US8567973B2 - Multiple-chip excitation systems for white light emitting diodes (LEDs) - Google Patents

Multiple-chip excitation systems for white light emitting diodes (LEDs) Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US8567973B2
US8567973B2 US12/398,059 US39805909A US8567973B2 US 8567973 B2 US8567973 B2 US 8567973B2 US 39805909 A US39805909 A US 39805909A US 8567973 B2 US8567973 B2 US 8567973B2
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
white light
light illumination
phosphor
nm
percent
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active, expires
Application number
US12/398,059
Other versions
US20090224652A1 (en
Inventor
Yi-Qun Li
Gang Wang
Li-De Chen
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Intematix Corp
Original Assignee
Intematix Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US3469908P priority Critical
Application filed by Intematix Corp filed Critical Intematix Corp
Priority to US12/398,059 priority patent/US8567973B2/en
Assigned to INTEMATIX CORPORATION reassignment INTEMATIX CORPORATION ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: LI, YI-QUN, CHEN, LI-DE, WANG, GANG
Publication of US20090224652A1 publication Critical patent/US20090224652A1/en
Priority claimed from US14/064,084 external-priority patent/US8740400B2/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US8567973B2 publication Critical patent/US8567973B2/en
Assigned to EAST WEST BANK reassignment EAST WEST BANK SECURITY INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: INTEMATIX CORPORATION, INTEMATIX HONG KONG CO. LIMITED
Application status is Active legal-status Critical
Adjusted expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L33/00Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L33/48Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof characterised by the semiconductor body packages
    • H01L33/50Wavelength conversion elements
    • H01L33/501Wavelength conversion elements characterised by the materials, e.g. binder
    • H01L33/502Wavelength conversion materials
    • H01L33/504Elements with two or more wavelength conversion materials
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/0883Arsenides; Nitrides; Phosphides
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7728Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals comprising europium
    • C09K11/7732Halogenides
    • C09K11/7733Halogenides with alkali or alkaline earth metals
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7728Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals comprising europium
    • C09K11/7734Aluminates; Silicates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7728Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals comprising europium
    • C09K11/7737Phosphates
    • C09K11/7738Phosphates with alkaline earth metals
    • C09K11/7739Phosphates with alkaline earth metals with halogens
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7766Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals containing two or more rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7774Aluminates; Silicates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7783Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals containing two or more rare earth metals one of which being europium
    • C09K11/7792Aluminates; Silicates
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21KNON-ELECTRIC LIGHT SOURCES USING LUMINESCENCE; LIGHT SOURCES USING ELECTROCHEMILUMINESCENCE; LIGHT SOURCES USING CHARGES OF COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL; LIGHT SOURCES USING SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES AS LIGHT-GENERATING ELEMENTS; LIGHT SOURCES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F21K9/00Light sources using semiconductor devices as light-generating elements, e.g. using light-emitting diodes [LED] or lasers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21VFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THEREOF; STRUCTURAL COMBINATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES WITH OTHER ARTICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F21V9/00Elements for modifying spectral properties, polarisation or intensity of the light emitted, e.g. filters
    • F21V9/30Elements containing photoluminescent material distinct from or spaced from the light source
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L25/00Assemblies consisting of a plurality of individual semiconductor or other solid state devices ; Multistep manufacturing processes thereof
    • H01L25/03Assemblies consisting of a plurality of individual semiconductor or other solid state devices ; Multistep manufacturing processes thereof all the devices being of a type provided for in the same subgroup of groups H01L27/00 - H01L51/00, e.g. assemblies of rectifier diodes
    • H01L25/04Assemblies consisting of a plurality of individual semiconductor or other solid state devices ; Multistep manufacturing processes thereof all the devices being of a type provided for in the same subgroup of groups H01L27/00 - H01L51/00, e.g. assemblies of rectifier diodes the devices not having separate containers
    • H01L25/075Assemblies consisting of a plurality of individual semiconductor or other solid state devices ; Multistep manufacturing processes thereof all the devices being of a type provided for in the same subgroup of groups H01L27/00 - H01L51/00, e.g. assemblies of rectifier diodes the devices not having separate containers the devices being of a type provided for in group H01L33/00
    • H01L25/0753Assemblies consisting of a plurality of individual semiconductor or other solid state devices ; Multistep manufacturing processes thereof all the devices being of a type provided for in the same subgroup of groups H01L27/00 - H01L51/00, e.g. assemblies of rectifier diodes the devices not having separate containers the devices being of a type provided for in group H01L33/00 the devices being arranged next to each other
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/0001Technical content checked by a classifier
    • H01L2924/0002Not covered by any one of groups H01L24/00, H01L24/00 and H01L2224/00
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L33/00Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L33/48Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof characterised by the semiconductor body packages
    • H01L33/50Wavelength conversion elements
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B20/00Energy efficient lighting technologies
    • Y02B20/16Gas discharge lamps, e.g. fluorescent lamps, high intensity discharge lamps [HID] or molecular radiators
    • Y02B20/18Low pressure and fluorescent lamps
    • Y02B20/181Fluorescent powders

Abstract

Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward white light illumination systems (so called “white LEDs”) that comprise a multi-chip excitation source and a phosphor package. In a two-chip source, the two LEDs may be UV-emitting and blue emitting, or blue-emitting and green-emitting. The phosphor package is configured to emit photoluminescence in wavelengths ranging from about 440 nm to about 700 nm upon co-excitation from the first and second radiation sources. The photoluminescence emitted by the phosphors is at least 40 percent of the total power in the white light illumination, and the portion of the total power in the white light illumination contributed by the first and second radiation sources (LEDs) is less than about 60 percent. This ratio can vary in alternative embodiments, and includes 50/50, 60/40, 70/30, and 80/20, respectively. The white light illumination emitted by the system has in one embodiment a color rendering index (CRI) greater than about 90.

Description

CLAIM OF PRIORITY

This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/034,699 filed Mar. 7, 2008, by Yi-Qun Li et al., titled “Phosphor Systems for White Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs).” U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/034,699 is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

Embodiments of the present invention are directed in general to white LED illumination systems. More specifically, embodiments of the present invention are directed to white LED illumination systems comprising a multiple-chip (LED) excitation means for co-excitation of the members of a phosphor package included in the white light illumination system.

2. State of the Art

Devices known as “white LED's” are relatively recent innovations designed to replace the conventional incandescent light bulb. It was not until LED's emitting in the blue/ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum were developed that it became possible to fabricate a white light illumination source based on an LED. Economically, white LED's have the potential to replace incandescent light sources (light bulbs), particularly as production costs fall and the technology develops further. In particular, the potential of a white light LED is believed to be superior to that of an incandescent bulb in lifetime, robustness, and efficiency. For example, white light illumination sources based on LED's are expected to meet industry standards for operation lifetimes of 100,000 hours, and efficiencies of 80 to 90 percent. High brightness LED's have already made a substantial impact on such areas of society as traffic light signals, replacing incandescent bulbs, and so it is not surprising that they will soon provide generalized lighting requirements in homes and businesses, as well as other everyday applications. The term “white LED” may be something of a misnomer as no LED emits “white light,” but it is used throughout the art to describe a lighting system where a blue/UV LED provides energy to another component of the system, one or more phosphors, which emit light when excited by the pumping LED, and where the excitation radiation from the pumping LED is combined with the light from the phosphor(s) to produce the final white light “product.”

As described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,476,338 to Sakane et al., there are in the art generally two approaches to providing LED-based white light illumination systems. In a conventional multi-chip type system the three primary colors are provided by red, green, and blue LEDs individually. A one-chip system comprises a blue LED in conjunction with a phosphor where the blue LED serves two purposes: the first being to excite the phosphor, and the second to contribute blue light which is combined with the light emitted by the phosphor to make the perceived white light combination.

According to Sakane et al. the one-chip type system has a preferable characteristic in that an LED-phosphor system can be dimensionally smaller than a multi-chip system, and simpler in design because the multiple drive voltages and temperature considerations of multiple LEDs do not have to be taken into account. Thus the cost to manufacture the system may be reduced. Further, by using a phosphor having a broad emission spectrum, the white emission from the system better approximates the spectrum of sunlight, and thus the color rendering properties of the system may be improved. For these reasons greater attention has been given to the one-chip rather than multiple-chip type systems.

The single-chip type systems may further be divided into two categories. In a first category, as alluded to earlier, light from a high luminescence blue LED and a phosphor emitting a yellow color as a result of excitation from the blue LED is combined, the white luminescence of the combined light obtained by using a complementary relation between the blue emission of the LED and the yellow emission of the phosphor. In the second category, the excitation source is an LED that emits in the near-ultraviolet or ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum, and the light from the phosphor package may include a blue-emitting phosphor, red-emitting phosphor, and green-emitting phosphor is combined to form white light. In addition to being able to adjust the color rendering properties of the white light with this type of system, an arbitrary emission color may also be produced by controlling the mixing ratios of the red, green, and blue photoluminescence.

The benefits of these single-chip systems are well appreciated in the art, but so too are their drawbacks when it comes to enhancing color rendering properties. For example, the white light emission from a typical one-chip system consisting of a blue LED and a yellow phosphor (such as YAG:Ce) is deficient in the longer wavelength side of the visible spectrum, resulting in a bluish white light appearance. The YAG:Ce yellow phosphor of the system does not help much in contributing to the needed 600 to 700 nm emission content, since its excitation band with the greatest efficiency is at about 460 nm, and the excitation range of this yellow phosphor is not particularly broad. Further disadvantages of this single-chip system are the disparities in the emission wavelength ranges of the blue LED, due to in part to the manufacturing process, and if these deviate from the optimal excitation range of the YAG:Ce-based yellow phosphor, there results a loss of wavelength balance between the blue light and the yellow light.

There are also disadvantages to this second category of single-chip systems. White light illumination formed by combining the photoluminescence from a UV or near-UV excited red, green, and blue phosphor system is also deficient in the longer wavelengths because the excitation and emission efficiencies of the red phosphor are lower compared to that of the other phosphors in the package. The white LED designer therefore may have little choices available other than to increase the ration of the red phosphor in the mixture relative to the blue and green phosphors. But this action may lead to an undesirable consequence: the ratio of the green phosphor to the others may now be insufficient and luminescence from the white LED may suffer. It would appear that a white color with high luminescence is difficult to obtain. And the color rendering properties are still nowhere near optimum as the red phosphor typically has a sharper emission spectrum than the others.

It is clear that multi-chip white light illumination systems suffer from disadvantages, not the least of which is a need for a plurality of voltage control systems and the increased heat production from the many individual chips needed to produce the white light's component colors. But each of the single-chip systems have their problems too, perhaps most notably being the inability to achieve an acceptable color rendering outcome. What is needed in the art is a white light illumination system with enhanced luminosity and color rendering, while at the same time achieving a balance with the need for more sophisticated drive and control systems.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward white light illumination systems (so called “white LEDs”) that comprise a multi-chip excitation source and a phosphor package (same as phosphor mixture). The multi-chip excitation source may be a two-chip source, a three-chip source, or excitation source for co-exciting a phosphor package where the radiation source contains more than three LEDs. In the case of a two-chip source, the two LEDs may be UV-emitting and blue emitting, or blue-emitting and green emitting. The three-chip source may contain a UV, blue, and green emitting source. There are essentially an infinite number of possibilities of chip combinations possible, but the essence of the concept is that the two-chip (or three-chip) source co-excites the phosphors in the phosphor package, and the multi-chip source and the phosphor package contribute varying amounts of power to the final white light illumination product.

