US857768A - Method and apparatus for raising liquids by compressed air. - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for raising liquids by compressed air. Download PDF

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US857768A
US857768A US26618105A US1905266181A US857768A US 857768 A US857768 A US 857768A US 26618105 A US26618105 A US 26618105A US 1905266181 A US1905266181 A US 1905266181A US 857768 A US857768 A US 857768A
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liquid
air
pipe
nozzle
discharge pipe
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US26618105A
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Robert Stirling
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Robert Stirling
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04FPUMPING OF FLUID BY DIRECT CONTACT OF ANOTHER FLUID OR BY USING INERTIA OF FLUID TO BE PUMPED; SIPHONS
    • F04F5/00Jet pumps, i.e. devices in which flow is induced by pressure drop caused by velocity of another fluid flow
    • F04F5/44Component parts, details, or accessories not provided for in, or of interest apart from, groups F04F5/02 - F04F5/42
    • F04F5/46Arrangements of nozzles

Description

No. 857,768. PATENTED JUNE 25, 1907. R. STIRLING. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR RAISING LIQUIDS BY GOMPRBSSED AIR.

APPLICATION FILED JUNE 20.1905.

. 3 SHEETS-SHEET 1.

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i.) [LLJQJ- //v VENTO/Q A A4- M Aa/L W/ rA/ESSES fom PATENTRD JUNE 25, 1907,

R. STIRLING. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR RAISING LIQUIDS BY COMPRESSED AIR.

APPLICATION FILED JUNE 20,1905.

3 SHEETS-SHEET 2.

MTA/assis.-

PATENTED JUNE 25, 190'?.

R. STIRLING. METHOD AND APPARATUS POR RAISING LIQUIDS BY GOMPRESSED AIR.

APPLICATION FILED JUNE 20.1905.

3 SHEETS-SHEET 3.

/NVE/VTOR W/T/VES SES NITED sTATEs PATENT OFFICE.l

ROBERT STERLING,- or IsURRET, ENGLAND. METHOD ANaAPPAR/uus Foa msm@ uoums Y coMPRrssEn Am.

Speccatoli of Letters Patent.

Application filed Tune 20,1905. Serial No. 266,181. f

.To aZZ whom it may concer/t:

Be it known that I, ROBERT STIRLING, of

The Anchorage, Dormans Park, Surrey, England, engineer, have invented a certain new and useful Improved Method and Apparatus for Raising Liquids by Compressed Air,` of which the following is a specification.

This invention relates to apparatus for raising liquids by compressed air.

The object of the invention is to provide an apparatus which will work efhciently and 'economically in deep wells generally, and in wells where the surface of the liquid is at a considerable depth below the surface of the ground andthe depth of the liquid Small in comparison therewith.

Various means have been tried with a view to improving the eiiiciency of liquid-raising apparatus of the air-lift type. It has heretofore been proposed to so form the air and liquid inlets to the discharge pipepas to obtain, under given conditions, the maximum;

mergence -was not attainable, or, in othery words, when the ratio of the distance of the .nozzle below the surface of the liquid was to the distance from the surface of the liquid to the discharge much less than -the ratio of 9 to 6, the well was pronounced unsuitable for air-lift pumping.

N ow I have discovered that the efliciency of air-lift apparatus can be greatly improved,

l and a steady and regular discharge obtained,

mately equal to that of the mixture of iq'uid` above the liquid inlet 5o by causing the liquid to enter therising or discharge pipe at a velocity which is approxiand air in the discharge pi e. immediately or in ets. The ideal conditions are attained when the velocity of the entering'liquid is precisely lthe same as that of the mixture above it, but I have found in practice that these conditions may be somewhat widely departed from while still obtaining to a greater or less degree the advantages of my invention. The speed of the entering liquid may be somewhat below that of the mixture, or it may be considerably above the speed of the mixture and important results still be obtained. I have found in practice that the velocity of the entering liquid may be2 or 3 times that of the mixture with good results, while if raised materially beyond this speed the efficiency of the apparatus decreases, while with the inlet speed 8 o'r 10 times the speed of the mixture,`

