US882018A - Lasting-machine. - Google Patents

Lasting-machine. Download PDF

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Publication number
US882018A
US882018A US36496007A US1907364960A US882018A US 882018 A US882018 A US 882018A US 36496007 A US36496007 A US 36496007A US 1907364960 A US1907364960 A US 1907364960A US 882018 A US882018 A US 882018A
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Prior art keywords
wipers
last
bar
lasting
machine
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US36496007A
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Charles F Pym
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KRENTLER BROTHERS Co
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KRENTLER BROTHERS Co
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Priority to US36496007A priority Critical patent/US882018A/en
Priority to US413430A priority patent/US1010394A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A43FOOTWEAR
    • A43DMACHINES, TOOLS, EQUIPMENT OR METHODS FOR MANUFACTURING OR REPAIRING FOOTWEAR
    • A43D21/00Lasting machines

Definitions

  • This invention relates to improvements in lasting machines and mo're especially to machines of that class in which wipers are employed to last the heels and toes of boots and shoes.
  • One of the objects of the said invention is to provide a machine adapted to automatically perform the several successive steps in the Operation of lasting the heel or toe of a looot or shoe, in an expeditious and most etlicacious manner and a further object is to provide means for automatically clamping and cordingly holding the last during the lasting operation and also to provide means for permitting the wipers to yieldingly engage the work, whereby lasts of and swing or lasts of various or forms of toes and heels may be used without any change or adjustment of the machine.
  • a further obj ect of this invention is to provide a machine having means for ell'ectnally preventing the displacement of the edge of the sole, and also to provide such machines with eilicient means for automaticallvand yieldinglyV clamping the edge of the upper in such a manner that said edge is held against urinlding as the upper is drawn and stretched up around the heel or toe of the last.
  • hiv invention also produces a machine which is very-simple, compact and durablev in construction and adapted to be actuated by mechanically derived power.
  • '.l have also herein shown and 'described means for automatically drawing around the toeof the last a wire or other binding means for holding the upper in place after being lasted, this feature, and the parts cooperating with it, not
  • the invention consists in providing means for so carrying and automatically operating the wipers that they are Vfirst given an upward movement to stretch the vamp or upper up around the toe or heel of the last, then a forward and downward movement to form the leatherover the edge of the sole and press it down hard, said means also operating to yieldingly close the wipers as they are moved forward.
  • the invention also consists in providing a' spring pressed, automatically operated clamping foot to engage the upwardly projecting edge of the leather of the upper and clamp the same between it and the forming edge of the wipers, said foot being shaped to conform substantially to the curve of said wiper edge so that the upper will he yieldingly held during 'the upward movementv Of the wipers against possibility of wrinlrling and stretched smoothly up around the toe or heel of the last.
  • This invention also consists in providing a too guard or plate having an outline suhstantially the same as that of the toe of the last and adapted to engage and press down upon the sole close to the edge over which the upper is to be lasted so that said edge will be firmly held down upon the last, means being provided to automaticall)v move said top plate out of the path of the wipers as they are moved over and down upon the edge of the sole.
  • the invention also consists in, providing a vertically yielding jack which is automatically raised to clamp the last between it and vertically yielding means engaging the sole which is secured upon the last so that lasts of various thicknesses and swing may be used, and in providing means for quedingly closing and moving the wipers forward into contact with the shoe, so that the movement of the wipers may vary to conform to variations in the size and form of the toes or heels of shoes, said means being adjustable to regulate the force with which thewipers will engage the work.
  • Figure l is a side elevation, partly in section, of a machine embodying the invention 5
  • Fig. 2 a side elevation of the reverse side of the machine;
  • F ig. 3 a plan view partly in section;
  • Fig. 4 an enlarged detail of the last holding and lasting devices, with arts broken away to show the construction;
  • 1ig. 5 is a detail showing, inelevation, the cam for operating the rocker-bar;
  • Fig. 6 is a similar view of the push-bar cani;
  • Fig. 7 a like elevation of the jack operating cani;
  • Fig. S is a view similar to Fig.
  • Fig. 9 is a similar view showing the machine as modified for lasting heels l:
  • Fig. 1() is a detail plan view of the wipers in open posit-ion and their operating levers, and also showing the wire carrying arm;
  • Fig. 1] a similar' view showing the position of the parts at the end of the lasting operation;
  • Fig. 12 is a side elevation of Fig. 11;
  • Fig, 13 is a perspective detail of thcwipers and adjacent ope-rating and clamping parts of the machine shown in the same position as in Fig. 4;r and
  • Fig. 14 is a plan view of a last showing an insole and upper secured thereon, and the toe plate vin operative position.
  • A'suitabl'e wheel 1() secured on the driving shaft is formed with a notch or shoulder 11 adapted to be engaged by a dog 12 pivoted:upon the bearing bracket and operated by a rod 13 attached to a suitable foot pedal (not shown) to throw the dog out of engagement with the notch and permit the clutch to turn the shaft.
  • the driving shaft is thus stopped by the dog at the end of each revolution and the driven orico'unter shaft is stopped at three certain positlons during each revolution, the operator controlling the starting of the machine each time by the actuation of the dog.
  • wheels I Secured upon the counter shaft 5 are two wheels formed with cam grooves which wheels I will call :for convenience of description the rocker-cam 14 and the push'cam 15.
  • 16 is a rocker-bar pivoted intermediate its ends and carrying'on its tail end a roll 17 engaging the cam groove of' the rocker-cam, and at its forward end orovided with an extended supporting guideway 1S for a push vbar 19 which is adapted to slide longitudinally in said way and is carried and rocked vertically by said rocker bar.
  • This pushbar is also provided with a roll 20 which engages the cam groove in the push-cam 15 and rigidly secured to it near its forward end is a depending post 21 to the lower end of which are pivotally attached the crossed levers 22 at their point of intersection.
  • the wipers 23 which consist of two hinge connected plates formed at their adjacent edges to conform approximately to the outline of either the heel or the toe'of the shoe and these wipers turn freely within slots cut in the ends of said levers upon pivot pins 24 extending through said levers and wipers and are thus held so that they may be quicklyand easily removed and other wiper plates having a different form inserted to more nearly conform to the particular shape of toe or heel to be lasted.A ln this machine it is not, however, necessary asA will be hereinafter more fully set forth, to change these wipers in lasting the different sizes of substantially the same form but only when there is a radical change in the form, as from a round to a very pointed toe or.from toe lasting to heel lasting or from ladies to gents shoes, etc.
