US9711949B1 - Method of manufacture for an ultraviolet laser diode - Google Patents

Method of manufacture for an ultraviolet laser diode Download PDF

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US9711949B1
US9711949B1 US14968710 US201514968710A US9711949B1 US 9711949 B1 US9711949 B1 US 9711949B1 US 14968710 US14968710 US 14968710 US 201514968710 A US201514968710 A US 201514968710A US 9711949 B1 US9711949 B1 US 9711949B1
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gallium
nitrogen containing
material
overlying
transparent conductive
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James W. RARING
Melvin McLaurin
Paul Rudy
Po Shan Hsu
Alexander Sztein
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Soraa Laser Diode Inc
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Soraa Laser Diode Inc
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    • H01S5/34Structure or shape of the active region; Materials used for the active region comprising quantum well or superlattice structures, e.g. single quantum well lasers [SQW-lasers], multiple quantum well lasers [MQW-lasers] or graded index separate confinement heterostructure lasers [GRINSCH-lasers]
    • H01S5/343Structure or shape of the active region; Materials used for the active region comprising quantum well or superlattice structures, e.g. single quantum well lasers [SQW-lasers], multiple quantum well lasers [MQW-lasers] or graded index separate confinement heterostructure lasers [GRINSCH-lasers] in AIIIBV compounds, e.g. AlGaAs-laser, InP-based laser
    • H01S5/34333Structure or shape of the active region; Materials used for the active region comprising quantum well or superlattice structures, e.g. single quantum well lasers [SQW-lasers], multiple quantum well lasers [MQW-lasers] or graded index separate confinement heterostructure lasers [GRINSCH-lasers] in AIIIBV compounds, e.g. AlGaAs-laser, InP-based laser with a well layer based on Ga(In)N or Ga(In)P, e.g. blue laser
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    • H01S5/222Structure or shape of the semiconductor body to guide the optical wave; Confining structures perpendicular to the optical axis, e.g. index- or gain-guiding, stripe geometry, broad area lasers, gain tailoring, transverse or lateral reflectors, special cladding structures, MQW barrier reflection layers having a ridge or stripe structure comprising special burying or current confinement layers having special optical properties having a refractive index lower than that of the cladding layers or outer guiding layers
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    • H01S5/32Structure or shape of the active region; Materials used for the active region comprising PN junctions, e.g. hetero- or double- heterostructures
    • H01S5/323Structure or shape of the active region; Materials used for the active region comprising PN junctions, e.g. hetero- or double- heterostructures in AIIIBV compounds, e.g. AlGaAs-laser, InP-based laser
    • H01S5/32308Structure or shape of the active region; Materials used for the active region comprising PN junctions, e.g. hetero- or double- heterostructures in AIIIBV compounds, e.g. AlGaAs-laser, InP-based laser emitting light at a wavelength less than 900 nm
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    • H01S5/2004Confining in the direction perpendicular to the layer structure
    • H01S5/2009Confining in the direction perpendicular to the layer structure electron barrier layers
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    • H01S5/2004Confining in the direction perpendicular to the layer structure
    • H01S5/2018Optical confinement, e.g. absorbing-, reflecting- or waveguide-layers
    • H01S5/2031Optical confinement, e.g. absorbing-, reflecting- or waveguide-layers characterized by special waveguide layers, e.g. asymmetric waveguide layers or defined bandgap discontinuities
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Abstract

A method for fabricating a laser diode device includes providing a gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member comprising a surface region, a release material overlying the surface region, an n-type gallium and nitrogen containing material; an active region overlying the n-type gallium and nitrogen containing material, a p-type gallium and nitrogen containing material; and a first transparent conductive oxide material overlying the p-type gallium and nitrogen containing material, and an interface region overlying the first transparent conductive oxide material. The method includes bonding the interface region to a handle substrate and subjecting the release material to an energy source to initiate release of the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member.

Description

CROSS-REFERENCES TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 14/534,636, filed Nov. 6, 2014, the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

BACKGROUND

In 1960, the laser was first demonstrated by Theodore H. Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories in Malibu. This laser utilized a solid-state flashlamp-pumped synthetic ruby crystal to produce red laser light at 694 nm. By 1964, blue and green laser output was demonstrated by William Bridges at Hughes Aircraft utilizing a gas laser design called an Argon ion laser. The Ar-ion laser utilized a noble gas as the active medium and produce laser light output in the UV, blue, and green wavelengths including 351 nm, 454.6 nm, 457.9 nm, 465.8 nm, 476.5 nm, 488.0 nm, 496.5 nm, 501.7 nm, 514.5 nm, and 528.7 nm. The Ar-ion laser had the benefit of producing highly directional and focusable light with a narrow spectral output, but the wall plug efficiency was <0.1%, and the size, weight, and cost of the lasers were undesirable as well.

As laser technology evolved, more efficient lamp pumped solid state laser designs were developed for the red and infrared wavelengths, but these technologies remained a challenge for blue and green and blue lasers. As a result, lamp pumped solid state lasers were developed in the infrared, and the output wavelength was converted to the visible using specialty crystals with nonlinear optical properties. A green lamp pumped solid state laser had 3 stages: electricity powers lamp, lamp excites gain crystal which lases at 1064 nm, 1064 nm goes into frequency conversion crystal which converts to visible 532 nm. The resulting green and blue lasers were called “lamped pumped solid state lasers with second harmonic generation” (LPSS with SHG) had wall plug efficiency of ˜1%, and were more efficient than Ar-ion gas lasers, but were still too inefficient, large, expensive, fragile for broad deployment outside of specialty scientific and medical applications. Additionally, the gain crystal used in the solid state lasers typically had energy storage properties which made the lasers difficult to modulate at high speeds which limited its broader deployment.

To improve the efficiency of these visible lasers, high power diode (or semiconductor) lasers were utilized to replace the inefficient and fragile lamps. These “diode pumped solid state lasers with SHG” (DPSS with SHG) had 3 stages: electricity powers 808 nm diode laser, 808 nm excites gain crystal which lases at 1064 nm, 1064 nm goes into frequency conversion crystal which converts to visible 532 nm. The DPSS laser technology extended the life and improved the wall plug efficiency of the LPSS lasers to 5%-10%, and further commercialization ensue into more high-end specialty industrial, medical, and scientific applications. However, the change to diode pumping increased the system cost and required precise temperature controls, leaving the laser with substantial size, power consumption while not addressing the energy storage properties which made the lasers difficult to modulate at high speeds.

As high power laser diodes evolved and new specialty SHG crystals were developed, it became possible to directly convert the output of the infrared diode laser to produce blue and green laser light output. These “directly doubled diode lasers” or SHG diode lasers had 2 stages: electricity powers 1064 nm semiconductor laser operating with longitudinal mode (single frequency) and single spatial mode, 1064 nm goes into frequency conversion crystal, which converts to visible 532 nm green light. These lasers designs are meant to improve the efficiency, cost and size compared to DPSS-SHG lasers, but the specialty single mode diodes, high precision laser beam alignment, and crystals required make this challenging today. Additionally, while the diode-SHG lasers have the benefit of being directly modulate-able, they suffer from severe sensitivity to temperature, which limits their application.

Ultraviolet (UV) semiconductor laser diodes (LDs) are becoming a key technology for a number of applications such as bio-/chemical photonics, material processing, and high-density data storage. UV spectral band can be divided into UV-AI 340-400 nm, UV-AII 320-340 nm, UV-B 280-320 nm, and UV-C 280 nm in terms of effects on bio-organic and chemical substances.

SUMMARY

The present disclosure relates generally to optical techniques. More specifically, the present disclosure provides methods and device configurations for the formation of direct emitting laser diodes operating in the ultraviolet regime using nonpolar, semi-polar, or polar c-plane oriented gallium and nitrogen containing substrates for optical applications ranging in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region, among others, including combinations thereof, and the like. Historically, the realization of high quality, high performance laser diodes operating in the UV range has been challenging for several reasons. First, since the relatively small bandgap of GaN compared to most UV wavelengths of interest will result in excessive optical absorption, the use of native GaN substrates in the laser structure as a component of the cladding region will lead to high internal loss within the laser diode. This forces either impractical growth of highly-strained, high-aluminum content ternary AlGaN cladding layers that will crack and become defective, the use of strain controlled high-aluminum content quaternary InAlGaN cladding layers that are impractical to grow on the thickness scale required for cladding regions, or the growth of the UV laser diode epi structures on foreign substrates such as AlN, silicon carbide, or sapphire. The latter approach is commonly deployed, but such devices suffer from excessive extended defects can create issues in the light emitting quantum well layers and reduce efficiency. Second, since such UV lasers require high aluminum content AlxGa(1-x)N (x>0.05, x>0.10, x>0.20, x, >0.30, x>0.40, x>0.50) quantum wells, barriers, and cladding regions the accumulated strain from the layers results in cracking and other material defects that limit the performance and lifetime of the laser diode. The growth of AlGaN layers with high AlN mole fractions, which are typically used as cladding layers to achieve optical and electrical confinement, is very difficult because of issues with poor crystalline quality. As a result of tensile strain, epitaxial AlGaN layers grown on substrates such as sapphire, AlN, SiC, and GaN suffer from dislocations and crack formation, in particular at higher AlN mole fractions or for thicker layers. AlGaN materials with high AlN mole fractions and having high crystalline quality (low dislocation density and crack-free) are necessary for the fabrication of high-performance devices.

