WO2001041884A1 - Video processor systems for ball tracking in ball games - Google Patents

Video processor systems for ball tracking in ball games Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2001041884A1
WO2001041884A1 PCT/GB2000/004507 GB0004507W WO0141884A1 WO 2001041884 A1 WO2001041884 A1 WO 2001041884A1 GB 0004507 W GB0004507 W GB 0004507W WO 0141884 A1 WO0141884 A1 WO 0141884A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
ball
system
area
data
cameras
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/GB2000/004507
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
David Sherry
Paul Hawkins
Original Assignee
Roke Manor Research Limited
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to GBGB9929193.2A priority Critical patent/GB9929193D0/en
Priority to GB9929193.2 priority
Priority to GB0001008A priority patent/GB2357207A/en
Priority to GB0001008.2 priority
Application filed by Roke Manor Research Limited filed Critical Roke Manor Research Limited
Publication of WO2001041884A1 publication Critical patent/WO2001041884A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B24/00Electric or electronic controls for exercising apparatus of preceding groups; Controlling or monitoring of exercises, sportive games, training or athletic performances
    • A63B24/0003Analysing the course of a movement or motion sequences during an exercise or trainings sequence, e.g. swing for golf or tennis
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B71/00Games or sports accessories not covered in groups A63B1/00 - A63B69/00
    • A63B71/06Indicating or scoring devices for games or players, or for other sports activities
    • A63B71/0605Decision makers and devices using detection means facilitating arbitration
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S3/00Direction-finders for determining the direction from which infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic, or electromagnetic waves, or particle emission, not having a directional significance, are being received
    • G01S3/78Direction-finders for determining the direction from which infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic, or electromagnetic waves, or particle emission, not having a directional significance, are being received using electromagnetic waves other than radio waves
    • G01S3/782Systems for determining direction or deviation from predetermined direction
    • G01S3/785Systems for determining direction or deviation from predetermined direction using adjustment of orientation of directivity characteristics of a detector or detector system to give a desired condition of signal derived from that detector or detector system
    • G01S3/786Systems for determining direction or deviation from predetermined direction using adjustment of orientation of directivity characteristics of a detector or detector system to give a desired condition of signal derived from that detector or detector system the desired condition being maintained automatically, i.e. tracking systems
    • G01S3/7864T.V. type tracking systems
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B2102/00Application of clubs, bats, rackets or the like to the sporting activity ; particular sports involving the use of balls and clubs, bats, rackets, or the like
    • A63B2102/20Cricket
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B2220/00Measuring of physical parameters relating to sporting activity
    • A63B2220/05Image processing for measuring physical parameters
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B2220/00Measuring of physical parameters relating to sporting activity
    • A63B2220/80Special sensors, transducers or devices therefor
    • A63B2220/806Video cameras
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B2220/00Measuring of physical parameters relating to sporting activity
    • A63B2220/80Special sensors, transducers or devices therefor
    • A63B2220/807Photo cameras

Abstract

A video processing system for use in ball games played within a predetermined area on a pitch or the like such as cricket, comprising at least four video cameras arranged in spaced apart relationship at fixed positions around the said area, a video processor and ball tracker to which signals from the cameras are fed, a data store for date which models the said area and includes data representative of characteristic features positioned thereon for use in performance of the game, and a store for data appertaining to rules and/or key events of the ball game played, the video processor being operative to; (a) identify in each frame, from each camera, groups of pixels corresponding to the image of a ball; (b) compute for each frame the 3D position of an image thus identified using ball image data from at least two different cameras; (c) predict a ball flight-path from the said 3D ball position as computed in successive frames; and, (d) map the predicted flight-path on the modelled area so as to identify any interaction with one or more of the said characteristic features, which interaction signifies the occurrence of a key event or a rule infringement.

Description

VIDEO PROCESSOR SYSTEMS FOR BAL TRACKING IN BALL GAMES

This invention relates to video processor systems suitable for tracking a ball during ball games and more especially but not exclusively it relates to such systems for use in cricket.