  • the rear ends of the crossed levers are connected by a plate'25 secured to the forward end of a bar 26, which extends rearwardly through bearings 27 secured upon the table 2.
  • the vsaid plate is provided near its ends with forwardly converging slots 28 through which the pins or bolts 29 connecting the levers to said plate pass and slide freely, and sleeved upon the bar 26 between the bearings is a coiled spring 30 engaging the forward bearing at one end and a collar 31 on that bar at its opposite end to normally resist the forward longitudinal movement of said bar in its bearings, a second collar 32 on said bar forward of its first bearing serving' to limit the rearward movement of saidfbar in its bearings.
  • a joint 33 in said bar is provided to permit the up and down movement of the wipers, which movementris caused by the rocker-bar.
  • the lower end of said presser bar is roughened or formed with teeth to engage the sole over which the upper is to be lasted, at some distance from the toe or heel of the last, and adj ustably secure d in a transverse holo in said.
  • bar by a set ⁇ screw 40 is a presser arm 41 extending rearwardly ol' the machine and formed with a Idownwardly ycurved and toothed end to engage the shoe sole at a point near the end of its toe or heel.
  • the adjustment by means ofthe set screw 40 permits the operator to vary the angle or plane of engagement of the presser bar and presser arm upon the shoe bottom.
  • an automatically operated jack 42 is provided consisting of a bar 43 guided in openings 4in bearing ears on a bracket 44 secured to .the end of a supporting and operating bd' 45 which is pivoted intermediate its ends to a convenient stationary pa'rt of thc su porting frame of the machine and is provi( ed at its extreme rear end with a roll 46 to engage the cam surface of an outside cam 47 secured upon the countershaft 5.
  • a coiled spring 48 is sleeved upon the bar 4.4 and engages the lower end at one end and a collar'LlQ adjustably secured upon the bar, at its opposite end, to yieldingly support the bar in its' bracket, and a second collar 5() is secured upon the bar below 'the lower ear to limit the upward sliding movement of the bar in itsbearings.
  • a curved seat 51 for the last On the upper end of the bar is a curved seat 51 for the last, shaped to conform to the surface thereotl just forward ofthe instep and support the said last at a point intermediate the points at which the presser bar and arm engage the sole and thus firmly clamp the last between said bar and arm above, and the jack below, said jack being raised to so clamp thclast, in timed relation to the movement ol the wipers and other parts, by the jackcam 47.
  • the toe of the last is thus iirmly clamped and held between three points of contact in position for lasting and when placed in the machine by the operator it may be adjusted laterally thereon to bring the toes of lasts having various lilies ol ⁇ swing in the proper relation to the wipers, and by providing thc springs 37 and 4N to yieldingly hold the presser ba and jack, respectively, the last is clamped between members which will yield vertically to accommmlale lasts ot various thicknesses and to permit the wipers to swing downward a fixed distance regardless of the. thickness of the last.
  • the spring 37 is made lighter than the spring 4S so that when the last is clamped between thc jack and presser bar with the wipers' out of contact with the last.' the spring 48 will overcome the spring 37, moving the. presser bar upward until the collar 39 engages the lug which collar is adapted to be adjusted so as to stop the last in its upward movement in the proper relation to the wipers to permit said wipers when raised, to be projected over thc edge of the sole. f
  • a rod 52 is attached at its upper end to the lower end of the bar 45 ol" the j ack and at its opposite end to a double foot lever 53, the rod being pivoted to the toot lever at one side of the pivot of said lever so that the operator by placing his foot upon one end oi said lever may draw the said bar dmvnward against the action of its spring to release the last at any time during the lasting operation, and by placing his l'oot upon the opposite end of said lever the jack may be, lifted to increase the clamping pressure.
  • a form of jack shown in Fig. S is used7 the upper ond of the bar 54 being provided with a. spindle or stud 55 to engage the socket ordinarily provided in lasts.
  • a clamping foot 56 is provided to engage the inner curved-side of the projecting edge of the upper at the heel or toe ol' the shoe and clamp said edge between it and the forming or wiping edges of the wipers.
  • This toot is pivoted at its upper end to the vforwardly projecting end of the push-bar 19 and at its lower end is provided with laterally extending curved portions 57- so formed on their outer side as to substantially conform to the outline of the heel or toe ol the shoe and thus 'firmly hold said edge against the wipers without altering the curve which the leather naturally takes when tacked upon the last in the usual manner.
  • Pivotally attached to one side of the post 21 is a guide block 58 having a transverse hole in which a rod 59 is adapted to slide freely.
  • This rod is pivotally attached at one end to the foot 56 intermediate its ends, and sleeved thereon between said block and an adjusting nut 60 on its opposite end is a coiled spring 61which normally acts to swing the foot down against the formed edge of the wipers and clamp the edge of the leather between.
  • a coiled spring 61 which normally acts to swing the foot down against the formed edge of the wipers and clamp the edge of the leather between.
  • a latch-bar 62 is pivoted intermediate its ends upon the top of the rearmost bearing 27, the forward bearing serving as a stop to limit the falling of the forward end of said latch-bar which is normally held against the stop by a coiled spring 63, and said forward end is adapted to engage the rear end of the rod 59 upon the rearward and downward movement of the forward end of the push-bar to which the clamping foot 56 is attached and cause said rod to slide through its bearing block against the action of said spring, turning the foot on its pivot and swinging it upwardly and forwardlly'away from the wipers, as shown in Figs. 1, 8 and 9.
  • a pin 64 project--- ing from the side thereof,l shown in Fig.
  • this pin is so set that at the proper moment it will engage the rear end of the latch bar and, tilting the same, raise its forward end out of engagement with the rod 59, releasing said rod and permitting the spring to act to throw the foot into clamping position.
  • the edge of the upper ' is held in place at the center of the toe by a tack, as shown in Fig. 14, and as it is not desirable to remove this fastening, the foot 56 may be cut away or provided with a notch 65 at its center if so desired, to permit pf thus fastening the upper at' the toe of the ast.
  • a toe plate 66 is slidably attached to the pressure arm 41 by a screw 67 extending .through a longitudinal slot in said plate, and the lower end of this plate is broadened out and curved in such a manner that its edge is adapted to engage the sole close to the edge thereof around the Itoe, and, being attached to the presser arm, presses firmly down upon said edge.
