USRE292E - Improvement in harvesters - Google Patents

Improvement in harvesters Download PDF


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United States
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John H. Manny
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' To all 101mm 'it may concern:
Be it known that I, JOHN LMANNY, of Rockford. in the county ot'l Winnebago and State ot'lllinois, (formerlyotVaddams Grove, in the county ot' Stephenson and State at`ore said,) haveinvented certain new and useful Improvements in Machines for MoWingGrrain and Grass, ot which the following is a full, clear', and exact description, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, which make part otths specification, and in which- Figure l represents a view in perspective of my improved machine tted with a rakingplatform to adapt it to the mowing ot' grain. Fig. 2 represents a plan of the same fitted for mowing grass, the raking-platform being removed and a scraper inserted at the end ofthe machine that runs next the standing grass, to remore. the eut grass from a narrow strip for the driving or other wheels that support the opposite end ot' the machine to run on while the succeeding swath is being cut. Fig. 3repiesents a viewin perspective of a fragmentA ot' the finger-bar and two fingers and-a fragment ot' the sickle detached from the machine. Fig. 4 represents a similar view otthe fragment ot' the tinger-bar and two tingers turned bottom uppermost. Fig. 5 represents a transverse section ot' the finger-bar at the line x a' of Fig. 3. Fig. 6 represents aviewin perspective ot' one. ot' the lingers detached; Fig. 7. a like view ofthe under part, and Fig. 8 of the upper part, of the same. Fig. 9 is a view in perspective of a fragment of the finger-bar, seen on the under side, the fingers being removed. Fig. 10 represents a plan of the under side ot' the sickle. Fig. 11 represents a view of the removable bottom or` ra king-platform detached from the frame. Fig. 12 is a view in perspective of the scraper.
My invention and improvement relates to 'the frame of' the machine, to the truck by which it is drawn, to the mode of regulating the height ofthe cut from the ground, to the construction ofthe cutting apparatus, and to the arrangement of the wheel which carries the outer end of' the platform with respect to a scraper for clearing the cut grass oft' the track next the standing grass in such manner that the track cleared bythe scraper during the cutting of one swath shall be run upon bythe wheels while the next swath is being cut.
The frame A A A2, which carries the cutting apparatus, is in the t'orm ot'a triangle supported horizontally upon a pair ot' wheels, B, whose axle BAis placed beneath those sides ot'v the frame which correspond to the perpendicular A' and h vpotenuse A2 of the triangle, at about the middle of the perpendicular, and
parallel to the sideA corresponding to the I base, which goes forward, and either constitutes the finger-bar or supports the same. The advantage ot' this arrangement. ot' the frame is that neither end of the finger-bar is liable' to sag below the other beyond what is due to the exibility of' the materials of the frame, even it the latter he raised, lowered, and d-rawn by one corner. l
A strong har of iron, C, is firmly attached to the forward extremity ot' the side A of the triangular frame. It projectst'orward of the same and bends upward in the manner ot' a ruimer 0f a sleigh. A second bar ofiron, C', similar to thatjustmentioned,islirmlysecured tothefront side, A, of the frame at a short distance within its inner end. This second bar ofiron is parallel to thetirst, and projects forward and bends upward to the same extent. At the'outer end ot' the frame, where the sides A and A2 meet,
third bar of metal, C2,is lirmly secured to the side A. It is similar in form to the hars G C', and stands parallel therewith. Its forward extremity is connected with the corner of the or grass and divide that which is to be cut in the swath in which the machine is advancing from that which is to be left standing to be cut in the next swath. The front extremities of the bars C C have eyes made through them to receive a horizon tal rod, b,which passes through the rear or forked extremity of the draft-bar or reach D and forms a hinge on which the same turns to allow the front of the frame A to rise and fall. The front extremity ot" this draft-bar is connected to the truck by means ot' a kingbolt, which passes through the axle and secures itin the usual manner in which the perch of a carriage is fastened. The iron bar C has a long lever rigidly attached to it,
which extends forward to. a stan dard, F, erected upon the platform of the truck. A staple on the side of the forward end ot the lever E embraces the standard F, which has a vertical row of holes through it, in any one of which a pin, c, may be placed to hold the lever at the required elevation. The oice of this lever is to hold the cutter 'at the proper distance from the ground to cut grain or grass at the required height. Q
lt is obvious that the lever E may be attached to any convenient part of the frame, and thence extend to the truck or leading carriage; but Iprefer to attach it either to the bar C or to the front part of the inner end of the linger-bar A. l
A fence-board, H, extends across the triangular frame parallel to the finger-bar A, at a distance therefrom equal to the length ot' the longest stalks to be cut. This fence-board is supported by standards o behind it. A second fence-board, H', is secured' to the diagonal side A2 of the frame to prevent the cut grain from falling over the outer end ot' themachine.