Due to the increasing professionalism of sport in general and ball games in particular, and the availability of appropriate technology, there is increasing interest in applying electronics technology to provide information of interest to spectators and to minimise the risk of human error affecting results. In tennis for example, service speed is now quite commonly measured and displayed to spectators, and electronic sensors are used to aid Umpires/Linesmen when making net-cord decisions and to determine whether services are within the area prescribed.

However, although such systems as presently applied to tennis for net-cord and service decisions might be further developed to include video tracking to determine where a tennis ball pitches at all times during a game, video processing to track a ball for general ball game applications and for cricket applications in particular, is much more difficult because of potential problems which arise.

In connection with cricket these potential problems include the following: the distance between a video camera positioned beyond the boundary and the wicket is variable depending on the wicket position and the particular cricket ground; the ball must be identified in 3D space with high accuracy throughout its entire flight path; in order to achieve the accuracy required to assist umpiring decisions, the field of view of video cameras used needs to be as small as possible; players may come between the ball and a camera so as to obscure the ball; the image of the ball may be confused with other objects of similar size such as for example a flying bird; the colour of the ball, which may vary, might adversely affect ball sensing; the leg stump position, which is critical for LBW (Leg Before Wicket) decisions and which is different for left and right handed batsmen must be identified and the point where a ball hits a batsman also needs to be identified; a prediction of where a ball would have passed the stumps must be made; and processing which takes the forgoing requirements into account must be done in real time.

It is an object of the present invention to provide a video processing system for use in cricket which will operate to satisfy the forgoing requirements to a degree acceptable to cricket control authorities.

According to the present invention, a video processing system for use in ball games played within a predetermined area on a pitch or the like, comprises at least four video cameras arranged in spaced apart relationship at fixed positions around the said area, a video processor and ball tracker to which signals from the cameras are fed, a data store for data which models the said area and includes data representative of characteristic features positioned thereon for use in performance of the game, and a store for data appertaining to rules and/or key events of the ball game played, the video processor being operative to; (a) identify in each frame, from each camera, groups of pixels corresponding to the image of a ball; (b) compute for each frame the 3D position of an image thus identified using ball image data from at least two different cameras; (c) predict a ball flight-path from the said 3D ball position as computed in successive frames; and, (d) map the predicted flight-path on the modelled area so as to identify any interaction with one or more of the said characteristic features, which interaction signifies the occurrence of a key event or a rule infringement.

The system may be used in connection with cricket wherein the said area is a cricket pitch, the said characteristic features include the position in 3D of the stumps, and the position of the wickets/creases and the said key events/rules include an LEW definition.

The said key events may also include the stumps/bails being struck by the ball for example.

Thus it will be appreciated that the system may be used in cricket to determine whether or not a player is out LBW for example.

When applied to cricket, six or more cameras may be used which are positioned around a cricket ground and positioned high in the cricket stands so that a camera is less likely to be obscured by fielders on the pitch.

In order to provide additional data, a statistics generator may be included which records and stores data appertaining to ball track, ball size, and ball velocity for example which may be used in decision making processes in the processor and/or to provide information concerning ball delivery of interest to TV cricket commentators for example.

Each camera's field of view may be minimised so that the size of the ball within the field is as large as possible without occasions occurring when the ball moves outside the field of view. One embodiment of the invention will now be described by way of example only with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein corresponding parts of the various Figures bear the same numerical designations and in which;

Figure 1. is a generally schematic diagram of a video processor system for use in cricket;

Figure la. is a block schematic diagram (shown inset in Figure 1) of a CPU which forms a part of the system as shown in Figure 1;

Figure 2 is a somewhat schematic block diagram of a six camera system which shows the most suitable positions for the cameras and;

Figure 3 is a flow diagram which shows the processing steps performed by the CPU as shown in Figure la.

Referring now to the drawings, a video processing system as shown in Figure 1, for use in cricket comprises cameras 1 to 6, as shown in Figure 2, disposed in spaced apart relationship around the boundary 7, of a cricket field 8, so as to view a pitch 9, which has a two sets of stumps 10 and bails 11 which define wickets 12 spaced 22 yds apart, (only one of which is shown in detail in Figure 1).

