic region 200. In summary, the tasks performed by the illustrative embodiment can be grouped for ease of understanding into five operations: i. the population of signal-strength database 302, ii. the querying of the wireless switching center 211 to provide uplink and downlink signal-strength measurements, iii. the deduction of the signal strengths at the wireless terminal for downlink signals whose signal strength was not empirically measured at the wireless terminal, iv. the estimation of the location of wireless terminal 201 based on measured downlink and deduced downlink signal strengths, and v. the use of the estimated location of wireless terminal 201. The details of each of these operations are described briefly below and in detail afterwards with respect to Figures 5 though 14. [0066] At operation 401, signal-strength database 302 associates each location within geographic region 200 with a tuple of signal-strength measurements for specific signals for that location. Operation 401 is generally complex and potentially expensive, and it is, therefore, preferably performed only occasionally. The details of operation 401 are described in detail below and with respect to Figure 5. [0067] At operation 402, location system 212 queries wireless switching center 211 to learn: i. the empirical signal-strength measurements for one or more control channel signals as received by wireless terminal 211 and the corresponding transmit power of those control channel signals; and ii. one or more empirical signal-strength measurements for the uplink signal S as transmitted by wireless terminal 201 and the corresponding transmit power of signal S. [0068] The query is not for specific data but for whatever data wireless switching center 211 can provide. In accordance with the illustrative embodiment, location system 212 receives the following data (which is summarized in Table 2): i. empirical signal-strength measurements of the (downlink) control channels transmitted by base station 202-3, as received by wireless terminal 201, which is designated as RD(3), respectively; ii. the transmit power of (uplink) signal S transmitted by wireless terminal 201, Tu, at substantially the same moment that wireless terminal 201 makes measurement RD(3),' III. the empirical signal-strength measurements of (uplink) signal S as received by base stations 201-1, 202-2, and 202-3, which are Tυ(l), Tu(2), and Tυ(3), respectively, at substantially the same moment that wireless terminal 201 makes measurement RD(3); and IV. the transmit power of the (downlink) control channel transmitted by base stations 201-1, 202-2, and 202-3, which are 7" D(1), TD(2), and TD(3), respectively, at substantially the same moment that wireless terminal 201 makes measurement RD(3). 7D(1), TD(2), and 7" D(3) are needed along with Tυ to deduce RD(1), RD(2), and RD(3). Although a value for RD(3) was determined empirically and directly by wireless terminal 201, for reasons given below, the deduced value of RD(3) might be preferred.

Table 2 - Signal-Strength Measurements Received by Location System 212 In Accordance with Illustrative Embodiment [0069] In accordance with the illustrative embodiment, wireless terminal 201 periodically or sporadically provides RD(3) and Tυ to wireless switching center 211 in well-known fashion, and the measurements are forwarded to location system 212. The details of operation 402 are described in detail below and with respect to Figures 11, 12, and 13. [0070] At operation 403, location system 212 deduces the values of RD(\) based on Tu, Ru(i), and 7~ (i). In particular, location system 212 computes the uplink attenuation Aυ(i) of signal S along path /' in accordance with Equation 4: RDO) = TD(i) - (Tu - RυC ) (Eq. 4)

When RD(i) and Rυ(i) are at different frequencies, as in, for example, a frequency-division duplexed system, the effects of fast fading (i.e., Rayleigh fading) must be removed from Rυ(i) to ensure that the deduced value of RD(i) is independent of fast fading at the frequency of Ru(' - As is well known in the art, the effects of fast fading can be removed from Ru(i) through well-known filtering techniques. The details of operation 403 are described in detail below and with respect to Figure 12. [0071] At operation 404, location system 212 estimates the location of wireless terminal 201 based on all of the downlink signal-strength measurements (i.e., the measured signal-strength measurements, Rlr . . . Rn.t, and the deduced signal-strength measurements, RD(1), . . . RD(3))r and a map or database that correlates locations to signal-strength measurements. [0072] In some cases, location system 212 will receive an empirical signal- strength measurement for a downlink signal and will be able to deduce the signal strength of that same downlink signal. In this case, the deduced value should be used instead of the empirical measurement because the accuracy of the uplink signal-strength measurement is typically better than the accuracy of the downlink signal-strength measurement. It will be clear to those skilled in the art, however, after reading this specification, how to make and use embodiments of the present invention in which one or more empirical measurements are used instead of deduced values for the measurements. [0073] The details of operation 404 