The space between the fence-board and the front bar of the frame is titted with a removable bottom or raking-platform, I, which is inserted when cutting grain or othercrops which it is desired to deliver from the machine in bundles, ready to tie into sheaves. As fast as the grain is cut itfalls back upon this platform, where it is allowed to accumulate until a sufticient quantity to form a sheaf has been deposited, when itis swept ott by an attendant with a stroke of his rake. The inner end,f, ofthis platform or bottom is inclined upward, and extends over the crankl and beyond' the side of the frame and driving-wheel, so that when the raker discharges the grain it will clear the machine and be at suliicient height to drop in a heap instead ot' being scattered, as it would beit' pushed olf the end ot' a low platform, which would allow the lower portion of thebundle to strike the ground before the upper portion has left the machine. This /platforrn is held in place by hanging its outer end to thediagonal bar of the fra-me by means ot' a hook, hasp,
button, or other device that will admit ot' itsbeing readily unfastened for removal, and its outer endfis fitted into the frame in such manner that it will lie steadilyin place, and simply requires to be raised upto remove it. The inner end of this platform should be made of sheet metal and secured to the outer part, as represented in Fig. 11. The sheet metal, heilig smooth and not liable to be roughened by the teeth ot' the rake, is preferable to wood.
When mowing grass or other crops which it is desirable to spread over the surface of the ground the platform or raking-bottom I of the frame is removed, and the cut stalks fall back .over the cutter and the linger-bar directly upon the ground, instead of being received upon the platform, as in the former case. Whenever the platform is thus removed a board or scraper, J, should be hinged, as represented in Fig. 2, near the outer end ot' the linger-har A, in such manner that its lower edge will drag upon the ground and be free to rise and fall to accommodate itself to the inequalities thereof'. This board stands parallel to the'diagonal bar A2 of the frame, and therefore obliquely to the direction in which the machine is moving. The forward extremity of the board runs between the standing and cut grass, while its hinder extremity extends laterally over the ground which the cut grass occupies a distance at least equal to the width ot' the track of the driving or carrying wheels at the opposite end ot the frame, in order that, like the mold-board ot' a plow, it may in moving forward turn aside the grass and leave a slip of uncovered stubble for the driving or other wheel to run on,`instead of running ou the cut grass, which it would have to do if a track were not cleared for it by the scraper J, an"d it were not placed in the new position in which I have arranged it, so as to run in the track thus cleared. A further advantage which results from this arrangement of the wheel and scraper is that the track cleared for the wheel to run on will leave the outer endet' the cutter and the connectie grod and crank N free from danger ot' becoming entangled in the cut grass.