Video signals from the cameras 1 to 6 are fed to a CPU 13, which conveniently forms a part of a PC (Personal Computer) which also includes a monitor 14. As shown in Figure la, the CPU comprises a video processor and track generator 15, a store 16, in which data appertaining to the pitch and wicket positions is stored, a store 17, for data appertaining to cricket law/rules relating to LBW for example, and a statistics generator/store 18 for historically based data which may be drawn upon to facilitate current processing in the CPU 13, and /or to provide data of interest to TV commentators for example.

In operation of the system, video signals from the cameras 1 to 6, are processed as indicated by steps 20 to 26 shown in Figure 3. After camera calibration, step 20, and start processing, step 21, in which the stores 16, and 17, are loaded, signals from the cameras 1 to 6, are initially fed to the video processor and track generator 15, of the CPU 13, wherein the pixels of each frame from each camera are examined to perform a ball recognition function, step 22, in dependence upon algorithm processing, step 23, so as to identify pixel groups which correspond in size and shape to the image of a cricket ball 19, as shown schematically in Figure 1. Having identified the 3D position, step 24, of the ball 19, a flight path or tracking function, step 25, is performed and a track is predicted, step 26, from the data received. This predicted track , is mapped on to a model of the pitch which is contained in the store 16, together with characteristic features of the pitch such as the positions of the wickets 12.

By calculating a predicted track (just ahead of the actual track) which is continuously corrected as necessary, so that it corresponds very closely to the actual track, temporary loss of the image for short periods, due to obstructions for example, can be tolerated and do not interfere with the integrity of the system.

Having mapped the ball track on to the pitch/wickets, any interactions therebetween which correspond to a law infringement or key event, such as an LBW event for example, as defined in accordance with data in the store 17, are identified and an appropriate indication is provided on the monitor 14. In to order provide statistical data which might be made available to TV commentators, the statistics generator 18, is arranged to store data appertaining the previous ball tracks. This could include data relating to ball velocity, line and length, and swing, as will herein after be explained and this data may also be used selectively to facilitate tracking by restricting pixel examination to those regions of the display through which the ball is most likely to travel thereby to speedup processing.

It will be appreciated that before using the system a setting-up procedure will be required. Once the position and field of view has been set for each camera, anchor points can be established in the field of view which may include the cricket stumps as the main anchor points and the establishment of a reference line extending between the middle stump at each end of the cricket wicket which can be used for fine calibration of the video images.

To save computational expense, the cameras 1 to 6, may be arranged to operate in active or in idle mode. The active mode is initiated by a camera recognising either automatically from player position and bowler movement, or by the injection of a manually produced signal, that a bowler is about to bowl, the active mode being arranged to remain active for a set period of time. This mode may be manually overridden. It may be arranged that all cameras are triggered into active mode at the same time and operate synchronously.

Front-on cameras are used to automatically identify if a batsman is left or right handed, as this is important for LBW decisions and this decision may be manually overridden. As already explained, for each frame of each camera, the cricket ball is identified in the video image and this is done by pixel analysis from a knowledge of the shape and size of the ball and involves image processing techniques which are so well known to those skilled in the art that detailed description herein is believed to be unnecessary.

It is important to note that colour is not used to aid identification since cricket balls may be of different colours.

As already mentioned, the accuracy with which the ball can be identified is improved by using knowledge of where the ball was in previous frames, and the direction in which the ball is travelling, which may be determined by statistical analysis in the statistics generator 18. The position of the sun may also be used to ensure that the ball and the ball's shadow are not confused. This identification process provides X and Y co-ordinates of the ball for each image frame of each camera. The process will return 'not found' if it is not sure that a ball can be identified. The use of six cameras enables some redundancy should any one camera be obscured at any one time.

Given the X and Y co-ordinates of the ball from the various cameras, an algorithm is used to establish the ball position in 3D. It will be appreciated that provided data from at least two cameras is available the position of the ball can be established in 3D.

When a 3D position of the ball has been calculated for each camera frame, this information is compiled to generate a predicted 3D track of the ball. Of particular interest within this track are key points such as a point where the ball pitches, or a point where the ball hits a batsman which may be identified by mapping the predicted track onto a stored map of the pitch as hereinbefore explained. It will be appreciated that one or other of these points may or may not occur and that side-on cameras are best placed to identify the exact point at which the ball hits a batsman.

