WO2002071384A1 - Three-dimensional display system and method - Google Patents

Three-dimensional display system and method Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2002071384A1
WO2002071384A1 PCT/US2002/006609 US0206609W WO02071384A1 WO 2002071384 A1 WO2002071384 A1 WO 2002071384A1 US 0206609 W US0206609 W US 0206609W WO 02071384 A1 WO02071384 A1 WO 02071384A1
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color
frequency
light
right
left
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PCT/US2002/006609
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French (fr)
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Warren Smith
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Warren Smith
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/01Head-up displays
    • G02B27/017Head mounted
    • G02B27/0172Head mounted characterised by optical features
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/22Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus for producing stereoscopic or other three dimensional effects
    • G02B27/2207Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus for producing stereoscopic or other three dimensional effects stereoscopic devices based on anaglyph techniques
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N13/00Stereoscopic video systems; Multi-view video systems; Details thereof
    • H04N13/30Image reproducers
    • H04N13/324Colour aspects
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N13/00Stereoscopic video systems; Multi-view video systems; Details thereof
    • H04N13/30Image reproducers
    • H04N13/332Displays for viewing with the aid of special glasses or head-mounted displays [HMD]
    • H04N13/334Displays for viewing with the aid of special glasses or head-mounted displays [HMD] using spectral multiplexing
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/01Head-up displays
    • G02B27/0101Head-up displays characterised by optical features
    • G02B2027/0132Head-up displays characterised by optical features comprising binocular systems
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/01Head-up displays
    • G02B27/0101Head-up displays characterised by optical features
    • G02B2027/0132Head-up displays characterised by optical features comprising binocular systems
    • G02B2027/0136Head-up displays characterised by optical features comprising binocular systems with a single image source for both eyes
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N13/00Stereoscopic video systems; Multi-view video systems; Details thereof
    • H04N13/30Image reproducers
    • H04N13/363Image reproducers using image projection screens

Abstract

A three-dimensional color display system (50) includes a color display (52) for generating a chromatically multiplexed image including right and left overlaid image components. A head mounted color display demultiplexing apparatus (56) demultiplexes the image generated by the color display and presents the right and left image components to respective right and left eyes (64a & 64b), creating a three-dimensional effect. The apparatus includes a left color filter device for allowing light frequencies (CRL, CGL, CBL) forming the left image component to pass to the left eye of the viewer while substantially filtering out light frequencies (CRR, CGR, CBR) forming the right image. The apparatus includes a right color filter device for allowing light frequencies forming the right image component to pass to the right eye of the viewer while substantially filtering out light frequencies forming the left image.

Description

THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISPLAY SYSTEM AND METHOD

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS [0001] This application claims the benefit of co-pending provisional application Serial No. 60/273,525 filed on March 5, 2001, which is fully incorporated herein by reference.

TECHNICAL FIELD [0002] The present invention relates to color images and color filters, and more particularly, relates to a three- dimensional display system and method as well as viewing devices and displays for use in the three-dimensional display system.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION [0003] Approaches to three-dimensional display systems attempted in the past can be categorized into temporally multiplexed approaches, polarized multiplexed approaches, spatially multiplexed approaches, and chromatically multiplexed approaches. Temporally multiplexed three- dimensional viewing systems available today use a head- mounted apparatus equipped with a shutter mounted over the right eye of the viewer and a shutter mounted over the left eye of the viewer. The shutters quickly open and close in such a way that the image viewable to the viewer alternates and the eye with which the viewer can see the image alternates. The apparatus is synchronized to match the timing with which images are shown on a display screen, where the images on the screen alternate between an image for the left eye and an image for the right eye. [0004] While temporally multiplexed three-dimensional display systems have the advantage that they can be used with existing computer equipment (i.e., synchronized with the computer equipment via a connection to an I/O port of the computer while the screen of the computer alternates images between the left and right images for stereoscopic viewing) , temporally multiplexed three-dimensional display equipment has drawbacks . The system cannot be used with static pictures (such as slide projections, pictures in books, etc.), and it would be prohibitively expensive to provide a shutter synchronization system for demultiplexing the images for multiple viewers (such as in a movie theater) . Moreover, viewers have reported experiencing extreme headaches after using the equipment, presumably due to the flashing of the images and the neurological stresses involved in reconciling the asynchronous nature of the display.

[0005] Accordingly, there is a need for a three- dimensional display system that works with both static, enduring pictures and with motion pictures. There is also a need for a system where the head-mounted individual demultiplexing equipment is less expensive and less complex and requires no synchronization system, making it economically feasible to use the system in, for example, movie theaters where multiple individuals view the images at the same time. There is also a need for a system where there is no flashing of images, so there are no problems with headaches .