  • the plate is projected downwardly to engage the sole, by acoiled spring 68 sleeved on the presser-arm between the presser-bar arid the forward end of said plate which is turned upwardly to-form a lug 69 adapted to be' engaged by the laterally bent end of a stop-arm 7 0 carried by the post 21, when said post is moved forward by the push-bar to carry the wipers over and down eeaois upon the edge of the shoe sole. Said toe plate is thus moved on the arm against the action of the spring 68 out of the way of the wipers as they move forward.
  • Anotch 71 may be provided in the toe plate, as shown in Fig. 14, to permit the upper to be tacked to the insole at the center of the toe, if so desired.
  • a wire is stretched tightly around the toe in contact with the lasted edge,.its ends being made fast to tacks driven into the sole, and to automatically so place the wire and draw it tight, said wire, which is supplied from any suitable spool indicated at 72 in Figs. 10 and 11., is passed through any suitable tensioning device 7 3, then through the loop formed by the curved guide finger 74 and its end fastened to a tack driven into the sole near the left hand edge thereof.
  • a supporting arm 75 is rigidly secured at one end to the lower' end of the post 21 below the wiper levers, and to the free end of this rigid arm is pivoted a curved arm 76 having a grooved roll 77 at its free end which engages the wire midway between its secured end and the tension device.
  • an operating rod 78 To the curved arm is pivotally attached at one end, an operating rod 78, and the opposite end of said rod is attached to the lower end of a lever 79 which is .pivoted at its upper end to the stationary bracket 34 and connected intermediate its ends to the push-bar 19, so that upon the forward movement of said push-bar the lever 79 is swung on its pivot and turns the curved arm 76, ⁇ carrying its roll upward and over, the last forward of the presser bar to stretch the wire around the toe, the wire being guided to place close up beneath the wipers at their forward edges by the guide finger 74 which is rigidly secured to the supporting arm and curved downwardtherefrom thence upward to form a loop, with its free end close beneath the wipers and adjacent to their formed or wiping edge. Any desired'number of these guide fingers may be used or the form may be changed as desired. y
  • Figs. 1, 8, 9 and 10 are diagrammatic illus-aff ⁇ trations of the actuating cams showing their relation to each other and to the other-partsy lwhen said parts are in the position shown in the first namgd figures or when the rolls engaging s'aid cams are in position a as illustrated in said Figs. 5, 6' and 7.
  • the pin G4 is just in contact with the rear end of the latch-bar G2 and when the operator starts the machine by actuating the dog 12 to release the member l() and permit the clutch to operate to turn the driving shaft, the 'Iirst movement will rock said latch-bar and release the clamping foot 56 to clamp the edge ot the upper to the edge of the wipers.
  • the jack is raised by the turning oi'f the jack-cam and the last is iirmlyl clamped between the jack and the presserber and presser-arm.
  • the operator threads the securing wire over the grooved pulley on the curved erm 7 6 and through the loop of the l'uide finger 74 and secures its end to a tac; in the shoe sole.
  • the wire may however be secured to the tack before the last is placed in the machine.
  • the machine is thenagain started by releasing the dog 12 and during this revolution of the power shaft and the turning of the cams from position b vto c the jack is irnily held up to p ece bythe large concentric side of the jack-canut the push-bar is projected to the forward limit of its stroke carrying the wipers forward und at the same time closing them, carrying the rear end of the actuating rod for the clamping foot past the forward end of the latch-bar, engaging the stop arm TO with the lug on the toe-plate and moving ,y plate out of the path of the ⁇ fifpers,iand
  • the stopping mechanism permits the machine to stop automatically nt each critical point.
  • a presser-bar adapted to engage at its lower end the sole of a shoe secured upon a last
  • a guide bearing for said presser-bar adapted to engage at its lower end the sole of a shoe secured upon a last
  • a spring to yieldinglyhold said bar from moving in its presser-bar to limit the movement of said ar against the action of said spring
  • a jack consisting of an operating bar provided with a guide bearing and a supporting bar in said bearing having means at its upper end for engaging the sole or last, a spring to yieldingly ho d said supporting bar raised, an adjustable stop to limit the movement of said bar in its bearings, and means for actuating the jack.
  • a yielding presser-bar adapted to engage the sole of a shoe secured upon a last
  • a presser-arm carried by-said bar for engaging the sole near its toe portion
  • a toe plate attached to said arm to engage the sole at its edge around the toe portion
  • a yielding jack to raise the last and clamp the same between said jack and said presser-bar, presserarm and toe plate ⁇ 10.
  • the combination K wipers having formed edges adapted to engage the heel or toe of the upper bearing, an adjustable stop on saidv of a boot or shoe secured on a last, of automatic means for imparting to the wipers a rising ⁇ and falling movement, and yielding means adapted to engage the upper and clamp the same to the formed edges, whereby the upper is held and stretched up around the last when the wipers are raised, and means for automatically holding and moving the last to cooperate with the lasting mechamsm.
  • the combination with wipers and yielding automatic means for yieldingly supporting and moving in cooperation with the lasting mechanism a last to whi h a shoe upper and sole are adapted o to be secured for lasting, of power operated means operating in timed relation to said last moving means whereby an upward movement is imparted to said wipers to stretch the upper up freely above the last and then a movement down onto the last and forward to form the edge of the upper over the edge of the sole and press it down thereon.
  • the combination with wipers and means for supporting a last to which a shoe upper and sole are adapted to be secured for lasting of upwardly and downwardly movable carrying means for the wipers, forwardly and rearwardly movable operating means for the wipers, and means for actuating said carrying means and operating means in timed relation to each other.
  • the combination with wipers and means for supporting a last upon which a shoe is adapted to be secured for lasting of a bar pivoted to rock vertically, a guide way on said bar extending in a horizontal direction a push-bar .slidable longitudinally in said guide and carrying said wipers, and means for rocking the rocker-bar' and moving the push bar in time( r" tion to each other.
  • ol means l'o'r opening l l'or opening and closing the wipers carried by and closing said wipers ⁇ a member having a' ⁇ liXed movement to aetnate said means, and a yielding member to var v the ell'ert ol' the liXed movement olI said member arrording to the resistance oll'er 'l by the work lo the closing of said wiper 1S.