Given knowledge of a path which the ball has followed up to a point of contact with the batsman, the position where the ball struck the batsman and other information such as the speed of the ball, and gravity parameters. This information may be used to predict where the ball would have passed by the stumps and a probabilistic prediction may be made as to whether the ball would have hit the stumps. The distance between the ball pitching and hitting the batsman, and the distance between the point of contact and the stumps both affect this probabilistic prediction.

Although the invention may find application in various ball games such as baseball for example, it is especially suitable for application to cricket and in this connection may be used in a variety of ways as will now be described.

Firstly, the credibility of Umpires is greatly reduced if TV replays show that they have made a mistake. TV replays are however too slow to be used to help an Umpire make an LBW decision. The present system however is able to generate information in real time which could be made available to an Umpire to help him make a correct LBW decision for example. Three vitaϊ pieces of information could for example be made available to the Umpire, namely, whether the ball pitched outside leg stump, whether the ball hit the batsman in line with the stumps, and whether the probability of the ball going on to hit the stumps is high e.g. above a given probability threshold. As already suggested, the system may be used to provide TV commentators with statistical data. Use of statistics in sports television coverage has increased greatly over the past 5 years. Additional statistics could be presented by dividing the cricket wicket into a number of sectors, the percentage/number of deliveries pitching in each sector being presented together with the average number of runs scored from balls pitching in each sector. Viewers may also be interested in the average amount of swing, seam or spin a bowler is able to generate as well as delivery velocity.

This system also lends itself to the provision of virtual replays since ball flight path data is available and thus virtual replays may be produced as seen from any angle. Of particular interest would be replays from the batsman's perspective.

The system may additionally find application in Strategy Planning. Test and county cricket teams already employ video analysts to find strengths and weaknesses in the opposition. This system will greatly facilitate, and add additional value, to an analyst's role. Bowlers will be much better able to decide from which end to bowl, and the most effective delivery for each batsman.

The system may also find application in Cricket Coaching. The database of information gathered from a video processing system set up at a practice session can greatly help players to learn new skills. Players can experiment with changes to their action, different grips and reverse swing and immediately analyse the effect a change has made to the delivery of the ball.

Additionally the system may be used for training &/or testing cricket Umpires. Because of cost considerations, a video processing system may be employed only at Test level cricket to aid Umpires make correct LBW decisions, Club and even County Umpires might not be afforded this aid. Currently Umpires are selected for matches based on reports given about them from previous matches. The video processing database provides an excellent way to train Umpires to make more correct LBW decisions. It also could provide information to help determine which Umpires should be selected for the more important matches.

Claims

CLAIMS.
1. A video processing system for use in ball games played within a predetermined area on a pitch or the like, comprises at least four video cameras arranged in spaced apart relationship at fixed positions around the said area, a video processor and ball tracker to which signals from the cameras are fed, a data store for data which models the said area and includes data representative of characteristic features positioned thereon for use in performance of the game, and a store for data appertaining to rules and/or key events of the ball game played, the video processor being operative to; (a) identify in each frame, from each camera, groups of pixels corresponding to the image of a ball; (b) compute for each frame the 3D position of an image thus identified using ball image data from at least two different cameras; (c) predict a ball flight-path from the said 3D ball position as computed in successive frames; and, (d) map the predicted flight-path on the modelled area so as to identify any interaction with one or more of the said characteristic features, which interaction signifies the occurrence of a key event or a rule infringement,
2. A system as claimed in Claim 1, use for in connection with cricket, wherein the said area is a cricket pitch, the said characteristic features include the position in 3D of the stumps, and the position of the wickets and the said key event/rules include an LBW definition.
3. A system as claimed in Claim 1, wherein at least six cameras are used.
4. A system as claimed in any preceding claim, including a statistics generator which records and stores data appertaining to ball track, which is used in decision making processes in the processor.
5. A system as claimed in any preceding claim, the field of view of each camera is minimised so that the size of the ball within the field is as large as possible without occasions occurring when the ball moves outside the field of view.
6. A system as claimed in any preceding claim, arranged to operate either in an active mode or in an idle mode in dependence upon the requirement for system operation as determined either automatically or manually.
7. A system as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein a stored ball track is used to facilitate the provision of a virtual replay of a clip featuring the track as viewed from a predetermined perspective.
8. A system as hereinbefore described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
PCT/GB2000/004507 1999-12-10 2000-11-28 Video processor systems for ball tracking in ball games WO2001041884A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GBGB9929193.2A GB9929193D0 (en) 1999-12-10 1999-12-10 Video processing apparatus
GB9929193.2 1999-12-10
GB0001008A GB2357207A (en) 1999-12-10 2000-01-18 Ball tracking and trajectory prediction
GB0001008.2 2000-01-18