[0006] While polarized multiplexed approaches have found some application in novelty entertainment systems (e.g., in the Disney theme parks) , the technology has some inherent limitations. Although the head-mounted demultiplexing equipment in this approach uses a simple polarized lens and thus is inexpensive, this approach is limited in that the left and right images for stereoscopic viewing must be produced using light of differing polarities. At present this technology cannot be adapted to flat panel or CRT displays and is only available using a dual-projection system, where two images are projected along two different optical paths, each provided with a polarizing lens. The images are diffracted off a special screen that does not disrupt the polarization. While the demultiplexing system is inexpensive, the multiplexing equipment is complex and expensive, and thus this approach has found limited application. The limited scope of application of these systems has limited the content produced for this media because of the lack of economies of scale. The dual projection system is also cumbersome and difficult to adjust so that the images overlay each other properly, making this approach difficult to apply (e.g., in educational settings for use in overhead projection presentations) . [0007] Accordingly, there is a need for a three- dimensional display system that can be used on computer displays, static pictures, slides using standard overhead projectors, standard movie projectors, and the like. There is also a need for a system having demultiplexing equipment that is less expensive.

[0008] The best-known approach to three-dimensional displays is spatially multiplexed displays. The stereoscopes of the late 1800s and the ViewMaster system of the 1950s are well known examples of three-dimensional spatially multiplexed displays, where the images are presented side-by-side for viewing by the individual eyes of the viewer, rather than interleaved or overlapped. Most virtual reality systems of today use spatially multiplexed displays. This system has some drawbacks, however. Not only is the equipment expensive for motion images (requiring a separate high-resolution display device and complicated optics for each eye) , but the individual images have to maintain a fixed proximity with each eye. This not only makes the system unworkable for multiple simultaneous viewers, but, in order to maintain the proximity with each eye, the actual display device is either head mounted or held near the eye. Thus, when the viewer moves his/her head, the entire image bobs and shakes, which may cause severe nausea and vomiting due to motion sickness in most users after even brief periods of use. Other systems, such as having non-head-mounted systems where the display device remains stationary, are uncomfortable because they require the head to remain motionless as well, producing fatigue by requiring a certain posture and orientation.

[0009] Accordingly, there is a need for a three- dimensional display system where the relationship between the eyes of the viewer and the display device does not need to be held constant. Thus multiple viewers are allowed to view the image at once (such as in classrooms and theaters) , and the viewer is allowed the freedom to move naturally while viewing the images, which remain substantially stationary. There is also a need for a system where the viewer is more comfortable and does not experience the motion sickness associated with spatially multiplexed three- dimensional display systems . [0010] The last category of three-dimensional display systems is the chromatically multiplexed display. A crude approach to this type of display system is well known with the red/green glasses used for three-dimensional movies in the 1950s. This system experienced a brief period of faddish use because of its simple and inexpensive multiplexing and demultiplexing systems, and because it allowed multiple viewers to view the same three-dimensional images simultaneously. The approach was largely abandoned, however, because the color filtering system provided images of different colors to each eye, making the images very unnatural despite their three-dimensional nature. The display of three-dimensional full-color images using this chromatically multiplexed system was impossible.

[0011] Accordingly, there is a need for a three- dimensional display system that provides full-color three- dimensional imaging.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0012] In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, a three-dimensional color display system comprises a color display for generating a chromatically multiplexed image and a head mounted color display demultiplexing apparatus for demultiplexing the chromatically multiplexed image generated by the color display. The chromatically multiplexed image includes at least right and left overlaid image components . Each of the image components is formed by visible light having essentially the same combination of red, blue and green light. The red, blue and green light frequencies forming the left image components are different from the red, blue and green light frequencies forming the right image components . [0013] The head mounted color display demultiplexing apparatus is mounted proximate left and right eyes of a viewer and between the eyes and the color display. The head mounted color display demultiplexing apparatus includes a left color filter device for allowing the red, blue and green light frequencies forming the left image component to pass to the left eye of the viewer while substantially filtering out the red, blue and green light frequencies forming the right image component . The head mounted color display demultiplexing apparatus also includes a right color filter device for allowing the red, blue and green light frequencies forming the right image component to pass to the right eye of the viewer while substantially filtering out the red, blue and green light frequencies forming the left image component .

[0014] In a preferred embodiment, the light frequencies forming the right image component include a first color frequency CRR, which is selected to stimulate the red color pigment cones in human eyes, a second color frequency CGR, which is selected to stimulate the green color pigment cones in human eyes, and a third color frequency CBR, which is selected to stimulate the blue color pigment cones in human eyes. The light frequencies forming the left image component preferably include a fourth color frequency CRL, which is selected to stimulate the red color pigment cones in human eyes, a fifth color frequency CGL, which is selected to stimulate the green color pigment cones in human eyes, and a sixth color frequency CBL, which is selected to stimulate the blue color pigment cones in human eyes.