  • levers pivoted together at their point of intersection ard to the wipers at their lorward ends, a member held against; forward .movement and having for- L wardly and inwardl)v inelined slots to guide the rear ends ol" said levers, and a forwardly movable member at-tz'tehed. to the pivot ot' said levers at their erossing point.
  • ol a lorwardly and rearwardly movable member, means carried b v said adjacent to its edge at the toe and hold said edge down npon the last, and means carried b v said artuating member to engagel and move ⁇ said plate out ol' the path ol the wiper.

Description

No. 882,018. PATENTED MAR. 1f, 1908. C. F. PYM.
LASTING MACHINE. l y
APPLICATION FILED MAR.28.1907. f
G sHEBTs-sHEBT 1,1
No. 882,0l8. PATENTED MAR. 17, 1908. C. F. PYM.
LASTING MACHINE.
APPLICATION FILED MAR. 28. 1907.
GSHEBTS-SHEBT 2.
PATENTED MAR. 17, 1.908.
o. F. PYM. LASTING MACHINE` APPLICATION FILED MAR. 2B. 1907.
6 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
INVENTOR wv'rucssas:
PATENTED MAR. 17, 1.908.
C. F. PYM.
LASTING MACHINE.
APPLICATION FILED MAR.2a.19ov.
6 SHEETS-SHEET 4.
INVENTOR:
@www I 1.5.4.
` wlTNassas:
grdavd. M
PATBNTED MAR. 1'7, 1908.
G. F. lPYM.
LASTING MACHINE. APPLIUATIO FILED MAB. z8. 1907.
6 SHEETS-SHEET 5.
No. 882,013. i PATENTED MAR. 17, 1908.
` C. P. PYM.
LASTING MACHINE.
APPLICATION FILED MAB.. 28. 1907.
6 SHEETS-SHEET G.
WITNESSBS: INVENTOR:
0%. EMMM/ UNITED sra'rnsrrrsnfr oratori.
CHARLES F. PYM, OF DETROIT, MIHIGAN, ASSIGNOR OF ONE-HALF TO KRENTLER BROTHERS COMPANY, OF DETROIT, MUIIIGAN, A FORPORATION OF MICHIGAN.
LASTING-MACHINE.
T 0 all who/m it may concern.'
Be it known that I, CnARLEs 'F. Pr.\.', a subject of the King of Great Britain, residing at Detroit, in the county of Vayne and State of Michigan, have invented certain new and `useful Improvements in Lasting-Machines,
of which the following is a specification, referenoe being had therein to the accompanying drawings.
This invention relates to improvements in lasting machines and mo're especially to machines of that class in which wipers are employed to last the heels and toes of boots and shoes.
One of the objects of the said invention is to provide a machine adapted to automatically perform the several successive steps in the Operation of lasting the heel or toe of a looot or shoe, in an expeditious and most etlicacious manner and a further object is to provide means for automatically clamping and vieldingly holding the last during the lasting operation and also to provide means for permitting the wipers to yieldingly engage the work, whereby lasts of and swing or lasts of various or forms of toes and heels may be used without any change or adjustment of the machine.
In lasting machines employing wipers for forcing the upper inward over the. edge of the sole, it has been found that especially at the toe of the shoe, the thin edge of the sole over which theI upper is being lasted is very liahle to he wiped or turned upward or inward and a further obj ect of this invention is to provide a machine having means for ell'ectnally preventing the displacement of the edge of the sole, and also to provide such machines with eilicient means for automaticallvand yieldinglyV clamping the edge of the upper in such a manner that said edge is held against urinlding as the upper is drawn and stretched up around the heel or toe of the last.
hiv invention also produces a machine which is very-simple, compact and durablev in construction and adapted to be actuated by mechanically derived power. '.l have also herein shown and 'described means for automatically drawing around the toeof the last a wire or other binding means for holding the upper in place after being lasted, this feature, and the parts cooperating with it, not
Specification of Letters Patent.
Application filed March 28. 1907.
Patented March 17, 1908.
Serial No. 364,960.
however, being claimed herein, but duly claimed in a divisional application Ser. No. 413,430, liled January 30, 1908.
To this end the invention consists in providing means for so carrying and automatically operating the wipers that they are Vfirst given an upward movement to stretch the vamp or upper up around the toe or heel of the last, then a forward and downward movement to form the leatherover the edge of the sole and press it down hard, said means also operating to yieldingly close the wipers as they are moved forward.
The invention also consists in providing a' spring pressed, automatically operated clamping foot to engage the upwardly projecting edge of the leather of the upper and clamp the same between it and the forming edge of the wipers, said foot being shaped to conform substantially to the curve of said wiper edge so that the upper will he yieldingly held during 'the upward movementv Of the wipers against possibility of wrinlrling and stretched smoothly up around the toe or heel of the last.
This invention also consists in providing a too guard or plate having an outline suhstantially the same as that of the toe of the last and adapted to engage and press down upon the sole close to the edge over which the upper is to be lasted so that said edge will be firmly held down upon the last, means being provided to automaticall)v move said top plate out of the path of the wipers as they are moved over and down upon the edge of the sole.
The invention also consists in, providing a vertically yielding jack which is automatically raised to clamp the last between it and vertically yielding means engaging the sole which is secured upon the last so that lasts of various thicknesses and swing may be used, and in providing means for vieldingly closing and moving the wipers forward into contact with the shoe, so that the movement of the wipers may vary to conform to variations in the size and form of the toes or heels of shoes, said means being adjustable to regulate the force with which thewipers will engage the work.
Referring to the accompanying drawings in which like reference characters refer to like parts, Figure l is a side elevation, partly in section, of a machine embodying the invention 5 Fig. 2 a side elevation of the reverse side of the machine; F ig. 3 a plan view partly in section; Fig. 4 an enlarged detail of the last holding and lasting devices, with arts broken away to show the construction; 1ig. 5 is a detail showing, inelevation, the cam for operating the rocker-bar; Fig. 6 is a similar view of the push-bar cani; Fig. 7 a like elevation of the jack operating cani; Fig. S is a view similar to Fig. 4 showing the parts in position to receive the slice; Fig, 9 is a similar view showing the machine as modified for lasting heels l: Fig. 1() is a detail plan view of the wipers in open posit-ion and their operating levers, and also showing the wire carrying arm; Fig. 1] a similar' view showing the position of the parts at the end of the lasting operation; Fig. 12 is a side elevation of Fig. 11; Fig, 13 is a perspective detail of thcwipers and adjacent ope-rating and clamping parts of the machine shown in the same position as in Fig. 4;r and Fig. 14 is a plan view of a last showing an insole and upper secured thereon, and the toe plate vin operative position.