A platform. K, is placed upon the central part of the axle B of the supporting-wheels B, for the raker or attendant to stand upon to perform his duty. The wheel B next the side A ot' the frame supports the greater part of the weight ot the latter, and is made to actuate the sickle W through the intervention of suitable gearing, a crank, and connecting-rod. The first Wheel, L, ot this gearing is secured to thil outside of the driving-wheel and concentric with the axle of the same. This gear-wheel L takes into and drives a pinion, L', on the counter-shaft M, to rotate the same. This shaftcarries the bevel-wheel M', and the latter meshes into a bevel-pinion, M2, which is mounted on the crank-shaft N, to which it communicates a rapid rotary motion. The counter-shaft M rests in bearings ou the two sides of the framed beam which forms the side A ot' the triangular frame;` and the crank-shaft Nis supported in` bearings formed in the cross-pieces that unite the sides of this beam. The crank N is either formedin one piece with the shaft N that carries it or is made separate and keyed or otherwise secured to the shaft; but the i'ormer mode is preferable, as then the crank is in no danger of being jarred loose. The connecting-rod N2 should have a strong and wellfitted eye at each end, the one to receive a crank-pin and the other for the joint-pin that connectsit with the sickle-bar e to passthrough. The sickle is composed of a strong straight bar or back, e', and aseries ot' lozenge-shaped teeth, s, secured thereto by rivets or screws. Each tooth should be made ot' a plate of good and well-tempered steel, about one eighth of an inch in thickness and four inches long, with its four edges sharpened by beveling them on" in the manner of a joiners chisel and sicklingthe beveled side, as represented in Fig. 3. These lozenge-cutters s are Vot' a form that would be produced by placing two isosceles triangles ot' equal base and unequal height base to base, the triangles being so proportioned that the diagonal of the lozenge which corresponds to the bases of the triangles is the longest. The teeth thus formed are arranged on the lower sideot' the bar e', with their longest-diagonals coinciding with its front edge and their beveled edges uppermost, and in this position are secured'to the bar by two rivets or screws passing through holesin each of them and through corresponding holes in the bar. The points and cutting-edges of the teeth formed and arranged in this manner will project on both sides ofthe bar e', but most on the front side, and will thus form a double-edged cutter, the teeth in front of the bar being designed to cut the stalks of the standing grain or grass, and the teeth behind it being for the purpose, among other things, ot' cutting off wire-grass or other fibrous matters that. get lapped about the cutter-bar or entangled in the fingers, and which tend so much to retard and clog the 0peration ot' the single-edged cutter.
Theform and proportions ofthe. cutter above given are those which I have essayed with success, and which I believe to be the best; but I do not confine myself to those proportions, nor to the precise arrangements or construction ofthe parts, as they maybe greatly varied within the principle of my invention; and although it is a matter ot'convenience in making and affords great facilities for repairs to make the serrated blade of separate teeth, yet, it'liref'errcd, the blade may be made in a single piece and the teeth formed by forging, tiling, or otherwise, at the option of the constructer. The sickle or cutterthns formed runs through and acts in concert with a series ot guard-tingers, o, secured to and projecting forward into the standing grain or grass fromthe front side of the finger-har a. These fingers range in a line with the runners c c c2, so that when running on the ground they may rise more freely over obstructions.
To facilitate the rising of the fingers over inequalities of the surface ofthe ground their I'ront ends turn upward. of the teeth ff the sickle pass over the edges of the finger the latter have sharp corners, so that the combined action ofthe sickle and fingers will be to sever the stalks by a shearing cut. These lingers may be made of' cast or malleable iron, and they consist of two parts or' halves, the uppermost ofl which, m, is an open frame to facilitate the discharge of obstructions that always work in between the top of the sickle and the opening of the finger. The under part-,71, of the finger is a strong pointed bar. These two are united at their front end by fitting them together and passing a screw or rivet through them, and at the rear end they are united by letting the upper half, m, into a notch, x, Fig. 9, in thefinger-bar a, and clamping the underpiece, mtirmly upon it and to the bar by screws passing through the shank of the said under part, a. A piece of leather or other packing, t', is placed between the two partsof each finger in such manner that it can be removed to bring the their wear and that of the knife.
Where the flat side.
two parts nearer together to compensate for The upper surface of thefront extremityof the lower part, a, of the fngenhas raised flanges u on its edges or adepression sunk in its surface, by which means the two parts are united without making a horizontal joint in front, thatlwould catch fine grass, Snc., the accumulation of which would great-ly obstruct the action ofthe finger, whose duty can only be perform ed properly when it is clear of obstructions of this kind, s o as to enter freely between the stalks of grain or grass and `divide without overriding or breaking them down. The finger has a. long narrow horizontal opening or slot through it with a recess or notch, 2, in the upper side of the opening and toward the rear end of the saine toad init the cutter-bar c. The narrower portion of the slot before and behind this recess or enlargement is for the teeth or blade s to play in. The corners 3 of the lower portion of the tinger are made smooth and sharp toact in connection with the fiat side of the teeth to cut or sever the stalks. The notch or recess 4 in each side of the lower part, a, of the finger is to assist the working out ot' gum, grit, and tibers or other obstructions that may get under the blade. The inner corners of the side bars, 5, ot' the upper part ot' the finger are chamfered off so as to make their lower edges, 6, overhang the outer cuttingedges, 3, of the lower part, a, of the finger, to facilitate the discharge ot any obstruction that may get into the opening between the bars 5. This charnferiug or beveling of the inside of' the side bars, 5, of the tinger stops short ot' the notch 2, that receives the cutterbar e', so as to leave a boss or stud, 7, that tends to prevent the tibers that'lap round the bars 5 from working into the joint between the bar c and sides ofthe notch 2. 'lhc fingers thus constructed, when seen from above, appear to consist of a stout central bar, n, and a more slender one, 5, oneach side of it, the three springing f'rom the tinger-bara and meeting in front otit in a point. rlhe finger-har in this instance is simply a stout bar of wood, rounded on the upper and flat on the under side, with a series ot notches, zr, in the front edge of its dat side to receive -the inner extremities, 8, ot'.