In one embodiment, the source comprises a first radiation source emitting in wavelengths ranging from about 250 nm to about 410 nm, and a second radiation source for providing co-excitation radiation to the phosphor package, the source emitting in wavelengths ranging from about 410 nm to about 540 nm. This could be considered a two-chip source where the first source is a UV-emitting source, and the second source is a blue, blue-green, and/or green-emitting source. In another embodiment, the two-chip source comprises a first radiation source for providing co-excitation radiation to the phosphor package, the source emitting in wavelengths ranging from about 410 nm to about 480 nm; and a second radiation source for providing co-excitation radiation to the phosphor package, the source emitting in wavelengths ranging from about 480 nm to about 540 nm. This might be considered a two-chip source where the first chip is a blue-emitting LED, and the second chip is a green-emitting LED.

The phosphor package is configured to emit photoluminescence in wavelengths ranging from about 440 nm to about 700 nm upon co-excitation from the first and second radiation sources. The phosphor package includes at least one phosphor selected from the group consisting of a blue emitting phosphor, a green emitting phosphor, a yellow-green emitting phosphor, an orange emitting phosphor, and a red emitting phosphor, including combinations thereof. A large variety of phosphors are contemplated to be appropriate to carry out the present embodiments, and include aluminate-based phosphors, silicate-based phosphors, and nitride-based phosphors. This includes of course commercially available phosphors.

According to the present embodiments, the photoluminescence emitted by the phosphor package is at least 40 percent of the total power in the white light illumination, and the portion of the total power in the white light illumination contributed by the first and second radiation sources is less than about 60 percent. This ratio can vary in alternative embodiments, and includes 50 percent of the total power in the white light illumination, and the portion of the total power in the white light illumination contributed by the first and second radiation sources is less than about 50 percent, and systems where the ratio is 60/40, 70/30, and 80/20, respectively.

According to the present embodiments, the white light illumination emitted by the system has a color rendering index (CRI) greater than about 90. In alternative embodiments, the CRI is greater than about 80, and greater than about 70.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a plot of emission intensity versus wavelength for a two-LED radiation source providing excitation radiation to a two-phosphor system, the LEDs emitting at 402 and 454 nm, and the phosphors having peak emission intensities at 507 and 610 nm, respectively;

FIG. 2 is a plot of emission intensity versus wavelength for a two-LED radiation source providing excitation radiation to a three-phosphor system, the LEDs emitting at 402 and 454 nm, and the phosphors having peak emission intensities at 507, 550, and 610 nm, respectively;

FIG. 3 is a plot of emission intensity versus wavelength for a two-LED radiation source providing excitation radiation to a four-phosphor system, the LEDs emitting at 402 and 454 nm, and the phosphors having peak emission intensities at 450, 507, 550, and 610 nm, respectively;

FIG. 4 is a plot of emission intensity versus wavelength for a two-LED radiation source providing excitation radiation to a three-phosphor system, the LEDs emitting at 402 and 454 nm, and the phosphors having peak emission intensities at 507 and 610 nm, respectively;

FIG. 5 is a plot of emission intensity versus wavelength for a two-LED radiation source providing excitation radiation to a three-phosphor system, the LEDs emitting at 429 and 457 nm, and the phosphors having peak emission intensities at 507, 550, and 610 nm, respectively;

FIG. 6 is a plot of emission intensity versus wavelength for a two-LED radiation source providing excitation radiation to a two-phosphor system, the LEDs emitting at 454 and 523 nm, and the phosphors having peak emission intensities at 530 and 590 nm, respectively;

FIG. 7 is a plot of emission intensity versus wavelength for a single LED radiation source providing excitation radiation to a two-phosphor system, the LED emitting at 402 nm, and the phosphors having peak emission intensities at 538 and 586 nm, respectively;

FIG. 8 is a plot of emission intensity versus wavelength for a single LED radiation source providing excitation radiation to a four-phosphor system, the LED emitting at 402 nm, and the phosphors having peak emission intensities at 450, 507, 550, and 610 nm, respectively;

FIG. 9 is a plot of emission intensity versus wavelength for a single LED radiation source providing excitation radiation to a three-phosphor system, the LED emitting at 402 nm, and the phosphors having peak emission intensities at 507, 550, and 610 nm, respectively; and

FIG. 10 is a plot of emission intensity versus wavelength for a single LED radiation source providing excitation radiation to a two-phosphor system, the LED emitting at 429 nm, and the phosphors having peak emission intensities at 507 and 610 nm, respectively.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

In one embodiment of the invention, the white LED is comprised of two radiation sources and at least two phosphors types chosen from blue, green, yellow, orange or red. The relative intensity of the two radiation sources can be equal, or tuned to a special ratio to optimize the final LED performance, such as the brightness, efficiency, color and the color rendering index (CRI).

Characterization of Light Including White Light

One type of classification system developed to characterize the quality of white light was developed in 1965 by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE), and a summary of their recommendations has been reviewed by Ducharme et al. in U.S. Pat. No. 7,387,405. The CIE advised a measuring the color rendering properties of light sources based on a sample test color method. This method has been updated and is described in the CIE 13.3-1995 technical report titled “Method of Measuring and Specifying Color Rendering Properties of light sources,” the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference. In essence, the method involves the spectroradiometric measurement of the light source being tested. This data is multiplied by the reflectance spectrums of eight color sample. The resulting spectrums are then converted to tristimulus values based on the CIE 1931 standard observer. The shift of these values with respect to a reference light are determined for the uniform color space (UCS) recommended in 1960 by the CIE. The average of the eight color shifts is calculated to generate the General Color Rendering Index, known as the CRI. Within these calculations the CRI is scaled so that a perfect score equals 100, where “perfect” means using a source spectrally equal to a reference source (often sunlight and/or full spectrum light).

Artificial lighting generally uses the standard CRI to determine the quality of white light. If a white light yields a high CRI compared to sunlight and/or a full spectrum light, then it is considered to have a better quality in that it is more “natural,” and more likely to enable a colored surface to better rendered. But in addition to providing better quality white light, it is also highly desirable to generate specific colors of light. Light tends to be more orange to red in the morning, and more blue in the night or evening, so the ability to change, fine-tune, or control a specific color or range of colors within the full spectrum is also important.

As taught by Ducharme et al. in U.S. Pat. Publication 2007/0258240, white light is a mixture of different wavelengths of light, and thus it is possible to characterize it based on the component colors used to generate it. Different colors may be combined to generate white light, including but not limited to: 1) red, green, and blue, 2) light blue, amber, and lavender, and 3) cyan, magenta, and yellow. In fact, a combination of only two colors may be combined to generate light that still appears white to the eye if these two chosen colors are so-called complementary, and an example of this is narrow band sources (LEDs, or in the extreme case, lasers) emitting around 635 nm and 493 nanometers. These artificial whites may appear white to the human eye, but in other ways inferior to full spectrum light and/or natural sunlight in that they will appear artificial when shown on a colored surface. The reason this happens is the colored surface under examination absorbs and reflects wavelength regions differentially. If such a surface is hit by full spectrum white light or natural sunlight, which means light having component wavelengths in the visible band fully represented at reasonable and/or desired intensities, the surface will absorb and reflect perfectly. But the artificial white lights described in this paragraph having only two or three components do not contain the complete spectrum. To give an example of what different color rendering means in two different situations: a surface that reflects in the 500 to 550 nm range will appear deep-green under full spectrum light, but black under the hypothetical “white light” generated by the hypothetical two component system comprising two narrow band sources emitting at around 635 nm and 493 nanometers.

Optical Results

The optical results to be discussed in this section will be quantified by way of graphs that plot emission intensity of the system as a function of spectral wavelength. It is, in fact, convenient to start with the spectrum of a conventional blue LED plus yellow YAG:Ce phosphor, as exemplified by Chen et al. in U.S. Pat. Publication 2008/0203900. Their FIG. 1 shows that the spectrum is deficient in red but especially so in the green. They suggest adding LEDs that preferably emit light in the blue-green region of the spectrum; i.e. 480 to 500 nm, and in the amber-red region of the spectrum; i.e. 580 to 680 nm. Their FIG. 2 shows a spectrum that is obtained by adding a blue-green LED having a center wavelength of approximately 500 nm to the white light system whose elimination was shown in their FIG. 1.

The addition of this LED by Chen et al. produces a spectrum that is substantially more constant in luminosity as a function of wavelength than that of the two component blue LED and yellow phosphor (e.g. YAG:Ce) system. The spectrum from a three LED—one phosphor system is shown in their FIG. 3, where a third LED emitting from 580 to 680 nm has been added to the system. The intensity of this spectrum over a range 450 to 650 nm is substantially more constant than the single LED/single phosphor (e.g., blue LED/YAG:Ce yellow phosphor) or two component version of a white LED. The power in the second, blue-green LED and/or third, orange-red LED is a small fraction of the power in the first blue LED that provides blue light as well as excitation radiation to the yellow phosphor, and thus the overall efficiency of the system has only been slightly reduced, yet the overall color rendering ability of the three component system has been enhanced. Thus multiple LEDs have been shown to be effective from an overall efficiency point of view.

Though LEDs in addition to the traditional blue LED have been used in white light illumination systems, these supplementary LEDs are used to provide a component of light to the final white light product, and (to the inventors knowledge) not to provide an additional source of excitation radiation. The term “co-excitation” as used herein will mean that at least two different LEDs provide a combined excitation radiation covering two different wavelengths or wavelength ranges to a phosphor and/or phosphor mixture (also called phosphor package), which may include two or more phosphors. The at least two LEDs each provides excitation radiation to the phosphor package, and may include a combination of any of a UV or near-UV LED and a blue, green, or yellow LED, and even an orange LED if it is configured to excite a red phosphor. In fact, that is a principle of the embodiments of the present invention: an LED may be used to excite any phosphor whose excitation energy is equal to or less than the bandgap energy of the LED in question, or stated more generally, an LED emitting at a certain wavelength may excite a phosphor whose luminescence is at a wavelength lower in energy than that of the LED's emission. So a green LED, for example, may be used to excite a yellow phosphor, or perhaps more efficiently, an orange or red phosphor; this event happening in conjunction with the conventional blue LED exciting a yellow phosphor (and possibly also a green, orange or red phosphor, etc.).

The first three examples of the present embodiments are directed to a system comprising two excitation LEDs: the first radiation source emitting excitation radiation to a phosphor package in wavelength ranging from about 250 to 410 nm, and thus it might be considered a UV to near-UV LED, and a second radiation source in emitting light in a wavelength ranging from 410 to 480 nm, and so this excitation source is substantially the same as the conventional blue LED used in blue LED/yellow phosphor systems. The phosphor mixtures tested with this two-LED excitation configuration are built up in the following manner: in the first example the phosphor package is a green and an orange phosphor; in the second example it is a green, yellow, and orange phosphor; and in the third example it is a blue, green, yellow, and orange phosphor. The members of this phosphor package each emit in the 440 to 700 nm wavelength range. The innovative concept in this embodiment is the use of a UV excitation LED in addition to the conventional blue LED, both LEDs simultaneously providing excitation radiation to the phosphors. With regards to the phosphor package to which the UV and blue LED sources are providing excitation radiation, a wide variety of choices are available. But some phosphors, such as silicate-based phosphor having high quantum efficiency as the excitation wavelength decreases from 470 to 250 nm as taught by the inventors of the present disclosure, result in a an enhanced luminosity (brightness) achieved via the UV light source. Another advantage of using UV light source is that a phosphor with a shorter emission wavelength may be used to effectively absorb the UV light rather than the blue light from the excitation sources, such that the luminescence spectrum of the final product may cover a broader range of wavelengths, thus increasing the CRI value.