are described in detail below and with respect to Figure 14. [0074] At operation 405, location system 212 transmits the location estimated in operation 405 to an entity (not shown) for use in an application. It is well known to those skilled in the art how to use the estimated location of a wireless terminal in an application. [0075] At this point, operations 401 through 404 are described in detail. [0076] Population of Signal-Strength Database 302 - Figure 5 depicts a flowchart of the salient operations performed in operation 401. [0077] At task 501, geographic region 200 is partitioned into a plurality of tessellated locations. Geographic region 200 is rectangular and comprises 5,525 square arc-seconds, which near the equator equals almost 5 square kilometers (see Figure 6). After reading this specification, it will be clear to those skilled in the art how to make and use embodiments of the present invention that operate with geographic regions of any size and shape. [0078] In accordance with the illustrative embodiment of the present invention, geographic region 200 is partitioned into a grid of 221 square locations that are designated location xlr yx through location x17, y13. The number of locations into which geographic location 200 is partitioned is arbitrary, subject to the considerations described below. In accordance with the illustrative embodiment, each location is an area of approximately 5 arc-seconds in length by 5 arc-seconds in height. Five arc- seconds near the equator equals approximately 150 meters. [0079] The size of the locations defines the highest resolution with which the illustrative embodiment can locate a wireless terminal. In other words, the illustrative embodiment can only estimate the location of a wireless terminal to within one location (i.e., 5 by 5 arc-seconds in the illustrative embodiment). If greater resolution is desired, for example 1 arc-second resolution, then geographic region 200 would need to be partitioned into 1 arc-second by 1 arc-second locations. If geographic region 200 were partitioned into 1 arc-second by 1 arc-second locations, there would be 5,525 squares, which is considerably more than the 221 used in the illustrative embodiment. Although the ostensibly higher resolution of 1 arc-second versus 5 arc-seconds is advantageous, there are considerable disadvantages to a large number of locations. [0080] The number of locations to partition geographic region 200 into is based on three factors. First, as the size of each location goes down, the resolution of the embodiment increases. Second, as the size of each location decreases, the number of locations in a region increases, and, consequently, the computational complexity of operation 404 increases quickly. Third, each location must be large enough so that it has (at least slightly) different signal-strength characteristics than its adjacent areas. This is because the illustrative embodiment might - but won't necessarily - have difficulty distinguishing between adjacent locations that have the same signal-strength characteristics. It will be clear to those skilled in the art how to consider these three factors when deciding how to partition a geographic region. [0081] At task 502, the signal-strength measurements for a signal from each base station are determined at each location in geographic region. In accordance with the illustrative embodiment, the signal used from each base station is the control channel because it is broadcast at a constant power and because wireless terminal 201 can distinguish it from every other control channel, if it can decode its BSIC (for GSM networks). [0082] Because there are three base stations in the illustrative embodiment, each with one control channel, a tuple of three signal-strength measurements at each location must be determined. [0083] In general, the signal strength of an electromagnetic signal decreases as a function of the distance from the transmitter, as is depicted in Figure 7a, but the topography of the region and the presence of buildings, trees, and other radio-frequency obstacles severely alters this generalization, as is depicted in Figure 7b. [0084] In accordance with the illustrative embodiment, the tuple of three signal- strength measurements for each location are determined through a combination of: (i) a theoretical radio-frequency propagation model, and (ii) empirical signal-strength measurements. It will be clear to those skilled in the art how to accomplish this. [0085] For example, one well-known modeling technique for outdoor radio- frequency signal propagation is adapted from the power-law decay model. The power- law decay model assumes that the base station's antenna is high above the ground and that there is line-of-sight propagation to the wireless terminal. In this case, the mean signal-strength, P, received at the wireless terminal decays in inverse proportion to the square of the distance from the transmitter, oc — - , (Eq. 5) rλ up to some break-point. Beyond that breakpoint, the mean power at the wireless terminal decays in inverse proportion to the fourth power of the distance from the transmitter:

P ∞ —7 (Eq. 6) r

