US877977A - Motor. - Google Patents

Motor. Download PDF


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US877977A US36325907A US1907363259A US877977A US 877977 A US877977 A US 877977A US 36325907 A US36325907 A US 36325907A US 1907363259 A US1907363259 A US 1907363259A US 877977 A US877977 A US 877977A
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Frank C Axtell
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Frank C Axtell
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    • F02B75/00Other engines
    • F02B75/26Engines with cylinder axes coaxial with, or parallel or inclined to, main-shaft axis; Engines with cylinder axes arranged substantially tangentially to a circle centred on main-shaft axis
    • F02B75/265Engines with cylinder axes substantially tangentially to a circle centred on main-shaft axis
    • Y10S123/00Internal-combustion engines
    • Y10S123/08Multiple engine units


PATENTED PEB. 4, 1908.

No. 377,977.-` l



u l E IO'. Qi l O O N I i' lt Il I , PATENTBD 7512.4, 1908. P.. G. AXTELL.



No. 877,977. PATENTED FEB. 4, 1908.

F; o. AXTVBLL. y Mofrom. APPLICATION FILED MAR. 19. 1907.


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f@ W m E 7 'QXXLWMQOZ n v www m ,Wm/Z www@ PATENTED FEB; 4, 1908.



iiiarrnn 'r arras FRANK o. AxTELL, or snoer HILLS, NEW JERSEY.


. no. err/,977.

Specification of Letters Patent.

- Patented rb. 4,1908.

Application filed March 19. 1907. Serial. No'. 3631259.

lfff all whom it may concern: ie it known that I, FRANK 0. AxrELL, `a Lzen of the United States, and lresident of Snort Hills, Essex. county, New Jersey, have l invented certain newl and useful improvements in Motors, otwliich the following' is va speciiication.-

, The object of my invention is to produce a motor, .simple ,in construction, relatively light in weight, and vwhich is applicable for use as an internal combustion heat motor or engine, and wherebysubstantially continuous rotativerforce or torqueinay be obtained.

In carrying out my invention l provide a plurality of cylinders arranged substantially Itangentially with respect to an axis aroundv y which they rotate, pistons for said cylinders and means for causing said pistons 'to reciprocate back and forthat least twice for each complete revolution of the corresponding cyl'- inder, or in yother words, to cause any given point of each piston to describe an approxi# mately elliptical path or curve during each revolution of the cylinders' or four strokes lof the pistons., T o cause -the pistons to perform four strokes during each revolutionA of the corresponding cylinder, I have shown an elliotical'guide disposed without the cylinder,

i and means connected with the pistons for coaction with such guide for causing each piston, during each i'evolution of its cylinder, to"

' move inwardly, then outwardly,- again inwardly, and again outwardly. To cause the motor to operate' onthe principles ofl the four-cycle gas-engine, so that the well known foin' stroke 'cycle 'will be performed during each revolution ofeach cylinder, l have shown valvular means for permitting the'envtrance of fuel into each cylinder, its compression therein, its 4explosion or expansion therein for the power stroke, and the exhaust ofthe spent gases therefrom.

My invention also comprises thenovel details of improvement and .combination ofi arts thatv will be hereinafterv more fully set toi-th and then pointed out in the claims Reference is to be had to the accompanying drawings forming parthereof, wherein Figure l is an edge view of a motor embody L ing my invention; Fig. 2 is a verticall crosssection, substantially on the line 2, 2 in Fig. l; Fig. 3 is a l'cross section, substantially on the irregular line 3, 3, in Fig. 2, the pistons being omitted; Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic `secltion'on the line 4, i, in Fig. 3; Fig. 5 is a diay Fig. 6 is a detail section through one cylinder and piston,showing also the' casing and pis ton-controlling guide; Fig. 7 is an end view of a piston partly in section; Fig. 8 is a face view of a piston; Fig. 9 is a central section of ,a iston; Fig. 10 is a developed plan of the tiiiular valve,I shown inthe drawings, for

controlling the fuel and exhaust gases;

