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WO1980001673A1 - Surface structure of a surface adapted for movement relative to a fluid - Google Patents

Surface structure of a surface adapted for movement relative to a fluid

Info

Publication number
WO1980001673A1
WO1980001673A1 PCT/SE1980/000040 SE8000040W WO1980001673A1 WO 1980001673 A1 WO1980001673 A1 WO 1980001673A1 SE 8000040 W SE8000040 W SE 8000040W WO 1980001673 A1 WO1980001673 A1 WO 1980001673A1
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
surface
structure
band
systems
movement
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/SE1980/000040
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
A Malmstroem
Original Assignee
A Malmstroem
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B63SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
    • B63BSHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; EQUIPMENT FOR SHIPPING
    • B63B1/00Hydrodynamic or hydrostatic features of hulls or of hydrofoils
    • B63B1/32Other means for varying the inherent hydrodynamic characteristics of hulls
    • B63B1/34Other means for varying the inherent hydrodynamic characteristics of hulls by reducing surface friction
    • B63B1/36Other means for varying the inherent hydrodynamic characteristics of hulls by reducing surface friction using mechanical means
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64CAEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS
    • B64C21/00Influencing air-flow over aircraft surfaces by affecting boundary-layer flow
    • B64C21/10Influencing air-flow over aircraft surfaces by affecting boundary-layer flow using other surface properties, e.g. roughness
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T50/00Aeronautics or air transport
    • Y02T50/10Drag reduction
    • Y02T50/16Drag reduction by influencing airflow
    • Y02T50/166Drag reduction by influencing airflow by influencing the boundary layer
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T70/00Maritime or waterways transport
    • Y02T70/10Measures concerning design or construction of watercraft hulls
    • Y02T70/12Improving hydrodynamics of hull
    • Y02T70/121Reducing surface friction

Abstract

A surface structure of a surface (10) adapted for movement relative to a fluid, said surface structure consisting of intersecting band systems (11, 12). Each band system is in the form of ridges or depressions parallel to one another, and the two band systems (11, 12) form an angle with the relative direction of movement. This network of band systems (11, 12) prevents the formation of bursts, whereby the frictional resistance between the surface and the fluid is reduced considerably.

Description

SURFACE STRUCTURE OF A SURFACE ADAPTED FOR MOVEMENT RELATIVE TO A FLUID

The present invention relates to a surface structure of a surface adapted for movement relative to a fluid. '

It is generally believed that a surface adapted for move¬ ment relative to a fluid is to be as smooth as possible. A well-known example of this is the conscientious manner in which the sailor grinds and polishes the outer surface of the hull. Another example is the transport of liquids in pipes where it is endeavoured to make the inside of the pipes as smooth as possible, in the belief that this will reduce friction losses. This belief is unwarranted; a given roughness reduces friction losses.

On various occasions, attempts have been made to roughen the surfaces of especially ship's hulls in order to reduce friction losses. Thus, British patent specification 357,637 of 27th June 1930 proposes to provide a hull with a coating- having rasp-tooth formations. Here, one was on the right track, but no success was achieved because of the complicated formations and per¬ haps because of difficulty of coating a hull with plates of this type. Also on the right track is NASA Langley

Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, according to a paper published by M.J. Walsh and L.M. Weinstein and entitled "Drag and Heat Transfer on Surfaces with Small Longitudinal Fins" (Seattle, Washington, July 10-12, 1978). According to this paper, fins of e.g. triangular cross-section are provided along a surface moving in a fluid. By "longi¬ tudinal" is meant that the fins are directed in the direction of movement of the surface. This arrangement offers a certain improvement as compared with a smooth surface, but the friction can be reduced to a far greater extent.

To illustrate the activity adjacent a surface adapted for movement relative to a fluid, reference is made to a ship's motion in water.

The ship's motion is restrained by various, factors, ■ one of which is the frictional resistance," two forms of which are active, viz. laminar friction and friction produced by turbulence. The turbulent resistance is * ultimately due to a flow transverse to the direction of movement and is many times greater per surface unit than the laminar resistance. It would be an ideal situation if the water flow along the surface could be kept laminar, nά if the' only deviation from the straight line were the water following the hull surface.

That part of the turbulent water layer which is adjacent the hull surface has previously been called the laminar sublayer, but recent research has shown that this layer exhibits an intense turbulent activity. The laminar friction and the slightest unevenness, also a microscopic unevenness, in the surface as well as different distances to this surface impart different velocities to the different water particles or particle groups. It should be noted that the different moving layers are not isolated from one another, and that a certain exchange of particle groups having different velocities is continuously taking place. In the contact, or friction, between particles of different velocity different degrees of "crowding" in different areas occur. In areas having a higher "crowding", a higher pressure arises, while in other areas the opposite occurs. This primary crowding effect forces the particles outwardly in different directions, which in turn causes further differences in the crowding intensity.