The location of the break-point is determined through empirical signal-strength measurements as the location at which the ground bounce signal interferes with the line- of-sight signal. [0086] In accordance with another well-known model, the signal-strength measurements at each location are determined by taking empirical measurements at various locations and by interpolating for the locations in between the sampled locations. This method is advantageous in that it does not require many empirical measurements to be made, but it is less accurate than taking measurements at every location. [0087] It will be clear to those skilled in the art how to determine the signal- strength measurements for each location in the geographic region whether through: (i) theoretical radio-frequency propagation models, or (ii) empirical signal-strength measurements, or (iii) any combination of i and ii. [0088] In accordance with the illustrative embodiment, Figure 8 depicts the signal strength of the signal from base station 202-1 (hereinafter referred to as "Signal 1") at each location in geographic region 200. In general, Signal 1 is stronger near base station 202-1 and weaker far away from base station 202-1. [0089] In accordance with the illustrative embodiment, Figure 9 depicts the signal strength of the signal from base station 202-2 (hereinafter referred to as "Signal 2") at each location in geographic region 200. Like Signal 1, Signal 2 is stronger near base station 202-2 and weaker far away from base station 202-2. [0090] In accordance with the illustrative embodiment, Figure 10 depicts the signal strength of the signal from base station 202-3 (hereinafter referred to as "Signal 3") at each location in geographic region 200. Like Signals 1 and 2, Signal 3 is stronger near base station 202-3 and weaker far away from base station 202-3. [0091] When the signal-strength tuples for each location in geographic region 200 have been determined, they are stored in signal-strength database in a data structure that associates each location with the tuple for that location. The data structure is then stored in signal-strength database 302.

Table 3 - Signal-Strength Database [0092] Table 3 depicts a portion of an illustrative data structure for associating each location with the signal-strength tuple for that location. [0093] The three signal-strength measurements in a row of table 1 constitute a "tuple" or non-empty set of ordered elements. For example, the signal-strength tuple at Location x , y7 are the 3-tuple {-45, -51, -49}. In general, the illustrative embodiment of the present invention estimates the location of a wireless terminal by pattern matching the signal-strength measurements by the wireless terminal at a location against the signal-strength tuples in signal-strength database 302. This process is described in detail below and with respect to operation 402. [0094] From task 502, control passes to operation 402 in Figure 4. [0095] Query of Transmit Strength and Signal-Strength Measurements from Wireless Switching Center - Figure 11 depicts a flowchart of the salient operations performed in operation 402. [0096] At task 1101, location system 212 transmits a request to wireless switching center 211 to provide: i. the uplink transmit signal strength for wireless terminal 201, Tυ, ii. the downlink signal-strength measurements from wireless terminal 201, RD(3) for some or all of the control channels that wireless terminal 201 is able to receive, and iii. the uplink signal-strength measurements at various base stations that can receive and measure wireless terminal 201's uplink signal, Rυ(l) through Rυ(3). The third of these can be requested from wireless switching center 211 in the form of an IS-41 HandoffMeasurementRequest or HandoffMeasurementRequest2 message, in well- known fashion. [0097] At task 1102, wireless switching center 211 obtains the uplink transmit signal strength for wireless terminal 201, Tυ, and the downlink signal-strength measurements from wireless terminal 201, RD(3) for some or all of the control channels that wireless terminal 201 is able to receive (e.g., base station 202-2 in Figure 2, etc.) in well-known fashion. Task 1102 is described in detail below and with respect to Figure 12. [0098] At task 1103, wireless switching center 211 obtains the uplink signal- strength measurements, Rυ(l) through Rυ(3), in well-known fashion. Task 1103 is described in detail below and with respect to Figure 13. [0099] At task 1104, location system 212 receives from wireless switching center 211: i. the uplink transmit signal strength for wireless terminal 201, Tu, ii. the downlink signal-strength measurements from wireless terminal 201, RD(3) for some or all of the control channels that wireless terminal 201 is able to receive, and iii. the uplink signal-strength measurements at various base stations that can receive and measure wireless terminal 201's uplink signal, Rυ(l) through Rυ(3). [oioo] Figure 12 depicts a flowchart of the salient operations performed in task 1102. [oioi] At subtask 1201, wireless switching center 211 directs wireless terminal 201, in well-known fashion, to (1) attempt to receive the control channels for the base stations on its list of neighboring base stations, (2) report back a signal- strength value for each received control channel, and (3) report back the transmit strength of a signal that it transmits. [0102] At subtask 1202, wireless terminal 201 reports, in well-known fashion, signal-strength measurements Rx . . . Rn.