the upper part of' the tinger, to steady and assist in holding the saine.
When the cutter isv placed in the fingers and moved back and forth by the crank each of its teeth s will pass from the middle of' one iinger to the middle ot' the adjacent tiuger and back again, alternately, so that the teeth will press the stalks alternately toward and from each side of the fingers. deemed advisable, each stroke of the sickle might be long enough to cause each of its teeth.
to pass and repass through two or more of its lingers.
A revolving reel may be used to press the grain or grass against thecutter and turn it over upon the platform or the ground, as the case may be.
lt' it should be As the construction and mode of operating It, and is attached and operates substantiallyA like that described in my patent of 185l.
The frontend of the draftbar or reach D, by which the truck and the triangular frame A are united, is fastened to the platform R by along-bolt, r, which also forms the pivot on which the axle Q ofthe truck turns. The platform It is fitted with a seat, T, for the director of the machine. A pole, U, for harnessing the horses to which draw the machine, extends from the front of' the truck, to which it is connected in the usual manner.
When mowing grass or grain which is required to be cut very close to the ground the pin @by which the lever E is held up, is withdrawn from the standard, and the fingers 0 and the runners C 0' C2 are suffered to bea-r on the surface ofthe ground, to whose inequalities they will conform by rising and falling. In this way grass can be cut closer and more evenly than is usually done by hand. It is safe thus to allow the cutter to run near the gronnd,bec anse the director, being on the truck so f'ar in advance, can see any obstruction in time to raise the cutter until it is passed; and if he should not happen to see it,and it should come in the line of either of the runners, it could not do any harm; andif it should meet the fingers the chances of injury'are greatly diminished, because the machine is f'ree to rise and f'all. The hinge by which the triangular frame is raised and lowered, being in this instance the horizontal boltb, that connect-s the front of the iunners to the reach D, is far enough elevated above thesurfaceofthe ground to free it from danger of entanglement with the cut grain or grass.
The person whose duty it is to rake the cut grain off the bottom I stands, as has been stated, upon the platform K, with his face to.
ward the front of the machine,.and, holding a rake or fork in his hand, with a single sweep from the outer to the inner end ofthe bottom I he pushes the cut grain off in a bundle, and this operation he repeats as often as the requisite quantity of grain has accumulated upon the platform. A common clutch may be used to connect and disconnect the train of gearing as are important will naturally occur to every intelligent constructer;
Having thus described my improvements and indicated some of the modifications of' which they are susceptible, what I claim asmy invention, and desire to secure by Letters Patene, is-
1. The arrangement of the track-scraper at the outer end ofthe machine and the wheel or wheels which support the opposite end of the combination with the chamfer or recess on the lower inside corners of said bars, to counteract the tendency of wire-grass and other fibrous obstructions to pass in between the cutter-bar e and the sides ofthe recess in the upper part of the finger in which it is guided.
3. Forming the guard-finger o of two parts, m and n, interlocked at the point, substantially as herein set forth, so that grass cannot lodge in the joint and form an impediment to its entering between the stalks ofthe standing gram.
4. In combination with the rakers stand or seat, the removable platform or rakingbottom, constructed with a wing that extends from the outer end of the cutterover the frame and holds up the butts of the straws above the stubble, which otherwise would obstruct the discharge of' the grain from the platform, substantially as herein set forth..
In testimony whereof' I have hereunto subscribed my name.



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