When a positive pressure is to be equalized in one area, the particle groups having the least kinetic energy (low velocity bands) and therefore requiring the least centripetal force for a change of direction, will change- their direction, whereas the particle groups having a higher velocity will exert a smaller lateral pressure (Bernoulli's theorem) , for which reason the particles having the lower velocity and the higher pressure will tend to flow towards .the area of smaller pressure. Since neitherwater nor air is compressed or rarefied at velocities below thevelocityof sound, each such transverse flow will be compensated for by a return flow. The total effect of these phenomena results in flows forming an angle with the main direction of movement..

It has been established that the intensity of these flows shows a certain intermittence resulting in periodi- cally recurrent bursts which constitute the main part of the total turbulence production.

The splashes which occur when a jet of water is directed against a surface are not the result of the rebounding of certain water particles; instead the particles are more or less powerfully forced out of the surface of the positive pressure produced by the crowding of the particles when they meet and are distributed along the surface. This positive pressure and consequently the splashes constitute, in principle, the same "crowding effect" as occurs during flow along a surface, the different degrees of the resulting pressure differences producing the bursts.

The present invention has for its object to eliminate these transverse flows and thus the formation of bursts by means of a surface structure such that the particles, when they "slide" along the surface, encounter other surfaces - not any type of unevenness - at an angle causing their velocity to be decelerated as far as possible, and that the particles, to the extent that theyhave not been stopped, but have changed their direction at reduced velocity, encounter other surfaces and one another, pre¬ ferably from opposite directions. To this end, the surface has a structure comprising at least two intersecting band systems forming an angle with the direction of move— ent. In this manner, it is "possible, when the optimum effect of this serial velocity deceleration is achieved, to dampen or cancel the intense turbulent activity adjacent the surface so that the innermost layer will be re lace __

OMPI by a relatively calm layer where no bursts occur.

The surface structure according to the present invention may be in the form of bands of dams. Where appropriate, the dams may be replaced by channels- in which the water then flows at a lower velocity and at a higher pressure (Bernoulli's theorem) than in the flow intersecting them.

The invention will be described in more detail in the following, reference been "had to the accompanying drawing which diagramatically illustrates an embodiment of the invention.

The drawing shows a portion of a surface 10, for instance a surface on a ship or an aircraft with which the water och the air is in contact, or the inner surface of a pipe-line for conveying liquids or gases. The surface has two intersecting band systems of dams or ridges 11 and 12 which are parallel to one another and together constitute a network. The relative direction of movement between the surface 10 and the liquid or gas is indicated by the arrow13. In the embodiment illustrated, the two band systems intersect one another at right angles, but other angles of intersection are also possible. In the example illus¬ trated, the band systems form an angle of +45 and -45 , respec tively, relative to the direction movement, but also these values are not critical. As has previously been mentioned, the band systems need not necessarily be in the form of dams, but may also consist of intersecting ditches or channels. The height of the ridges and the . depth of the channels, respectively, may vary within certain limits, and it has been established that a height or a depth of less than 1 mm is fully adequate.

The drawing also shows continuous ridges, but the desired effect can be achieved also with discontinuous ridges, i.-e. rows of mutually spaced apart elevations. The same applies, of course, also when the band systems are in the form of channels.

It will be appreciated that the production of the surface structure according to the invention is extreme] simple, which is an essential condition for its practical applicability. In actual practice, the ridges or channels may be formed by simple mechanical working of the surfaces that are swept by the water or the gas, but it is also possible to form the ridges or channels in compression moulded sheets which are glued or otherwise secured to the surfaces.

The present invention provides a simple and efficient surface structure in the form "of a network effectively preventing the formation of bursts. In this manner, the frictional resistance of a relative movement of the type here concerned is reduced, and this means that the engine power of, for example, a ship can be reduced considerably without restricting the shi 's speed. In other words, the invention offers a considerable saving of energy.