[0015] The color display can include an active emissive display for emitting the light or a passive reflective display for reflecting the light. The color display can also include an optics system, for projecting and diffracting the light from a separate viewing surface. [0016] One embodiment of the display includes a cathode ray tube (CRT) including light emitting phosphors for producing the light at the first through sixth frequencies. Another embodiment of the display is a color flat-panel display including light-emitting picture elements for producing the light at the first through sixth frequencies. [0017] A further embodiment of the display includes a film having colored pigments dispersed therein for forming the overlaid left and right image components . The colored pigments include left image pigments that selectively allow various degrees of passage of light at predominantly the frequencies CRL, CBL, and CGL, and include right image pigments that selectively allow various degrees of passage of light at predominantly the frequencies CRR, CBR, and CGR. This embodiment of the display further comprises a device for generating visible light at the frequencies CRR, CBR, CGR, CRL, CBL, and CGL and for passing the visible light through the film. [0018] One embodiment of the right color filter device provides a frequency selectivity characteristic wherein (i) at least some light frequencies less than the first color frequency CRR are more greatly attenuated than light at the first color frequency CRR, (ii) at least some light frequencies between the first color frequency CRR and the second color frequency CGR are more greatly attenuated than light at the first color frequency CRR or the second color frequency CGR, (iii) at least some light frequencies between the second color frequency CGR and the third color frequency CBR are more greatly attenuated than light at the second color frequency CGR or the third color frequency CBR, (iv) at least some light frequencies more than the third color frequency CBR are more greatly attenuated than light at the third color frequency CBR, and (v) the fourth color frequency CRL is attenuated more than the first color frequency CRR, the fifth color frequency CGL is attenuated more than the second color frequency CGR, and the sixth color frequency CBL is attenuated more than the third color frequency CBR. One embodiment of the left color filter device provides a frequency selectivity characteristic wherein (i) at least some light frequencies less than the fourth color frequency CRL are more greatly attenuated than light at the fourth color frequency CRL, (ii) at least some light frequencies between the fourth color frequency CRL and the fifth color frequency CGL are more greatly attenuated than light at the fourth color frequency CRL or the fifth color frequency CGL, (iii) at least some light frequencies between the fifth color frequency CGL and the sixth color frequency CBL are more greatly attenuated than light at the fifth color frequency CGL or the sixth color frequency CBL, (iv) at least some light frequencies more than the sixth color frequency CBL are more greatly attenuated than light at the sixth color frequency CBL, and (v) the first color frequency CRR is attenuated more than the fourth color frequency CRL, the second color frequency CGR is attenuated more than the fifth color frequency CGL, and the third color frequency CBR is attenuated more than the sixth color frequency CBL.

[0019] According to another aspect of the present invention, a head mounted color display demultiplexing apparatus comprises a head mounting structure and left and right color filter devices mounted on the head mounting structure for positioning in close proximity to left and right eyes of a viewer. The left color filter device allows the red, blue and green light frequencies forming the left image component to pass to the left eye while substantially filtering out the red, blue and green light frequencies forming the right image component. The right color filter device allows the red, blue and green light frequencies forming the right image component to pass to the right eye while substantially filtering out the red, blue and green light frequencies forming the left image component . In one embodiment, the left and right color filter devices are included in eyeglass lenses, and the head mounting structure includes eyeglass frames.

[0020] The right color filter device preferably filters out substantially all frequencies except for a first color frequency CRR that stimulates red color pigment cones in human eyes, a second color frequency CGR that stimulates green color pigment cones in human eyes, and a third color frequency CBR that stimulates blue color pigment cones in human eyes. The left color filter device preferably filters out substantially all frequencies except for a third color frequency CRL that stimulates red color pigment cones in human eyes, a fourth color frequency CGL that stimulates green color pigment cones in human eyes, and a fifth color frequency CBL that stimulates blue color pigment cones in human eyes . One embodiment of the right and left color filter devices includes triple band pass filters. [0021] In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, a color display for use in a three-dimensional display system generates visible light having the first through sixth frequencies CRR, CGR, CBR, CRL, CGL, and CBL. The color display also forms a chromatically multiplexed image by overlaying right and left image components. The right image component is formed from visible light at the first, second and third frequencies. The left image component is formed from visible light at the fourth, fifth, and sixth frequencies.

[0022] In accordance with a further aspect of the present invention, a method of creating a three-dimensional color image in eyes of a viewer comprises generating the visible light having the first through sixth frequencies and forming the chromatically multiplexed image by overlaying the right and left image components formed from the visible light. The chromatically multiplexed image is then directed toward right and left eyes of the viewer. The chromatically multiplexed image is then demultiplexed by separating the right and left image components such that the right image component is presented to the right eye of the viewer and the left image component is presented to the left eye of the viewer.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0023] These and other features and advantages of the present invention will be better understood by reading the following detailed description, taken together with the drawings wherein:

[0024] FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a three- dimensional color display system, according to the present invention,- [0025] FIG. 2 is a schematic front view of a color display displaying a chromatically multiplexed image, according to one embodiment of the present invention;

[0026] FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of an exposure process exposing two images on two photographic films, according to one method of the present invention;