This invention overcomes the challenges associated with conventional and known techniques for fabrication of UV laser diodes. First, by growing an epi stack containing only thin (<500 nm) n and p-type AlGaN cladding regions and/or waveguide regions and an active region comprised of 1 or more AlGaN quantum wells and barriers on a native GaN substrate, the total epi stack of highly tensile strained material can be thin to mitigate stress induced defects. Moreover, since the growth is initiated on a native GaN substrate the epitaxial interface will be pseudomorphic and be free from the defects present that form when growing on a foreign substrate.

The ability to keep the epitaxially grown portion of the cavity thin also enables the use of quaternary films (i.e. those composed of some composition of InGaAlN) for the production of nominally strain free cladding. Compositional control of quaternaries both run-to-run and within a single growth over the entire thickness of films is quite difficult when the film thickness exceeds several hundred nanometers. By keeping the quaternary cladding region thin two advantages are gained. Firstly, the thickness over which a uniform composition of quaternary that must be grown is reduced and, secondly, by reducing the thickness of the quaternary cladding one is able to grow cladding with higher strain due to unintentional variation in composition, either from run-to-run variation or within the thickness of the film, with exceeding the critical thickness for forming extended defects that relieve strain. This second benefit reduces increases the tolerances for composition that one may accept in the growth process, leading to higher yield and lower defectivity.

By lifting this thin AlGaN containing epitaxy layer structure off the bulk GaN substrate to transfer it to a carrier wafer and sandwiching the AlGaN quantum wells and barriers between high absorption edge transparent conductive oxide layers (TCO) to form the remainder or the cladding regions, and bonding the stack to a high bandgap substrate such as AlN the optical absorption of the cladding and substrate region can be low. The result will be a high quality AlGaN based active region with low loss cladding and substrate materials. It is critical that the TCO be carefully selected such that it has appropriate conductivity and has a high energy absorption edge such that optical losses will be minimized in the UV spectral region. Gallium oxide has been recognized as a promising candidate for deep-ultraviolet transparent conductive oxides with a direct absorption edge of above 4.7 eV or <263 nm (APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS VOLUME 81, NUMBER 28 July 2002). This invention combines a novel method for transferring high quality gallium and nitrogen UV laser epitaxial structures from bulk gallium and nitrogen containing substrates to carrier wafers and positioning the said epitaxial structure between TCO cladding regions that are transparent in the deep UV spectral range to form a high performance direct emitting UV laser diode.

In an example, the present invention provides a method for fabricating a laser diode device. The method includes providing a gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member comprising a surface region, a release material overlying the surface region, an n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; an active region overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material, a p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; and a first transparent conductive oxide material overlying the p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material, and an interface region overlying the first transparent conductive oxide material. The method includes bonding the interface region to a handle substrate and subjecting the release material to an energy source to initiate release of the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member.

In an example, the interface region is comprised of metal, a semiconductor and/or another transparent conductive oxide. In an example, the interface region comprises a contact material.

In an example, the energy source is selected from a light source, a chemical source, a thermal source, or a mechanical source, and their combinations. In an example, the release material is selected from a semiconductor, a metal, or a dielectric. In an example, the release material is selected from GaN, InGaN, AlInGaN, or AlGaN such that the InGaN is released using PEC etching. In an example, the active region comprises a plurality of quantum well regions.

In an example, the method comprises forming a ridge structure configured with the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material to form an n-type ridge structure, and forming a dielectric material overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material, and forming a second transparent conductive oxide material overlying an exposed portion of the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material or overlying an exposed portion of a n-type gallium and nitrogen containing material overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material such that active region is configured between the first transparent conductive oxide material and the second conductive oxide material to cause an optical guiding effect within the active region. In an example, the method includes forming an n-type contact material overlying an exposed portion of the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material or forming an n-type contact material overlying a conductive oxide material overlying an exposed portion of the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material. In an example, the method includes forming an n-type contact region overlying an exposed portion of the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material or an exposed portion of an n-type gallium and nitrogen containing material overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; forming a patterned transparent oxide region overlying a portion of the n-type contact region; and forming a thickness of metal material overlying the patterned transparent oxide region; wherein the p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material is configured as a ridge waveguide structure to form a p-type ridge structure.

In another example the method comprises depositing a transparent conductive oxide over an exposed planar n-type or p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material or over an exposed planar n-type or p-type gallium and nitrogen containing material and then forming a ridge structure within the transparent conductive oxide to provide lateral waveguiding. The ridge structure can be formed through dry etching, wet etching, or a lift-off technique. In an example, the transparent conductive oxide is comprised of gallium oxide, indium tin oxide, indium gallium zinc oxide, or zinc oxide. In a preferred embodiment transparent conductive oxides for laser cladding is a gallium oxide (for example beta Ga2O3 among other stoichiometries of gallium oxide). Gallium oxide can be deposited either via sputtering, evaporation, or growth from aqueous solution or via a chemical or physical vapor deposition. Gallium oxide may be grown epitaxially on the gallium and nitrogen containing layers via metal organic chemical vapor deposition or molecular beam epitaxy among other growth techniques. Gallium oxide conductivity can be controlled either by introduction of extrinsic defects such as alloying with dopant species such as, but not limited to, nitrogen, zinc and silicon among others. Conductivity and band-gap can also be controlled by alloying gallium oxide with indium oxide, indium tin oxide alloys, zinc oxide, aluminum oxide and tin oxide among others. In some embodiments the TCO layers may consist of several or more layers of different composition. For example, a thin (less than 50 nm thick) but highly conductive gallium oxide contact layer may be used to provide good electrical contact while a thicker (100-200 nm) indium tin oxide layer is used to provide electrical conductivity and lower loss.

In an example, the transparent conductive oxide is overlaid on an exposed planar n-type or p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material or over an exposed planar n-type or p-type gallium and nitrogen containing material using direct wafer bonding of the surface of the aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material to the surface of a carrier wafer comprised primarily of TCO or coated in TCO layers. In both cases the TCO surface of the carrier wafer and the exposed aluminum, gallium and nitrogen containing material are cleaned to reduce the amount of hydrocarbons, metal ions and other contaminants on the bonding surfaces. The bonding surfaces are then brought into contact and bonded at elevated temperature under applied pressure. In some cases the surfaces are treated chemically with one or more of acids, bases or plasma treatments to produce a surface that yields a weak bond when brought into contact with the TCO surface. For example the exposed surface of the gallium containing material may be treated to form a thin layer of gallium oxide, which being chemically similar to the TCO bonding surface will bond more readily. Furthermore the TCO and now gallium oxide terminated surface of the aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material may be treated chemically to encourage the formation of dangling hydroxyl groups (among other chemical species) that will form temporary or weak chemical or van der Waals bonds when the surfaces are brought into contact, which are subsequently made permanent when treated at elevated temperatures and elevated pressures.

In an example, the method includes forming an n-type contact region overlying an exposed portion of the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material or overlying an exposed portion of a n-type gallium and nitrogen containing material overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; forming a patterned dielectric region overlying a portion of the n-type contact region; and forming a thickness of conformal metal material overlying the patterned dielectric region; wherein the p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material is configured as a ridge waveguide structure to form a p-type ridge structure. In an example, the dielectric region is comprised of silicon oxide or silicon nitride. In an example, the method includes forming a ridge waveguide region in or overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material to form an n-type ridge structure; forming a second conductive oxide region overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material or an exposed portion of an n-type gallium and nitrogen containing material overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; and forming a metal material overlying the transparent oxide region.

In an example, the handle substrate is selected from a semiconductor, a metal, or a dielectric or combinations thereof. In an example, the handle substrate is selected from sapphire, silicon carbide, aluminum nitride, aluminum oxy-nitride, copper, aluminum, silicon containing metal filled vias, or others. In an example, the bonding comprising thermal bonding, plasma activated bonding, anodic bonding, chemical bonding, or combinations thereof. In an example, the surface region of the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate is configured in a polar, semipolar, or non-polar orientation.

In an example, the method further comprising forming a laser cavity is oriented in a c-direction, a projection of a c-direction, an m-direction, or an a-direction and forming a pair of cleaved facets using a cleave propagated through both the handle substrate material and the gallium and nitrogen containing material. The method also further comprising forming a laser cavity is oriented in a c-direction or a projection of a c-direction and forming a pair of etched facets.

In an example, the handle substrate is a silicon carbide; and further comprising separating a plurality of laser dice by initiating a cleaving process on the silicon carbide substrate material. In an example, the handle substrate is a sapphire substrate material; and further comprising separating a plurality of laser dice by initiating a cleaving process on the sapphire substrate material. In an example, the method further comprises separating a plurality of laser dice by initiating a cleaving process on the handle substrate.

In an example, the present invention provides a method for fabricating a laser diode device. The method includes providing a gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member comprising a surface region, a release material overlying the surface region, an n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; an active region overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material, a p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; and a first transparent conductive oxide region overlying the p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material, and an interface region overlying the conductive oxide material. The method includes bonding the interface region to a handle substrate; and subjecting the release material to an energy source to initiate release of the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member. In an example, the method includes forming a ridge structure configured with the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material, and forming a dielectric material overlying the n-type gallium and nitrogen containing material, and forming a second transparent conductive oxide material overlying an exposed portion of the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material or an exposed portion of an n-type gallium and nitrogen containing material overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material such that active region is configured between the first transparent conductive oxide material and the second conductive oxide material to cause an optical guiding effect within the active region.