11 isa sectional viewof the motor ishowing ydisk 5 in a diilerent position from Fig. 3';

Fig.v 12 isa perspective view of disk 5; Fig. v

13 is a perspective view of casing member 10;

Fig. 14 is a detail section of a modification;

and Figjl is a cross section thereof.

vIn the accom lanyingl drawings the nu-V merals 1,'2, 37am 4, indicate cylinders which l 'grammatic section on the line 5, 5, inwFig. 3;v y

may be of any suitable construction, being.r f

whereby said disk is mountedl to rotate in.,

suitable. bearings. I haveshown thecylinder support or disk 5 as-mounted to rotate l within a suitable casing or frame, coniprising side members orplates 9, 10,v rovided with bearings 11, 12, ofv any suita le conf. struction for the lshafts 6, 8.'A If said frame or casing be made ofxplates' they maybe provided with suitable passages 9, 10, for'vthe; ycirculation of fluid for cooling purposes;y

while if said framebe made iii skeleton `fr`\or'ii'i"'4 `the cylinders may be air-cooled. Saidlfranie or casing is provided with a guidefgrcausf l ing reciprocation of the pistons13, 1`4,`,].5; i6, lof the corresponding cylinders". guide l" have shown comprises an"ou`te,ry band 1.7,

10, as byscrews 18, having-a *working face I17a, and ways 20., 2l, within saidband, which Y are sliown formed on the casing neinbers 9, 10,v Thisl piston controllinV guide 17, 20, 21 is shown of substantial elliptical eFig. 2)

forni on the workin(r surfaces (s and the axis of revotlution of ,the cylinders (the shafts 6, 8) is jouinaled within an'd at the securedto orib'etween the casing'niembers 9,

center' of ysaid elliptical iston guide. The'.r

pistons are provided wit 'means for co-act ing` with said elliptical guide, whereby for each revolution of each cylinder and its iston the corresponding piston has four stro esA (two outward and two inward strokes.) As a'convenient means for this purpose, I have shown each piston provided with a pin or shaft 22, providing gudgeons extending from opposite sides,V of the piston, being shown as secured` in across member 23 at the outer end of the pist-on. Upon saidgudgeons the rollers 24, are mounted to rotate, ybeing shownsupwported by suitable antifriction ball or roller earings 25. Said rollers 24, are ada ted to travel on the inner elli'tical wor ing face 17, of the uide 17 an( also upon the ways 20, 21 of t e elliptical piston guide causing reciprocations of the pistons during their revolution. The diameters of the rollers 24, arepreferably very slightly less than the distance between the elliptical workingsurface 17aL and the WaysA 20, 21 of the piston guide, so that when rollers 24 bear upon the elliptical guide 17, they will be out of contact with the ways 20, 21, and vice versa.

By means of the arrangements described,

it will be understood that during revolutionsof the cylinders when pressure or resistance 1s within a cylinder (such as ex losion, exhausting or compresslon pressurethe rollers 24, of the corresponding piston will pressagainst the guide 17, and that when a piston is moving outwardly on the suction or intake stroke the rollers 24 will bear upon the ways 20, 2l.

The means I have shown for admitting charges of fuel to the cylinders, igniting the charges, and exhausting the -s ent products of combustion from the cylin ers are as follows Vithin the bore 8a of the shaft or gudgeon 8 is 'located a tube 25, shown provided near itsiinner end with a partition 25X ro riding a chamber 26 communicating with ore 7 of shaft 6. The tube 25 has-a port 25a, adapted to communicate with corre- `spondingintake ports 27 (see Figs. 2- and 4) at or near the inner ends of the cylinders and correspondingly arrangedv in position, the tube 25 fitting snugly. adjacent 'to said ports, in a bore in the cylinder support or dlsk 5, indicated at 28 in Fig. 4. At or near their inner ends the cylinders also have exhaust ports, indicated at 29 in Fig. 5, and correspondingly arranged in the cylinders, adapted to successively register with exhaust 'port 26ct of chamber 28, to permit the escape of products of combustion through the bore of4 shaft 6.