The results of the UV and blue LED excitation chips used in conjunction with a green phosphor designated G507 and an orange phosphor designated O610 are shown in FIG. 1. More will be said about the phosphors, particularly their compositions, later in this disclosure, but for now it will be noted that in this nomenclature, the letter is the color, and the number represents the wavelength at peak emission for that particular phosphor. The relative ratio of two phosphors was chosen to achieve a target CIE having x, y values close to (0.3, 0.3). So that other chip combinations and phosphor mixtures may be compared in a meaningful manner, the same CIE targets were chosen for the remaining nine examples. Thus brightness and CRI may be directly compared. In this first example the brightness was 31.32, and the CRI was 91.8, which shows immediately that color renderings over 90 CRI may be achieved with the present embodiments.

In the second example a yellow phosphor designated Y550 was added to the green and orange mix (G507 and O610, respectively) discussed previously in the first example. FIG. 2 shows the emission spectrum from a white LED utilizing the same UV and blue LED chip sources from the first example (402 nm and 454 nm). This time blue/UV LEDs co-exciting a yellow, green, and orange phosphor package produced white light illumination with more than a 30% increase in brightness. This increase in brightness was achieved via the addition of the yellow phosphor, as substantially all the other variables of the experiments were held constant. The white light produced in this second example may be characterized as having a brightness of 40.64, and a CRI of 80.7.

Unlike the first example that involved a mixture of two phosphors, in this second embodiment with a three-phosphor mixture in the phosphor package, there is created an essentially infinite number of blending ratios that can achieve the same target CIE. Generally, the addition of a yellow phosphor provided the advantage on high brightness, while the green and orange phosphors work advantageously to increase the CRI. In other words, optimization of the CRI value and the brightness may be achieved separately by fine tuning the ratio of the yellow phosphor concentration to that of the orange and green phosphors.

In the third example, a blue phosphor designated B450 was added to the green, yellow, and orange mix (G507, Y550, O610, respectively) discussed in the second example. FIG. 3 shows the emission spectrum from a white LED utilizing the same UV and blue LED chip sources as in the first and second examples (402 nm and 454 nm). The brightness was 23.62, the CRI 89.1. The blue phosphor effectively absorbs the UV light from this multi-chip excitation source, while being substantially transparent to the blue light from the blue LED, allowing it to co-excite the yellow, green, and orange phosphors in the system. It should be noted that the blue phosphor used in this particular test demonstrated less than 50% quantum efficiency at the 402 nm excitation wavelength, and it is contemplated that a greater than 30% increase in brightness may be achieved with blue phosphors that have a 70% quantum efficiency.

In the fourth and fifth examples of the present embodiments, a different chip set was used. Here, the two chips provided co-excitation radiation at wavelengths centered at 429 and 457 nm, respectively. These are examples of a two-chip co-excitation source where the first radiation source emits light in a wavelength ranging from 410 to 440 nm, and where the second radiation source emits light at wavelengths ranging from 440 to 480. So whereas the chip set in the first three examples might be described as a UV and blue combination, the chip set in the fourth and fifth examples are a purple (could also be described as violet) LED and blue LED set. The purple LED emits at 429 nm, which is just at the shortest end of the spectrum where the human eye is able to detect illumination. The other LED is a blue LED which emits at 457 nm, substantially the same as that used in the conventional white LED (blue LED/YAG:Ce). The blue and purple multi-chip set was used to provide co-excitation radiation to two different phosphor packages, as described below.

In the fourth example the phosphor package contained two phosphors, one green and one orange (G507, and O610, respectively). The two phosphors in this package photoluminesce at wavelengths ranging from 480 to 700 nm. The 410 to 440 nm radiation will contribute light itself to final white light illumination product, and thus determine at least in part the color and brightness of the white light, in contrast to the chip set containing the UV LED. On the other hand, it demonstrates a greater efficiency in exciting yellow and green phosphors, so the major advantage of such a combination is to allow the use of shorter emission wavelength phosphors in order to achieve high CRI value while maintaining brightness.

A spectrum of the white light illumination from this system is shown in FIG. 4. The brightness of the illumination was 38.37, and the CRI was 92.0.

In the fifth example a yellow phosphor designated Y550 was added to the green and orange mix (G507 and O610, respectively) discussed previously in the fourth example. FIG. 5 shows the emission spectrum from a white LED utilizing the same purple and blue LED chip radiation sources from the first example (429 nm and 457 nm, respectively, representing radiation sources of 410 to 440 nm, and 440 to 480 nm sources, respectively). This time the purple/blue LEDs co-exciting a yellow, green, and orange phosphor package produced white light illumination with more than a 30% increase in brightness. As in the transition from the second to third examples, this increase in brightness from the fourth to fifth examples was achieved via the addition of the yellow phosphor, as substantially all the other variables of the experiments were held constant, and optimization of the CRI value and the brightness may be achieved separately by fine tuning the ratio of the yellow phosphor concentration to that of the orange and green phosphors. The white light produced in this second example may be characterized as having a brightness of 52.0, and a CRI of 79.9.

The multi-chip excitation source in the first five examples was either a UV/blue combination or a purple/blue combination. High brightness, high CRI white light illumination sources can be provided by using a blue chip and green chip with a phosphor package having two phosphors in one embodiment, and three phosphors in another. These phosphors can be any combination of a green phosphor such as G530, a yellow phosphor such as Y550), an orange phosphor such as O590, and a red phosphor such as R662. In this sixth example, the chip set was a blue LED in combination with a green LED. So in example three the white LED comprised a first radiation source emitting light in wavelength ranging from 440 to 480 nm, and a second radiation source co-exciting a phosphor package, the second radiation source emitting light in wavelengths ranging from 480 to 540 nm. This chip set provided co-excitation radiation to at least two types of phosphors emitting light in wavelength range from 500 to 700 nm. More specifically, the mixed phosphors in the system exemplified by the sixth embodiment contained a green and orange phosphor (G530 and O590), where an orange or red phosphor is included because of the 480 to 540 nm emitting blue-green LED. Some orange and red phosphors, such as silicate-based phosphors, have a higher quantum efficiency as the excitation wavelength increases from 440 to 550 nm, so the use of green excitation radiation increases the efficiency of an orange and/or red phosphor so as to achieve higher brightness. The further addition of other green and/or yellow phosphor can broaden the final LED emission wavelength spectrum, thus increase the CRI value.

FIG. 6 shows a white LED made from a chip set comprising a 454 nm LED and a 523 nm LED, this chip set providing co-excitation radiation to a phosphor package comprising a 530 nm green phosphor and a 590 nm orange phosphor. The brightness was 43.92, and the CRI value 71.9; again, the brightness and/or CRI values may be optimized by using different phosphors, and by tuning the respective intensities of the green versus blue LEDs.

Table 1 summarizes the testing results of the white light illumination systems of FIGS. 1-6, where the CIE coordinates have been substantially fixed at x and y values of 0.3 and 0.3 respectively, and where the white light is characterized by brightness and CRI values.

TABLE 1 Brightness Phosphor LED CIE x CIE y (a.u.) CRI G507 + O610 402 nm + 454 nm 0.286 0.304 31.32 91.8 G507 + Y550 + 402 nm + 454 nm 0.303 0.300 40.64 80.7 O610 B450 + G507 + 402 nm + 454 nm 0.307 0.294 23.62 89.1 Y550 + O610 G507 + O610 429 nm + 457 nm 0.302 0.302 38.37 92.0 G507 + Y550 + 429 nm + 457 nm 0.309 0.293 52.07 79.9 O610 G530 + O590 454 nm + 523 nm 0.295 0.301 43.92 71.9

For comparison to these multi-chip systems, a similar set of experiments was carried out with a single-chip excitation source. The LEDs in these single-chip examples emitted excitation radiation in a wavelength ranging from 250 nm to 440 nm; they were in the seventh through tenth examples: 402, 402, 417, and 429 nm, respectively. The phosphor packages were different combinations of blue, green and orange phosphors. Specifically they were blue, green, and orange in the seventh example; blue, green, yellow, and orange in the eighth example; green, yellow, and orange in the ninth example, and green and orange in the tenth example.

FIG. 7 shows the emission spectrum from a white LED made constructed using from a 402 nm LED, a 450 nm blue phosphor, a 538 nm blue-green phosphor, and a 586 nm orange phosphor. The blue phosphor used in had less than a 50% quantum efficiency at the 402 nm excitation wavelength, and more than a 30% increase in brightness could be achieved with a blue phosphor having a 70% quantum efficiency. The brightness was 10.63; the CRI 64.7.

FIG. 8 shows the emission spectrum from a white LED constructed from a 402 nm LED, a 450 nm blue phosphor, a 507 nm blue-green phosphor, a 550 nm yellow phosphor, and a 610 nm orange phosphor. The brightness was 8.29 and the CRI was 91.7.

FIG. 9 shows the emission spectrum from a white LED made constructed from a 417 nm LED, a 507 nm blue-green phosphor, a 550 nm yellow phosphor and a 610 nm orange phosphor. The brightness was 14.53 and the CRI was 62.8.

FIG. 10 shows the emission spectrum from a white LED made constructed from a 429 nm LED, a 507 nm blue-green phosphor, and a 610 nm orange phosphor. The brightness was 23.98, and the CRI was 86.8.

Table 2 summarizes the testing results of the white light illumination systems of FIGS. 7-10, where the CIE coordinates have been substantially fixed at x and y values of 0.3 and 0.3 respectively, and where the white light is characterized by brightness and CRI values.

TABLE 2 Brightness Phosphor LED CIE x CIE y (a.u.) CRI B450 + G538 + O586 402 nm 0.304 0.335 10.63 64.7 B450 + G507 + Y550 + O610 402 nm 0.301 0.298 8.29 91.7 G507 + Y550 + O610 417 nm 0.296 0.301 14.53 62.8 G507 + O610 429 nm 0.275 0.312 23.98 86.8

In yet another embodiment of the present invention, a white LED is comprises a first radiation source emitting excitation radiation in a wavelength ranging from about 250 nm to about 440 nm, a second radiation source emitting excitation radiation in a wavelength ranging from about 440 nm to about 480 nm, and a phosphor package comprising an yellow-orange phosphor having a peak emission wavelength ranging from about 540 to 600 nm, and/or a red phosphor having a peak emission wavelength ranging from about 580 to about 780 nm.

Exemplary Phosphor Compositions

The advantages of the present multi-chip excitation sources are not restricted to any particular type of phosphor. Indeed, it is contemplated that virtually any of the commercial blue, green, yellow, orange, and red phosphors listed in Section 8 and Appendix II of Inorganic Phosphors, by William M. Yen and Marvin J. Weber (CRC Press, New York, 2004). Section 8 and Appendix II of this reference is therefore incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

Examples of the blue, blue-green, yellow, yellow-orange, orange, and red phosphors that are suitable to carry out the teachings of the present embodiments include the aluminates, silicates, and nitrides (and mixtures thereof) that have been developed by the present inventors. Although the present embodiments are not restricted to the following definitions, it is true that for the examples in the disclosure the blue phosphors tended to be aluminate-based; the green phosphors could be either aluminates or silicates, the yellow and orange phosphors tended to be silicate-based, albeit with different types of host structures; and the red phosphors are nitrides.

An exemplary blue aluminate-based phosphor has the general formula (M1−xEux)2-zMgzAlyO[2+(3/2)y], where M is a divalent alkaline earth metal other than magnesium (Mg) from group IIA of the periodic table, where 0.05<x<0.5; 3≦y≦12; and 0.8≦y≦1.2. The composition may contain a halogen dopant, such as fluorine or chlorine. M may be either Ba (barium) or Sr (strontium); when M is Ba, the phosphor is a member of the present barium aluminate magnesium (BAM) series; when M is strontium, the phosphor is a member of the present strontium magnesium aluminate (SAM) series. The halogen dopant may reside on oxygen lattice sites within the crystalline lattice host, and is present in an amount ranging from about 0.01 to 20 mole percent. The phosphor in this example is configured to absorb radiation in a wavelength ranging from about 280 nm to about 420 nm, and to emit visible light having a wavelength ranging from about 420 nm to 560 nm.