In an alternative example, the present invention provides a method for fabricating a laser diode device. The method includes providing a gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member comprising a surface region, a release material overlying the surface region, an n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; an active region overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material, a p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; and a first transparent conductive oxide region overlying the p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material or over a p-type gallium and nitrogen containing material, and an interface region overlying the conductive oxide material. The method includes bonding the interface region to a handle substrate and subjecting the release material to an energy source to initiate release of the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member in no specific order. In an example, a second transparent conductive oxide material is disposed overlying an exposed portion of the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material or over an exposed portion of the n-type gallium, and nitrogen containing material such that active region is configured between the first transparent conductive oxide material and the second conductive oxide material. The method includes forming a ridge structure in the second conductive oxide layer to form to cause a lateral optical guiding effect within the active region. Forming a dielectric material overlying the second conductive oxide layer, exposing a portion of the second conductive oxide layer on the top of the ridge, and forming a metal contact layer to the exposed portion of the second conductive oxide.

In an alternative example, the present invention provides a method for fabricating a laser diode device. The method includes providing a gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member comprising a surface region, a release material overlying the surface region, an n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; an active region overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material, a p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; and a first transparent conductive oxide region overlying the p-type gallium and nitrogen containing material, and an interface region overlying the conductive oxide material. The method includes bonding the interface region to a handle substrate and subjecting the release material to an energy source to initiate release of the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member in no particular order. The method includes forming an n-type contact region overlying an exposed portion of the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material or an exposed portion of an n-type gallium and nitrogen containing material overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; forming a patterned second transparent oxide region overlying a portion of the n-type contact region; and forming a thickness of metal material overlying the patterned transparent oxide region; wherein the p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material is configured as a ridge waveguide structure to form a p-type ridge structure.

In an example, the present invention provides a method for fabricating a laser diode device. The method includes providing a gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member comprising a surface region, a release material overlying the surface region, an n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; an active region overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material, a p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; and a first transparent conductive oxide material overlying the p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material, and an interface region overlying the conductive oxide material. The method includes bonding the interface region to a handle substrate and subjecting the release material to an energy source to initiate release of the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member in no particular order. The method includes forming a cavity member comprising a waveguide structure, a first end, and a second end and forming the first end and second end by initiating a cleaving process in the handle substrate material. In an example, a length of the cavity member is defined by the first cleaved end and the second cleaved end. The length of the cavity member is less than about 1500 um, less than about 1000 um, less than about 600 um, less than about 400 um, or less than about 200 um.

In an example, the present invention provides a method for fabricating a laser diode device. The method includes providing a gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member comprising a surface region, the surface region characterized by a nonpolar or semipolar orientation; a release material overlying the surface region, an n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; an active region overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material, a p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; and an interface region overlying the p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material. The method includes bonding the interface region to a handle substrate; subjecting the release material to an energy source to initiate release of the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member and forming a cavity member comprising a waveguide structure, a first end, and a second end. The method includes forming the first end and second end by initiating a cleaving process in the handle substrate material.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1a illustrates an epitaxial structure including sacrificial release layer, n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material, and active region and p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material is grown on bulk gallium and nitrogen containing substrate in an example.

FIG. 1b illustrates a transparent conductive oxide such as GA2O3 is deposited on the p-side (epi-surface) of the wafer in an example. Optionally, a metal contact layer could be deposited on the GA2O3.

FIG. 1c illustrates a GA2O3+epi-structure+GaN substrate bonded to a handle (carrier wafer) which could be a number of different materials including aluminum nitride, silicon carbide, sapphire, or other. Indirect bonding or direct bonding could be used for this step in an example.

FIG. 1d illustrates a GaN substrate is removed via one of several possible processes including PEC etching, laser ablation, CMP, etc. For some of these processes, a sacrificial layer may be necessary in an example. After substrate removal, a thin gallium and nitrogen containing epi-membrane will be left on top of the Ga2O3 and carrier wafer. Some p-side processing prior to bonding may be necessary depending on the final desired LD structure. The bonded epitaxially grown material will be thin <5 um. The laser structure itself will be <1.5 um of that.

FIG. 2a is a simplified schematic of epi-structure grown on GaN substrate including a sacrificial layer in an example.

FIG. 2b is a simplified schematic of epi-structure grown on GaN substrate with a transparent conductive oxide such as Ga2O3 deposited on top of the p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material and a carrier wafer bonded to the top of the stack in an example.

FIG. 2c is a simplified schematic of epi-structure with conductive oxide and carrier wafer after the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate has been removed in an example.

FIG. 2d is a simplified schematic of epi-structure with conductive oxide and carrier wafer after the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate has been removed in an example. The structure has been flipped over such that the carrier wafer is now the bottom of the stack.

FIG. 3a is an example schematic cross section of laser waveguide with double conductive oxide cladding showing ridge formation in n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material such as AlGaN in an example.

FIG. 3b is an example schematic cross section of laser waveguide with double conductive oxide cladding showing ridge formation in the conductive oxide layer overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material such as AlGaN in an example.

FIG. 3c is an example schematic cross section of laser waveguide with double conductive oxide cladding wherein a gallium oxide carrier wafer is used for the p-type TCO cladding. A direct bond is made between the p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material such as AlGaN and a conductive carrier wafer comprised of gallium oxide. The original substrate is then removed and a ridge is formed to provide lateral guiding in the now exposed n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material. Subsequent TCO layers, passivation layer and metal layers to provide electrical contact are overlaid.

FIG. 3d is an example schematic cross section of laser waveguide with double conductive oxide cladding showing ridge formation in p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material such as AlGaN.

FIG. 3e is an example schematic cross section of laser waveguide with double conductive oxide cladding showing ridge formation in n-type and in p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material such as AlGaN.

FIG. 3f is an example schematic cross section of laser waveguide with conductive oxide and oxide or dielectric cladding showing ridge formation in p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material such as AlGaN.

FIG. 4a is an example schematic cross section of an epitaxial structure containing AlGaN cladding that could be used for the fabrication of a UV laser device emitting at approximately 350 nm according to this invention.

FIG. 4b is an example schematic cross section of an epitaxial structure containing AlInGaN cladding that could be used for the fabrication of a UV laser device emitting at approximately 350 nm according to this invention.

FIG. 4c is an example schematic cross section of an epitaxial structure containing AlGaN cladding that could be used for the fabrication of a UV laser device emitting at approximately 300 nm according to this invention.

FIG. 4d is an example schematic cross section of an epitaxial structure containing AlInGaN cladding that could be used for the fabrication of a UV laser device emitting at approximately 300 nm according to this invention.

FIG. 4e is an example schematic cross section of an epitaxial structure containing AlGaN cladding that could be used for the fabrication of a UV laser device emitting at approximately 280 nm according to this invention.

FIG. 4f is an example schematic cross section of an epitaxial structure containing AlInGaN cladding that could be used for the fabrication of a UV laser device emitting at approximately 280 nm according to this invention.

FIG. 5a shows schematic diagrams of direct versus indirect wafer bonding to the handle wafer. In the indirect bonding approach a layer such as a metal is used between the handle wafer and the gallium and nitrogen containing epitaxial structure.

FIG. 5b is an example illustrating a preferred cleaved facet plane aligned to the preferred cleavage plane of the handling wafer, scribing and cleaving the handling wafer will assist the cleaving of the GaN laser facet. In this example m-plane GaN lasers wafer bonded to InP. Preferred cleaved facet plane must be aligned to the preferred cleavage plane of the handling wafer.

FIG. 6 is an example of a process flow that allows for direct bonding of gallium and nitrogen containing epi to a carrier wafer and GA2O3.

FIG. 7a is an example of a process that allows for direct/indirect bonding of GaN epi to carrier wafer after the ridge has already been formed.

FIG. 7b is an example of a process that allows for direct/indirect bonding of gallium and nitrogen containing epi to carrier wafer after the ridge has already been formed using adhesion layer.

FIG. 8 is an example illustrating a ridge-less laser structure.

FIG. 9 is an example illustrating die expansion.

FIG. 10 is a top view of a selective area bonding process in an example.

FIG. 11 is a simplified process flow for epitaxial preparation in an example.

FIG. 12 is a simplified side view illustration of selective area bonding in an example.

FIG. 13 is a simplified process flow of epitaxial preparation with active region protection in an example.

FIG. 14 is a simplified process flow of epitaxial preparation with active region protection and with ridge formation before bonding in an example.

FIG. 15 is a simplified illustration of anchored PEC undercut (top-view) in an example.

FIG. 16 is a simplified illustration of anchored PEC undercut (side-view) in an example.