Instead of permitting lthe' exhaust gases to escape through the open end of bore 7 of shaft 6, the gases may be permitted to escape through holes or slots 6a in said shaft communicating with said bore and inclosed within suitable hood or chamber 30, mounted upon said shaft, as by anti-friction bearings 30", and having an outlet indicated at 29a, which, when connected with an o1 iinary muicr, will preventl rotation of said hood, see Figs. 14 and: 15.. The engine ma,T be

- reference to the cylinders.

' he igniter openi'n 10"-Inay be elongated in the direction of a circle described around the axis of rotation of the cylinders, (see Fig. 11) which may extend for nearly 90 in the di- For'f this purpose I have shown an rection in which 'the cylinders rotate, whereby the spark lmay' bey maintained in the presence of the compressed and burning gases from openings'33 during a considerable portion of the explosion stroke. 4

The fuel inlet tube orvalve 25 may be held from rotation by any suitable means. For this purpose I have shown a yoke 34 secured to tubular valve 25 and provided with set screws 35 adaptedy to engage hub12 for holding tubular valve 25 in'positions of adjustment, and by this means also the ports of said tube may be adjusted angularly with res ect to the ports of the cylinders for regulatlng the inlet and exhaust of the gases with Said yoke, however, may be fastened to .any other suitable stationary part associated with the motor.

The frame of thernotor is shown provided with lugs 36 which may be fastened to any suitable support, although said frame ,may be supported in any suitable manner, or said lugs may be laced in any other suitable position upon t ie casing. l The operation of my improvements as a four stroke cycle -gas engine producing an explosion stroke for each revolution of a cylinder, may be described as follows A suitable carbureter'vor the llike being connected with tubular valve 25, and the igniter or spark plug being connected with an electric circuit arranged and controlled in any well known or suitable manner, and the cylinders then being rotated, as to the right in Figs..

ton: Lpon this explosion occurring, the pressure acting tangentially with respect to the disk 5, drives the latter in the direction I shown by the arrow, and the rollers 24, c arried by said piston, follow the increasing'A radii of the elliptical guide face 17a, as the piston advances on the explosion stroke, until the piston reaches the positionrepresented at a in Fig. 5. At this point, the eX- haust port 29,-.of the cylinder, reaches a po- `sition with respect to exhaust port 26a so that' vco n i'ruunicationfnerfit-begins to be estab-- lished between; saidlfort-s, and; as disk 5 con" tinuesto revolvaitlierollers24 'ofitheiaforei said, cylinderistill, bearing' awainstfthe elliptical guide face 17,7tsa-id rol ers now travelon the .decreasing radii of said guide face) force lthepiston back; .into the cylinder until it reachesthe; position indicated atl) in Fig., '5 (indicated 'also by the position of piston 15 in Fig; 2)rby which time the spent gases have beenexhausted ,or expelled from the correspondi'ngcylinder,5 and then the inlet port 27 ,of saidI cylinder. begins, during further revolutiomito'Y register. with the inlet port 25?, as indicatedby the position vof the piston and Aports at, cin ,F 4. f At this point the 'rollers 24 in place of-,liearing against the inner face 17*v ofthe piston guide, find a seat or seats upon the elliptical ways 20, 21, and.

durinfrthe continued .revolution throufrh the b Z'S .neXtguarter portion .fof the elliptical guide l the cylinder, and when the piston reaches the sively in order.

that anyA desired niunben of cylinders may be position shown at .d in said figure (indicated also by tlieiposition ofpiston 16' in Fig. 2)-

the ports 2521 and Z'Yfn'ill have closed. As the` disk continues to rotate, the rollers 24 of its piston again engage thefourth quarter of the elliptical surface (traveling along the next decreasing rad ii) thusforcing the piston back intothe cylinder and compressing the charge therein, V'andrwhenfsucli piston againv reaches its 'lirst namedpositiomindicated at e in Fig. l-4explosion again occurs. From the description-givenabove ofthe revolution of onecylinder it will/,be.understood thatan eX- `@lesion occurs once in each revolution of such bylinder. having four cylindersand pistonsfitted to the support 5i, it will be obvious that `there `will be four explosion strokes for each :ompleteirevolution of support 5, the' explosions in the cylinders following succeslt Vwill also be understood ittedtoa rotating. support (limited ,only by thediniensionspf thevjsupport and cylinders) all thepistons oflsuchzcylinders working in corresponding order with the elliptical guide to produce an explosion stroke in e-ach cylinder for every revolution thereof.