An exemplary phospho-chloride that may be used as the blue phosphor in the present embodiments, and the phosphor B450 that was used to generate the data in FIGS. 3, 7, and 8 has the formula Sr10(PO4)6Cl2:Eu0.05.

It is reiterated that the types of phosphors or the specific phosphors are not the key to the embodiments of the present invention; rather, it is that the at least two LEDs in the system are there substantially to provide excitation radiation to the at least one phosphor in the phosphor package, and not to provide light to the final illumination product. Thus it is contemplated that virtually any phosphor(s) will work, and this includes commercially available phosphors. Commercially available blue phosphors that may be used according to the present embodiments include (CeMg)SrAl11O18:Ce, (CeMg)BaAl11O18:Ce, YAlO3:Ce3+, Ca2MgSi2O7:Ce3+, Y2SiO5:Ce3+, Zn2SiO4:Ti, CsI:Na+, Sr2P2O7:Eu, Sr5Cl(PO4)3:Eu, BaMgAl10O17:Eu,Mn (BAM), and ZnS:Ag,Cl,Ni. These phosphors emit at wavelengths up to about 460 nm.

The green phosphors may be either aluminate or silicate-based, or a combination of both. The aluminate-based green phosphors may represented by the general formula M1−xEuxAlyO1+3y/2, where M is at least one of a divalent metal selected from the group consisting of Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zu, Cu, Cd, Sm, and Tm; 0.1<x<0.9; and 0.5≦y≦12. These aluminate-based green phosphors are configured to absorb substantially non-visible radiation having a wavelength ranging from about 280 to 420 nm, and emit visible green light having a wavelength ranging from about 500 to 550 nm. In a particular embodiment, the phosphor contains the divalent alkaline earth metals Mg, and Mn may be present as well.

The silicate-based green phosphors appropriate for the present white LEDs using multi-chip co-excitation sources have the general formula (Sr,A1)x(Si,A2)(O,A3)2+x:Eu2+, where A1 is at least one of a divalent 2+ alkaline earth or transition metal cation selected from the group consisting of Mg, Ca, Ba, and Zn, wherein the stoichiometric amount of A1 varies from 0.3 to 0.8, both inclusive; A2 is P, B, Al, Ga, C, and Ge; and A3 is a anion including a halogen selected from the group consisting of F and Cl, but also included are Br, C, N, and S. The formula is written to indicate that the A1 cation replaces Sr; the A2 cation replaces Si, and the A3 anion replaces O. The amounts of A2 and A3 each range from 0 to 19 mole percent, both endpoints inclusive; and x is any value between 1.5 and 2.5. A1 could also include a combination of 1+ and 3+ cations, the 1+ cations including Na, K, and Li, and the 3+ cations including Y, Ce, and La.

Exemplary silicates that may be used as the green phosphors in the present embodiments and designated G507 in FIGS. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, and 10 has the formula Ba1.96Mg0.04Eu0.06Si1.03O4Cl0.12. The phosphor designated G530 in FIG. 6 has the formula Sr1.03Ba0.92Mg0.05Eu0.06Si1.03O4Cl0.12. The phosphor designated G538 in FIG. 7 has the formula Sr1.15Ba0.80Mg0.05Eu0.06Si1.03O4Cl0.12. Another formula for an appropriate silicate-based green phosphor (not shown in the figures) is G525: Sr0.925Ba1.025Mg0.05Eu0.06Si1.03O4Cl0.12.

Commercially available green phosphors that may be used according to the present embodiments include Bi4Ge3O12, Ca5(PO4)3F:Sb, (Ba,Ti)2P2O7:Ti, Sr5(PO4)3F:Sb,Mn, ZnO:Zn, ZnS:Cu,Cl, Zn2SiO4:Mn2+, and Y3Al5O12:Ce3+. These phosphors emit at wavelengths roughly between about 480 and 530 nm, and the designation of this range as being “green,” as opposed to “blue-green” or “yellow-green” is arbitrary and not particularly important.

An exemplary silicate-based yellow-green phosphor has the general formula A2SiO4:Eu2+D, wherein A is at least one of a divalent metal selected from the group consisting of Sr, Ca, Ba, Mg, Zn, and Cd; and D is a dopant selected from the group consisting of F, Cl, Br, I, P, S and N. The dopant D is present in the phosphor in an amount ranging from zero to about 20 mole percent. In another embodiment, the phosphor has the formula (Sr1−x−yBaxMy)2SiO4: Eu2+F, Cl, where M is one of Ca, Mg, Zn, or Cd in an amount ranging from 0<y<0.5.

An exemplary silicate that may be used as the yellow phosphor in the present embodiments, and the phosphor Y550 that was used to generate the data in FIGS. 2, 3, 5, 8, and 9 has the formula Sr1.34Ba0.61Mg0.05Eu0.06Si1.03O4Cl0.12. A YAG:Ce3+ phosphor may also be used to provide the yellow component. Another silicate-based phosphor (not shown in the figures) has the designation EY4453 and formula Sr1.46Ba0.45Mg0.05Eu0.1Si1.03O4Cl0.18.

Commercially available yellow phosphors that may be used according to the present embodiments include ZnS:Pb,Cu, ZnS:Ag,Cu,Cl, Y3Al5O12:Tb3+, (Ce,Tb)MgAl11O19:Ce,Tb, Y3Al5O12:Ce3+, MgF2:Mn2+, CsI:Tl, and (Zn,Mg)F2:Mn2+. These phosphors emit at wavelengths roughly between about 530 and 590 nm, and the designation of this range as being “yellow,” as opposed to “yellow-green” or “yellow-orange” is arbitrary and not particularly important.

Silicate-based orange phosphors appropriate for the present multi-chip white LEDs have the general formula (Sr,A1)x(Si,A2)(O,A3)2+x:Eu2−, where A1 is at least one divalent cation (a 2+ ion) including Mg, Ca, and Ba, or a combination of 1+ and 3+ cations, where 1+ cations include Na, K, and Li, and the 3+ cations include Y, Ce, and La; A2 is a 3+, 4+, or 5+ cation, including at least one of B, Al, Ga, C, Ge, P; A3 is a 1−, 2−, or 3− anion, including F, Cl, and Br as 1− anions; and x is any value between 2.5 and 3.5, inclusive. Again, the formula is written to indicate that the Al cation replaces Sr; the A2 cation replaces Si, and the A3 anion replaces O. A1 varies stoichiometrically from 0.3 to 0.8, both inclusive, and the amounts of A2 and A3 each range from 0 to 19 mole percent, both endpoints inclusive. In another embodiment, the silicate-based orange phosphors have the formula (Sr1−xMx)yEuzSiO5, wherein M is at least one of a divalent metal selected from the group consisting of Ba, Mg, Ca, and Zn; 0≦x≦0.5; 2.6≦y≦3.3; and 0.001≦z≦0.5. These phosphors too may contain halogen dopants such as F and Cl. These orange phosphors may be excited by any of the LED sources emitting in the UV, blue, green, and/or yellow regions of the spectrum.

Exemplary silicates that may be used as the orange phosphor in the present embodiments and designated O590 in FIG. 6 has the formula Ba0.02Sr2.94Eu0.1Si1.02O5F0.2. The orange silicate designated O610 in FIGS. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, and 10 has the formula (Sr0.87Ba0.1Y0.0167)3Eu0.1Si0.97Al0.05O5F0.2. Another silicate-based orange phosphor that is appropriate in the present multi-chip co-excitation embodiments (not shown in the figures) has the designation O586 and the formula Sr3Eu0.06 Si1.02O5F0.08.

Commercially available orange phosphors that may be used according to the present embodiments include (Y,Gd)BO3:Eu3+, Y(P,V)O4:Eu3+, (Zn,Mg)F2:Mn2+, (Ca,Zn,Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn, CaSiO3:Mn2+,Pb, Y2O3:Eu3+, and YVO4:Eu3+. These phosphors emit at wavelengths roughly between about 590 and 620 nm, and the designation of this range as being “orange,” as opposed to “yellow-orange” or “orange-red” is arbitrary and not particularly important.

Red phosphors that may be used according to the present embodiments typically have nitride-based hosts. A general formula that may be used to describe such nitride-based red phosphor is MmMaMb(N,D)n:Zz, where Mm is a divalent element; Ma is a trivalent element; Mb is a tetravalent element; N is nitrogen; Z is an activator; and D is a halogen; and where the stiochiometry of the constituent elements (m+z):a:b:n is about 1:1:1:3, and the phosphor is configured to emit visible light having a peak emission wavelength greater than about 640 nm. Another formula that may be used to describe the present nitride-based red phosphor is MmMaMbD3wN[(2/3)m+z+a+(4/3)b−w]Zz, where Mm is a divalent element selected from the group consisting of Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd, and Hg; Ma is a trivalent element selected from the group consisting of B, Al, Ga, In, Y, Sc, P, As, La, Sm, Sb, and Bi; Mb is a tetravalent element selected from the group consisting of C, Si, Ge, Sn, Ni, Hf, Mo, W, Cr, Pb, Ti, and Zr; D is a halogen selected from the group consisting of F, Cl, Br, and I; Z is an activator selected from the group consisting of Eu, Ce, Mn, Tb, and Sm; N is nitrogen. The amounts of the constituent elements may be described by the following parameters: 0.01≦m≦1.5; 0.01≦a≦1.5; 0.01≦b≦1.5; 0.0001≦w≦0.6, and 0.0001≦z≦0.5.

In an alternative embodiment, the nitride-based red phosphors have the formula MaMbMc(N,D)n:Ez, where Ma is not just a single divalent element, but rather a combination of two or more divalent elements (or two divalent elements used simultaneously). The two divalent metals may be, for example, Ca and Sr. Examples of such phosphors are Ca0.98−xSrxAlSiN3Eu0.02, Ca0.98−xSrxAlSiN3Eu0.02, Ca0.98−xSrxAlSiN3Eu0.02 and Ca0.98−xSrxAlSiN3Eu0.02, where x ranges from 0 to 0.98. A nitride-based red phosphor that is appropriate for use in the present multi-chip co-excitation embodiments (the red phosphor not shown in the figures) has the designation R662 and the formula Ca0.97AlSiN3Eu0.0Cl0.1.

Commercially available red phosphors that may be used according to the present embodiments include (Sr,Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn, (Sr,Mg)3(PO4)2:Sn, Zn0.4Cd0.6S:Ag, Zn3(PO4)2:Mn2+, MgSiO3:Mn2+, and Mg4(F)(Ge,Sn)O6:Mn2+. These phosphors emit at wavelengths roughly greater than about 620 nm.

LED Chips Providing Co-Excitation

The LED chips that provide the excitation radiation to the phosphor package in the present embodiments are in some cases based on indium gallium nitride, with various In to Ga ratio (InxGa1−xN), x varying from about 0.02 to about 0.4 for the blue emitting chips, and x greater than about 0.4 for the green emitting chips. The value of x separating the blue emitting chips from the green emitting chips is somewhat arbitrary; it is the actually emission wavelength that is important and not the description of its color (which may be subjective). But it will be understood that higher values of x corresponds to longer wavelengths of excitation. Blue LED chips may also be based on zinc selenide (ZnSe). Green emitting LED chips may be any of the materials gallium phosphide (GaP), aluminium gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP), and aluminium gallium phosphide (AlGaP). Green emitting chips may be mixtures of InGaN and GaN.