χ for some or all of the control channels that it is able to receive to its serving cell's base station (e.g., base station 202-2 in Figure 2, etc.). [0103] At subtask 1203, wireless terminal 201 reports to its serving cell's base station, in well-known fashion, the transmit strength of a signal S transmitted by wireless terminal 201, Rυ. As is well-known in the art, wireless terminal 201 regularly transmits signals, and any of these signals can be used as "signal S" with respect to tasks 1103 and 1202, disclosed below. [0104] At subtask 1204, the base station forwards (i) the signal-strength measurements received at task 1102, and (ii) the transmit strength received at task 1103, to wireless switching center 211 in well-known fashion. [0105] At subtask 1205, wireless switching center 211 forwards (i) the signal- strength measurements received at task 1102, and (ii) the transmit strength received at task 1103, to location system 212 in well-known fashion. [0106] It will be clear to those skilled in the art how to make and use embodiments of the present invention that perform operation 402. From task 1205, control passes to operation 1104 in Figure 11. [0107] Receipt of f iii') Transmit Strength of control channels and f iv") Signal-Strength Measurement of Signal S - Figure 13 depicts a flowchart of the salient operations performed in operation 1103. [0108] At subtask 1301, wireless switching center 211 directs the base stations in the vicinity of wireless terminal 201 to measure and report the signal-strength of the uplink signal from wireless terminal 201, in well-known fashion. [0109] At subtask 1302, each of the base stations that are able to measure the signal strength of the uplink signal from wireless terminal 201 reports to wireless switching center 211 the measured signal strength, in well-known fashion. [Olio] At subtask 1303, each of the base stations that reported a value in subtask 1302 reports to wireless switching center 211 the transmit strength of the control channel that it transmits, in well-known fashion. [oiii] At subtask 1304, wireless switching center 211 forwards the signal- strength measurements received in subtask 1302 and the control channel transmit strengths received in subtask 1303 to location system 212 in well-known fashion. [0112] It will be clear to those skilled in the art how to make and use embodiments of the present invention that perform operation 1103. From task 1204, control passes to operation 1104 in Figure 11. [0113] Estimation of the Location of Wireless Terminal 201 - Figure 14 depicts a flowchart of the salient operations performed in operation 404. For pedagogical purposes, operation 404 as depicted in Figure 14 is described three times. First, operation 404 is described in the abstract with a focus on describing its underlying theory. Next, operation 404 is described as it is applied to the first report, and finally, operation 404 is described as it is applied to the second report. [0114] In accordance with the first report, the signal strength of Signal 1, RD(1), is deduced and equals -98, the signal strength of Signal 2, RD(2), is deduced, and equals -64, and the signal strength of Signal 3, RD(3), is empirically measured, and equals -51. [0115] In accordance with the second report, the signal strength of Signal 1, flD(l)/ is deduced and equals -98, the signal strength of Signal 2, RD(2), is deduced, and equals -64, and the signal strength of Signal 3, RD(3), is empirically measured, and equals -50. [0116] Estimation in General - Subtask 1401 begins with 211 (17 x 13 = 211) candidate locations that must be considered as the location for wireless terminal 201, and, therefore, 211 signal-strength tuples (i.e., the 211 tuples in signal-strength database 302) that must be processed. Subtasks 1402 through 1405 can be computationally intense, and the computational burden increases with the number of candidate locations that must be considered. Therefore, location system 212 attempts, at subtask 1401, to reduce the number of candidate locations that must be processed in subtasks 1402 through 1405. [0117] To reduce the number of candidate locations that must be processed in subtasks 1402 through 1405, location system 212 uses the following observation. When a downlink signal is reported with a maximum signal strength (i.e., "-47" in the illustrative embodiment), location system 212 can reasonably eliminate from consideration as a candidate location every location where the signal-strength measurement for that signal is below the maximum (minus a factor for measurement errors and systematic bias). In other words, when a signal is reported with a maximum signal strength, location system 212 can restrict consideration in subtasks 1402 through 1405 to those candidate locations where signal-strength database 302 predicts the signal strength to be greater than or equal to the maximum reportable value (minus a factor for measurement errors and systematic bias). In accordance with the illustrative embodiment, the factor for measurement errors and systematic bias is 3 dBm, and, therefore when a downlink signal is reported with -47, location system 212 can restrict consideration in subtasks 1402 through 1405 to those candidate