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AU15374/01A AU1537401A (en) 1999-12-10 2000-11-28 Video processor systems for ball tracking in ball games

Publications (1)

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WO2001041884A1 true WO2001041884A1 (en) 2001-06-14

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WO (1) WO2001041884A1 (en)

Cited By (23)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1773057A1 (en) * 2005-10-08 2007-04-11 Knut Oppermann Method for tracking a game element and device for performing this method
CN101894374A (en) * 2009-03-31 2010-11-24 索尼株式会社 A method and apparatus for object tracking
US7946960B2 (en) 2007-02-05 2011-05-24 Smartsports, Inc. System and method for predicting athletic ability
WO2011117793A1 (en) 2010-03-22 2011-09-29 Timocco Ltd. Object locating and tracking in video frames using smoothness check along specified line sections
US8189857B2 (en) 2007-09-07 2012-05-29 EDH Holding (Pty) Ltd Methods and processes for detecting a mark on a playing surface and for tracking an object
WO2013025477A1 (en) * 2011-08-12 2013-02-21 Edh Holdings (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd. Ball trajectory and bounce position detection
AU2012246541B1 (en) * 2012-06-12 2013-08-01 Mackay, Shona Maree A Review and Challenge System
DE102012020376A1 (en) 2012-10-18 2014-04-24 Goalcontrol Gmbh Torerkennungssystem and method for detecting a gate
CN104730280A (en) * 2015-04-10 2015-06-24 苏州大学 Speed measuring method and system for balls
WO2015143475A1 (en) * 2014-03-24 2015-10-01 Michael Leslie A lawn bowls scoring and game monitoring arrangement
CN105477845A (en) * 2015-06-17 2016-04-13 电子科技大学 Method and system for predicting motion trajectory of shuttlecock
WO2016176723A1 (en) * 2015-05-01 2016-11-10 Bowling Master Pty Ltd Device and method for cricket training
US9498678B2 (en) 2014-07-11 2016-11-22 ProSports Technologies, LLC Ball tracker camera
US9571903B2 (en) 2014-07-11 2017-02-14 ProSports Technologies, LLC Ball tracker snippets
US9591336B2 (en) 2014-07-11 2017-03-07 ProSports Technologies, LLC Camera feed distribution from event venue virtual seat cameras
US20170102480A1 (en) * 2015-10-09 2017-04-13 Stratom, Inc. Field of play boundary detection system
US9655027B1 (en) 2014-07-11 2017-05-16 ProSports Technologies, LLC Event data transmission to eventgoer devices
CN106686425A (en) * 2017-02-20 2017-05-17 秦玲 Set Top Box
US9699523B1 (en) 2014-09-08 2017-07-04 ProSports Technologies, LLC Automated clip creation
US9729644B1 (en) 2014-07-28 2017-08-08 ProSports Technologies, LLC Event and fantasy league data transmission to eventgoer devices
CN107087218A (en) * 2017-02-20 2017-08-22 常英梅 Network TV
US9760572B1 (en) 2014-07-11 2017-09-12 ProSports Technologies, LLC Event-based content collection for network-based distribution
WO2018137767A1 (en) 2017-01-26 2018-08-02 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ) Detection systems and methods

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GB2191361A (en) * 1986-06-06 1987-12-09 Michael Cyril Godin Enchancing the image of retro-reflective projectiles
FR2726370A1 (en) * 1994-10-28 1996-05-03 Vallortigara Alain Real-time determination system for ball and players position on sport pitch