As shown in the drawings 1 is a suitable supporting pedestal upon the upper end of 'which is secured a bed or table 2 having suitable bearing brackets 3 each having two bearings, one for a driving shaft 4 and the other for a driven or counter shaft 5, motion being transmitted from the driving to the driven shaft by gears 6 and 7 which are in the proportion of three to one so that one revo ution of the driving shaft will turn the counter shaftbut one-third of a revolution.
8 is a suitable belt. pulley mounted loosely on the driving shaft and having a suitable roller clutch-mechanism of any well known construction located in its hub casing 9 to connect the pulley to the shaft. A'suitabl'e wheel 1() secured on the driving shaft is formed with a notch or shoulder 11 adapted to be engaged by a dog 12 pivoted:upon the bearing bracket and operated by a rod 13 attached to a suitable foot pedal (not shown) to throw the dog out of engagement with the notch and permit the clutch to turn the shaft.
The driving shaft is thus stopped by the dog at the end of each revolution and the driven orico'unter shaft is stopped at three certain positlons during each revolution, the operator controlling the starting of the machine each time by the actuation of the dog.
Secured upon the counter shaft 5 are two wheels formed with cam grooves which wheels I will call :for convenience of description the rocker-cam 14 and the push'cam 15. 16 is a rocker-bar pivoted intermediate its ends and carrying'on its tail end a roll 17 engaging the cam groove of' the rocker-cam, and at its forward end orovided with an extended supporting guideway 1S for a push vbar 19 which is adapted to slide longitudinally in said way and is carried and rocked vertically by said rocker bar. This pushbar is also provided with a roll 20 which engages the cam groove in the push-cam 15 and rigidly secured to it near its forward end is a depending post 21 to the lower end of which are pivotally attached the crossed levers 22 at their point of intersection. To the forward ends of these levers 22 are pivotally attached the wipers 23 which consist of two hinge connected plates formed at their adjacent edges to conform approximately to the outline of either the heel or the toe'of the shoe and these wipers turn freely within slots cut in the ends of said levers upon pivot pins 24 extending through said levers and wipers and are thus held so that they may be quicklyand easily removed and other wiper plates having a different form inserted to more nearly conform to the particular shape of toe or heel to be lasted.A ln this machine it is not, however, necessary asA will be hereinafter more fully set forth, to change these wipers in lasting the different sizes of substantially the same form but only when there is a radical change in the form, as from a round to a very pointed toe or.from toe lasting to heel lasting or from ladies to gents shoes, etc.
The rear ends of the crossed levers are connected by a plate'25 secured to the forward end of a bar 26, which extends rearwardly through bearings 27 secured upon the table 2. The vsaid plate is provided near its ends with forwardly converging slots 28 through which the pins or bolts 29 connecting the levers to said plate pass and slide freely, and sleeved upon the bar 26 between the bearings is a coiled spring 30 engaging the forward bearing at one end and a collar 31 on that bar at its opposite end to normally resist the forward longitudinal movement of said bar in its bearings, a second collar 32 on said bar forward of its first bearing serving' to limit the rearward movement of saidfbar in its bearings. A joint 33 in said bar is provided to permit the up and down movement of the wipers, which movementris caused by the rocker-bar.
When the push cam 15 moves the push-bar forward, the pivotal point of the crossedlevers is moved forward by the post 21 and this movement by reason 'of the forwardly converging slots in the plate 25 causes the ends of the levers to move toward each other and close the wiptrs inward, the spring 30 on the bar 26 holding said plate against any forward movement unless the resistance to the ment of said plate, which movement by less-l ening the movement of the pins 29 in their slots, will lessen thc distance which the wipers will he closed by a given forward movement imparted to the push-bar by its cam. The wiping torce of the wipers is thus regulated by the tension ol' said spring which maybe adjusted b v the collar 3l and will be thc same regardless of variations in the toes Y or heels of the shoes operated upon.
below the lower guide lug is provided tol limit thc upward movement of said bar. The lower end of said presser bar is roughened or formed with teeth to engage the sole over which the upper is to be lasted, at some distance from the toe or heel of the last, and adj ustably secure d in a transverse holo in said. bar by a set` screw 40, is a presser arm 41 extending rearwardly ol' the machine and formed with a Idownwardly ycurved and toothed end to engage the shoe sole at a point near the end of its toe or heel. The adjustment by means ofthe set screw 40 permits the operator to vary the angle or plane of engagement of the presser bar and presser arm upon the shoe bottom.
To hohl the last upon which thc shoe is secured in position for lasting, up against these two points ot' contact, namely the-ends of the presser bar and presser arm, an automatically operated jack 42 is provided consisting of a bar 43 guided in openings 4in bearing ears on a bracket 44 secured to .the end of a supporting and operating bd' 45 which is pivoted intermediate its ends to a convenient stationary pa'rt of thc su porting frame of the machine and is provi( ed at its extreme rear end with a roll 46 to engage the cam surface of an outside cam 47 secured upon the countershaft 5. Between the bearing ears of the bracket 44 a coiled spring 48 is sleeved upon the bar 4.4 and engages the lower end at one end and a collar'LlQ adjustably secured upon the bar, at its opposite end, to yieldingly support the bar in its' bracket, and a second collar 5() is secured upon the bar below 'the lower ear to limit the upward sliding movement of the bar in itsbearings. On the upper end of the bar is a curved seat 51 for the last, shaped to conform to the surface thereotl just forward ofthe instep and support the said last at a point intermediate the points at which the presser bar and arm engage the sole and thus firmly clamp the last between said bar and arm above, and the jack below, said jack being raised to so clamp thclast, in timed relation to the movement ol the wipers and other parts, by the jackcam 47.