Some of the advantages of my improvements may be enumerated as follows: Expansion takes place behind a piston which is practically free and the moment of rotation or torque'is alwaysqangent to a circle of revolution of the cylinders, suoli force being practically the same whether the explosion occurs near the beginning of the stroke of the piston or toward the end thereof*due allorwance being made, of course',- for theloss eliarrfe-v-as distinfvuished from the Ordinar b explosion motor 'havinga crank connected* with the piston, wherein'explosionsuocoui',' i

normally, about as the piston is on' thepoii'itE lof beginning its Working stroke, when thev 'crankis-least 1n a position to convert the ower of the explosion into useful torque,

t will lthus be seen thatwith my improve' ments full leverage', equal to the'distance fromthe axis of rotation of thelcylinder to its? longitudinal axis, is constantly in position to Aact with the explosion and expansion forces of the gases (aswell as for exhausting'- taking in and com ressinfr the vases as dis- ?J C Z5 tinguished from the varying leverage of -a motor utilizing a crank,'a nd by reason'ofthe elliptical piston guide such full and constant leverage is exerted four tiines during each revolution of each cylinder. The'motor is simple and durable in construction, contains no small or delicate parts and, for the power developed,.compared .with motors having cranks and. cylmders of similar bore and stroke, is relatively light in weight..

lt will be evident that practically any number of disk and cylinder units may be arranged on or connected with a single shaft, such as side by side, the disposal of the several cylinders around the axis of rotation being so arranged thatpower strokes or explosions may follow each other at relatively short intervals thereby permitting substan- 5 tially constant torque'upon said shaft.

Lubrication may be effected in any suitable manner as by Well known oil holes inthe.

bearings communicating with a helical or other groove cu t in the condave'bearing surface and communicating with the interior of the casing'adjacent the sides of disk 5, so that the rotation ol'V the shafts 6 and 8 'carries the oil inwardly, and when it reaches the surface of the disk centrifugal force causes the oil to travel toward the periphery of the disk, A

andit is iinally deposited within'the elliptical chamber where' it serves to lubricate thef parts by splash". vSuitable passages maya-lso be provided through the walls of the cylinders. By having the sides of the disk 5 and the parts of the casing that come in contact therewith properly ground and fitted. there will be a film of oil between the sides; of the disk and ysaid plates, providing ane'fiif cient lubricationand preventing the leakage of gases from ,the cylinders into the elliptical case, should there be a tendency to such escape from threlioles 33 for ignition.'

Any desired number of cylinders maybe provided on a disk or support 5, by properly proportioning the dimensions thereof to the dimensions ofthe cylinders.

While I have illustrated and described an embodiment of my invention, it will be une5' of power, in the latter case, through a reducl derstood that the arrangements shown and .cylinders for lubrication of `the pistons and substantially tangentially with respect to itsaxis of rot-ation, means for rotatively supporting said cylinder, a piston-for said'cylinder, means for causing a-given point of said piston to-describe anl approximately ellip-- tical path or curve'around its axis of rotation during. one revolution of the cylinder to 'cause the piston to make four strokes during 'such4 revolution, and means to admit fluid vto and discharge it from said cylinder.

3a causing said piston to reciprocate four tiines in its cylinder durlng one revolution'thereof,

2. A motor vcomprising a cylinder disposed substantially tangentially with respect to its- 'axis of rotation, a support for said cylinder, a

pistonI for said cylinder, anv4 elliptical guide having its, center substantially coincident with the axis of said support, means connecting said piston Withsaid elliptical'guide'ior causing said piston to reciprocate iourl timesl in its cylinder during one revolution thereof, Aand means to admit fluid from said cylinder".l

A motor comprising a cylinder disposed substantially tangentiallywith respect lto its axis of rotationfa support forsaid cylinder, a piston for said cylinder, an elliptical uide to andldischargeit aving its -center substantially coincident.