FIG. 17 is top view of a selective area bonding process with die expansion in two dimensions in an example.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present disclosure relates generally to optical techniques. More specifically, the present disclosure provides methods and devices using nonpolar, semi-polar, or polar c-plane oriented gallium and nitrogen containing substrates for optical applications. In an example, the present disclosure describes the fabrication of a high confinement factor UV laser diode composed of a low index upper and lower transparent conductive oxide [TCO] cladding layers. In an example, this method uses conventional planar growth of a LD epi-structure on either a nonpolar, semipolar, or polar c-plane GaN substrates. A transparent conductive oxide (TCO) is then deposited on the free epitaxial surface to form a transparent, conductive contact layer with an index of refraction lower than GaN or AlGaN films of compositions that can be grown fully strained at the thicknesses needed to provide sufficient confinement of the optical mode. Examples of TCOs are gallium oxide (Ga2O3) indium tin oxide (ITO) and zinc oxide (ZnO). ITO is the commercial standard for TCOs, and is used in a variety of fields including displays and solar cells where a semi-transparent electrical contact is desired. However, in the UV region ITO will be highly absorbing and thus may not be the ideal TCO for UV based laser diodes. ZnO offers the advantage of being a direct gap semiconductor with the same crystal structure as GaN and can be grown epitaxially on GaN at temperatures relatively low compared to growth temperatures of AlInGaN alloys. The bandgap of ZnO is also sufficiently large and similar to GaN (approx. 3.3 eV) that it will exhibit negligible band-edge absorption of visible and near UV wavelengths of light. ZnO can be deposited in a variety of ways such as metal organic chemical vapor deposition, other vapor deposition techniques, and from a solution. In a preferred embodiment, the transparent conductive oxides for UV laser diode cladding is a gallium oxide (for example beta Ga2O3 among other stoichiometries of gallium oxide). The direct absorption edge of above 4.7 eV or <263 nm makes gallium oxide an ideal candidate for UV laser cladding regions. Gallium oxide can be deposited either via sputtering, evaporation, or growth from aqueous solution or via a chemical or physical vapor deposition. Gallium oxide may be grown epitaxially on the GaN layers via metal organic chemical vapor deposition or molecular beam epitaxy among other growth techniques. Gallium oxide conductivity can be controlled either by introduction of extrinsic defects such as alloying with dopant species such as, but not limited to, nitrogen, zinc and silicon among others. Conductivity and band-gap can also be controlled by alloying gallium oxide with indium oxide, indium tin oxide alloys, zinc oxide, aluminum oxide and tin oxide among others. In some embodiments the TCO layers may consist of several or more layers of different composition. For example, a thin (less than 50 nm thick) but highly conductive gallium oxide contact layer may be used to provide good electrical contact while a thicker (100-200 nm) indium tin oxide layer is used to provide electrical conductivity and lower loss.

The wafer is then bonded to a handle, with the free-surface of the TCO adjacent to the bonding interface. The bonding can either be direct, i.e. with the TCO in contact with the handle material, or indirect, i.e. with a bonding media disposed between the TCO and the handle material in order to improve the bonding characteristics. For example, this bonding media could be Au—Sn solder, CVD deposited SiO2, a polymer, CVD or chemically deposited polycrystalline semiconductor or metal, etc. Indirect bonding mechanisms may include thermocompression bonding, anodic bonding, glass frit bonding, bonding with an adhesive with the choice of bonding mechanism dependent on the nature of the bonding media.

Thermocompression bonding involves bonding of wafers at elevated temperatures and pressures using a bonding media disposed between the TCO and handle wafer. The bonding media may be comprised of a number of different layers, but typically contain at least one layer (the bonding layer) that is composed of a relatively ductile material with a high surface diffusion rate. In many cases this material is either Au, Al, or Cu. The bonding stack may also include layers disposed between the bonding layer and the TCO or handle wafer that promote adhesion or act as diffusion barriers should the species in the TCO or handle wafer have a high solubility in the bonding layer material. For example an Au bonding layer on a Si wafer may result in diffusion of Si to the bonding interface, which would reduce the bonding strength. Inclusion of a diffusion barrier such as silicon oxide or nitride would limit this effect. Relatively thin layers of a second material may be applied on the top surface of the bonding layer in order to promote adhesion between the bonding layers disposed on the TCO and handle. Some bonding layer materials of lower ductility than gold (e.g. Al, Cu etc.) or which are deposited in a way that results in a rough film (for example electrolytic deposition) may require planarization or reduction in roughness via chemical or mechanical polishing before bonding, and reactive metals may require special cleaning steps to remove oxides or organic materials that may interfere with bonding.

Metal layer stacks may be spatially non-uniform. For example, the initial layer of a bonding stack may be varied using lithography to provide alignment or fiducial marks that are visible from the backside of the transparent substrate.

Thermocompressive bonding can be achieved at relatively low temperatures, typically below 500 degrees Celsius and above 200. Temperatures should be high enough to promote diffusivity between the bonding layers at the bonding interface, but not so high as to promote unintentional alloying of individual layers in each metal stack. Application of pressure enhances the bond rate, and leads to some elastic and plastic deformation of the metal stacks that brings them into better and more uniform contact. Optimal bond temperature, time and pressure will depend on the particular bond material, the roughness of the surfaces forming the bonding interface and the susceptibility to fracture of the handle wafer or damage to the device layers under load.

The bonding interface need not be composed of the totality of the wafer surface. For example, rather than a blanket deposition of bonding metal, a lithographic process could be used to deposit metal in discontinuous areas separated by regions with no bonding metal. This may be advantageous in instances where defined regions of weak or no bonding aid later processing steps, or where an air gap is needed. One example of this would be in removal of the GaN substrate using wet etching of an epitaxially grown sacrificial layer. To access the sacrificial layer one must etch vias into either of the two surfaces of the epitaxial wafer, and preserving the wafer for re-use is most easily done if the vias are etched from the bonded side of the wafer. Once bonded, the etched vias result in channels that can conduct etching solution from the edges to the center of the bonded wafers, and therefore the areas of the substrate comprising the vias are not in intimate contact with the handle wafer such that a bond would form.

The bonding media can also be an amorphous or glassy material bonded either in a reflow process or anodically. In anodic bonding the media is a glass with high ion content where mass transport of material is facilitated by the application of a large electric field. In reflow bonding the glass has a low melting point, and will form contact and a good bond under moderate pressures and temperatures. All glass bonds are relatively brittle, and require the coefficient of thermal expansion of the glass to be sufficiently close to the bonding partner wafers (i.e. the GaN wafer and the handle). Glasses in both cases could be deposited via vapor deposition or with a process involving spin on glass. In both cases the bonding areas could be limited in extent and with geometry defined by lithography or silk-screening process.

Direct bonding between TCO deposited on both the GaN and handle wafers, of the TCO to the handle wafer or between the epitaxial GaN film and TCO deposited on the handle wafer would also be made at elevated temperatures and pressures. Here the bond is made by mass transport of the TCO, GaN and/or handle wafer species across the bonding interface. Due to the low ductility of TCOs the bonding surfaces must be significantly smoother than those needed in thermocompressive bonding of metals like gold.

The embodiments of this invention will typically include a ridge of some kind to provide lateral index contrast that can confine the optical mode laterally. One embodiment would have the ridge etched into the epitaxially grown AlGaN cladding layers. In this case, it does not matter whether the ridge is etched into the p-type AlGaN layer before TCO deposition and bonding or into the n-type layer after bonding and removal of the substrate. In the former case, the TCO would have to be planarized somehow to provide a surface conducive to bonding unless a reflowable or plastically deformable bonding media is used which could accommodate large variations in height on the wafer surface. In the latter case bonding could potentially be done without further modifying the TCO layer. Planarization may be required in either case should the TCO deposition technique result in a sufficiently rough TCO layer as to hinder bonding to the handle wafer.

In the case where a ridge is formed either partially or completely with the TCO, the patterned wafer could be bonded to the handle, leaving air gaps on either side of the ridge, thereby maximizing the index contrast between the ridge and surrounding materials.

After p-side ridge processing, TCO is deposited as the p-contact. Following TCO deposition, the wafer is bonded p-side down to a carrier wafer and the bulk of the substrate is removed via laser lift-off or photochemical etching (PEC). This will require some kind of sacrificial layer on the n-side of the epi-structure.

Laser ablation is a process where an above-band-gap emitting laser is used to decompose an absorbing sacrificial (Al,In,Ga)N layer by heating and inducing desorption of nitrogen. The remaining Ga sludge is then etched away using aqua regia or HCl. This technique can be used similarly to PEC etching in which a sacrificial material between the epitaxial device and the bulk substrate is etched/ablated away resulting in separation of the epitaxial structure and the substrate. The epitaxial film (already bonded to a handling wafer) can then be lapped and polished to achieve a planar surface.

PEC etching is a photoassisted wet etch technique that can be used to etch GaN and its alloys. The process involves an above-band-gap excitation source and an electrochemical cell formed by the semiconductor and the electrolyte solution. In this case, the exposed (Al,In,Ga)N material surface acts as the anode, while a metal pad deposited on the semiconductor acts as the cathode. The above-band-gap light source generates electron-hole pairs in the semiconductor. Electrons are extracted from the semiconductor via the cathode while holes diffuse to the surface of material to form an oxide. Since the diffusion of holes to the surface requires the band bending at the surface to favor a collection of holes, PEC etching typically works only for n-type material although some methods have been developed for etching p-type material. The oxide is then dissolved by the electrolyte resulting in wet etching of the semiconductor. Different types of electrolyte including HCl, KOH, and HNO3 have been shown to be effective in PEC etching of GaN and its alloys. The etch selectivity and etch rate can be optimized by selecting a favorable electrolyte. It is also possible to generate an external bias between the semiconductor and the cathode to assist with the PEC etching process.