[0027] FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of an exposure process exposing two images on two photographic films, according to another method of the present invention; [0028] FIGS. 5 and 6 are schematic diagrams of an exposure process exposing a presentation film to light passing through each of the photographic films, according to one method of the present invention; and

[0029] FIGS. 7 and 8 are schematic diagrams of an exposure process exposing a presentation film to light passing through each of the photographic films, according to another method of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

[0030] A three-dimensional color display system 50, FIG. 1, according to one preferred embodiment of the present invention, includes a display 52 that emits, refracts, or reflects a chromatically multiplexed image made up of 6 substantially mutually exclusive color frequency bands 54. Two of the frequency bands 54 (CRR and CRL) are selected to stimulate mainly the red photopigments in the human eye . Two of the frequency bands 54 (CGR and CGL) are selected to stimulate mainly the green photopigments in the human eye. Two of the frequency bands 54 (CBR and CBL) are selected to stimulate mainly the blue photopigments in the human eye . The term frequency, as used herein, includes a frequency band near to the nominal frequency, not just a single specific frequency. [0031] The image 40, FIG. 2, formed on the display 52 includes two overlaid or interleaved color image components 42a, 42b. A right image component 42a is formed for stereoscopic imaging using the first, second, and third color frequencies, CRR, CGR, and CBR. A left image component 42b is formed for stereoscopic imaging using the fourth, fifth, and sixth color frequencies, CRL, CGL, and CBL. Thus, each of the image components 42a, 42b is formed of essentially the same combination of colors but using different frequencies of light.

[0032] The three-dimensional color display system 50 further includes a head mounted color display separation

(or demultiplexing) apparatus 56, for example, in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The left lens 60 of the head mounted color display separation apparatus 56 selectively passes wavelengths of light to allow the color frequency bands (CRL, CBL, CGL) of the left image component 42b to reach the left eye of the viewer while substantially preventing the color frequency bands (CRR, CBR, CGR) to pass . The right lens 62 on the pair of glasses selectively passes wavelengths of light to allow the color frequency bands (CRR, CBR, CGR) of the right image component 42a to reach the right eye of the viewer while substantially preventing the color frequency bands (CRL, CBL, CGL) to pass. The glasses are thus used to chromatically demultiplex the right and left image components 42a, 42b and deliver different color images to each eye 64a, 64b of the viewer, creating a three-dimensional effect. [0033] The lenses 60, 62 preferably include color filters designed to allow the desired frequencies of light to pass and to substantially attenuate the other frequencies of light. According to one example, the color filters include triple band pass filters, such as those produced by Omega Optical. Examples of triple band pass color filters are also disclosed in U.S. Patent Numbers 4,245,242; 4,663,562; 5,754,262; and 5,646,781, which are fully incorporated herein by reference. According to another example, the color filters include triple notch- exclusion filters. [0034] The color display 52 is designed to be viewed either directly or by reflection or refraction. The term "display" used in connection with the three-dimensional display system means either an active emissive display (such as a CRT, LCD, or image projector) or a passive reflective display (such as a printed page or poster) . [0035] In one embodiment, the display 52 includes one or more cathode ray tubes (CRTs) . Each CRT includes two types of red light-emitting phosphors, RPL and RPR, two types of green light-emitting phosphors, GPL and GPR, and two types of blue light-emitting phosphors, BPL and BPR, producing light at the color frequencies CRL, CRR, CGL, CGR, CBL and CBR, respectively (or near enough thereto that the light from the light-emitting phosphors RPL, GPL, and BPL are relatively less attenuated by the left color filter device than by the right color filter device, and that the light from the light-emitting phosphors RPR, GPR, and BPR are relatively less attenuated by the right color filter device than by the left color filter device) . The phosphors are interspersed or interleaved so that overlaid, interspersed, or interleaved left and right image components 42a, 42b can be formed using the RPL, GPL, and BPL light-emitting phosphors and the RPR, GPR, and BPR light-emitting phosphors, respectively. [0036] In another embodiment, the display 52 includes a color flat-panel display having two types of red light- emitting picture elements, RXL and RXR, two types of green light-emitting picture elements, GXL and GXR, and two types of blue light-emitting picture elements, BXL and BXR, producing light at the color frequencies CRL, CRR, CGL, CGR, CBL and CBR, respectively (or near enough thereto that the light from the light-emitting picture elements RPL, GPL, and BPL are relatively less attenuated by the left color filter device than by the right color filter device, and that the light from the light-emitting picture elements RPR, GPR, and BPR are relatively less attenuated by the right color filter device than by the left color filter device) . The picture elements are interspersed or interleaved so that overlaid, interspersed, or interleaved left and right image components 42a, 42b can be formed using the RXL, GXL, and BXL light-emitting picture elements and the RXR, GXR, and BXR light-emitting picture elements, respectively.