as in the ap aratus hereinbefore referred to, a considerabll These variations in relative speed whi'ch lie within the scope lof my invention are intended` to be included, for the Want of a better term, in the phrase approximately equal .to the velocity of the mixture, or any phrase of like import used herein. Generally I have found that satisfactory results are obtained` when the parts are so proportioned that the velocity of the entering'liquid is not greater than that which would be ue to a head of 10 per cent. of the submergence. In other words, the entering liquids given the velocity which it would have 1f permitted to flow unimpeded into a pipel the end of which was submerged 1/10 'of .the actual degree of submergence in practice. Under these conditions a considerably greater speed is given to the liquid than to the mixture. This is advanta eous, as the level of the Water in a given We l is apt to vary greatly, and When at its lowest point the inlet speed is substantially reduced. Such reduction should not carry it `materially below the speed of the mixture.

" An important feature of invention is that the submergence of less than 50 per cent. can be worked with greater advantage, the a paratus being adapted to be placed below tle level of the liquid at a depthwhich bears a ratio to the depth from the surface of the liquid in the well to thepoint of discharge of less than 4 to 6. Thus a saving is eected due to length of piping, and to less air pressure being necessary as'the amount of lsubmergence is less, and wells hitherto unsuited for air-lift pumps can be Worked by this means. By myv invention the slip of air through mum, and Waste of energy change of speed is obviated.

In practicing my invention I provide a nozzle or nozzles for admitting the liquid in suitably determined volume and velocity to resulting from e drop in efficiency takes place.

the liquid is reduced to the mini-` Patented June 25, 1907. V

in the material of the piping, in the friction A IIO in and through the nozzle or nozzles equal to,

or approximately equal to, the initial velocity of the mixture of liquid and air 1n the discharge pipe immediately above the nozzle or nozzles.' In other words, the sectional area of the liquid inlet passage or passages in the nozzle or nozzles bears the same or approximately the same proportion to the area of the discharge pipe, rising pipe or the like as the volume of liquid passing through the nozzle or nozzles in a given time bears to the volume of air and liquid passing through the discharge pipe or the like immediately above the nozzle or nozzles in that time.

The compressed air is admitted in the usual or any convenient way to the liquid in the discharge pipe or the like, above the nozzle or nozzles through which the liquid enters. The assage or passages above the nozzle or nozz es for the admission of the compressed air should be of such area that little or no resistance is presented to the entering air. v

Referring now to the drawings:-Figure l is a general view of one form of apparatus made in accordance with this invention, in which the air supply pipe is outside the discharge pipe. Fig. 2 isa section of the apparatus Showing the air inlet and one liquid inlet nozzle. Fig. 3 is ageneral view ofamodified form of apparatus in which the air supply pipe is disposed outside the discharge pipe, Fig. 4 is a section showing an air inlet and one liquid inlet nozzle adapted for use with the general arrangement shown in Fig. 3. Fig. 5 is a sectional plan thereof. Fig. 6 is a general view of a modified form of apparatus in which the air supply pipe is disposed inside the discharge pipe. Fig. 7 is a section showing the air inlet and the liquid inlet comprising several nozzles adapted for use with the general arrangement shown in Fig. 6. Fig. 8 is a sectional plan thereof. Fig. 9 is a section showing the construction of Fig. 2, with the tapered portion omitted.

a is the well in which the apparatus is disposed, .b is the air supply pipe, c the discharge pipe,- d the liquid inlet and comprises one or more nozzles, e the air inlet and fthe li uid supply pipe.