After laser lift-off, TCO is deposited as the n-contact. One version of this process flow using laser lift-off is described in FIGS. 4(a) and 4(b). Using this method, the substrate can be subsequently polished and reused for epitaxial growth. Sacrificial layers for laser lift-off are ones that can be included in the epitaxial structure between the light emitting layers and the substrate. These layers would have the properties of not inducing significant amounts of defects in the light emitting layers while having high optical absorption at the wavelengths used in the laser lift-off process. Some possible sacrificial layers include epitaxially grown layers that are fully strained to the substrate which are absorbing either due to bandgap, doping or point defectivity due to growth conditions, ion implanted layers where the implantation depth is well controlled and the implanted species and energy are tuned to maximize implantation damage at the sacrificial layer and patterned layers of foreign material which will act as masks for lateral epitaxial overgrowth.

Sacrificial layers for lift-off of the substrate via photochemical etching would incorporate at a minimum a low-bandgap or doped layer that would absorb the pump light and have enhanced etch rate relative to the surrounding material. The sacrificial layer can be deposited epitaxially and their alloy composition and doping of these can be selected such that hole carrier lifetime and diffusion lengths are high. Defects that reduce hole carrier lifetimes and diffusion length must can be avoided by growing the sacrificial layers under growth conditions that promote high material crystalline quality. An example of a sacrificial layer would be InGaN layers that absorb at the wavelength of an external light source. An etch stop layer designed with very low etch rate to control the thickness of the cladding material remaining after substrate removal can also be incorporated to allow better control of the etch process. The etch properties of the etch stop layer can be controlled solely by or a combination of alloy composition and doping. A potential etch stop layer would an AlGaN layer with a bandgap higher than the external light source. Another potential etch stop layer is a highly doped n-type AlGaN or GaN layer with reduce minority carrier diffusion lengths and lifetime thereby dramatically reducing the etch rate of the etch stop material.

PEC etching can be done before or after direct/indirect bonding of the free surface of the TCO to the handle material. In one case, the PEC etching is done after bonding of the p-side TCO to the handle material and the PEC etch releases the III-nitride epitaxial material from the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate. In another case, PEC etching of the sacrificial layer is done before bonding such that most of the sacrificial layer is removed and the III-nitride epitaxial material is held mechanically stable on the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate via small unetched regions. Such regions can be left unetched due to significant decrease in etch rates around dislocations or defects. TCO is then deposited on the epitaxial material and the TCO free surface is bonded to a handle wafer that can be composed of various materials. After bonding, mechanical force is applied to the handle wafer and gallium and nitrogen containing substrate to complete the release of III-nitride epitaxial material from the GaN substrate.

Substrate removal can also be achieved by mechanical lapping and polishing or chemical-mechanical lapping and polishing, in which case the substrate cannot be recovered. In cases where the laterally confining structure is on the bonded p-side of the wafer the substrate need only be thinned enough to facilitate good cleaving, in which case lapping and polishing may be an ideal removal technique.

In addition to providing ultra-high confinement active regions, this wafer bonding technique for the fabrication of Ga-based laser diodes can also lead to improved cleaved facet quality. Specifically, we describe a method for fabricating cleaved facets along a vertical plane for NP and SP ridge laser structures grown on bulk gallium and nitrogen containing substrates.

Achieving a high quality cleaved facet for NP and SP ridge lasers can be extremely difficult due to the nature of the atomic bonding on the crystallographic planes that are orthogonal to a laser stripe oriented in the c-direction or the projection of the c-direction. In nonpolar m-plane, the desired ridge orientation is along the c-direction. Therefore, facets must be form on a crystallographic plane orthogonal to the c-direction (the c-plane). While this can be done in practice, the yield tends to be low and the facet qualities often vary. This is in part due to the high iconicity and bond strength on the c-plane, which make cleaving difficult. In some SP orientations, it is possible to achieve vertical cleavage planes that are orthogonal to the ridge direction—however, yields also tend to be low. In other SP orientations, vertical cleavage planes orthogonal to the ridge direction simply do not exist. Cleaving in these SP orientations often result in facets that are grossly angled.

In this wafer bonding process invention the epitaxial laser structure grown on top of the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate is bonded p-side down on top of a handling wafer. This can be done before/after top-side processing depending on the desired resulting LD structure. The handling wafer material and crystal orientation is selected to have easily achievable vertical cleavage planes (examples of such materials include Si, GaAs, InP, etc.). The LD wafer and the handling wafer can be crystallographically aligned such that the preferable cleavage direction of the handling wafer coincides with the desired cleavage plane of the ridge LD structure. The LD wafer and the handling wafer are then directly or indirectly bonded together. After bonding, the bulk gallium and nitrogen containing substrate can be removed via PEC etching, laser ablation, or CMP.

Since the resulting LD epitaxial film will be thin (<5 um), scribe marks should be penetrate the epi-film completely and into the bonding wafer. Forcing a clean cleave across the desired crystallographic plane should now be easy since there is limited amount of actual epi-material to break. This method may also allow fabrication of cleaved facet LDs on certain SP orientations that was previously not possible.

The handling wafer can be selected from several possibilities including, but not limited to 6H—SiC, Si, sapphire, MgAl2O4 spinel, MgO, ZnO, ScAlMgO4, GaAsInP, InP, GaAs, TiO2, Quartz, LiAlO2, AlN.

The above described method can also be extended into the process for die expansion. Typical dimensions for laser cavity widths are 1-30 μm, while wire bonding pads are ˜100 μm wide. This means that if the wire bonding pad width restriction and mechanical handling considerations were eliminated from the gallium and nitrogen containing chip dimension between >3 and 100 times more laser diode die could be fabricated from a single epitaxial gallium and nitrogen containing wafer. This translates to a >3 to 100 times reduction in epitaxy and substrate costs. In certain device designs, the relatively large bonding pads are mechanically supported by the epitaxy wafer, although they make no use of the material properties of the semiconductor beyond structural support. The current invention allows a method for maximizing the number of gallium and nitrogen containing laser devices which can be fabricated from a given epitaxial area on a gallium and nitrogen containing substrate by spreading out the epitaxial material on a carrier wafer such that the wire bonding pads or other structural elements are mechanically supported by relatively inexpensive carrier wafer, while the light emitting regions remain fabricated from the necessary epitaxial material.

In an embodiment, mesas of gallium and nitrogen containing laser diode epitaxy material are fabricated in a dense array on a gallium and nitrogen containing substrate. This pattern pitch will be referred to as the ‘first pitch’. Each of these mesas is a ‘die’. These die are then transferred to a carrier wafer at a second pitch where the second pitch is greater than the first pitch. The second die pitch allows for easy mechanical handling and room for wire bonding pads positioned in the regions of carrier wafer in-between epitaxy mesas, enabling a greater number of laser diodes to be fabricated from a given gallium and nitrogen containing substrate and overlying epitaxy material. This is referred to as “die expansion,” or other terms consistent with ordinary meaning for one of ordinary skill in the art.

FIG. 9—Side view illustrations of gallium and nitrogen containing epitaxial wafer 100 before the die expansion process and carrier wafer 1206 after the die expansion process. This figure demonstrates a roughly five times expansion and thus five times improvement in the number of laser diodes which can be fabricated from a single gallium and nitrogen containing substrate and overlying epitaxial material. Typical epitaxial and processing layers are included for example purposes and are n-AlGaN for n-side waveguide and/or cladding layers 1201, active region 1202, p-AlGaN for p-side waveguide or cladding layers 1203, insulating layers 1204, and contact/pad layers 105. Additionally, a sacrificial region 1207 and bonding material 1208 are used during the die expansion process.

In another embodiment, die expansion can be used to fabricate “ridge-less” lasers in which the epitaxial material of the entire or almost entire mesa stripe is utilized in the laser. This differs from the traditional ridge laser structure where a ridge is etched into the epitaxial material to form an index guided laser. In this embodiment for a ridge-less laser, the entire mesa is used as a gain guided laser structure. First mesas are etched and transferred onto a carrier wafer via direct/indirect bonding. The gallium and nitrogen containing substrate is removed, leaving the etched mesas on the carrier wafer at a die pitch larger than the original die pitch on the gallium and nitrogen containing carrier wafer. Dielectric material is deposited on the sidewalls of the mesa to insulate the p- and n-contacts. The dielectric material does not cover the entirety of the gallium and nitrogen containing p-contact surface. Metal or TCO is deposited on the gallium and nitrogen containing p-contact surface to form the p-contacts. This is an exemplary process in which a ridge-less LD structure may be formed through the invention described in this patent.

FIG. 8 cross-section schematic of a ridge-less laser structure fabricated using the current invention. The epitaxial material 806 is transferred onto a carrier wafer 801 using the techniques discussed in the current invention. Bonding of the epitaxial material 806 to the carrier wafer 801 can be done so via indirect metal 802 to metal 802 thermo-compressive bonding. The epitaxial material is cladded on the p- and n-side using TCO 804 to provide high modal confinement in the MQW active region 807. Insulating material 803 is deposited on the sidewalls of the mesa to insulate the p- and n-contacts. Top-side metal pad contact 805 is formed on top of the top side TCO 804.