locations where signal- strength database 302 predicts the signal strength to be greater than or equal to -50 dBm. It will be clear to those skilled in the art how to determine and use other factors for measurement errors and systemic bias. [0118] At subtask 1402, location system 212 computes the signal-strength differentials for all of the downlink signal-strength measurements (i.e., both the empirical signal-strength measurements and the deduced signal-strength measurements) that are not at the maximum signal strength. In particular, for n unique downlink signal-strength measurements that are not at the maximum signal strength, n-1 signal-strength differentials are computed where: ASk = Sk - Sι (Eq. 7) for k = 2, 3, . . . n, wherein ΔSk is the kth signal-strength differential, S^ is the downlink signal strength of Signal k, and Sj is the downlink signal strength of Signal 1. When m of the downlink signals is at the maximum signal strength (i.e., -47 dBm), then n-m-1 (Eq. 8) pair-wise differentials for the remaining n-m signals are computed, in well-known fashion. At the end of subtask 1402, location system 212 will have computed n-m-1 pair-wise differentials, ΔS2 through ΔSn.m. [0119] At subtask 1403, location system 212 computes the signal-strength differentials for only those locations that were not eliminated from consideration in task 1201. [0120] Furthermore, location system 212 only computes the signal-strength differentials corresponding to the differentials computed in subtask 1402; the idea, of course, being to ensure that "apples are compared with apples." In particular, for n reported signals that are not at the maximum signal strength, n-1 signal-strength differentials are computed where: ^k,x,y = Rk,x,y ~ Rl,x,y (Ecl- 9) for k = 2, 3, . . . n, wherein ΔR^y is the kth signal-strength differential for location x,y,

R-k,x,y is the signal-strength of Signal k at location x,y in signal-strength database 302, and Rι,χry is the reported signal strength of Signal 1 at location x,y in signal-strength database 302. [0121] At the end of subtask 1403, location system 212 will have computed n-m-1 pair-wise differentials, ΔR2rχry through ΔRn-m/Xry, corresponding to the pair-wise differentials computed in subtask 1403, for alf the candidate locations. [0122] At subtask 1404, location system 212 compares the signal-strength differentials computed in subtask 1402, ΔS2 through ΔSn-m, to the signal-strength differentials in subtask 1403, ΔR2rχry through ΔRn-m/X/y, to generate a probability distribution that indicates the goodness of fit between the signal-strength differentials computed from the values received in operations 402 and 403 to the signal-strength differentials computed from the tuples in signal-strength database 302. To accomplish this, the Euclidean norm at each of the / candidate locations is computed for the signal- strength differentials computed from the values received in operations 402 and 403 and each of the signal-strength differentials computed from the tuples in signal-strength database 302. This is described in Equation 10.

Vχ,y = τl∑ϊ{ΔRktXty-ASkf (Eq. 10) wherein vX/V is the Euclidean norm between the signal-strength tuple for location x,y in signal-strength database 302 in comparison to the signal-strength differentials computed from the values received in operations 402 and 403. [0123] Next, the Euclidean norms computed in Equation 4 are turned into un- normalized probabilities by Equation 11 :

where τ2 represents the amount of uncertainty in both ΔSk and ΔRk,Xfy. [0124] And finally, the values of PX/y are normalized to generate the probability distribution for the location of wireless terminal 201 in geographic region 200. [0125] At subtask 1405, location system 212 estimates the location of wireless terminal 201 based on the probability distribution generated in subtask 1404. In accordance with the illustrative embodiment, location system 212 estimates the location of wireless terminal based on the geometric mean of the probability distribution generated in subtask 1404. After reading this specification, however, it will be clear to those skilled in the art how to make and use embodiments of the present invention that estimate the location of wireless terminal 201 based on another function of the probability distribution generated in subtask 1404, such as the maximum likelihood function. [0126] From subtask 1405, control passes to operation 404 in Figure 4. [0127] Estimation As Applied to First Report (Signal 1 = -98, Signal 2 = -64. and Signal 3 = -51") - At subtask 1401, location system 212 cannot eliminate any candidate locations from consideration based on the fact that none of the reported signals is at the maximum reportable value minus the factor for measurement errors and systematic bias (i.e., 3 dBm). In other words, location system 212 cannot eliminate any candidate signal from consideration because all of the signals are at -51 dBm or less. Therefore, location system 212 must consider all 221 candidate locations in subtasks 1402 through 1305. [0128] At subtask 1402, location system 212 computes two (2) signal-strength differentials for the first report in which R± = Signal 1 = -98, R = Signal 2 = -64, and ?3 = Signal 3 = -43. In particular, ΔR2 and ΔR3 are computed as depicted in Table 4.