n operation, the air is forced down on to the surface of the liquid, vand the pressure thereon increases until the level of the liquid `is depressed sufhciently'to enable the airto get to the air inlet or inlets above the nozzle. The air then enters below the column of liquid in the discharge pipe, which is thus partly aerated and discharged. The air continues to enter the dischargepipe, and owing to the relative sectional areas of the nozzle inlet and the discharge pipe, the quantity of liquid entering the discharge pipe through the nozzle or nozzles is automatically regulated by the weight of the laerated column in the discharge pipe to an extent such that the velocity of this iniiow is equal to or approximately equal to the velocity of the aerated liquid in the discharge pipe immediately above the nozzle or nozzles, that is to say, above the tapered portion 76. The inlet area of the nozzle or nozzles is proportioned to this quantity which is predetermined, and can be readily calculated by known methods and formulae used in designing air lift pumping apparatus, taking into account the quantity of liquid which can be economically discharged thrcugh a pipe of-given area, and the ratio between the quantities of air and liquid depending on the height of lift andthe depth of submergence. As the inlet is restricted so that the liquid enters the discharge pipe at the same or approximately the same velocity as the initial velocity of the mixture of air and liquid and as the volume is such that it is sufiiciently lightened to form a rising column by the entering air then slip of the air through the liquid is avoided and there is practically no waste of energy due to change of speed and the efficiency of the apparatus is established. i

The proportions just indicated may be varied considerably without departing from the invention. Preferably the velocity of the incoming liquid is exactly that of the rising mixture, but as the depth of submergence is a factor in the velocity of the entering liquid, and as the'height of the water in most wells and hence the degree of submergence is variable, such precise velocities cannot in most cases be attained. Preferably the parts are so proportioned that the speed of the liquid and mixture are equal at the low-water point of the well, so that when the water is above this level the speed of the liquid becomes greater than that of the mixture. In most cases the variations can be provided for by proportioning the nozzle so that the velocity of the liquid is not greater than that which would be due to a head of 10 per cent of the submergence. i

In theform shown in Figs. l and 2, the discharge pipe c is disposed concentrically within the compressed air pipe b and only one nozzle is used in the' air inlet d. The pipes l) and f are connected by a socket g provided with a ledge h adapted to support the discharge pipe c provided with the air inlet e and the liquid inlet d in such a way that communication between the pipes f and c can only take place through the nozzle d. is a ring of suitable material disposed on the ledge h so as to make this tight joint.

lOO

the air inlet e which is connected to the pipe l) by several small holes, is of annular form and is directed upwardly into the passage 7c. This passage 7c is vvfor the purpose of providing an easy flow into the discharge pipe c'. y

In the form shown in Figs. 3 and 4 and 5 the discharge pipe c is outside and independent of the air pipe 1). The nozzle d is disposed inthe socket g and is surrounded by the upwardly directed air inlet e which is connected to thc air pipe b by a passage min the socket g.

In the form shown in Figs. 6, 7 and 8 the air pipe b"l passes concentrically down the discharge pipe c2 and terminates in a head adapted to fit tightly in the pipe czby means of a band n of any suitable material.- The air inlet is shown at e2. The liquid inlet d2 comprises several nozzles which are carried by the head and open into the annular passage fz at the foot of the discharge pipe c2, the combined area of said nozzles being equal to the area of 'the single nozzle proportioned as above described. Similarly several nozzles may be substituted for a single one in the liquidv inlets of the forms shown in Figs. 1 to 5, the total area of the inlet always being proportioned as above described.

In each of the forms hereinbefore referred to there is provided a tapering portion such as k' 7a2 to permit an easy flow in to the disi charge pipe. Such passage is not necessary and may bc omitted, asis shown in Fig. 9, which is in other respects substantially like the form shown in Fig. 2.

What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is 1. ln the raising of liquids by compressed air wherein a current of air is introduced into a discharge pipe which is in communication with the liquid below the level of the latter the method which consists in introducing the liquid into such Apipe atiapproximately the same velocity as that attained by the up-` wardly moving mixture of liquid and air immediately beyond the point of introduction of said liquid.

2. In the raising of liquids by-compressed air wherein a current of air is introduced into a discharge pipe which is in communication with the liquid below the level of the latter, the method which consists in -introducing the liquid into such pipe through a nozzle, the sectional area of whichis so restricted with relation to that of said pipe at a pointl immediately above such nozzle that the velocity of said liquid passing said nozzle is approximately equal to that of the mixture of air and liquid passing such point.