[0037] In another example, the display 52 includes a device that passes light containing at least the color frequencies CRL, CBL, CGL, CRR, CBR, and CGR through a three-dimensional imaging film. A three-dimensional image is disposed on the film in a chromatically multiplexed form using colored pigments. The colored pigments selectively allow various degrees of passage of light at predominantly the frequencies CRL, CBL, CGL, CRR, CBR, and CGR and all combinations thereof. The colored pigments are dispersed in such a way that overlayed, interspersed, or interleaved left and right image components 42a, 42b can be formed using light of the CRL, CBL, and CGL color frequencies and the CRR, CBR, and CGR color frequencies, respectively. The display 52 can also include an optics system wherein the emitted light is projected and diffracted from a separate viewing surface .

[0038] The display 52 can as also be a printed photograph, printed with inks that diffract towards the eyes of the viewer predominantly the frequencies CRL, CBL, CGL, CRR, CBR, and CGR and all combinations thereof. The colored pigments are dispersed in such a way on the photograph that overlayed, interspersed, or interleaved left and right image components 42a, 42b can be formed using light of the CRL, CBL, and CGL color frequencies and the CRR, CBR, and CGR color frequencies, respectively. [0039] Processes for storing a chromatically multiplexed three-dimensional stereoscopic image on a hexapigment film are shown in FIGS. 3-8. According to a first exposure process, a stereoscopic camera 70, FIGS. 3 and 4, is used to expose the two images respectively on two different photographic films 72, 74 (FL and FR) . According to one example of the first exposure process (shown in FIG. 3) , one photographic film 72 includes a material dispersed with red, green and blue photosensitive pigments (FRR, FGR, FBR) that, after development, selectively transmit or reflect light of the respective color frequencies (RR, GR, BR) and the other photographic film 74 includes a material dispersed with red, green and blue photosensitive pigments (FRL, FGL, FBL) that, after development, selectively transmit or reflect light of the respective color frequencies (RL, GL, BL) , where RR, GR, BR, RL, GL, BL are all mutually different from each other. According to another example of the first exposure process (shown in FIG. 4) , the images are exposed on two of the same types of films 75a, 75b. The films 75a, 75b both include materials dispersed with red, green, and blue photosensitive pigments (BR, BG, BB) that, after development, selectively transmit or reflect light of at least two frequencies RR and RL, at least two frequencies GR and GL, and at least two frequencies BR and BL, respectively. In one example, the photographic films 72, 74 are formed as negatives.

[0040] A second exposure process is used to produce a presentation film 76, which is a film to be used in a projector for viewing, to be viewed directly, or to be used as a master for producing further copies of the images stored on the presentation film 76. According to this second exposure process, the presentation film 76, FIGS. 5- 8, is exposed to light from a light source 78, which is transmitted through the films 72, 74 in first and second transfer exposure steps. The first and second transfer exposure steps can be performed separately (as shown) or simultaneously, either from the same side of the presentation film 76 through separate optical paths, or from opposite sides of the presentation film 76. [0041] Where the films 72, 74 include the different types of pigments, as described above, the light source 78 contains some or all of the frequencies RR, GR, BR, RL, GL, BL. Where the films 75a, 75b include the same types of pigments, the light source 78a used with one film 75a contains primarily the frequencies RL, GL, BL (and specifically excluding frequencies RR, GR, and BR) and the light source 78b used with the other film 75b contains primarily the frequencies RR, GR, BR (and specifically excluding frequencies RL, GL, and BL) . These light sources 78a and 78b can be made by placing appropriate color filters in front of a light source containing a broader range of frequencies than those implied above. Also, more than two transfer exposure processes can be used, for example, six transfer exposure processes can be used in this process if each individual color in each of the images requires its own light source. [0042] The photographic presentation film 76 used for three-dimensional chromatically multiplexed stereoscopic imaging contains at least 6 different photosensitive compounds with mutually-differing photosensitivities . For example, the presentation film 76 comprises a material having dispersed therein a first photosensitive pigment PRR, sensitive to light of the first frequency RR (but not to the other aforementioned frequencies) , a second photosensitive pigment PGR, sensitive to light of the second frequency GR (but not to the other aforementioned frequencies) , a third photosensitive pigment PBR, sensitive to light of the third frequency light BR (but not to the other aforementioned frequencies) , a fourth photosensitive pigment PRL, sensitive to light of the fourth frequency RL

(but not to the other aforementioned frequencies) , a fifth photosensitive pigment PGL, sensitive to light of the fifth frequency GL (but not to the other aforementioned frequencies) , and a sixth photosensitive pigment PBL, sensitive to light of the sixth frequency BL (but not to the other aforementioned frequencies) .