Table 4 - Signal-strength Differentials for Signal 1 = -98, Signal 2 = -64, and Signal 3 = -43 [0129] At subtask 1403, location system 212 computes two (2) signal-strength differentials for each of the 221 locations in signal-strength database 302, as depicted in Table 5.

Table 5 - Signal-strength Differentials for Each Tuple in Signal-Strength Database 302 [0130] At subtask 1404, location system 212 first computes the Euclidean norm between the signal-strength differentials in Table 2 against the signal-strength differentials for each location in Table 3 to produce the norms shown in Table 6.

Table 6 - Euclidean Norms for Each Location (First Report) [0131] Next, the Euclidean norms in Table 6 are converted to unnormalized probabilities, as described above, and then the unnormalized probabilities are normalized, in well-known fashion, to produce the probability distribution of the location of wireless terminal 201 at each of the 211 locations in geographic region 200. [0132] Estimation As Applied to Second Report (Signal 1 = -98, Signal 2 = -64, and Signal 3 = -50^ - At subtask 1401, location system 212 can perfunctorily eliminate most of the candidate locations from consideration because the reported signal strength of one of the reported signals - Signal 3 = -50 dBm - is greater than the maximum reported value (-47 dBm) minus the factor for measurement errors and systematic bias (3 dBm). In other words, location system 212 can eliminate from consideration any candidate location in which S3 is not at least -50 dBm. Therefore, location system 212 can restrict consideration in subtasks 1402 through 1305 to those locations in signal-strength database 302 in which Signal 3 is predicted to be -50 dBm or greater. As can be seen in Figure 10, there are only 13 locations (x8,y4; x9,y4; xl0,y4; x7,y5; x8,y5; x9,y5; xl0,y5; x7,y6; x8,y6; x9,y6; xl0,y6; x7,y7; x8,y7; x9,y7) at which Signal 3 is predicted to be -50 dBm or stronger, and, therefore, location system 212 need only perform subtasks 1402 through 1305, in the above-described fashion, on those 13 locations. By reducing the number of candidate locations that need to be processed from 221 to 13, task 1401 has greatly reduced the computational complexity of operation 403. [0133] It is to be understood that the above-described embodiments are merely illustrative of the present invention and that many variations of the above-described embodiments can be devised by those skilled in the art without departing from the scope of the invention. It is therefore intended that such variations be included within the scope of the following claims and their equivalents.

Claims

[0134] What is claimed is: 25
1. A method comprising: receiving a signal-strength measurement for a first downlink signal that is received by a wireless terminal and a signal-strength measurement for an uplink signal that is transmitted by said wireless terminal; and estimating the location of said wireless terminal based on said signal-strength measurement for said first downlink signal and on said signal-strength measurement for said uplink signal.
2. The method of claim 1 further comprising deducing the signal strength of a second downlink signal at said wireless terminal based on said signal-strength measurement for said uplink signal.
3. The method of claim 2 wherein estimating the location of said wireless terminal comprises pattern matching (i) said signal-strength measurement for said downlink signal and (ii) the deduced signal strength of said downlink signal at said wireless terminal against a map that correlates signal-strength measurements and locations.
4. The method of claim 2 wherein estimating the location of said wireless terminal comprises pattern matching the difference between (i) said signal-strength measurement for said downlink signal and (ii) the deduced signal strength of said downlink signal at said wireless terminal against a map that correlates signal-strength measurements and locations.
5. The method of claim 2 wherein deducing the signal strength of said second downlink signal at said wireless terminal is also based on the transmit strength of said second downlink signal.