OMPI

Claims

1. A surface structure of a surface (10) adapted for movement relative to a fluid, c h a r a c t e r i s e in that the structure has at least two intersecting band systems (11, 12) forming an angle with the direction of 5 movement.
2. A surface structure as claimed in claim 1, c h a r a c t e r i s e d in that the two band systems (11, 12) intersect one another approximately at right angles.
10 3. A surface structure as claimed in claim 1, c h a r a c t e r i s e d in that the two band systems (11, 12) form an angle of approximately +45 and -45 , respectively, with the direction of movement (13) .
4. A surface structure as claimed in claim 1, 2 15. or 3, c h a r a c t e r i s e d in that the two'-band systems (11, 12) are formed by ridges parallel to one another.
5. A surface structure as claimed in claim 1, 2 or 3, c h a r a c t e r i s e d in that the two band
20 systems are formed by channels parallel to one another.
6. A surface structure as claimed in claim 1, 2 or 3, c h a r a c t e r i s e d in that the two band systems (11, 12) are formed by spaced apart elongate elevations.
25 7. A surface structure as claimed i claim 1, 2 or 3, c h a r a c t e r i s e d in that the two band systems are formed by spaced apart elongate depressions.
8. A surface structure as claimed in any one of claims 4-7, c h a r a c t e r i s e d in that the
30 ridges or elevations have a height and the channels or depressions have a depth, respectively, which is less than 1 mm.
OMPI
PCT/SE1980/000040 1979-02-13 1980-02-11 Surface structure of a surface adapted for movement relative to a fluid WO1980001673A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
SE7901244 1979-02-13
SE7901244 1979-02-13

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19803034321 DE3034321A1 (en) 1979-02-13 1980-02-11 Surface structure of a surface adapted for movement relative to a fluid

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO1980001673A1 true true WO1980001673A1 (en) 1980-08-21

Family

ID=20337276

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/SE1980/000040 WO1980001673A1 (en) 1979-02-13 1980-02-11 Surface structure of a surface adapted for movement relative to a fluid

Country Status (4)

Country Link
EP (1) EP0024069A1 (en)
JP (1) JPS56500564A (en)
DE (1) DE3034321A1 (en)
WO (1) WO1980001673A1 (en)

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2573138A1 (en) * 1984-11-14 1986-05-16 Deutsche Forsch Luft Raumfahrt Surface of a body having, in the turbulent environment, a reduced flow resistance.
EP0205289A1 (en) * 1985-05-31 1986-12-17 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Drag reduction article
EP0216384A2 (en) * 1985-09-26 1987-04-01 Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung Device to reduce friction drag
US5133516A (en) * 1985-05-31 1992-07-28 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Co. Drag reduction article
US5238434A (en) * 1991-03-15 1993-08-24 Kransco Textured bottom skin for bodyboards and method
WO1997021931A1 (en) * 1995-12-12 1997-06-19 Roche Ulrich Process for forming a surface for contact with a flowing fluid and body with such surface regions
NL1029708C2 (en) * 2005-08-10 2007-02-13 Kick Off Ltd Turbulence film.
WO2009070852A1 (en) * 2007-12-07 2009-06-11 John Gene Foster A watercraft stability control device
ES2322839A1 (en) * 2007-12-27 2009-06-29 Manuel Muñoz Saiz System and method of reducing the frictional resistance of the fluid on the surface of ships and airplanes.

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE19528406A1 (en) * 1995-08-02 1997-02-06 Bmw Rolls Royce Gmbh Gas turbine combustion chamber with air transfer ports - has shot blasted, rolled raster or fluting design upstream of ports to specified raster dimension
JP4824190B2 (en) * 2001-03-07 2011-11-30 独立行政法人日本原子力研究開発機構 Turbulent drag reduction surface

Citations (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US632738A (en) * 1898-12-02 1899-09-12 James O'hara Covering for bodies impelled through water.
US706832A (en) * 1901-11-26 1902-08-12 Israel Lancaster Covering for aeroplanes.
GB190914627A (en) * 1908-09-26 1910-07-22 William Henry Fauber Improvements in or relating to the Construction of Boats and Ships.
US1021178A (en) * 1912-01-08 1912-03-26 Frank Biberstein Aeroplane.
US1454479A (en) * 1922-01-19 1923-05-08 Mccullough David Rush Airplane
US1480408A (en) * 1921-11-14 1924-01-08 Paul K Miller Air-pressure surface construction
FR38951E (en) * 1930-08-20 1931-08-10 A device for reducing fluid friction resistance along the solid walls
GB357637A (en) * 1930-06-27 1931-09-28 Peter Maurice Staunton Improvements in, or relating to ships, motor launches, and such like craft
US1994045A (en) * 1932-06-16 1935-03-12 Nelson Henry Wade Airplane
FR937494A (en) * 1946-11-26 1948-08-18 special grooves serving for sustentation in fluids
US2800291A (en) * 1950-10-24 1957-07-23 Stephens Arthur Veryan Solid boundary surface for contact with a relatively moving fluid medium
US2969760A (en) * 1957-03-18 1961-01-31 George G Eddy Hull form
GB1034370A (en) * 1963-03-08 1966-06-29 Harrison Lackenby Method and means for preventing flow-separation alongside ships' hulls in motion
US3874315A (en) * 1971-06-25 1975-04-01 Edward Morris Wright Surface treatment for water borne vehicles
DE2508103A1 (en) * 1975-02-25 1976-09-02 Kurt Schmidt Low drag aerodynamic/hydrodynamic surface structure - has low profile ridges/grooves to establish surface layer turbulence skin
GB1459425A (en) * 1973-02-15 1976-12-22 Hydroconic Ltd Ships hulls