[0043] After being exposed to the light through the films 72, 74 or through the films 75a, 75b, two images 80a, 80b are formed on the presentation film 76. The first image 80a is formed by the first, second and third pigments

PRR, PGR, PBR and passes light at the first, second and third color frequencies CRR, CGR, CBR. The second image 80b is formed by the fourth, fifth and sixth pigments PRL, PGL, PBL and passes light at the fourth, fifth and sixth frequencies CRL, CGL, CBL. The presentation film 76 thus can be used to project the chromatically multiplexed image, which can then be demultiplexed using the color display separation apparatus 56 described above. [0044] Thus, the three-dimensional color display system and method causes separate images to be delivered to the left and right eyes of the viewer from a single display screen or display object. The images delivered to the left and right eyes of the viewer are caused to differ from each other by mutually-differing light filtration in the separate light paths between the screen or object and the left and right eyes . [0045] The three-dimensional color display system of the present invention is described further in the context of the following prophetic examples . Three-dimensional Color Display System Example 1 [0046] A video game enthusiast uses a game machine that has a flat panel display provided with two sets of interdispersed RGB pixels, one displaying an image component meant for the left eye with a color band of 420 ± 2 nm for blue, 534 ± 2 nm for green, and 564 ± 2 nm for red, and the other displaying an image component meant for the right eye with a color band of 416 ± 2 nm for blue, 530 ± 2nm for green, and 560 ± 2nm for red. While the human eye cannot easily distinguish between, for example, light at 420 nm vs. light at 416 nm, the relative intensity levels are adjusted to provide images with similar chromatic properties to both eyes. The game machine controls the left and right image pixels so as to form dual images for stereoscopic viewing (e.g., using known three- dimensional image calculation and encoding techniques) . The game player wears the chromatic demultiplexing apparatus of the present invention including left and right lenses disposed in frames to form a pair of glasses. The left lens is a triple band-pass light filter that allows about 99% of light in the bands of 420±2 nm, 534+2 nm and 564+2 nm to pass while blocking out about 99% of other frequencies. The right lens is a triple band-pass light filter that allows about 99% of light in the bands of 416±2 nm, 530+2 nm and 560±2 nm to pass while blocking out about 99% of other frequencies. One example of such filters can be manufactured using known methods by Omega Optical Corporation. [0047] The game player has a substantially enhanced gaming experience due to the added excitement of the three- dimensional perspective. Because, in contrast to the existing shutter-based temporally multiplexed three- dimensional game apparatus, the images are enduring (i.e., presented without flashing on and off) , the player does not experience the headaches often experienced by users of the existing shutter-based technology. Moreover, because the image is on a screen that remains largely stationary despite movement of the player's head, the player does not experience the nausea and vomiting often experienced by users of three-dimensional viewing systems that comprise separate viewing screens for the left and right eyes built into a head-mounted apparatus . Three-dimensional Color Display System Example 2 [0048] A soldier wears the three-dimensional viewing apparatus of the present invention while working in a simulator that has large display screens with the same optical properties as the display screen described in Example 1. This allows the soldier to experience a much more realistic training simulation than is possible with the two-dimensional simulators of today, thus better preparing for combat situations.

Three-dimensional Color Display System Example 3 [0049] Students in a high-school biology classroom are viewing slides on a standard overhead projector. The slides have been prepared using a master that was prepared using the method of the present invention so that the slides have dyes or pigments to produce a duel image for stereoscopic viewing. The projector presents an image component meant for the left eye with a color band of 420±2 nm for blue, 534+2 nm for green, and 564+2 nm for red and presents an image component meant for the right eye with a color band of 416+2 nm for blue, 530+2 nm for green, and 560+2 nm for red. The students wear eyewear such as described in Example 1 to allow them to view the full-color slides with a three-dimensional perspective, enhancing their learning experiences by providing more information in a more natural way than with conventional overhead- projected slides and facilitating their understanding of the material. The students also have pictures in their textbooks printed with inks of the same chromatic characteristics as the above. The pictures are printed using a master that was prepared using the method of the present invention. Such pictures allow for more information in a more natural presentation than is possible with two-dimensional images, allowing an enhanced learning experience.

Three-dimensional Color Display System Example 4 [0050] A movie theater operator leases a movie film that was prepared from a master using the method of the present invention so that it has pigments or dyes that transmit dual image components with the same chromatic characteristics as described in Example 1. Because the light source in conventional movie projector equipment produces all of the frequency bands described in Example 1, the theater operator is able to project the film using standard movie projector equipment with no modifications. The audience members are issued eyewear with the two sets of triple band-pass filters as described in the present invention, and are thus able to view the full-color motion picture in three dimensions instead of two, receiving a greatly enhanced and more realistic entertainment experience . Because the film of the present invention can be projected on standard equipment, the theater operators can display the film with no additional equipment expenses

(aside from the glasses) .