3. The method of raising liquid which consists in submerging the end of a pipe in such liquid, introducing a current of air thereinto at a point below the surface thereof, and relthat its velocity is approximately stricting the iniiow of liquid into such pipe so equal to that of the upwardly moving current of air and liquid. y

4. In an air lifting apparatus for liquids, va discharge pipe, an air inlet thereto, and aliquid inlet thereto, the cross sectional area of said liquid inlet and said discharge ipe being so proportioned that the Huid) passing 'through said liquid inlet and that. portion of said pipe immediatelybeyond the same shall move at approximately the same velocity.

5. In an air lifting apparatusfor liquids, a.

discharge pipe, an air inlet thereto, and a nozzle adapted to introduce the liquid intoy such pipe, said pipe and nozzle having their cross-sectional areas so proportioned that the fluids passing through said nozzle and that portion of said pipe which is immediately beyond the same shall move at approximately the same velocity.

6. In an apparatus for raising liquid by compressed air wherein a current of air is introduced into a discharge pipe which is in communication with the Vliquid below the level of the latter, a discharge'pipe so proportioned with relation to the liquid inlet that the liquid introduced into suchV pipe shall move at approximately the samev-elocity as that attained by the upwardly moving mixture of liquid and air immediatelybeyond v the air.

7 In the raising of liquids by compressed air wherein a current of air is introduced into a discharge pipe which is in communication with the liquid'below the level of the-latter the method which consists in introducing the liquid into such 4pipe at a velocity approximately equal to that of the mixture of liquid and air above the liquid inlet, but not greater than that due to a head of 10%gof submergence.

8. 'In the raising of liquids by compressed air wherein a current of air is introduced. into a discharge pipe which is Ain communication with the liquid below the level of the latter point of introduction of the liquid and the method which consists in introducing the liquid into such pi e through anozzle the sectional area of whidh is so restricted with relation to that of said pipe at al point immediately above such nozzle that the velocity of said li uid passing said nozzle is not` greater than t at dueto a head of 10% of submergence.

9. The method of raising liquid which consists in submer'g'ing the end of. a pipe in such liquid, introducing a current of air thereinto at a point below the surface thereof, and rstricting the iniiow of liquid into such pipe so that its velocity is not greater than that due to a head of 10% of submer ence whereby the velocity'of the entering iquid approximates that of the mixture above it.

l0. In an air lifting apparatus for liquids, a

IOO

IOV

izo

i' to a head of 10% of submergence.

11. In an air lifting apparatus for liquids, a discharge pipe, an air inlet thereto, and a nozzle adapted to introduce the liquid into such pipe said pipe and nozzle having their cross-sectional areas so proportioned that the fluids passing 4through said nozzle and that portion of said pipe which is immediately beyond the same shall move at a velocity not greater ythan that due to ahead of of submergence.`

12. In anapparatus Jfor raising liquid by compressed air wherein a current of air is introduced into a discharge pipe which is in communication with the liquid below the level of the latter', a discharge pipe so proportioned with relation to lthe liquid inlet that the liquid introduced into such pipe shall move at a velocity not greater-than that due to a head of 10% of submergence.

13. In the raising of liquids by compressed air wherein a current of air is introduced into a discharge pipe which is in communication with the liquid below the level of the latter, the method which consists in introducing the liquid into such pipe through a plurality of nozzles the sectional area of which is so restricted with relation to that of said pipe at a point immediately above such nozzles that Awhich is immediately beyond the same shall move at approximately the same velocity.'

15'. In the raising of liquids by compressed air wherein a curre`nt ofsa1r is introduced into a discharge pipe which is in communication with the liquid below the level of the latter, the method which consists in introducing the liquid into such pipe through a plurality of nozzles the sectional area of which is so restricted with relation to that of said pipe at a point immediately above such nozzles that the velocity of said liquid passing said nozzles is not greater than that due to a head of 10% of submergence.