In an example, the present techniques provide for a method for fabricating a laser diode device. The method includes providing a gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member comprising a surface region, a release material overlying the surface region, an n-type gallium and nitrogen containing material such as AlGaN; an active region overlying the n-type gallium and nitrogen containing material, an electron blocking layer overlying the active region, a p-type gallium and nitrogen containing material such as AlGaN; and an interface region overlying the p-type gallium and nitrogen containing material. The method includes bonding the interface region to a handle substrate; and subjecting the release material to an energy source, using at least PEC etching, to initiate release of the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member, while maintaining attachment of the handle substrate via the interface region. The method also includes forming a contact region to either or both the n-type gallium and nitrogen containing material or the p-type gallium and nitrogen containing material.

Referring now back to FIG. 6a —The epitaxial LD structure and the GaN substrate may be bonded directly or indirectly to a handling wafer. Direct wafer bonding is bonding without the application of intermediate layers (i.e., GaN directly onto GaAs). Indirect wafer bonding is bonding with the application of an intermediate adhesion layer. When the adhesion layer material is comprised of a metal alloy, the process is often referred to as eutectic bonding.

FIG. 6b —For the cleave to translate from the bonding wafer into the thin GaN LD membrane, the two wafers must be crystallographically aligned before bonding. Here, the GaN (0001) plane (or the [11-20] direction) for an m-plane LD is aligned with InP (011) plane (or [0-11] direction).

FIG. 7—Wafer bonding is sensitive to surface roughness and topography. Smooth surfaces are typically required for high yield direct wafer bonding. Direct wafer bonding of a handling wafer onto the ridge side of the LD structure would therefore likely require a pre-etched handling wafer. The pre-etched handling wafer would allow the wafer bonding to occur only on the exposed AlGaN ridge and not on the contact pads. This is depicted in the cross-sectional schematic in FIG. 3a . The use of a pre-etched handling wafer would also be applicable in the case where indirect bonding is used (FIG. 3b ). Note, this pre-etched handling wafer is only necessary if there is exists a rough surface topography that may degrade the wafer bonding yield. A non-etched handling wafer may be used if bonding between two planar wafers is desired.

FIG. 9 is a side view illustration of gallium and nitrogen containing epitaxial wafer 100 before the die expansion process and carrier wafer 106 after the die expansion process. This figure demonstrates a roughly five times expansion and thus a five times increase in the number of laser diodes that can be fabricated from a single gallium and nitrogen containing substrate and overlying epitaxial material. Typical epitaxial and processing layers are included for example purposes and include AlGaN and/or n-AlGaN for n-side waveguiding and/or cladding layers 101, active region 102, AlGaN and/or p-AlGaN for p-side waveguiding or cladding regions 103, insulating layers 104, and contact/pad layers 105. Additionally, a sacrificial region 107 and bonding material 108 are used during the die expansion process.

FIG. 10 is a simplified top view of a selective area bonding process and illustrates a die expansion process via selective area bonding. The original gallium and nitrogen containing epitaxial wafer 201 has had individual die of epitaxial material and release layers defined through processing. Individual epitaxial material die are labeled 202 and are spaced at pitch 1. A round carrier wafer 200 has been prepared with patterned bonding pads 203. These bonding pads are spaced at pitch 2, which is an even multiple of pitch 1 such that selected sets of epitaxial die can be bonded in each iteration of the selective area bonding process. The selective area bonding process iterations continue until all epitaxial die have been transferred to the carrier wafer 204. The gallium and nitrogen containing epitaxy substrate 201 can now optionally be prepared for reuse.

In an example, FIG. 11 is a simplified diagram of process flow for epitaxial preparation including a side view illustration of an example epitaxy preparation process flow for the die expansion process. The gallium and nitrogen containing epitaxy substrate 100 and overlying epitaxial material are defined into individual die, bonding material 108 is deposited, and sacrificial regions 107 are undercut. Typical epitaxial layers are included for example purposes and are AlGaN and/or n-AlGaN for n-side waveguide or cladding layers 101, active region 102, and AlGaN and/or p-AlGaN for p-side waveguide regions and/or cladding regions 103.

In an example, FIG. 12 is a simplified illustration of a side view of a selective area bonding process in an example. Prepared gallium and nitrogen containing epitaxial wafer 100 and prepared carrier wafer 106 are the starting components of this process. The first selective area bonding iteration transfers a fraction of the epitaxial die, with additional iterations repeated as needed to transfer all epitaxial die. Once the die expansion process is completed, state of the art laser processing can continue on the carrier wafer. Typical epitaxial and processing layers are included for example purposes and are AlGaN and/or n-AlGaN for n-side waveguide and/or cladding layers 101, active region 102, p-AlGaN or AlGaN for p-side waveguide and/or cladding regions 103, insulating layers 104 and contact/pad layers 105. Additionally, a sacrificial region 107 and bonding material 108 are used during the die expansion process.

In an example, FIG. 13 is a simplified diagram of an epitaxy preparation process with active region protection. Shown is a side view illustration of an alternative epitaxial wafer preparation process flow during which sidewall passivation is used to protect the active region during any PEC undercut etch steps. This process flow allows for a wider selection of sacrificial region materials and compositions. Typical substrate, epitaxial, and processing layers are included for example purposes and are the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate 100, n-AlGaN and/or AlGaN for n-side cladding and/or waveguiding layers 101, active region 102, AlGaN and/or p-AlGaN for p-side waveguiding and/or cladding regions 103, insulating layers 104 and contact/pad layers 105. Additionally, a sacrificial region 107 and bonding material 108 are used during the die expansion process.

In an example, FIG. 14 is a simplified diagram of epitaxy preparation process flow with active region protection and ridge formation before bonding. Shown is a side view illustration of an alternative epitaxial wafer preparation process flow during which sidewall passivation is used to protect the active region during any PEC undercut etch steps and laser ridges are defined on the denser epitaxial wafer before transfer. This process flow potentially allows cost saving by performing additional processing steps on the denser epitaxial wafer. Typical substrate, epitaxial, and processing layers are included for example purposes and are the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate 100, AlGaN and/or n-AlGaN for n-side waveguide and/or cladding layers 101, active region 102, AlGaN and/or p-AlGaN for p-side waveguide and/or cladding layers 103, insulating layers 104 and contact/pad layers 105. Additionally, a sacrificial region 107 and bonding material 108 are used during the die expansion process.

FIG. 15 is a simplified example of anchored PEC undercut (top-view). Shown is a top view of an alternative release process during the selective area bonding of narrow mesas. In this embodiment a top down etch is used to etch away the area 300, followed by the deposition of bonding metal 303. A PEC etch is then used to undercut the region 301, which is wider than the lateral etch distance of the sacrificial layer. The sacrificial region 302 remains intact and serves as a mechanical support during the selective area bonding process. Anchors such as these can be placed at the ends of narrow mesas as in the “dog-bone” version. Anchors can also be placed at the sides of mesas (see peninsular anchor) such that they are attached to the mesa via a narrow connection 304, which is undercut and will break preferentially during transfer. Geometric features that act as stress concentrators 305 can be added to the anchors to further restrict where breaking will occur. The bond media can also be partially extended onto the anchor to prevent breakage near the mesa.

FIG. 16 is a simplified view of anchored PEC undercut (side-view) in an example. Shown is a side view illustration of the anchored PEC undercut. Posts of sacrificial region are included at each end of the epitaxial die for mechanical support until the bonding process is completed. After bonding the epitaxial material will cleave at the unsupported thin film region between the bond pads and intact sacrificial regions, enabling the selective area bonding process. Typical epitaxial and processing layers are included for example purposes and are AlGaN and/or n-AlGaN for n-side waveguide and/or cladding layers 101, active region 102, AlGaN and/or p-AlGaN for p-side waveguide and/or cladding layers 103, insulating layers 104 and contact/pad layers 105. Additionally, a sacrificial region 107 and bonding material 108 are used during the die expansion process. Epitaxial material is transferred from the gallium and nitrogen containing epitaxial wafer 100 to the carrier wafer 106. Further details of the present method and structures can be found more particularly below.

FIG. 17 is top view of a selective area bonding process with die expansion in two dimensions in an example. The substrate 901 is patterned with transferable die 903. The carrier wafer 902 is patterned with bond pads 904 at both a second and fourth pitch that are larger than the die pitches on the substrate. After the first bonding, a subset of the laser die is transferred to the carrier. After the second bonding a complete row of die are transferred.

In an embodiment, a laser diodes emitting in the ultra violet at 350 nm is grown epitaxially on GaN substrates. FIG. 4a shows a schematic cross section of the structure, which consists of an n-type buffer layer of GaN overlaying the substrate, a sacrificial region consisting of an In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN multiquantum well structure, an Al0.2Ga0.8N n-type cladding overlaying the sacrificial layers, an active region comprised of an Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiquantum well structure overlaid by an Al0.3Ga0.8N electron blocking layer overlaid by an Al0.2Ga0.8N p-type cladding region. The Al0.2Ga0.8N cladding regions can vary in thickness from 50 to 250 nm. The sacrificial region InGaN wells can vary in number from 1 to 10 with well width varying from 1 to 6 nanometers such that the sacrificial layer absorbs light of wavelength longer than 405 nm. The active region wells are composed of GaN and the barriers of Al0.2Ga0.8N, which matches the composition and bandgap of the cladding.