The toe of the last is thus iirmly clamped and held between three points of contact in position for lasting and when placed in the machine by the operator it may be adjusted laterally thereon to bring the toes of lasts having various lilies ol` swing in the proper relation to the wipers, and by providing thc springs 37 and 4N to yieldingly hold the presser ba and jack, respectively, the last is clamped between members which will yield vertically to accommmlale lasts ot various thicknesses and to permit the wipers to swing downward a fixed distance regardless of the. thickness of the last. The spring 37 is made lighter than the spring 4S so that when the last is clamped between thc jack and presser bar with the wipers' out of contact with the last.' the spring 48 will overcome the spring 37, moving the. presser bar upward until the collar 39 engages the lug which collar is adapted to be adjusted so as to stop the last in its upward movement in the proper relation to the wipers to permit said wipers when raised, to be projected over thc edge of the sole. f
A rod 52 is attached at its upper end to the lower end of the bar 45 ol" the j ack and at its opposite end to a double foot lever 53, the rod being pivoted to the toot lever at one side of the pivot of said lever so that the operator by placing his foot upon one end oi said lever may draw the said bar dmvnward against the action of its spring to release the last at any time during the lasting operation, and by placing his l'oot upon the opposite end of said lever the jack may be, lifted to increase the clamping pressure.
In lasting the heel oi: a shoe, a form of jack shown in Fig. S) is used7 the upper ond of the bar 54 being provided with a. spindle or stud 55 to engage the socket ordinarily provided in lasts.
In order that the leather oi the shoe upper which is being lastedu may be stretched tightly over the heel or toe ol` the last and at the same time held against any possibility of wrinkling during the lasting operatioi'i, a clamping foot 56 is provided to engage the inner curved-side of the projecting edge of the upper at the heel or toe ol' the shoe and clamp said edge between it and the forming or wiping edges of the wipers. This toot is pivoted at its upper end to the vforwardly projecting end of the push-bar 19 and at its lower end is provided with laterally extending curved portions 57- so formed on their outer side as to substantially conform to the outline of the heel or toe ol the shoe and thus 'firmly hold said edge against the wipers without altering the curve which the leather naturally takes when tacked upon the last in the usual manner. Pivotally attached to one side of the post 21 is a guide block 58 having a transverse hole in which a rod 59 is adapted to slide freely. This rod is pivotally attached at one end to the foot 56 intermediate its ends, and sleeved thereon between said block and an adjusting nut 60 on its opposite end is a coiled spring 61which normally acts to swing the foot down against the formed edge of the wipers and clamp the edge of the leather between. By adjusting the nut 60 the tension of the spring is increased or diminished to increase or diminish the clamping power of the foot. A latch-bar 62 is pivoted intermediate its ends upon the top of the rearmost bearing 27, the forward bearing serving as a stop to limit the falling of the forward end of said latch-bar which is normally held against the stop by a coiled spring 63, and said forward end is adapted to engage the rear end of the rod 59 upon the rearward and downward movement of the forward end of the push-bar to which the clamping foot 56 is attached and cause said rod to slide through its bearing block against the action of said spring, turning the foot on its pivot and swinging it upwardly and forwardlly'away from the wipers, as shown in Figs. 1, 8 and 9. Upon the large gear wheel 7 on thecounter-shaft 5, is a pin 64 project-- ing from the side thereof,l shown in Fig. 3, and this pin is so set that at the proper moment it will engage the rear end of the latch bar and, tilting the same, raise its forward end out of engagement with the rod 59, releasing said rod and permitting the spring to act to throw the foot into clamping position. ln certain kinds of work, the edge of the upper 'is held in place at the center of the toe by a tack, as shown in Fig. 14, and as it is not desirable to remove this fastening, the foot 56 may be cut away or provided with a notch 65 at its center if so desired, to permit pf thus fastening the upper at' the toe of the ast.
To hold the edge of the-sole over which the upper is being lasted, firmly down upon the last so that it will not be displaced by the wipers when they are forced over and upon said edge, a toe plate 66 is slidably attached to the pressure arm 41 by a screw 67 extending .through a longitudinal slot in said plate, and the lower end of this plate is broadened out and curved in such a manner that its edge is adapted to engage the sole close to the edge thereof around the Itoe, and, being attached to the presser arm, presses firmly down upon said edge. The plate is projected downwardly to engage the sole, by acoiled spring 68 sleeved on the presser-arm between the presser-bar arid the forward end of said plate which is turned upwardly to-form a lug 69 adapted to be' engaged by the laterally bent end of a stop-arm 7 0 carried by the post 21, when said post is moved forward by the push-bar to carry the wipers over and down eeaois upon the edge of the shoe sole. Said toe plate is thus moved on the arm against the action of the spring 68 out of the way of the wipers as they move forward. Anotch 71 may be provided in the toe plate, as shown in Fig. 14, to permit the upper to be tacked to the insole at the center of the toe, if so desired.
To effectually secure the edge of the upper in place after the lasting operation is' cornpleted, a wire is stretched tightly around the toe in contact with the lasted edge,.its ends being made fast to tacks driven into the sole, and to automatically so place the wire and draw it tight, said wire, which is supplied from any suitable spool indicated at 72 in Figs. 10 and 11., is passed through any suitable tensioning device 7 3, then through the loop formed by the curved guide finger 74 and its end fastened to a tack driven into the sole near the left hand edge thereof. A supporting arm 75 is rigidly secured at one end to the lower' end of the post 21 below the wiper levers, and to the free end of this rigid arm is pivoted a curved arm 76 having a grooved roll 77 at its free end which engages the wire midway between its secured end and the tension device. To the curved arm is pivotally attached at one end, an operating rod 78, and the opposite end of said rod is attached to the lower end of a lever 79 which is .pivoted at its upper end to the stationary bracket 34 and connected intermediate its ends to the push-bar 19, so that upon the forward movement of said push-bar the lever 79 is swung on its pivot and turns the curved arm 76,`carrying its roll upward and over, the last forward of the presser bar to stretch the wire around the toe, the wire being guided to place close up beneath the wipers at their forward edges by the guide finger 74 which is rigidly secured to the supporting arm and curved downwardtherefrom thence upward to form a loop, with its free end close beneath the wipers and adjacent to their formed or wiping edge. Any desired'number of these guide fingers may be used or the form may be changed as desired. y
As already stated, the above mentioned features of my improved lastinor machine are not herein claimed, but are duy claimed in the dlivisional application previously men,- tione In Figs. 1, 8, 9 and 10, the parts are shown i in position to receive the shoe to be lasted and Figs. 5, 6 and 7 are diagrammatic illus-aff `trations of the actuating cams showing their relation to each other and to the other-partsy lwhen said parts are in the position shown in the first namgd figures or when the rolls engaging s'aid cams are in position a as illustrated in said Figs. 5, 6' and 7.