Claims (20)

What is claimed is:
1. A white light illumination system comprising a multi-chip excitation source and a phosphor package, the multi-chip excitation source comprising:
a first radiation source for providing co-excitation radiation to the phosphor package, the source emitting in wavelengths ranging from about 250 nm to about 410 nm;
a second radiation source for providing co-excitation radiation to the phosphor package, the source emitting in wavelengths ranging from about 410 nm to about 540 nm; and
a phosphor package configured to emit photoluminescence upon co-excitation from the first and second radiation sources; and
wherein a final light product visible to the human eye generated by the white light illumination system comprises photoluminescence from the phosphor package and light generated by the second radiation source, but not light generated by the first radiation source.
2. The white light illumination system of claim 1, wherein the phosphor package includes at least one phosphor selected from the group consisting of a blue emitting phosphor, a green emitting phosphor, a yellow-green emitting phosphor, an orange emitting phosphor, and a red emitting phosphor, including combinations thereof.
3. The white light illumination system of claim 1, wherein the white light illumination emitted by the system has a color rendering index (CRI) greater than about 90.
4. The white light illumination system of claim 1, wherein the white light illumination emitted by the system has a color rendering index (CRI) greater than about 80.
5. The white light illumination system of claim 1, wherein the white light illumination emitted by the system has a color rendering index (CRI) greater than about 70.
6. The white light illumination system of claim 1, wherein the photoluminescence emitted by the phosphor package is at least 40 percent of the total power in the white light illumination, and the portion of the total power in the white light illumination contributed by the first and second radiation source is less than about 60 percent.
7. The white light illumination system of claim 1, wherein the photoluminescence emitted by the phosphor package is at least 50 percent of the total power in the white light illumination, and the portion of the total power in the white light illumination contributed by the first and second radiation source is less than about 50 percent.
8. The white light illumination system of claim 1, wherein the photoluminescence emitted by the phosphor package is at least 60 percent of the total power in the white light illumination, and the portion of the total power in the white light illumination contributed by the first and second radiation source is less than about 40 percent.
9. The white light illumination system of claim 1, wherein the photoluminescence emitted by the phosphor package is at least 70 percent of the total power in the white light illumination, and the portion of the total power in the white light illumination contributed by the first and second radiation source is less than about 30 percent.
10. The white light illumination system of claim 1, wherein the photoluminescence emitted by the phosphor package is at least 80 percent of the total power in the white light illumination, and the portion of the total power in the white light illumination contributed by the first and second radiation source is less than about 20 percent.
11. A white light illumination system comprising a multi-chip excitation source and a phosphor package, the multi-chip excitation source comprising:
a first radiation source for providing co-excitation radiation to the phosphor package emitting in wavelengths ranging from about 410 nm to about 480 nm;
a second radiation source for providing co-excitation radiation to the phosphor package, the source emitting in wavelengths ranging from about 480 nm to about 540 nm; and
a phosphor package configured to emit photoluminescence upon co-excitation from the first and second radiation sources, wherein the phosphor package emits photoluminescence in wavelengths that comprise at least one of: a range from about 480 to 530 nm, a range from about 530 to 590 nm, a range from about 590 to 620 nm, and a range greater than about 620 nm.
12. The white light illumination system of claim 11, wherein the phosphor package includes at least one phosphor selected from the group consisting of a blue emitting phosphor, a green emitting phosphor, a yellow-green emitting phosphor, an orange emitting phosphor, and a red emitting phosphor, including combinations thereof.
13. The white light illumination system of claim 11, wherein the white light illumination emitted by the system has a color rendering index (CRI) greater than about 90.
14. The white light illumination system of claim 11, wherein the white light illumination emitted by the system has a color rendering index (CRI) greater than about 80.
15. The white light illumination system of claim 11, wherein the white light illumination emitted by the system has a color rendering index (CRI) greater than about 70.
16. The white light illumination system of claim 11, wherein the photoluminescence emitted by the phosphor package is at least 40 percent of the total power in the white light illumination, and the portion of the total power in the white light illumination contributed by the first and second radiation source is less than about 60 percent.
17. The white light illumination system of claim 11, wherein the photoluminescence emitted by the phosphor package is at least 50 percent of the total power in the white light illumination, and the portion of the total power in the white light illumination contributed by the first and second radiation source is less than about 50 percent.
18. The white light illumination system of claim 11, wherein the photoluminescence emitted by the phosphor package is at least 60 percent of the total power in the white light illumination, and the portion of the total power in the white light illumination contributed by the first and second radiation source is less than about 40 percent.
19. The white light illumination system of claim 11, wherein the photoluminescence emitted by the phosphor package is at least 70 percent of the total power in the white light illumination, and the portion of the total power in the white light illumination contributed by the first and second radiation source is less than about 30 percent.
20. The white light illumination system of claim 11, wherein the photoluminescence emitted by the phosphor package is at least 80 percent of the total power in the white light illumination, and the portion of the total power in the white light illumination contributed by the first and second radiation source is less than about 20 percent.
US12/398,059 2008-03-07 2009-03-04 Multiple-chip excitation systems for white light emitting diodes (LEDs) Active 2029-07-21 US8567973B2 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US3469908P true 2008-03-07 2008-03-07
US12/398,059 US8567973B2 (en) 2008-03-07 2009-03-04 Multiple-chip excitation systems for white light emitting diodes (LEDs)

Applications Claiming Priority (10)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US12/398,059 US8567973B2 (en) 2008-03-07 2009-03-04 Multiple-chip excitation systems for white light emitting diodes (LEDs)
EP09718586.2A EP2269207B1 (en) 2008-03-07 2009-03-05 Multiple-chip excitation systems for white light emitting diodes (leds)
JP2010549890A JP2011513996A (en) 2008-03-07 2009-03-05 Multiple chip excitation system for white light emitting diode (LED)
CN2009801080369A CN102017044A (en) 2008-03-07 2009-03-05 Multiple-chip excitation systems for white light emitting diodes (LEDs)
PCT/US2009/036214 WO2009114390A2 (en) 2008-03-07 2009-03-05 Multiple-chip excitation systems for white light emitting diodes (leds)
KR1020107022484A KR101641377B1 (en) 2008-03-07 2009-03-05 - multiple-chip excitation systems for white light emitting diodes
TW098107448A TW200951343A (en) 2008-03-07 2009-03-06 Multiple-chip excitation systems for white light emitting diodes (LED's)
US14/045,765 US9324923B2 (en) 2008-03-07 2013-10-03 Multiple-chip excitation systems for white light emitting diodes (LEDs)
US14/064,084 US8740400B2 (en) 2008-03-07 2013-10-25 White light illumination system with narrow band green phosphor and multiple-wavelength excitation
US14/290,800 US9476568B2 (en) 2008-03-07 2014-05-29 White light illumination system with narrow band green phosphor and multiple-wavelength excitation

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12/398,059 Continuation-In-Part US8567973B2 (en) 2008-03-07 2009-03-04 Multiple-chip excitation systems for white light emitting diodes (LEDs)

Related Child Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12/398,059 Continuation-In-Part US8567973B2 (en) 2008-03-07 2009-03-04 Multiple-chip excitation systems for white light emitting diodes (LEDs)
US14/045,765 Continuation US9324923B2 (en) 2008-03-07 2013-10-03 Multiple-chip excitation systems for white light emitting diodes (LEDs)
US14/064,084 Continuation-In-Part US8740400B2 (en) 2008-03-07 2013-10-25 White light illumination system with narrow band green phosphor and multiple-wavelength excitation

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20090224652A1 US20090224652A1 (en) 2009-09-10
US8567973B2 true US8567973B2 (en) 2013-10-29

Family

ID=41052893

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12/398,059 Active 2029-07-21 US8567973B2 (en) 2008-03-07 2009-03-04 Multiple-chip excitation systems for white light emitting diodes (LEDs)
US14/045,765 Active 2029-08-23 US9324923B2 (en) 2008-03-07 2013-10-03 Multiple-chip excitation systems for white light emitting diodes (LEDs)

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US14/045,765 Active 2029-08-23 US9324923B2 (en) 2008-03-07 2013-10-03 Multiple-chip excitation systems for white light emitting diodes (LEDs)

Country Status (7)

Country Link
US (2) US8567973B2 (en)
EP (1) EP2269207B1 (en)
JP (1) JP2011513996A (en)
KR (1) KR101641377B1 (en)
CN (1) CN102017044A (en)
TW (1) TW200951343A (en)
WO (1) WO2009114390A2 (en)

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20100244740A1 (en) * 2007-08-24 2010-09-30 Photonic Developments Llc Multi-chip light emitting diode light device
US20120098460A1 (en) * 2009-07-07 2012-04-26 Shin Miyasaka Light emitting device
US20130257920A1 (en) * 2012-03-29 2013-10-03 Nichia Corporation Display apparatus and method of controlling the same
US20140055993A1 (en) * 2012-08-21 2014-02-27 Advanced Optoelectronic Technology, Inc. Light emitting diode illuminating device having uniform color temperature
US20140340869A1 (en) * 2012-05-24 2014-11-20 Lumen Dynamics Group, lnc. High brightness solid state illumination system for fluorescence imaging and analysis
US20150162505A1 (en) * 2013-12-10 2015-06-11 Gary W. Jones Inverse visible spectrum light and broad spectrum light source for enhanced vision
US9952442B2 (en) 2012-05-24 2018-04-24 Excelitas Canada, Inc. High brightness solid state illumination system for fluorescence imaging and analysis

Families Citing this family (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102405538A (en) 2009-08-26 2012-04-04 三菱化学株式会社 Semiconductor white light-emitting device
DE102010002332A1 (en) * 2009-11-30 2011-06-01 Ledon Lighting Jennersdorf Gmbh Retrofit LED lamp with warm white, especially flame-like white light
KR20110076447A (en) * 2009-12-29 2011-07-06 삼성전자주식회사 Light emitting device and display device having the same
US10147850B1 (en) * 2010-02-03 2018-12-04 Soraa, Inc. System and method for providing color light sources in proximity to predetermined wavelength conversion structures
TWI406928B (en) 2010-03-18 2013-09-01 Ind Tech Res Inst Blue phosphors, white light illumination devices and solar cells utilizing the same
US8534901B2 (en) 2010-09-13 2013-09-17 Teledyne Reynolds, Inc. Collimating waveguide apparatus and method
US8434924B1 (en) * 2010-11-18 2013-05-07 Google Inc. White light source using two colored LEDs and phosphor
CN103154194B (en) * 2010-12-14 2015-02-04 海洋王照明科技股份有限公司 Halo-silicate luminescent materials and preparation methods thereof
US8608328B2 (en) 2011-05-06 2013-12-17 Teledyne Technologies Incorporated Light source with secondary emitter conversion element
KR101395432B1 (en) * 2011-07-28 2014-05-14 주식회사 막스 White led device
US20140160728A1 (en) * 2011-08-17 2014-06-12 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd Light emitting apparatus
EP2778507B1 (en) * 2011-11-07 2019-10-02 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba White light source and white light source system including the same
GB2497950A (en) * 2011-12-22 2013-07-03 Sharp Kk Laser and Phosphor Based Light Source for Improved Safety
EP2637224B1 (en) * 2012-03-09 2019-04-03 Panasonic Intellectual Property Management Co., Ltd. Light emitting device, illumination apparatus and system using same
RU2623682C2 (en) 2012-04-06 2017-06-28 Филипс Лайтинг Холдинг Б.В. White light emmission module
JP2013239272A (en) * 2012-05-11 2013-11-28 Panasonic Corp Lighting device
US10026875B2 (en) * 2013-06-18 2018-07-17 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Light-source device and light-emitting device
WO2015173026A2 (en) * 2014-05-14 2015-11-19 Koninklijke Philips N.V. A light emitting device
EP3149108B1 (en) * 2014-09-11 2017-12-20 Philips Lighting Holding B.V. Pc-led module with enhanced white rendering and conversion efficiency
TWI575181B (en) * 2014-09-26 2017-03-21 Edison Opto Corp Light emission module
JP2017531324A (en) * 2014-10-08 2017-10-19 ソウル セミコンダクター カンパニー リミテッド Light emitting device
JP6520553B2 (en) * 2014-12-19 2019-05-29 日亜化学工業株式会社 Light emitting device
CN104646314A (en) * 2015-02-02 2015-05-27 南昌大学 Method for screening LED core particles
US10066160B2 (en) 2015-05-01 2018-09-04 Intematix Corporation Solid-state white light generating lighting arrangements including photoluminescence wavelength conversion components
JP2016219519A (en) * 2015-05-18 2016-12-22 サンケン電気株式会社 Light-emitting device
CN106322225B (en) * 2015-06-16 2019-05-10 群创光电股份有限公司 The backlight of display device
US20170014538A1 (en) * 2015-07-14 2017-01-19 Juha Rantala LED structure and luminaire for continuous disinfection
US10357582B1 (en) 2015-07-30 2019-07-23 Vital Vio, Inc. Disinfecting lighting device
KR20180036728A (en) * 2015-07-30 2018-04-09 바이탈 바이오, 잉크. Single diode disinfection
WO2018130750A1 (en) * 2017-01-13 2018-07-19 Juha Rantala A led structure and luminaire for continuous disinfection
CN107384372A (en) * 2017-08-14 2017-11-24 苏州轻光材料科技有限公司 LED fluorescent powder compound
US10413626B1 (en) 2018-03-29 2019-09-17 Vital Vio, Inc. Multiple light emitter for inactivating microorganisms