In an embodiment, a laser diodes emitting in the ultra violet at 350 nm is grown epitaxially on GaN substrates using AlInGaN cladding. This has the advantage of allowing for the growth of thick cladding layers due to the closer lattice matching between GaN and various compositions of AlInGaN. FIG. 4b shows a schematic cross section of the structure, which consists of an n-type buffer layer of GaN overlaying the substrate, a sacrificial region consisting of an In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN multiquantum well structure, an (Al1-xInxN)y(GaN)1-y where x=0.17±3 and y=0.3 n-type cladding overlaying the sacrificial layers, an active region comprised of an Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiquantum well structure overlaid by an Al0.3Ga0.8N electron blocking layer overlaid by an (Al1-xInxN)y(GaN)1-y where x=0.17±3 and y=0.3 p-type cladding region. The AlInGaN cladding regions can vary in thickness from 50 to 250 nm. The sacrificial region InGaN wells can vary in number from 1 to 10 with well width varying from 1 to 6 nanometers such that the sacrificial layer absorbs light of wavelength longer than 405 nm. The active region wells are composed of GaN and the barriers of Al0.2Ga0.8N, which matches the composition and bandgap of the cladding.

In an embodiment, a laser diodes emitting in the ultra violet at 300 nm is grown epitaxially on GaN substrates. FIG. 4c shows a schematic cross section of the structure, which consists of an n-type buffer layer of GaN overlaying the substrate, a sacrificial region consisting of an In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN multiquantum well structure, an Al0.45Ga0.55N n-type cladding overlaying the sacrificial layers, an active region comprised of an Al0.35Ga0.65N/Al0.45Ga0.55N multiquantum well structure overlaid by an Al0.55Ga0.45N electron blocking layer overlaid by an Al0.45Ga0.55N p-type cladding region. The Al0.45Ga0.55N cladding regions can vary in thickness from 50 to 250 nm. The sacrificial region InGaN wells can vary in number from 1 to 10 with well width varying from 1 to 6 nanometers such that the sacrificial layer absorbs light of wavelength longer than 405 nm. The active region wells are composed of Al0.45Ga0.55N and the barriers of Al0.35Ga0.65N, which matches the composition and bandgap of the cladding.

In an embodiment, a laser diodes emitting in the ultra violet at 300 nm is grown epitaxially on GaN substrates using AlInGaN cladding. This has the advantage of allowing for the growth of thick cladding layers due to the closer lattice matching between GaN and various compositions of AlInGaN. FIG. 4d shows a schematic cross section of the structure, which consists of an n-type buffer layer of GaN overlaying the substrate, a sacrificial region consisting of an In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN multiquantum well structure, an (Al1-xInxN)y(GaN)1-y where x=0.17±3 and y=0.78 n-type cladding overlaying the sacrificial layers, an active region comprised of an Al0.35Ga0.65N/Al0.45Ga0.55N multiquantum well structure overlaid by an Al0.55Ga0.45N electron blocking layer overlaid by an (Al1-xInxN)y(GaN)1-y where x=0.17±3 and y=0.78 p-type cladding region. The AlInGaN cladding regions can vary in thickness from 50 to 250 nm. The sacrificial region InGaN wells can vary in number from 1 to 10 with well width varying from 1 to 6 nanometers such that the sacrificial layer absorbs light of wavelength longer than 405 nm. The active region wells are composed of Al0.35Ga0.65N and the barriers of Al0.45Ga0.55N, which matches the composition and bandgap of the cladding.

In an embodiment, a laser diodes emitting in the ultra violet at 280 nm is grown epitaxially on GaN substrates. FIG. 4e shows a schematic cross section of the structure, which consists of an n-type buffer layer of GaN overlaying the substrate, a sacrificial region consisting of an In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN multiquantum well structure, an Al0.55Ga0.35N n-type cladding overlaying the sacrificial layers, an active region comprised of an Al0.45Ga0.55N/Al0.55Ga0.45N multiquantum well structure overlaid by an Al0.65Ga0.35N electron blocking layer overlaid by an Al0.55Ga0.35N p-type cladding region. The Al0.55Ga0.35N cladding regions can vary in thickness from 50 to 250 nm. The sacrificial region InGaN wells can vary in number from 1 to 10 with well width varying from 1 to 6 nanometers such that the sacrificial layer absorbs light of wavelength longer than 405 nm. The active region wells are composed of Al0.45Ga0.55N and the barriers of Al0.55Ga0.45N, which matches the composition and bandgap of the cladding.

In an embodiment, a laser diodes emitting in the ultra violet at 280 nm is grown epitaxially on GaN substrates using AlInN cladding. This has the advantage of allowing for the growth of thick cladding layers due to the closer lattice matching between GaN and various compositions of AlInGaN. FIG. 4f shows a schematic cross section of the structure, which consists of an n-type buffer layer of GaN overlaying the substrate, a sacrificial region consisting of an In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN multiquantum well structure, an Al1-xInxN where x=0.17±3 n-type cladding overlaying the sacrificial layers, an active region comprised of an Al0.45Ga0.55N/Al0.55Ga0.45N multiquantum well structure overlaid by an Al0.65Ga0.35N electron blocking layer overlaid by an Al1-xInxN where x=0.17±3 p-type cladding region. The AlInGaN cladding regions can vary in thickness from 50 to 250 nm. The sacrificial region InGaN wells can vary in number from 1 to 10 with well width varying from 1 to 6 nanometers such that the sacrificial layer absorbs light of wavelength longer than 405 nm. The active region wells are composed of Al0.45Ga0.55N and the barriers of Al0.55Ga0.45N, which matches the composition and bandgap of the cladding.

In an example, the present invention can be applied to a variety of applications, including defense and security, biomedical instrumentation and treatment, germicidal disinfection, water treatment, chemical curing, industrial cutting and shaping, industrial metrology, and materials processing.

In the field of defense and security, for example, UV lasers are used for remote biological and chemical agent detection. In this application, laser based Raman spectroscopy is utilized to measure molecular vibrations to quickly and accurately identify unknown substances. UV lasers have the optimal wavelength for Raman spectroscopy at stand-off distances, but the current UV-based tactical detection systems are large and expensive and have limited functionality. In addition to bio-chem agent detection, UV lasers are used for environmental sensing, atmosphere control and monitoring, pollution monitoring, and other ecological monitoring since a myriad of different compounds are detectable. Other applications within defense and security include forensics, detection of altered documents, counterfeit currency detection, and fingerprint detection. In these applications, the deep UV laser excites fluorescence in the samples, revealing information that is not detectable with visible illumination.

In biomedicine, UV lasers are used in medical diagnostics applications utilizing fluorescence spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to detect and characterize constituents of particular samples. Examples include confocal microscopes, spectrophotometers, flow cytometers, gel electrophoresis, and DNA analysis equipment. In addition to diagnostics, UV lasers are used in medical therapies and procedures because UV light is well absorbed by biological matter and organic compounds. Rather than burning or cutting material, pulsed UV lasers can deposit enough energy to disrupt the molecular bonds of the surface tissue, which effectively disintegrates into the air in a tightly controlled manner through ablation rather than burning. Thus UV lasers have the useful property that they can remove exceptionally fine layers of surface material with almost no heating or change to the remainder of the material, which is left intact. These properties make UV lasers well suited to precision micromachining organic material (including certain polymers and plastics), or delicate surgeries such as eye surgery LASIK. UV lasers also have applications in treating a variety of dermatological conditions including psoriasis, vitiligo, atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata and leukoderma, all of which have particular absorptions in the UV range.

Additionally, UV lasers can be used for germicidal disinfection applications deep UV light at particular wavelengths kill microorganisms in food, air, and water (purification). The UV laser light is effective in destroying the nucleic acids in these organisms so that their DNA is disrupted by the UV radiation, leaving them unable to perform vital cellular functions. The wavelength of UV that causes this effect is rare on Earth as the atmosphere blocks it. As a result, using UV laser devices in certain environments like circulating air or water systems creates a deadly effect on micro-organisms such as pathogens, viruses and molds that are in these environments. Coupled with a filtration system, UV lasers can remove harmful micro-organisms from these environments. The application of UV light to disinfection has been an accepted practice since the mid-20th century. It has been used primarily in medical sanitation and sterile work facilities. Increasingly it was employed to sterilize drinking and wastewater, as the holding facilities were enclosed and could be circulated to ensure a higher exposure to the UV. In recent years UV sterilization has found renewed application in air sanitation.