Patent Citations (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US632738A (en) * 1898-12-02 1899-09-12 James O'hara Covering for bodies impelled through water.
US706832A (en) * 1901-11-26 1902-08-12 Israel Lancaster Covering for aeroplanes.
GB190914627A (en) * 1908-09-26 1910-07-22 William Henry Fauber Improvements in or relating to the Construction of Boats and Ships.
US1021178A (en) * 1912-01-08 1912-03-26 Frank Biberstein Aeroplane.
US1480408A (en) * 1921-11-14 1924-01-08 Paul K Miller Air-pressure surface construction
US1454479A (en) * 1922-01-19 1923-05-08 Mccullough David Rush Airplane
GB357637A (en) * 1930-06-27 1931-09-28 Peter Maurice Staunton Improvements in, or relating to ships, motor launches, and such like craft
FR38951E (en) * 1930-08-20 1931-08-10 A device for reducing fluid friction resistance along the solid walls
US1994045A (en) * 1932-06-16 1935-03-12 Nelson Henry Wade Airplane
FR937494A (en) * 1946-11-26 1948-08-18 special grooves serving for sustentation in fluids
US2800291A (en) * 1950-10-24 1957-07-23 Stephens Arthur Veryan Solid boundary surface for contact with a relatively moving fluid medium
US2969760A (en) * 1957-03-18 1961-01-31 George G Eddy Hull form
GB1034370A (en) * 1963-03-08 1966-06-29 Harrison Lackenby Method and means for preventing flow-separation alongside ships' hulls in motion
US3874315A (en) * 1971-06-25 1975-04-01 Edward Morris Wright Surface treatment for water borne vehicles
GB1459425A (en) * 1973-02-15 1976-12-22 Hydroconic Ltd Ships hulls
DE2508103A1 (en) * 1975-02-25 1976-09-02 Kurt Schmidt Low drag aerodynamic/hydrodynamic surface structure - has low profile ridges/grooves to establish surface layer turbulence skin

Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3441554A1 (en) * 1984-11-14 1986-05-22 Deutsche Forsch Luft Raumfahrt Reduced drag having surface 'of a turbulent ueberstroemten body
FR2573138A1 (en) * 1984-11-14 1986-05-16 Deutsche Forsch Luft Raumfahrt Surface of a body having, in the turbulent environment, a reduced flow resistance.
US5133516A (en) * 1985-05-31 1992-07-28 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Co. Drag reduction article
US4986496A (en) * 1985-05-31 1991-01-22 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Drag reduction article
EP0205289A1 (en) * 1985-05-31 1986-12-17 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Drag reduction article
EP0216384A2 (en) * 1985-09-26 1987-04-01 Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung Device to reduce friction drag
EP0216384B1 (en) * 1985-09-26 1989-12-20 Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung Device to reduce friction drag
US5238434A (en) * 1991-03-15 1993-08-24 Kransco Textured bottom skin for bodyboards and method
US6092766A (en) * 1995-12-12 2000-07-25 Ulrich Laroche Process for forming a surface for contact with a flowing fluid and body with such surface regions
WO1997021931A1 (en) * 1995-12-12 1997-06-19 Roche Ulrich Process for forming a surface for contact with a flowing fluid and body with such surface regions
NL1029708C2 (en) * 2005-08-10 2007-02-13 Kick Off Ltd Turbulence film.
WO2007017290A1 (en) * 2005-08-10 2007-02-15 Kick Off Ltd. Turbulence foil
US8323775B2 (en) 2005-08-10 2012-12-04 Kick Off Ltd. Turbulence foil
WO2009070852A1 (en) * 2007-12-07 2009-06-11 John Gene Foster A watercraft stability control device
ES2322839A1 (en) * 2007-12-27 2009-06-29 Manuel Muñoz Saiz System and method of reducing the frictional resistance of the fluid on the surface of ships and airplanes.
WO2009083622A1 (en) * 2007-12-27 2009-07-09 Munoz Saiz Manuel System and method for reducing the frictional resistance of fluids on the surface of boats and aircraft

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
JPS56500564A (en) 1981-04-30 application
EP0024069A1 (en) 1981-02-25 application
DE3034321A1 (en) 1981-03-26 application

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