Citations (107)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3290255A (en) 1963-09-30 1966-12-06 Gen Electric White electroluminescent phosphor
US3593055A (en) 1969-04-16 1971-07-13 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Electro-luminescent device
US3670193A (en) 1970-05-14 1972-06-13 Duro Test Corp Electric lamps producing energy in the visible and ultra-violet ranges
US3676668A (en) 1969-12-29 1972-07-11 Gen Electric Solid state lamp assembly
US3691482A (en) 1970-01-19 1972-09-12 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Display system
US3709685A (en) 1970-02-19 1973-01-09 Ilford Ltd Photoconductive zinc oxide sensitized by substituted thiazolidene dyes
US3743833A (en) 1971-07-16 1973-07-03 Eastman Kodak Co Radiographic elements and binders
US3763405A (en) 1970-12-21 1973-10-02 Nippon Electric Co Solid state luminescent display device
US3793046A (en) 1970-12-04 1974-02-19 Philips Corp Method of manufacturing a pigment
US3819973A (en) 1972-11-02 1974-06-25 A Hosford Electroluminescent filament
US3819974A (en) 1973-03-12 1974-06-25 D Stevenson Gallium nitride metal-semiconductor junction light emitting diode
US3849707A (en) 1973-03-07 1974-11-19 Ibm PLANAR GaN ELECTROLUMINESCENT DEVICE
US3875456A (en) 1972-04-04 1975-04-01 Hitachi Ltd Multi-color semiconductor lamp
US3932881A (en) 1972-09-05 1976-01-13 Nippon Electric Co., Inc. Electroluminescent device including dichroic and infrared reflecting components
US3937998A (en) 1973-10-05 1976-02-10 U.S. Philips Corporation Luminescent coating for low-pressure mercury vapour discharge lamp
US3972717A (en) 1973-03-21 1976-08-03 Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft Electrophotographic recording material
US4047075A (en) 1975-03-01 1977-09-06 Licentia-Patent-Verwaltungs-G.M.B.H. Encapsulated light-emitting diode structure and array thereof
US4081764A (en) 1972-10-12 1978-03-28 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Zinc oxide light emitting diode
US4104076A (en) 1970-03-17 1978-08-01 Saint-Gobain Industries Manufacture of novel grey and bronze glasses
US4143394A (en) 1976-07-30 1979-03-06 Licentia Patent-Verwaltungs-G.M.B.H. Semiconductor luminescence device with housing
GB2017409A (en) 1978-03-22 1979-10-03 Bayraktaroglu B Light-emitting diode
US4176294A (en) 1975-10-03 1979-11-27 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Method and device for efficiently generating white light with good rendition of illuminated objects
US4176299A (en) 1975-10-03 1979-11-27 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Method for efficiently generating white light with good color rendition of illuminated objects
US4211955A (en) 1978-03-02 1980-07-08 Ray Stephen W Solid state lamp
US4305019A (en) 1979-12-31 1981-12-08 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Warm-white fluorescent lamp having good efficacy and color rendering and using special phosphor blend as separate undercoat
US4315192A (en) 1979-12-31 1982-02-09 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Fluorescent lamp using high performance phosphor blend which is protected from color shifts by a very thin overcoat of stable phosphor of similar chromaticity
US4443532A (en) 1981-07-29 1984-04-17 Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated Induced crystallographic modification of aromatic compounds
US4559470A (en) 1981-04-22 1985-12-17 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Fluorescent discharge lamp
US4573766A (en) 1983-12-19 1986-03-04 Cordis Corporation LED Staggered back lighting panel for LCD module
US4618555A (en) 1984-01-11 1986-10-21 Mitsubishi Chemical Ind., Ltd. Electrophotographic photoreceptor comprising azo compounds
US4638214A (en) 1985-03-25 1987-01-20 General Electric Company Fluorescent lamp containing aluminate phosphor
US4667036A (en) 1983-08-27 1987-05-19 Basf Aktiengesellschaft Concentration of light over a particular area, and novel perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid diimides
US4678285A (en) 1984-01-13 1987-07-07 Ricoh Company, Ltd. Liquid crystal color display device
US4727003A (en) 1985-09-30 1988-02-23 Ricoh Company, Ltd. Electroluminescence device
US4772885A (en) 1984-11-22 1988-09-20 Ricoh Company, Ltd. Liquid crystal color display device
US4845223A (en) 1985-12-19 1989-07-04 Basf Aktiengesellschaft Fluorescent aryloxy-substituted perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid diimides
US4859539A (en) 1987-03-23 1989-08-22 Eastman Kodak Company Optically brightened polyolefin coated paper support
US4915478A (en) 1988-10-05 1990-04-10 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Low power liquid crystal display backlight
US4918497A (en) 1988-12-14 1990-04-17 Cree Research, Inc. Blue light emitting diode formed in silicon carbide
US4946621A (en) 1986-04-29 1990-08-07 Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique (Cnrs) Luminescent mixed borates based on rare earths
US4992704A (en) 1989-04-17 1991-02-12 Basic Electronics, Inc. Variable color light emitting diode
US5077161A (en) 1990-05-31 1991-12-31 Xerox Corporation Imaging members with bichromophoric bisazo perylene photoconductive materials
US5110931A (en) 1987-11-27 1992-05-05 Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft Process for the preparation of n,n'-dimethylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide in high-hiding pigment form
US5126214A (en) 1989-03-15 1992-06-30 Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd. Electroluminescent element
US5131916A (en) 1990-03-01 1992-07-21 Bayer Aktiengesellschaft Colored fluorescent polymer emulsions for marker pens: graft copolymers and fluorescent dyes in aqueous phase
US5143433A (en) 1991-11-01 1992-09-01 Litton Systems Canada Limited Night vision backlighting system for liquid crystal displays
US5143438A (en) 1990-10-15 1992-09-01 Thorn Emi Plc Light sources
US5166761A (en) 1991-04-01 1992-11-24 Midwest Research Institute Tunnel junction multiple wavelength light-emitting diodes
US5208462A (en) 1991-12-19 1993-05-04 Allied-Signal Inc. Wide bandwidth solid state optical source
US5210051A (en) 1990-03-27 1993-05-11 Cree Research, Inc. High efficiency light emitting diodes from bipolar gallium nitride
US5211467A (en) 1992-01-07 1993-05-18 Rockwell International Corporation Fluorescent lighting system
US5237182A (en) 1990-11-29 1993-08-17 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Electroluminescent device of compound semiconductor with buffer layer
US5264034A (en) 1989-08-11 1993-11-23 Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft Pigment preparations based on perylene compounds
US5283425A (en) 1992-02-06 1994-02-01 Rohm Co., Ltd. Light emitting element array substrate with reflecting means
US5369289A (en) 1991-10-30 1994-11-29 Toyoda Gosei Co. Ltd. Gallium nitride-based compound semiconductor light-emitting device and method for making the same
US5405709A (en) 1993-09-13 1995-04-11 Eastman Kodak Company White light emitting internal junction organic electroluminescent device
US5439971A (en) 1991-11-12 1995-08-08 Eastman Chemical Company Fluorescent pigment concentrates
US5518808A (en) 1992-12-18 1996-05-21 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Luminescent materials prepared by coating luminescent compositions onto substrate particles
US5535230A (en) 1994-04-06 1996-07-09 Shogo Tzuzuki Illuminating light source device using semiconductor laser element
US5557168A (en) 1993-04-02 1996-09-17 Okaya Electric Industries Co., Ltd. Gas-discharging type display device and a method of manufacturing
US5563621A (en) 1991-11-18 1996-10-08 Black Box Vision Limited Display apparatus
US5578839A (en) 1992-11-20 1996-11-26 Nichia Chemical Industries, Ltd. Light-emitting gallium nitride-based compound semiconductor device
US5583349A (en) 1995-11-02 1996-12-10 Motorola Full color light emitting diode display
US5585640A (en) 1995-01-11 1996-12-17 Huston; Alan L. Glass matrix doped with activated luminescent nanocrystalline particles
US5619356A (en) 1993-09-16 1997-04-08 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Reflective liquid crystal display device having a compensator with a retardation value between 0.15 μm and 0.38 μm and a single polarizer
US5660461A (en) 1994-12-08 1997-08-26 Quantum Devices, Inc. Arrays of optoelectronic devices and method of making same
US5677417A (en) 1993-05-04 1997-10-14 Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Zur Foerderung Tetraaroxyperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic polyimides
US5679152A (en) 1994-01-27 1997-10-21 Advanced Technology Materials, Inc. Method of making a single crystals Ga*N article
US5763901A (en) 1992-12-17 1998-06-09 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Semiconductor light-emitting device and method for manufacturing the device
US5771039A (en) 1994-06-06 1998-06-23 Ditzik; Richard J. Direct view display device integration techniques
US5770887A (en) 1993-10-08 1998-06-23 Mitsubishi Cable Industries, Ltd. GaN single crystal
US5777350A (en) 1994-12-02 1998-07-07 Nichia Chemical Industries, Ltd. Nitride semiconductor light-emitting device
US5869199A (en) 1993-03-26 1999-02-09 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Organic electroluminescent elements comprising triazoles
JP2900928B2 (en) 1997-10-20 1999-06-02 日亜化学工業株式会社 Light emitting diode
US5959316A (en) 1998-09-01 1999-09-28 Hewlett-Packard Company Multiple encapsulation of phosphor-LED devices
US5962971A (en) 1997-08-29 1999-10-05 Chen; Hsing LED structure with ultraviolet-light emission chip and multilayered resins to generate various colored lights
US6137217A (en) 1992-08-28 2000-10-24 Gte Products Corporation Fluorescent lamp with improved phosphor blend
US6340824B1 (en) 1997-09-01 2002-01-22 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Semiconductor light emitting device including a fluorescent material
US6504301B1 (en) 1999-09-03 2003-01-07 Lumileds Lighting, U.S., Llc Non-incandescent lightbulb package using light emitting diodes
US6576488B2 (en) 2001-06-11 2003-06-10 Lumileds Lighting U.S., Llc Using electrophoresis to produce a conformally coated phosphor-converted light emitting semiconductor
US6577073B2 (en) * 2000-05-31 2003-06-10 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Led lamp
US6600175B1 (en) 1996-03-26 2003-07-29 Advanced Technology Materials, Inc. Solid state white light emitter and display using same
US6642652B2 (en) 2001-06-11 2003-11-04 Lumileds Lighting U.S., Llc Phosphor-converted light emitting device
US6642618B2 (en) 2000-12-21 2003-11-04 Lumileds Lighting U.S., Llc Light-emitting device and production thereof
US6869812B1 (en) 2003-05-13 2005-03-22 Heng Liu High power AllnGaN based multi-chip light emitting diode
WO2005109532A1 (en) * 2004-05-06 2005-11-17 Seoul Opto-Device Co., Ltd. Light emitting device
US20060027781A1 (en) 2004-08-04 2006-02-09 Intematix Corporation Novel phosphor systems for a white light emitting diode (LED)
US20060043337A1 (en) 2004-08-20 2006-03-02 Dowa Mining Co., Ltd. Phosphor and manufacturing method therefore, and light source using the phosphor
US20060067073A1 (en) * 2004-09-30 2006-03-30 Chu-Chi Ting White led device
JP2006128456A (en) 2004-10-29 2006-05-18 Toyoda Gosei Co Ltd Light-emitting device
US20060152140A1 (en) * 2005-01-10 2006-07-13 Brandes George R Light emission device
US7153015B2 (en) 2001-12-31 2006-12-26 Innovations In Optics, Inc. Led white light optical system
US20070108455A1 (en) 2005-11-16 2007-05-17 Iled Photoelectronics, Inc. Three wavelength LED structure
US20070223219A1 (en) 2005-01-10 2007-09-27 Cree, Inc. Multi-chip light emitting device lamps for providing high-cri warm white light and light fixtures including the same
US20070258240A1 (en) 1999-11-18 2007-11-08 Color Kinetics Incorporated Methods and apparatus for generating white light
JP4010666B2 (en) 1998-09-11 2007-11-21 三洋電機株式会社 Solar power generation apparatus
JP4010665B2 (en) 1998-09-08 2007-11-21 三洋電機株式会社 Mounting method of the solar cell module
US20070278934A1 (en) * 2006-04-18 2007-12-06 Led Lighting Fixtures, Inc. Lighting device and lighting method
US7311858B2 (en) 2004-08-04 2007-12-25 Intematix Corporation Silicate-based yellow-green phosphors
US20080136313A1 (en) * 2006-12-07 2008-06-12 Led Lighting Fixtures, Inc. Lighting device and lighting method
US20080203900A1 (en) 2007-02-27 2008-08-28 Farn Hin Chen LED White Source with Improved Color Rendering
US7476338B2 (en) 2004-08-27 2009-01-13 Dowa Electronics Materials Co., Ltd. Phosphor and manufacturing method for the same, and light source
US7479662B2 (en) 2002-08-30 2009-01-20 Lumination Llc Coated LED with improved efficiency
US7654681B2 (en) * 2006-10-02 2010-02-02 Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd. Surface light source device using light emitting diodes
US7937865B2 (en) * 2006-03-08 2011-05-10 Intematix Corporation Light emitting sign and display surface therefor
JP6207170B2 (en) 2012-02-15 2017-10-04 アイメックImec Mask structure and method for defect-free heteroepitaxial
JP6283755B1 (en) 2017-01-11 2018-02-21 微創機械企業有限公司 Differential sealing mechanism of box making machine