In industrial applications, UV lasers are used in inspection and metrology since the imaging resolution increases with decreasing wavelength of the illumination source. Semiconductor wafer inspection equipment utilizes UV lasers for basic illumination as well as scattering and elipsometry. Additionally, UV fluorescence is used in industrial inspection. Lasers in the UV range also permit various types of non-thermal (“cold”) processing. These processes range from curing of materials such as epoxies, curing of paints and inks in industrial printing. UV lasers also enable the removal of sub-micrometer-thick layers of material, marking an object by UV photon induced color changes of the surface, surface processing including annealing, doping and planarization, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), writing Bragg gratings into optical fibers. UV lasers are widely used in high-resolution photolithography machines, one of the critical technologies required for microelectronic chip manufacturing. Current state-of-the-art lithography tools use deep ultraviolet (DUV) light from the KrF and ArF excimer lasers with wavelengths of 248 and 193 nanometers (the dominant lithography technology today is thus also called “excimer laser lithography” which has enabled transistor feature sizes to shrink below 45 nanometers. Excimer laser lithography has thus played a critical role in the continued advance of the so-called Moore's law for the last 20 years.

As shown, the present device can be enclosed in a suitable package. Such package can include those such as in TO-38 and TO-56 headers. Other suitable package designs and methods can also exist, such as TO-9 or flat packs where fiber optic coupling is required and even non-standard packaging. In a specific embodiment, the present device can be implemented in a co-packaging configuration such as those described in U.S. Publication No. 2010/0302464, which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.

In other embodiments, the present laser device can be configured in a variety of applications. Such applications include laser displays, metrology, communications, health care and surgery, information technology, and others. As an example, the present laser device can be provided in a laser display such as those described in U.S. Publication No. 2010/0302464, which is incorporated by reference in its entirety. Additionally, the present laser device can also include elements of co-pending U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/889,955 filed on Oct. 11, 2013, which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.

While the above is a full description of the specific embodiments, various modifications, alternative constructions and equivalents may be used. As an example, the packaged device can include any combination of elements described above, as well as outside of the present specification. As used herein, the term “substrate” can mean the bulk substrate or can include overlying growth structures such as a gallium and nitrogen containing epitaxial region, or functional regions such as n-type GaN, combinations, and the like. Additionally, the examples illustrates two waveguide structures in normal configurations, there can be variations, e.g., other angles and polarizations. For semi-polar, the present method and structure includes a stripe oriented perpendicular to the c-axis, an in-plane polarized mode is not an Eigen-mode of the waveguide. The polarization rotates to elliptic (if the crystal angle is not exactly 45 degrees, in that special case the polarization would rotate but be linear, like in a half-wave plate). The polarization will of course not rotate toward the propagation direction, which has no interaction with the Al band. The length of the a-axis stripe determines which polarization comes out at the next mirror. Although the embodiments above have been described in terms of a laser diode, the methods and device structures can also be applied to any light emitting diode device. Therefore, the above description and illustrations should not be taken as limiting the scope of the present invention, which is defined by the appended claims.

Claims (19)

What is claimed is:
1. An ultraviolet laser diode device operable at a wavelength of less than 380 nm and greater than 200 nm, the device comprising:
a gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member comprising a surface region, a release material overlying the surface region, an n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; an active region comprising aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material, a p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; and a first transparent conductive oxide material with a band gap energy of greater than 3.2 eV and less than 7.5 eV overlying the p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material, and an interface region overlying the first transparent conductive oxide material, the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member being configured by subjecting the release material to an energy source to initiate release of the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member; and
a handle substrate bonded to the interface region.
2. The device of claim 1, wherein the interface region is comprised of metal, a semiconductor or another transparent conductive oxide; wherein the interface region comprises a contact material; and wherein the release material is selected from a semiconductor, a metal, or a dielectric.
3. The device of claim 1, wherein the active region comprises a plurality of quantum well regions; wherein the release material is selected from GaN, InGaN, AlInGaN, or AlGaN.
4. The device of claim 1, wherein the release material is selected from InGaN or AlInGaN.
5. The device of claim 1, further comprising a ridge structure configured with the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material to form an n-type ridge structure; a dielectric material overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; and a second transparent conductive oxide material with a band gap energy of greater than 3.2 eV overlying an exposed portion of the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material or overlying an exposed portion of an n-type gallium and nitrogen containing material overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material such that active region is configured between the first transparent conductive oxide material and the second transparent conductive oxide material to provide an optical guiding effect within the active region, the ridge structure configured with at least a pair of side wall regions, and a upper surface region configured between the pair of side wall regions.
6. The device of claim 1, further comprising an n-type contact material overlying an exposed portion of the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material or overlying an exposed portion of an n-type gallium and nitrogen containing material overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material.
7. The device of claim 1, further comprising an n-type contact region overlying an exposed portion of the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material or overlying an exposed portion of an n-type gallium and nitrogen containing material overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; a patterned transparent oxide region overlying a portion of the n-type contact region; and a thickness of metal material overlying the patterned transparent oxide region; wherein the p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material is configured as a ridge waveguide structure to form a p-type ridge structure; and wherein the transparent conductive oxide is comprised of gallium oxide.
8. The device of claim 1, further comprising:
a second transparent conductive oxide layer with a band gap energy of greater than 3.2 eV overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material or overlying an exposed portion of an n-type gallium and nitrogen containing material overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material such that an active region is configured between the first transparent conductive oxide material and the second transparent conductive oxide layer to provide an optical guiding influence whereupon the second transparent conductive oxide layer is configured as a blanket overlying an underlying surface region;
a ridge structure configured within at least the second transparent conductive oxide layer to form transparent conductive oxide ridge structure;
an contact region to expose a portion of the second transparent oxide layer; and
a metal contact material on the exposed portion of the second transparent conductive oxide layer.
9. The device of claim 1, wherein the interface region comprises a transparent conductive oxide containing at least one of a gallium, indium or zinc material and the handle substrate comprises gallium oxide; and wherein the handle substrate surface and interface region surface are bonded directly.
10. The device of claim 1, further comprising a ridge waveguide region in or overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; a transparent conductive oxide region overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; and a metal material overlying the transparent conductive oxide region; and wherein the transparent conductive oxide region is comprised of a gallium oxide material; wherein the handle substrate is selected from a semiconductor, a metal, or a dielectric or combinations thereof.
11. The device of claim 1, wherein the handle substrate is selected from a sapphire wafer, silicon carbide wafer, aluminum nitride wafer, silicon wafer, gallium arsenide wafer, or an indium phosphide wafer; wherein surface region of the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate is configured in a semipolar, polar, or non-polar orientation.
12. The device of claim 1, wherein the first transparent conductive oxide is comprised of a gallium oxide material.
13. The device of claim 1, wherein the handle substrate is a gallium arsenide substrate, indium phosphide, or silicon carbide material.
14. A laser diode device operable at a wavelength of less than 380 nm and greater than 200 nm, the device comprising:
a gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member comprising a surface region, a release material overlying the surface region, an n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; an active region overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material, a p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; and a first transparent conductive oxide region with an band gap energy of greater than 3.2 eV overlying the p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material, and an interface region overlying the conductive oxide material, the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member being configured by subjecting the release material to an energy source to initiate release of the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member; and
a ridge structure, and a second transparent conductive oxide material with an band gap energy of greater than 3.2 eV overlying an exposed portion of the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material or overlying an exposed portion of a gallium, and nitrogen containing material overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material such that active region is configured between the first transparent conductive oxide material and the second conductive oxide material to provide an optical guiding effect within the active region.
15. The device of claim 14, wherein the interface region comprises a contact region of metal, semiconductor, or transparent conductive oxide;
wherein the release material is a semiconductor, a metal, or a dielectric; wherein the active region comprises a plurality of quantum well regions;
wherein the handle substrate is a semiconductor, a metal, or a dielectric or combinations thereof;
wherein surface region of the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate is configured in a semipolar, polar, or non-polar orientation.
16. The device of claim 14, wherein the first and second transparent conductive oxides are comprised of a gallium oxide material.
17. A laser diode device operable at a wavelength of less than 380 nm and greater than 200 nm, the device comprising:
a gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member comprising a surface region, a release material overlying the surface region, an n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; an active region overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material, a p-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material; and a first transparent conductive oxide layer with an band gap energy of greater than 3.2 eV overlying the p-type gallium and nitrogen containing material, and an interface region overlying the first transparent conductive oxide layer, the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member configured by subjecting the release material to an energy source to initiate release of the gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member;
a second transparent conductive oxide layer with a band gap energy of greater than 3.2 eV overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material or overlying an exposed portion of an n-type gallium and nitrogen containing material overlying the n-type aluminum, gallium, and nitrogen containing material such that an active region is configured between the first transparent conductive oxide layer and the second transparent conductive oxide layer to provide an optical guiding influence whereupon the second transparent conductive oxide layer is configured as a blanket overlying an underlying surface region;
a ridge structure configured within at least the second transparent conductive oxide layer to provide a transparent conductive oxide ridge structure;
a contact region that exposes a portion of the second transparent oxide layer; and
a metal contact material on the exposed portion of the second transparent conductive oxide layer.
18. The device of claim 17, wherein the interface region comprises a contact region; and further comprising a ridge waveguide structure; wherein the release material is selected from a semiconductor, a metal, or a dielectric; wherein the active region comprises a plurality of quantum well regions; wherein the device further comprises a handle substrate and the handle substrate is selected from a semiconductor, a metal, or a dielectric or combinations thereof; and wherein at least one of the first transparent conductive oxide layer or the second transparent conductive oxide layer is comprised of a gallium oxide material.
19. The device of claim 17, wherein the first and second transparent conductive oxides are comprised of a gallium oxide material.
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