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US4545576A (en) * 1982-01-15 1985-10-08 Harris Thomas M Baseball-strike indicator and trajectory analyzer and method of using same
GB2191361A (en) * 1986-06-06 1987-12-09 Michael Cyril Godin Enchancing the image of retro-reflective projectiles
FR2726370A1 (en) * 1994-10-28 1996-05-03 Vallortigara Alain Real-time determination system for ball and players position on sport pitch

Cited By (29)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1773057A1 (en) * 2005-10-08 2007-04-11 Knut Oppermann Method for tracking a game element and device for performing this method
US7946960B2 (en) 2007-02-05 2011-05-24 Smartsports, Inc. System and method for predicting athletic ability
US8308615B2 (en) 2007-02-05 2012-11-13 Smartsports, Inc. System and method for predicting athletic ability
US8189857B2 (en) 2007-09-07 2012-05-29 EDH Holding (Pty) Ltd Methods and processes for detecting a mark on a playing surface and for tracking an object
CN101894374A (en) * 2009-03-31 2010-11-24 索尼株式会社 A method and apparatus for object tracking
WO2011117793A1 (en) 2010-03-22 2011-09-29 Timocco Ltd. Object locating and tracking in video frames using smoothness check along specified line sections
US9734593B2 (en) 2010-03-22 2017-08-15 Timocco Ltd. Object locating and tracking in video frames using smoothness check along specified line sections
WO2013025477A1 (en) * 2011-08-12 2013-02-21 Edh Holdings (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd. Ball trajectory and bounce position detection
US9036864B2 (en) 2011-08-12 2015-05-19 Edh Holdings (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd. Ball trajectory and bounce position detection
AU2012246541B1 (en) * 2012-06-12 2013-08-01 Mackay, Shona Maree A Review and Challenge System
DE102012020376A1 (en) 2012-10-18 2014-04-24 Goalcontrol Gmbh Torerkennungssystem and method for detecting a gate
WO2014059971A1 (en) 2012-10-18 2014-04-24 Goalcontrol Gmbh Goal-recognition system and method for recognising a goal
GB2539837A (en) * 2014-03-24 2016-12-28 Leslie Michael A lawn bowls scoring and game monitoring arrangement
WO2015143475A1 (en) * 2014-03-24 2015-10-01 Michael Leslie A lawn bowls scoring and game monitoring arrangement
US9655027B1 (en) 2014-07-11 2017-05-16 ProSports Technologies, LLC Event data transmission to eventgoer devices
US9498678B2 (en) 2014-07-11 2016-11-22 ProSports Technologies, LLC Ball tracker camera
US9591336B2 (en) 2014-07-11 2017-03-07 ProSports Technologies, LLC Camera feed distribution from event venue virtual seat cameras
US9571903B2 (en) 2014-07-11 2017-02-14 ProSports Technologies, LLC Ball tracker snippets
US9760572B1 (en) 2014-07-11 2017-09-12 ProSports Technologies, LLC Event-based content collection for network-based distribution
US9729644B1 (en) 2014-07-28 2017-08-08 ProSports Technologies, LLC Event and fantasy league data transmission to eventgoer devices
US9699523B1 (en) 2014-09-08 2017-07-04 ProSports Technologies, LLC Automated clip creation
CN104730280A (en) * 2015-04-10 2015-06-24 苏州大学 Speed measuring method and system for balls
GB2554325A (en) * 2015-05-01 2018-03-28 Bowling Master Pty Ltd Device and method for cricket training
WO2016176723A1 (en) * 2015-05-01 2016-11-10 Bowling Master Pty Ltd Device and method for cricket training
CN105477845A (en) * 2015-06-17 2016-04-13 电子科技大学 Method and system for predicting motion trajectory of shuttlecock
US20170102480A1 (en) * 2015-10-09 2017-04-13 Stratom, Inc. Field of play boundary detection system
WO2018137767A1 (en) 2017-01-26 2018-08-02 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ) Detection systems and methods
CN106686425A (en) * 2017-02-20 2017-05-17 秦玲 Set Top Box
CN107087218A (en) * 2017-02-20 2017-08-22 常英梅 Network TV

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