Family Cites Families (31)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE1154215B (en) * 1962-02-08 1963-09-12 Patent Treuhand Ges Fuer Elektrische Gluehlampen Mbh Inorganic phosphor and process for its preparation
JPS5079379U (en) 1973-11-24 1975-07-09
JPS60170194U (en) 1984-04-20 1985-11-11
JPH0324692Y2 (en) 1987-08-06 1991-05-29
JPH079998B2 (en) 1988-01-07 1995-02-01 科学技術庁無機材質研究所長 P-n junction type light-emitting device of the cubic boron nitride
JPH01260707A (en) 1988-04-11 1989-10-18 Idec Izumi Corp Device for emitting white light
JPH0799345B2 (en) 1988-10-31 1995-10-25 沖電気工業株式会社 Temperature profile data generating method and device
JPH0291980U (en) 1988-12-29 1990-07-20
AU6885391A (en) 1989-11-24 1991-06-26 Innovare Limited A display device
JPH087614Y2 (en) 1990-05-08 1996-03-04 中部精機株式会社 Wire cap
JPH04289691A (en) 1990-12-07 1992-10-14 Mitsubishi Cable Ind Ltd El illuminant
JP2791448B2 (en) 1991-04-19 1998-08-27 日亜化学工業 株式会社 Light emitting diode
JPH05152609A (en) 1991-11-25 1993-06-18 Nichia Chem Ind Ltd Light emitting diode
JPH06267301A (en) 1993-03-15 1994-09-22 Olympus Optical Co Ltd Organic photoluminescence element
JPH07176794A (en) 1993-12-17 1995-07-14 Nichia Chem Ind Ltd Planar light source
JPH07235207A (en) 1994-02-21 1995-09-05 Copal Co Ltd Back light
JPH08250281A (en) 1995-03-08 1996-09-27 Olympus Optical Co Ltd Luminescent element and displaying apparatus
US20040239243A1 (en) * 1996-06-13 2004-12-02 Roberts John K. Light emitting assembly
US6680569B2 (en) * 1999-02-18 2004-01-20 Lumileds Lighting U.S. Llc Red-deficiency compensating phosphor light emitting device
EP1104799A1 (en) * 1999-11-30 2001-06-06 Patent-Treuhand-Gesellschaft für elektrische Glühlampen mbH Red emitting luminescent material
JP4077170B2 (en) * 2000-09-21 2008-04-16 シャープ株式会社 Semiconductor light-emitting device
AU2003221442A1 (en) * 2002-03-22 2003-10-08 Nichia Corporation Nitride phosphor and method for preparation thereof, and light emitting device
TWI329367B (en) * 2002-06-13 2010-08-21 Cree Inc Saturated phosphor solid state emitter
AU2003296511A1 (en) 2002-12-11 2004-06-30 Cobra Fixations Cie Ltee - Cobra Anchors Co. Ltd Anchor for hollow walls
US7005679B2 (en) * 2003-05-01 2006-02-28 Cree, Inc. Multiple component solid state white light
US7575697B2 (en) * 2004-08-04 2009-08-18 Intematix Corporation Silicate-based green phosphors
US7541728B2 (en) * 2005-01-14 2009-06-02 Intematix Corporation Display device with aluminate-based green phosphors
JP2008541477A (en) 2005-05-20 2008-11-20 クリー, インコーポレイティッド High efficiency white light-emitting diode
JP4770319B2 (en) * 2005-08-04 2011-09-14 日亜化学工業株式会社 Phosphor and light emitting device
RU2422945C2 (en) 2006-04-25 2011-06-27 Конинклейке Филипс Электроникс Н.В. Fluorescent illumination, generating white light
KR100771772B1 (en) 2006-08-25 2007-10-30 삼성전기주식회사 White light led module