When the parts are in the position shown in said Figs. 1, S, 9 and 10, Ithey are at rest with the jack 42 down, the roll 46 being in eee,
Contact with the small part of the ack-cem the wipers in their lowest position, the roll 17 on the rocker-bar being m contact with the concentric inner part of its cam groove and the push-be r carrying said wipers, in its rein'- most position, the roll being in the innermost portion of its cam groove. As illustrated in Fig. 8, the operator places the lust with the -shoe sole lirmly up against the presser bar and presser arm, :md the toe plate engaging said sole close to its edge with the projecting edge oi the upperextending up adjacent to the wiping edge ot the wipers. As shown iu dotted lines in Fig. 1, the pin G4 is just in contact with the rear end of the latch-bar G2 and when the operator starts the machine by actuating the dog 12 to release the member l() and permit the clutch to operate to turn the driving shaft, the 'Iirst movement will rock said latch-bar and release the clamping foot 56 to clamp the edge ot the upper to the edge of the wipers. At. the same time the jack is raised by the turning oi'f the jack-cam and the last is iirmlyl clamped between the jack and the presserber and presser-arm. When the driving shaft has mede one revolution, it is again stopped by the dog 12, the cams having been turned one-third of a revolution orto position b which turning has raised the wi ers slightly and projected them forward a s iort dista-nce, the cam grooves in the rocker and push cams being sliffhtly farther from the center of the cam at this point.
While the machine is at rest in position b the operator threads the securing wire over the grooved pulley on the curved erm 7 6 and through the loop of the l'uide finger 74 and secures its end to a tac; in the shoe sole. The wire may however be secured to the tack before the last is placed in the machine. The machine is thenagain started by releasing the dog 12 and during this revolution of the power shaft and the turning of the cams from position b vto c the jack is irnily held up to p ece bythe large concentric side of the jack-canut the push-bar is projected to the forward limit of its stroke carrying the wipers forward und at the same time closing them, carrying the rear end of the actuating rod for the clamping foot past the forward end of the latch-bar, engaging the stop arm TO with the lug on the toe-plate and moving ,y plate out of the path of the \\fifpers,iand
turning the curved arm on its pivot to stretch the wn'c around the toe und carry 1t lorward over thc hist; and the rocker-bur is rocked to i fthe upper limit of its stroke und then to its lower limit, raising the .vipers to stretch thc upper up around the too and then press-ing its odge down hard upon the sole as suid edge is carried over and upon said sole. .ln Figs. 2, I, 4, 11, l2 and 13 the parts nre shown in position at the end oly the lusting operation or position c.
While the parts are at rest in position c, the operator severs the securing wire and makes it last to a tack drivelhinto the sole near the right side thereof, und u on again starting the machine by releasing t ie dog 12, the pick at once tails, releasing the shoe; `the push-bar is retracted causing the latchbnr to raise the clan'iping foot, moving the wipers to their renrmost position, moving vthe stop-arm out ol engagement with the toe-plate, und swinging the wire.arm backwnrd; and the rocher-bnr is 11e-d in its lowered position. The cycle of operation is thus completed and the parts .are again in position to receive another last.
The stopping mechanism permits the machine to stop automatically nt each critical point.
It is obviousthat if the operator holds the dog 12 out of engagement, thel operation of lthe. machine will be continuous and when he :has become very proiicient in the manipulation olt the machine it will be necessary for him to stop the machine only to remo v`e the lnsted shoe and put another last in position.
Having thus fully described my invention what I claim isz- 1. In a lasting machine, the combination with means for forming or wiping the upper ot'a boot or shoe in the process ol" lasting, and means for actuating said forming means, ot a member adapted to yieldingly engage the sole of the shoe from above, a member to yieldingly support said shoe and its last from below,K and means for moving one ol" said members toward the other to yieldingly clamp the lest.
2. in a lasting machine, the combination with moons for forming or wiping the upper' of boot or shoe in the process of lasting, and menus for actuating said lorming means, of a member adapted to yicldingly engage the shoe from above, a jack to support thc shoe and its hist l'rom below and menus for automatically lifting said jiu-,k in timed relation to tho movement ol' the wiping means to chimp the last between it undsziid member'.
3. ln a lasting muchine, the (,foinbination with wi )ers and menus lor :utimting the same, oli a member adapted lo engage thc solo ol the shoe secured to :i hist, :i spring to yicldingly press suid member toward the shoe sole, :uljustuble means l'or limiting the nuwement against thcuctiouof suid spring ol" said mcmbeigupu-h having u member to support the lust und-shoe, u spring to yield-- yingly hold said jack mcmbermid ol' a strength sullicient to overcome the not ion ol' the spring oll the solomember, und menus for actuating the jock.
h'1. ln a lasting machine, the,combination with means l'or holding u hist und shoe upper in position to be lasted und wipers having formed edges udzipted to wipe forwardly the edges ol' the upper about the end of tho last Y with yielding simultaneously on the opposite sides thereof with a sliding wiping movement, of automatically intermittent power mechanism for automatically actuating said wipers to last the toe or heel of the shoe while the last and shoe upper are' so held and stopping before the lasting is completed to enable the operator to inspect the partly lasted shoe.
5. In a lasting machine, the combination with horizontally extending wiper plates vertically pivoted together and capable of yielding in the plane of the sole, and automatic operating means therefor, of means for automatically supporting the last and shoe upper in position to be lasted.
6. In a lasting machine, the combination with horizontally extending wiper plates vertically pivoted together and cap able of yielding in the plane of the sole, and automatic operating means therefor, of yielding means for automatically supporting the last and shoe upper in position to be lasted, including means to automatically move the last into proper lasting position throughout the lasting operation.
7. In a lasting machine, the combination with wipers and means for actuating the same, of a presser-bar adapted to engage at its lower end the sole of a shoe secured upon a last, a guide bearing for said presser-bar, a spring to yieldinglyhold said bar from moving in its presser-bar to limit the movement of said ar against the action of said spring, a jack consisting of an operating bar provided with a guide bearing and a supporting bar in said bearing having means at its upper end for engaging the sole or last, a spring to yieldingly ho d said supporting bar raised, an adjustable stop to limit the movement of said bar in its bearings, and means for actuating the jack.