6. The method of claim 2 wherein deducing the signal strength of said second downlink signal at said wireless terminal is also based on the transmit strength of said uplink signal.
7. The method of claim 1 further comprising transmitting a request to a mobile switching center to make said signal-strength measurement for said uplink signal.
8. A method comprising: receiving (i) a first signal-strength measurement for an uplink signal that is transmitted by a wireless terminal and received at a first location and (ii) a second signal-strength measurement for said uplink signal that is transmitted by said wireless terminal and received at a second location; deducing the signal strength of a first downlink signal at said wireless terminal based on said first signal-strength measurement for said uplink signal; deducing the signal strength of a second downlink signal at said wireless terminal based on said second signal-strength measurement for said uplink signal; and estimating the location of said wireless terminal based on the deduced signal strength of said first downlink signal and on the deduced signal strength of said second downlink signal.
9. The method of claim 8 wherein estimating the location of said wireless terminal comprises pattern matching (i) the deduced signal strength of said first downlink signal and (ii) the deduced signal strength of said second downlink signal against a map that correlates signal-strength measurements and locations.
10. The method of claim 8 wherein estimating the location of said wireless terminal comprises pattern matching the difference between (i) the deduced signal strength of said first downlink signal and (ii) the deduced signal strength of said second downlink signal against a map that correlates signal-strength measurements and locations.
11. The method of claim 8 wherein deducing the signal strength of a first downlink signal at said wireless terminal is based on the transmit strength of said first downlink signal.
12. The method of claim 8 wherein deducing the signal strength of a first downlink signal at said wireless terminal is based on the transmit strength of said uplink signal.
13. The method of claim 8 further comprising transmitting a request to a mobile switching center to make said first signal-strength measurement for an uplink signal and said second signal-strength measurement for said uplink signal.
14. The method of claim 8 further comprising receiving a message from a mobile switching center that comprises said first signal-strength measurement for an uplink signal and said second signal-strength measurement for said uplink signal.
15. A method comprising: transmitting a request to a mobile switching center to make a first signal-strength measurement at a first location and a second signal-strength measurement at a second location for an uplink signal that is transmitted by a wireless terminal; receiving a message from said mobile switching center that comprises said first signal-strength measurement and said second signal-strength measurement; deducing the signal strength of a first downlink signal at said wireless terminal based on said first signal-strength measurement; deducing the signal strength of a second downlink signal at said wireless terminal based on said second signal-strength measurement; and estimating the location of said wireless terminal based on the deduced signal strength of said first downlink signal and on the deduced signal strength of said second downlink signal.
16. The method of claim 15 wherein estimating the location of said wireless terminal comprises pattern matching (i) the deduced signal strength of said first downlink signal and (ii) the deduced signal strength of said second downlink signal against a map that correlates signal-strength measurements and locations.
17. The method of claim 15 wherein estimating the location of said wireless terminal comprises pattern matching the difference between (i) the deduced signal strength of said first downlink signal and (ii) the deduced signal strength of said second downlink signal against a map that correlates signal-strength measurements and locations.
18. The method of claim 15 wherein deducing the signal strength of a first downlink signal at said wireless terminal is based on the transmit strength of said first downlink signal.
19. The method of claim 15 wherein deducing the signal strength of a first downlink signal at said wireless terminal is based on the transmit strength of said uplink signal.
20. A method comprising: deducing a signal strength of a first signal, RD, at a wireless terminal based on a transmit strength of a second signal, Tυ, that is transmitted by said wireless terminal; and estimating the location of said wireless terminal based on said signal strength of said first signal, RD.
21. The method of claim 20 wherein deducing said signal strength of said first signal, RD, is also based on a transmit strength of said first signal, TD.
22. The method of claim 20 wherein deducing said signal strength of said first signal, RD, is also based on a signal-strength measurement for said second signal, Rυ, at the location where said first signal is transmitted.
23. The method of claim 20 wherein deducing said signal strength of said first signal, RD, is also based on an attenuation for said second signal, Aυ, between said wireless terminal and the location where said first signal is transmitted.
24. The method of claim 20 wherein estimating the location of said wireless terminal comprises pattern matching said signal strength of said first signal, RD, against a database that associates candidate locations for said wireless terminal with predicted signal-strength measurements for said first signal.