[0051] Accordingly, the three-dimensional system of present invention uses different color frequencies to display chromatically multiplexed images, which can be separated by filtering the different color frequencies and presented separately to the viewers eyes, thereby creating a three-dimensional effect. The three-dimensional system of present invention provides inexpensive multiplexing and inexpensive demultiplexing, can be used with both static and dynamic pictures in full color, and can be viewed in comfort without nausea or headache . The versatility and power of this three-dimensional system can enhance the viewing experience of image viewers in a broad variety of situations (such as described in the above examples) , without serious economic impediments to the deployment of the system. [0052] Modifications and substitutions by one having ordinary skill in the art are considered to be within the scope of the present invention, which is not to be limited except by the following claims.

Claims

CLAIMS The invention claimed is:
1. A three-dimensional color display system comprising: a color display for generating a chromatically multiplexed image including at least right and left overlaid image components, wherein each of said image components is formed by visible light having essentially the same combination of red, blue and green light, and wherein red, blue and green light frequencies forming said left image components are different from red, blue and green light frequencies forming said right image component; and a head mounted color display demultiplexing apparatus for mounting proximate left and right eyes of a viewer and between said eyes and said color display and for demultiplexing said chromatically multiplexed image generated by said color display, wherein said head mounted color display demultiplexing apparatus includes a left color filter device for allowing said red, blue and green light frequencies forming said left image component to pass to the left eye of the viewer while substantially filtering out said red, blue and green light frequencies forming said right image component, and wherein said head mounted color display demultiplexing apparatus includes a right color filter device for allowing said red, blue and green light frequencies forming said right image component to pass to the right eye of the viewer while substantially filtering out said red, blue and green light frequencies forming said left image component.
2. The three-dimensional color display system of claim 1 wherein said light frequencies forming said right image component include a first color frequency CRR, which is selected to stimulate the red color pigment cones in human eyes, a second color frequency CGR, which is selected to stimulate the green color pigment cones in human eyes, and a third color frequency CBR, which is selected to stimulate the blue color pigment cones in human eyes, and wherein said light frequencies forming said left image component include a fourth color frequency CRL, which is selected to stimulate the red color pigment cones in human eyes, a fifth color frequency CGL, which is selected to stimulate the green color pigment cones in human eyes, and a sixth color frequency CBL, which is selected to stimulate the blue color pigment cones in human eyes .
3. The three-dimensional color display system of claim 1 wherein said color display includes an active emissive display for emitting said light.
4. The three-dimensional color display system of claim 1 wherein said color display includes a passive reflective display for reflecting said light.
5. The three-dimensional color display system of claim 1 wherein said color display includes an optics system, for projecting and diffracting said light from a separate viewing surface .
6. The three-dimensional color display system of claim 2 wherein said right color filter device provides a frequency selectivity characteristic wherein (i) at least some light frequencies less than the first color frequency CRR are more greatly attenuated than light at the first color frequency CRR, (ii) at least some light frequencies between the first color frequency CRR and the second color frequency CGR are more greatly attenuated than light at the first color frequency CRR or the second color frequency CGR, (iii) at least some light frequencies between the second color frequency CGR and the third color frequency CBR are more greatly attenuated than light at the second color frequency CGR or the third color frequency CBR, (iv) at least some light frequencies more than the third color frequency CBR are more greatly attenuated than light at the third color frequency CBR, and (v) the fourth color frequency CRL is attenuated more than the first color frequency CRR, the fifth color frequency CGL is attenuated more than the second color frequency CGR, and the sixth color frequency CBL is attenuated more than the third color frequency CBR; and wherein said left color filter device provides a frequency selectivity characteristic wherein (i) at least some light frequencies less than the fourth color frequency CRL are more greatly attenuated than light at the fourth color frequency CRL, (ii) at least some light frequencies between the fourth color frequency CRL and the fifth color frequency CGL are more greatly attenuated than light at the fourth color frequency CRL or the fifth color frequency CGL, (iii) at least some light frequencies between the fifth color frequency CGL and the sixth color frequency CBL are more greatly attenuated than light at the fifth color frequency CGL or the sixth color frequency CBL, (iv) at least some light frequencies more than the sixth color frequency CBL are more greatly attenuated than light at the sixth color frequency CBL, and (v) the first color frequency CRR is attenuated more than the fourth color frequency CRL, the second color frequency CGR is attenuated more than the fifth color frequency CGL, and the third color frequency CBR is attenuated more than the sixth color frequency CBL.
7. The three-dimensional color display system of claim 1 wherein said head mounted color display demultiplexing apparatus includes a set of eyeglasses including said left and right color filter devices in the form of eyeglass lenses.
8. The three-dimensional color display system of claim 1 wherein said color display is a color cathode ray tube.
9. The three-dimensional color display system of claim 2 wherein said color display is a color cathode ray tube including two types of red light emitting phosphors, for producing red light at respective said first and fourth light frequencies CRR, CRL, two types of green light emitting phosphors, for producing green light at respective said second and fifth light frequencies CGR, CGL, and two types of blue light emitting phosphors, for producing blue light at respective said third and sixth light frequencies, CBR, CBL.