16. In an air lifting apparatus for liquids, a discharge pipe, an air inlet thereto, and a plurality of nozzles adapted to introduce the liquid into such pipe said pipe and nozzles having their cross-sectional areas so proportioned that the fluids passing through said nozzles and that portion of said pipe which is immediately beyond the same shall move at a velocity not greaterthan that due to a head of 10% of submergence.

17. The combination with a well or the like7 of an air lifting apparatus having a liquid inlet at a predetermined depth of submergence, and a ,discharge pipe for the mixture of air and liquid beyond said inlet, said inlet and discharge pipe immediately beyond said inlet being so proportioned with relation to the depth of submergence that the incoming liquid flows at approximately the same lvelocity as the mixture in such portion of the discharge pipe.

18. The combination with a well or the like, of an air lifting apparatus having a discharge pipe, and a nozzle ada ted to introduce liquid into such pipe, suc nozzle being arranged at a predetermined depth of submergence, Said pipe and nozzle having their cross-sectional areas so proportioned with relation to the depth of submergence that the incoming liquid flows at approximately the same velocity as the mixture of air and liquid in said discharge pipe immediately beyond said nozzle.

In witness whereof, l have hereunto si ned my name in the presence oftwo subscri ing witnesses.

ROBERT STIRLING. l.llitnessesz REGrNALD EATON ELLIS, ROBERT MILTON S'SPEARPOINT.

US26618105A 1905-06-20 1905-06-20 Method and apparatus for raising liquids by compressed air. Expired - Lifetime US857768A (en)

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Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2468642A (en) * 1945-07-24 1949-04-26 Deming Co Pumping device
US3166020A (en) * 1961-09-20 1965-01-19 Hypro Engineering Inc Venturi mixer nozzle
US3826273A (en) * 1973-03-26 1974-07-30 Itt Pressure loss compensator
US4046492A (en) * 1976-01-21 1977-09-06 Vortec Corporation Air flow amplifier
US4090814A (en) * 1975-02-12 1978-05-23 Institutul National Pentru Creatie Stiintifica Si Tehnica Gas-lift device
US4200425A (en) * 1975-02-12 1980-04-29 Institutul National Pentru Creatie Stiintifica Si Tehnica-Increst Gas-lift device
US4322897A (en) * 1980-09-19 1982-04-06 Brassfield Robert W Airlift type dredging apparatus
US6547532B2 (en) * 2001-06-01 2003-04-15 Intevep, S.A. Annular suction valve
US20090324429A1 (en) * 2008-06-30 2009-12-31 Philip Azimov Static fluid mixing pump device
WO2011153995A1 (en) * 2010-06-02 2011-12-15 Egon Evertz K.G. (Gmbh & Co.) Suction device and suction method

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2468642A (en) * 1945-07-24 1949-04-26 Deming Co Pumping device
US3166020A (en) * 1961-09-20 1965-01-19 Hypro Engineering Inc Venturi mixer nozzle
US3826273A (en) * 1973-03-26 1974-07-30 Itt Pressure loss compensator
US4090814A (en) * 1975-02-12 1978-05-23 Institutul National Pentru Creatie Stiintifica Si Tehnica Gas-lift device
US4200425A (en) * 1975-02-12 1980-04-29 Institutul National Pentru Creatie Stiintifica Si Tehnica-Increst Gas-lift device
US4046492A (en) * 1976-01-21 1977-09-06 Vortec Corporation Air flow amplifier
US4322897A (en) * 1980-09-19 1982-04-06 Brassfield Robert W Airlift type dredging apparatus
US6547532B2 (en) * 2001-06-01 2003-04-15 Intevep, S.A. Annular suction valve
US20090324429A1 (en) * 2008-06-30 2009-12-31 Philip Azimov Static fluid mixing pump device
WO2011153995A1 (en) * 2010-06-02 2011-12-15 Egon Evertz K.G. (Gmbh & Co.) Suction device and suction method

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