25. The method of claim 20 wherein estimating the location of said wireless terminal is also based on a signal-strength measurement of a third signal, Rlr at said wireless terminal.
26. The method of claim 25 wherein estimating the location of said wireless terminal is based on said signal strength of said first signal, RD, and said signal-strength measurement of said third signal, Ri.
27. The method of claim 25 wherein estimating the location of said wireless terminal is based on the absolute magnitude of the difference between said signal strength of said first signal, RD, and said signal-strength measurement of said third signal, R .
28. The method of claim 25 wherein estimating the location of said wireless terminal comprises generating a two-dimensional probability distribution for the location of said wireless terminal based on the absolute magnitude of the difference between said signal strength of said first signal, RD, and said signal-strength measurement of said third signal, Rl
29. A method comprising: deducing a signal strength of a first signal, RD, at a wireless terminal based on a signal-strength measurement of a second signal, Rυ, at the location where said first signal is transmitted; and estimating the location of said wireless terminal based on said signal strength of said first signal, RD.
30. The method of claim 29 wherein deducing said signal strength of said first signal, RD, is also based on a transmit strength of said first signal, TD.
31. The method of claim 29 wherein deducing said signal strength of said first signal, RD, is also based on a transmit strength of said second signal, Tυ, that is transmitted by said wireless terminal.
32. The method of claim 29 wherein deducing said signal strength of said first signal, RD, is also based on an attenuation for said second signal, Aυ, between said wireless terminal and the location where said first signal is transmitted.
33. The method of claim 29 wherein estimating the location of said wireless terminal comprises pattern matching said signal strength of said first signal, RD, against a database that associates candidate locations for said wireless terminal with predicted signal-strength measurements for said first signal.
34. The method of claim 29 wherein estimating the location of said wireless terminal is also based on a signal-strength measurement of a third signal, Rlr at said wireless terminal.
35. The method of claim 34 wherein estimating the location of said wireless terminal is based on said signal strength of said first signal, RD, and said signal-strength measurement of said third signal, Rx.
36. The method of claim 34 wherein estimating the location of said wireless terminal is based on the absolute magnitude of the difference between said signal strength of said first signal, RD, and said signal-strength measurement of said third signal, Ri.
37. The method of claim 34 wherein estimating the location of said wireless terminal comprises generating a two-dimensional probability distribution for the location of said wireless terminal based on the absolute magnitude of the difference between said signal strength of said first signal, RD, and said signal-strength measurement of said third signal, Rx.
38. The method of claim 29 further comprising removing the effects of fast fading on Rυ. 39. A method comprising: deducing a signal strength of a first signal, RD, at a wireless terminal based on an attenuation of a second signal, Aυ, that is transmitted by said wireless terminal; and estimating the location of said wireless terminal based on said signal strength of said first signal, RD. 40. The method of claim 39 wherein deducing said signal strength of said first signal, RD, is also based on a transmit strength of said first signal, TD. 41. The method of claim 39 wherein deducing said signal strength of said first signal, RD, is also based on a signal-strength measurement for said second signal, Rυ, at the location where said first signal is transmitted. 42. The method of claim 39 wherein deducing said signal strength of said first signal, RD, is also based on a transmit strength of said second signal, Tυ. 43. The method of claim 39 wherein estimating the location of said wireless terminal comprises pattern matching said signal strength of said first signal, RD, against a database that associates candidate locations for said wireless terminal with predicted signal-strength measurements for said first signal. 44. The method of claim 39 wherein estimating the location of said wireless terminal is also based on a signal-strength measurement of a third signal, Rlf at said wireless terminal. 45. The method of claim 44 wherein estimating the location of said wireless terminal is based on said signal strength of said first signal, RD, and said signal-strength measurement of said third signal, Rx. 46. The method of claim 44 wherein estimating the location of said wireless terminal is based on the absolute magnitude of the difference between said signal strength of said first signal, RD, and said signal-strength measurement of said third signal, Rx. 47. The method of claim 44 wherein estimating the location of said wireless terminal comprises generating a two-dimensional probability distribution for the location of said wireless terminal based on the absolute magnitude of the difference between said signal strength of said first signal, RD, and said signal-strength measurement of said third signal, Rx.
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