10. The three-dimensional color display system of claim 1 wherein said display includes a color flat-panel display.
11. The three-dimensional color display system of claim 2 wherein said display includes a color flat-panel display including two types of red light-emitting picture elements, for producing red light at respective said first and fourth light frequencies CRR, CRL, two types of green light-emitting picture elements, for producing green light at respective said second and fifth light frequencies CGR, CGL, and two types of blue light-emitting picture elements, for producing blue light at respective said third and sixth light frequencies, CBR, CBL.
12. The three-dimensional color display system of claim 1 wherein said display includes : a film having colored pigments dispersed therein for forming said overlaid left and right image components, wherein said colored pigments include left image pigments that selectively allow various degrees of passage of light at predominantly the frequencies CRL, CBL, and CGL, and include right image pigments that selectively allow various degrees of passage of light at predominantly the frequencies CRR, CBR, and CGR; and a device for generating visible light at said frequencies CRR, CBR, CGR, CRL, CBL, and CGL and for passing said visible light through said film.
13. The three-dimensional color display system of claim 1 wherein said right and left color filter devices include triple band pass filters.
14. A head mounted color display demultiplexing apparatus, for demultiplexing a chromatically multiplexed image including first and second image components, wherein each of said image components is formed by visible light having essentially the same combination of red, blue and green light, and wherein red, blue and green light frequencies forming said left image components are different from red, blue and green light frequencies forming said right image component, said head mounted color display demultiplexing apparatus comprising: a head mounting structure; and left and right color filter devices mounted on said head mounting structure, for positioning in close proximity to left and right eyes of a viewer, wherein said left color filter device allows said red, blue and green light frequencies forming said left image component to pass to said left eye while substantially filtering out said red, blue and green light frequencies forming said right image component, and wherein said right color filter device allows said red, blue and green light frequencies forming said right image component to pass to said right eye while substantially filtering out said red, blue and green light frequencies forming said right image component .
15. The head mounted color display demultiplexing apparatus of claim 14 wherein said left and right color filter devices are included in eyeglass lenses, and wherein said head mounting structure includes eyeglass frames.
16. The head mounted color display demultiplexing apparatus of claim 14 wherein said right color filter device filters out substantially all frequencies except for a first color frequency CRR that stimulates red color pigment cones in human eyes, a second color frequency CGR that stimulates green color pigment cones in human eyes, and a third color frequency CBR that stimulates blue color pigment cones in human eyes; and wherein said left color filter device filters out substantially all frequencies except for a third color frequency CRL that stimulates red color pigment cones in human eyes, a fourth color frequency CGL that stimulates green color pigment cones in human eyes, and a fifth color frequency CBL that stimulates blue color pigment cones in human eyes .
17. The head mounted color display demultiplexing apparatus of claim 14 wherein said right and left color filter devices include triple band pass filters.
18. A color display for use in a three-dimensional display system, said color display comprising: means for generating visible light having a first color frequency CRR, which is selected' to stimulate the red color pigment cones in human eyes, a second color frequency CGR, which is selected to stimulate the green color pigment cones in human eyes, a third color frequency CBR, which is selected to stimulate the blue color pigment cones in human eyes, a fourth color frequency CRL, which is selected to stimulate the red color pigment cones in human eyes, a fifth color frequency CGL, which is selected to stimulate the green color pigment cones in human eyes, and a sixth color frequency CBL, which is selected to stimulate the blue color pigment cones in human eyes; and means for forming a chromatically multiplexed image by overlaying right and left image components, wherein said right image component is formed from visible light at said first frequency CRR, said second frequency CGR, and said third frequency CBR, and wherein said left image component is formed from visible light at said fourth frequency CRL, said fifth frequency CGL, and said sixth frequency CBL.
19. A method of creating a three-dimensional color image in eyes of a viewer, said method comprising: generating visible light having a first color frequency CRR, which is selected to stimulate the red color pigment cones in human eyes, a second color frequency CGR, which is selected to stimulate the green color pigment cones in human eyes, a third color frequency CBR, which is selected to stimulate the blue color pigment cones in human eyes, a fourth color frequency CRL, which is selected to stimulate the red color pigment cones in human eyes, a fifth color frequency CGL, which is selected to stimulate the green color pigment cones in human eyes, and a sixth color frequency CBL, which is selected to stimulate the blue color pigment cones in human eyes; forming a chromatically multiplexed image by overlaying right and left image components, wherein said right image component is formed from visible light at said first frequency CRR, said second frequency CGR, and said third frequency CBR, and wherein said left image component is formed from visible light at said third frequency CRL, said fourth frequency CGL, and said fifth frequency CBL; directing said chromatically multiplexed image toward right and left eyes of a viewer; and demultiplexing said chromatically multiplexed image by separating said right and left image components such that said right image component is presented to said right eye of said viewer and said left image component is presented to said left eye of said viewer.
PCT/US2002/006609 2001-03-05 2002-03-05 Three-dimensional display system and method WO2002071384A1 (en)

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