8. In a lasting machine, the combination with wipers and means for operating the same, of a yielding presser-bar adapted to engage the sole of a shoe secured upon a last, means carried by said bar for engaging the sole adjacent to its edge around its'toe ortion, and a jack adapted to support the ast and clamp the same between it and said presser-bar and the toe engaging means.
9. In a lasting machine, the combination with wi ers and means for operating the same, o a yielding presser-bar adapted to engage the sole of a shoe secured upon a last, a presser-arm carried by-said bar for engaging the sole near its toe portion, a toe plate attached to said arm to engage the sole at its edge around the toe portion, and a yielding jack to raise the last and clamp the same between said jack and said presser-bar, presserarm and toe plate` 10. In a lasting machine, the combination K wipers having formed edges adapted to engage the heel or toe of the upper bearing, an adjustable stop on saidv of a boot or shoe secured on a last, of automatic means for imparting to the wipers a rising`and falling movement, and yielding means adapted to engage the upper and clamp the same to the formed edges, whereby the upper is held and stretched up around the last when the wipers are raised, and means for automatically holding and moving the last to cooperate with the lasting mechamsm.
11. In a lasting machine, the combination with wipers and yielding automatic means for yieldingly supporting and moving in cooperation with the lasting mechanism a last to whi h a shoe upper and sole are adapted o to be secured for lasting, of power operated means operating in timed relation to said last moving means whereby an upward movement is imparted to said wipers to stretch the upper up freely above the last and then a movement down onto the last and forward to form the edge of the upper over the edge of the sole and press it down thereon.
12. In a lasting machine, the combination with wipers and means for supporting a last to which a shoe upper and sole are adapted to be secured for lasting, of upwardly and downwardly movable carrying means for the wipers, forwardly and rearwardly movable operating means for the wipers, and means for actuating said carrying means and operating means in timed relation to each other.
13. In a lasting machine, the combination with wipers and means for supporting a last to which a shoe upper and sole are adapted to be secured, of a vertically movable member, a longitudinally movable member carried by and movable with the vertically movable member and to which the wipers are attached, and means for actuating said members in timed relation to each other.
14. In a lasting machine, the combination with wipers and means for supporting a last upon which a shoe is adapted to be secured for lasting, of a bar pivoted to rock vertically, a guide way on said bar extending in a horizontal direction a push-bar .slidable longitudinally in said guide and carrying said wipers, and means for rocking the rocker-bar' and moving the push bar in time( r" tion to each other.
15. In a lasting machine, the combinationwith wipers pivoted together to close upon the heel or toe of a last, of crossed levers pivoted together at their point of intersection and each pivotally attached at one end to one of the wipers means engaging the opposite ends of said levers to move said ends toward each other to close the wipers when 'said levers and wipers are moved from said means, and means for so moving the levers and wi. ers. v
16. n a lasting machine, the combination with wipers pivoted together to close upon the heel ertoe of a last, of crossed levers pivoted together at Itheir pointI ol` intersection l member to operate the wipers and actuated l l and eat-h pivotall)T attarhed at its forward end to one of the wipers, a member having inwardl;Y and terwardly extending guides to guide the rear ends oi said levers, means For l yieldingl'xY ,'ireventing the forward movement of said member, and means lor moving lor ard the levers wx .i their attaehedwipers;
1T. ln a. lasting machine, the eombination `with wipers pivoted together lo close npon the. heel or toe ot a last, ol means l'o'r opening l l'or opening and closing the wipers carried by and closing said wipers` a member having a'` liXed movement to aetnate said means, and a yielding member to var v the ell'ert ol' the liXed movement olI said member arrording to the resistance oll'er 'l by the work lo the closing of said wiper 1S. in a lasting machine, the combination by vits l`or\\f'ard movement,v to close the wipers, a elamping l'ooty carried by said member to Clamp the upper ol" a boot or shoe lo the forming edges ol' the wipers, and means for actuating the l'oot` operated by the rearward movement ot' said member to release the upper.
2 l. lin a. lasting maehine, the rmnbination with pivoted wipers, ol a l'orwardljT and rearwardl)Y movable actuating member, means saidv member and aetualed by the forward movement oli said member toelose the wipers, a support lor a last upon whieh last a shoe upper and sole are adapted to be secured for lasting, a loe plate adapted to engage the sole with wipers pivoted together aty their adjaeent sides, olV eros. ed levers pivoted together at their point of intersection ard to the wipers at their lorward ends, a member held against; forward .movement and having for- L wardly and inwardl)v inelined slots to guide the rear ends ol" said levers, and a forwardly movable member at-tz'tehed. to the pivot ot' said levers at their erossing point.
il). in a lastingl machine, the combination with pivoted wipers adapted to be elosed upon the heel or toe of a last in the lasting operation, of a forwardly and rear\\ardl`\fY moi'able member, crossed levers pivoted to said member at their point oi interseetion i and pivotally attached at their forward ends to the wipers, a member having forwardl)Y and inwardly inclined guide slots to guide the rear ends ol' said levers. a spring to yieldmgly resist, the movement ol' said member having said slots.
"2U, In a lastin i l i l i t i "nntehine, the combination l with pivoted wipers adapted to be elosed,
upon the heel or toe ol a last in the lasting operation, ol a lorwardly and rearwardly movable member, means carried b v said adjacent to its edge at the toe and hold said edge down npon the last, and means carried b v said artuating member to engagel and move `said plate out ol' the path ol the wiper.
22. ln a lasting maehine, means for holding and rlamping a. lasty and upper in position to be lasted, means lor lasting the upper, power operating meehanism for the aforesaid parts. and means within the control of the operator enabling the ope ator to stop the machine at will alter the last and upper have been clamped.
223. in a lasting maehine, means for holdn ing and clamping a last and upper in position to be lasted, means lio'r lasting the upper, power operating meehanism l'or tl e aforesaid parts, and means within the control ol the operator enabling the operator to slop the maehine at will alter the last and upper have been rlamped, and also at'ter the upper has been lasted.
ln testimony whereof .l allix mysignatiuie in presenre ol' two illnesses CHARLES F. PYM. lvitnesses:
O'r'ro l?. BairrnnL, La 'VERNE l?. GiLLE'r'r.
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2692997A (en) * 1950-11-09 1954-11-02 United Shoe Machinery Corp Toe lasting machine

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2692997A (en) * 1950-11-09 1954-11-02 United Shoe Machinery Corp Toe lasting machine

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