'with the axis of said support, means connect-l ing said' piston with' said elliptical guide for' said cylinder having inlet and exhaust'ports' near its inner end, separate inlet and exhaust ports'A to communicate therewith, and means to ignite compressed charges in saidcylinder.'

4. 'A motor comprising a lurality of cylinders disposed substantia y tangentially with respect to their 'axis of rotation, a rot'ative su port for said cylinders, pistons for said cy inders,V an elliptical guide having its axis vlsubstantially concentric with the axis .of v

rotation of said cylinder support, means peratively'connecting said pistons lwith said 'elliptical guide to cause each of saidpistons toA reciprocate'four times-during each com-v plete revolution'oi each cylinder', and means to admit Liluid to andl discharge iiuid from said cylinders successively.

5. A motor comprising a pluralityof cyl- 'aplpended claims, Without departingl casingl independently of sa inders disposed substantially'- .tangentially withrespect-to their axis of rotation',- a rotas-v eratively connectingv said istons with 'said' elliptical guide to causeeac -ofsaid' pistons toreciprocate four timesduringje'ach complete revolution oi' veach cylinder, means'toadmit fluid to and discharge uid from said cylinders successively ,said cylinders having ports, and an igniter located positionto communicate with said, ports of'ysaid cylinders.'V

6. Aim'otor'comprising a rotative support provided with a plurality of cylinders substanltially'tangentiallydis osed with respect to the ,axis of rotation or' sai support, pistons in'said cylinders, sai'd'support having hollow shafts, a ,casing `'containing sai-d, sup ort land cylinders, and' provi-ded Withliu s' receiving. said shafts, said cylinders having inlet and exhaust ports, means tocontrol the iloW. of gases through said ports and lhollow shafts said cylinders having'ignition ports in their sidewalls, a spark plug supported by said port and having an elongated opening tocoact-witli the.cylinder ignitionports to i nite cylinder supgases in'said cylinders throughsaid ign1tion,

ports, andan elliptical guideto cause said pistons each to reciprocate four times during each' revolution of each cylinder'.

' 7 A motor comprising la rotative support 'provided with a plurality of cylinders substantially-1tangentially disposed with 'respect to the. axis o f-rotationgof said support,

pistons lin said cylinders, said support having hollow shafts, a casing `containing said sup.- port and cylinders, and provided with. hu s receivinofsaidv shafts, said cylinders having inlet and iiow of gases through' saidports Vand hollowsliafts, said cylinders having ignition ports, means'- to 'ignite gas .through saidv 4ignition ports,l an' elliptical n1 said lcylinders exhaust ports, means to control the guide disposed wit'hout--sair-i'cylinders,` and means connected `With mid pistons to co-act" `With said guide to cause four reciprocations oi said pistons during each revolution thereof.

FRANK Q. AXTELL.. lWitnesses:

" T. F. BoURN

US36325907A 1907-03-19 1907-03-19 Motor. Expired - Lifetime US877977A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2417894A (en) * 1943-09-23 1947-03-25 Gienn J Wayland Rotary diesel engine
US2439150A (en) * 1943-03-31 1948-04-06 Frederick H Smith Internal-combustion engine
US3788286A (en) * 1971-04-02 1974-01-29 J Brewer Piston engine
EP0394763A1 (en) * 1989-04-27 1990-10-31 Josef Pirc Internal combustion engine

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2439150A (en) * 1943-03-31 1948-04-06 Frederick H Smith Internal-combustion engine
US2417894A (en) * 1943-09-23 1947-03-25 Gienn J Wayland Rotary diesel engine
US3788286A (en) * 1971-04-02 1974-01-29 J Brewer Piston engine
EP0394763A1 (en) * 1989-04-27 1990-10-31 Josef Pirc Internal combustion engine

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