Patent Citations (116)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3290255A (en) 1963-09-30 1966-12-06 Gen Electric White electroluminescent phosphor
US3593055A (en) 1969-04-16 1971-07-13 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Electro-luminescent device
US3676668A (en) 1969-12-29 1972-07-11 Gen Electric Solid state lamp assembly
US3691482A (en) 1970-01-19 1972-09-12 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Display system
US3709685A (en) 1970-02-19 1973-01-09 Ilford Ltd Photoconductive zinc oxide sensitized by substituted thiazolidene dyes
US4104076A (en) 1970-03-17 1978-08-01 Saint-Gobain Industries Manufacture of novel grey and bronze glasses
US3670193A (en) 1970-05-14 1972-06-13 Duro Test Corp Electric lamps producing energy in the visible and ultra-violet ranges
US3793046A (en) 1970-12-04 1974-02-19 Philips Corp Method of manufacturing a pigment
US3763405A (en) 1970-12-21 1973-10-02 Nippon Electric Co Solid state luminescent display device
US3743833A (en) 1971-07-16 1973-07-03 Eastman Kodak Co Radiographic elements and binders
US3875456A (en) 1972-04-04 1975-04-01 Hitachi Ltd Multi-color semiconductor lamp
US3932881A (en) 1972-09-05 1976-01-13 Nippon Electric Co., Inc. Electroluminescent device including dichroic and infrared reflecting components
US4081764A (en) 1972-10-12 1978-03-28 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Zinc oxide light emitting diode
US3819973A (en) 1972-11-02 1974-06-25 A Hosford Electroluminescent filament
US3849707A (en) 1973-03-07 1974-11-19 Ibm PLANAR GaN ELECTROLUMINESCENT DEVICE
US3819974A (en) 1973-03-12 1974-06-25 D Stevenson Gallium nitride metal-semiconductor junction light emitting diode
US3972717A (en) 1973-03-21 1976-08-03 Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft Electrophotographic recording material
US3937998A (en) 1973-10-05 1976-02-10 U.S. Philips Corporation Luminescent coating for low-pressure mercury vapour discharge lamp
US4047075A (en) 1975-03-01 1977-09-06 Licentia-Patent-Verwaltungs-G.M.B.H. Encapsulated light-emitting diode structure and array thereof
US4176294A (en) 1975-10-03 1979-11-27 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Method and device for efficiently generating white light with good rendition of illuminated objects
US4176299A (en) 1975-10-03 1979-11-27 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Method for efficiently generating white light with good color rendition of illuminated objects
US4143394A (en) 1976-07-30 1979-03-06 Licentia Patent-Verwaltungs-G.M.B.H. Semiconductor luminescence device with housing
US4211955A (en) 1978-03-02 1980-07-08 Ray Stephen W Solid state lamp
GB2017409A (en) 1978-03-22 1979-10-03 Bayraktaroglu B Light-emitting diode
US4315192A (en) 1979-12-31 1982-02-09 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Fluorescent lamp using high performance phosphor blend which is protected from color shifts by a very thin overcoat of stable phosphor of similar chromaticity
US4305019A (en) 1979-12-31 1981-12-08 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Warm-white fluorescent lamp having good efficacy and color rendering and using special phosphor blend as separate undercoat
US4559470A (en) 1981-04-22 1985-12-17 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Fluorescent discharge lamp
US4443532A (en) 1981-07-29 1984-04-17 Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated Induced crystallographic modification of aromatic compounds
US4667036A (en) 1983-08-27 1987-05-19 Basf Aktiengesellschaft Concentration of light over a particular area, and novel perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid diimides
US4573766A (en) 1983-12-19 1986-03-04 Cordis Corporation LED Staggered back lighting panel for LCD module
US4618555A (en) 1984-01-11 1986-10-21 Mitsubishi Chemical Ind., Ltd. Electrophotographic photoreceptor comprising azo compounds
US4678285A (en) 1984-01-13 1987-07-07 Ricoh Company, Ltd. Liquid crystal color display device
US4772885A (en) 1984-11-22 1988-09-20 Ricoh Company, Ltd. Liquid crystal color display device
US4638214A (en) 1985-03-25 1987-01-20 General Electric Company Fluorescent lamp containing aluminate phosphor
US4727003A (en) 1985-09-30 1988-02-23 Ricoh Company, Ltd. Electroluminescence device
US4845223A (en) 1985-12-19 1989-07-04 Basf Aktiengesellschaft Fluorescent aryloxy-substituted perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid diimides
US4946621A (en) 1986-04-29 1990-08-07 Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique (Cnrs) Luminescent mixed borates based on rare earths
US4859539A (en) 1987-03-23 1989-08-22 Eastman Kodak Company Optically brightened polyolefin coated paper support
US5110931A (en) 1987-11-27 1992-05-05 Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft Process for the preparation of n,n'-dimethylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide in high-hiding pigment form
US4915478A (en) 1988-10-05 1990-04-10 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Low power liquid crystal display backlight
US4918497A (en) 1988-12-14 1990-04-17 Cree Research, Inc. Blue light emitting diode formed in silicon carbide
US5126214A (en) 1989-03-15 1992-06-30 Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd. Electroluminescent element
US4992704A (en) 1989-04-17 1991-02-12 Basic Electronics, Inc. Variable color light emitting diode
US5264034A (en) 1989-08-11 1993-11-23 Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft Pigment preparations based on perylene compounds
US5131916A (en) 1990-03-01 1992-07-21 Bayer Aktiengesellschaft Colored fluorescent polymer emulsions for marker pens: graft copolymers and fluorescent dyes in aqueous phase
US5210051A (en) 1990-03-27 1993-05-11 Cree Research, Inc. High efficiency light emitting diodes from bipolar gallium nitride
US5077161A (en) 1990-05-31 1991-12-31 Xerox Corporation Imaging members with bichromophoric bisazo perylene photoconductive materials
US5143438A (en) 1990-10-15 1992-09-01 Thorn Emi Plc Light sources
US5237182A (en) 1990-11-29 1993-08-17 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Electroluminescent device of compound semiconductor with buffer layer
US5166761A (en) 1991-04-01 1992-11-24 Midwest Research Institute Tunnel junction multiple wavelength light-emitting diodes
US5369289A (en) 1991-10-30 1994-11-29 Toyoda Gosei Co. Ltd. Gallium nitride-based compound semiconductor light-emitting device and method for making the same
US5143433A (en) 1991-11-01 1992-09-01 Litton Systems Canada Limited Night vision backlighting system for liquid crystal displays
US5439971A (en) 1991-11-12 1995-08-08 Eastman Chemical Company Fluorescent pigment concentrates
US5563621A (en) 1991-11-18 1996-10-08 Black Box Vision Limited Display apparatus
US5208462A (en) 1991-12-19 1993-05-04 Allied-Signal Inc. Wide bandwidth solid state optical source
US5211467A (en) 1992-01-07 1993-05-18 Rockwell International Corporation Fluorescent lighting system
US5283425A (en) 1992-02-06 1994-02-01 Rohm Co., Ltd. Light emitting element array substrate with reflecting means
US6137217A (en) 1992-08-28 2000-10-24 Gte Products Corporation Fluorescent lamp with improved phosphor blend
US5578839A (en) 1992-11-20 1996-11-26 Nichia Chemical Industries, Ltd. Light-emitting gallium nitride-based compound semiconductor device
US5763901A (en) 1992-12-17 1998-06-09 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Semiconductor light-emitting device and method for manufacturing the device
US5518808A (en) 1992-12-18 1996-05-21 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Luminescent materials prepared by coating luminescent compositions onto substrate particles
US5869199A (en) 1993-03-26 1999-02-09 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Organic electroluminescent elements comprising triazoles
US5557168A (en) 1993-04-02 1996-09-17 Okaya Electric Industries Co., Ltd. Gas-discharging type display device and a method of manufacturing
US5677417A (en) 1993-05-04 1997-10-14 Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Zur Foerderung Tetraaroxyperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic polyimides
US5405709A (en) 1993-09-13 1995-04-11 Eastman Kodak Company White light emitting internal junction organic electroluminescent device
US5619356A (en) 1993-09-16 1997-04-08 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Reflective liquid crystal display device having a compensator with a retardation value between 0.15 μm and 0.38 μm and a single polarizer
US5770887A (en) 1993-10-08 1998-06-23 Mitsubishi Cable Industries, Ltd. GaN single crystal
US5679152A (en) 1994-01-27 1997-10-21 Advanced Technology Materials, Inc. Method of making a single crystals Ga*N article
US5535230A (en) 1994-04-06 1996-07-09 Shogo Tzuzuki Illuminating light source device using semiconductor laser element
US5771039A (en) 1994-06-06 1998-06-23 Ditzik; Richard J. Direct view display device integration techniques
US5777350A (en) 1994-12-02 1998-07-07 Nichia Chemical Industries, Ltd. Nitride semiconductor light-emitting device
US5660461A (en) 1994-12-08 1997-08-26 Quantum Devices, Inc. Arrays of optoelectronic devices and method of making same
US5585640A (en) 1995-01-11 1996-12-17 Huston; Alan L. Glass matrix doped with activated luminescent nanocrystalline particles
US5583349A (en) 1995-11-02 1996-12-10 Motorola Full color light emitting diode display
US20060049416A1 (en) 1996-03-26 2006-03-09 Bruce Baretz Solid state white light emitter and display using same
US7943945B2 (en) 1996-03-26 2011-05-17 Cree, Inc. Solid state white light emitter and display using same
US20040016938A1 (en) 1996-03-26 2004-01-29 Bruce Baretz Solid state white light emitter and display using same
US6600175B1 (en) 1996-03-26 2003-07-29 Advanced Technology Materials, Inc. Solid state white light emitter and display using same
US7615795B2 (en) 1996-03-26 2009-11-10 Cree, Inc. Solid state white light emitter and display using same
US20080224597A1 (en) 1996-03-26 2008-09-18 Cree, Inc. Solid state white light emitter and display using same
US20080224598A1 (en) 1996-03-26 2008-09-18 Cree, Inc. Solid state white light emitter and display using same
US5962971A (en) 1997-08-29 1999-10-05 Chen; Hsing LED structure with ultraviolet-light emission chip and multilayered resins to generate various colored lights
US6340824B1 (en) 1997-09-01 2002-01-22 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Semiconductor light emitting device including a fluorescent material
JP2900928B2 (en) 1997-10-20 1999-06-02 日亜化学工業株式会社 Light emitting diode
US7387405B2 (en) 1997-12-17 2008-06-17 Philips Solid-State Lighting Solutions, Inc. Methods and apparatus for generating prescribed spectrums of light
US5959316A (en) 1998-09-01 1999-09-28 Hewlett-Packard Company Multiple encapsulation of phosphor-LED devices
JP4010665B2 (en) 1998-09-08 2007-11-21 三洋電機株式会社 Mounting method of the solar cell module
JP4010666B2 (en) 1998-09-11 2007-11-21 三洋電機株式会社 Solar power generation apparatus
US6504301B1 (en) 1999-09-03 2003-01-07 Lumileds Lighting, U.S., Llc Non-incandescent lightbulb package using light emitting diodes
US20070258240A1 (en) 1999-11-18 2007-11-08 Color Kinetics Incorporated Methods and apparatus for generating white light
US6577073B2 (en) * 2000-05-31 2003-06-10 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Led lamp
US6642618B2 (en) 2000-12-21 2003-11-04 Lumileds Lighting U.S., Llc Light-emitting device and production thereof
US6576488B2 (en) 2001-06-11 2003-06-10 Lumileds Lighting U.S., Llc Using electrophoresis to produce a conformally coated phosphor-converted light emitting semiconductor
US6642652B2 (en) 2001-06-11 2003-11-04 Lumileds Lighting U.S., Llc Phosphor-converted light emitting device
US7153015B2 (en) 2001-12-31 2006-12-26 Innovations In Optics, Inc. Led white light optical system
US7479662B2 (en) 2002-08-30 2009-01-20 Lumination Llc Coated LED with improved efficiency
US6869812B1 (en) 2003-05-13 2005-03-22 Heng Liu High power AllnGaN based multi-chip light emitting diode
WO2005109532A1 (en) * 2004-05-06 2005-11-17 Seoul Opto-Device Co., Ltd. Light emitting device
US20060027781A1 (en) 2004-08-04 2006-02-09 Intematix Corporation Novel phosphor systems for a white light emitting diode (LED)
US7311858B2 (en) 2004-08-04 2007-12-25 Intematix Corporation Silicate-based yellow-green phosphors
US20060043337A1 (en) 2004-08-20 2006-03-02 Dowa Mining Co., Ltd. Phosphor and manufacturing method therefore, and light source using the phosphor
US7476338B2 (en) 2004-08-27 2009-01-13 Dowa Electronics Materials Co., Ltd. Phosphor and manufacturing method for the same, and light source
US20060067073A1 (en) * 2004-09-30 2006-03-30 Chu-Chi Ting White led device
JP2006128456A (en) 2004-10-29 2006-05-18 Toyoda Gosei Co Ltd Light-emitting device
US20060152140A1 (en) * 2005-01-10 2006-07-13 Brandes George R Light emission device
US20070223219A1 (en) 2005-01-10 2007-09-27 Cree, Inc. Multi-chip light emitting device lamps for providing high-cri warm white light and light fixtures including the same
JP2007142389A (en) 2005-11-16 2007-06-07 Iled Photoelectronics Inc Structure of three-wavelength led
US20070108455A1 (en) 2005-11-16 2007-05-17 Iled Photoelectronics, Inc. Three wavelength LED structure
US7937865B2 (en) * 2006-03-08 2011-05-10 Intematix Corporation Light emitting sign and display surface therefor
US20070278934A1 (en) * 2006-04-18 2007-12-06 Led Lighting Fixtures, Inc. Lighting device and lighting method
US7654681B2 (en) * 2006-10-02 2010-02-02 Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd. Surface light source device using light emitting diodes
US7918581B2 (en) * 2006-12-07 2011-04-05 Cree, Inc. Lighting device and lighting method
US20080136313A1 (en) * 2006-12-07 2008-06-12 Led Lighting Fixtures, Inc. Lighting device and lighting method
US20080203900A1 (en) 2007-02-27 2008-08-28 Farn Hin Chen LED White Source with Improved Color Rendering
JP6207170B2 (en) 2012-02-15 2017-10-04 アイメックImec Mask structure and method for defect-free heteroepitaxial
JP6283755B1 (en) 2017-01-11 2018-02-21 微創機械企業有限公司 Differential sealing mechanism of box making machine

Non-Patent Citations (112)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
"Fraunhofer-Gesellschafl: Research News Special1997", http://www.fhg.de/press/md-e/md1997/sondert2.hlm,(accessed on Jul. 23, 1998), Jan. 1997, Publisher: Fraunhofer Institute.
Adachi, C. et al., "Blue light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices", "Appl. Phys. Lett.", Feb. 26, 1990, pp. 799-801, vol. 56, No. 9.
Akasaki, Isamu, et al., "Photoluminescence of Mg-doped p-type GaN and electroluminescence of GaN p-n junction LED", "Journal of Luminescence", Jan.-Feb. 1991, pp. 666-670, vol. 48-49 pt. 2.
Amano, H., et al., "UV and blue electroluminescence from Al/GaN:Mg/GaN LED treated with low-energy electron beam irradiation (LEEBI)", "Institute of Physics: Conference Series", 1990, pp. 725-730, vol. 106, No. 10.
Apr. 14, 2010 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 11/264,124.
Apr. 15, 2009 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 11/264.124, issued by Abu I Kalam.
Armaroli, N. et al., "Supramolecular Photochemistry and Photophysics. ", "J. Am. Chern. Soc.", 1994, pp. 5211-5217, vol. 116.
Aug. 21, 2006 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 10/623,198, issued by Thao X. Le.
Aug. 24, 2007 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 11/264,124, issued by Thao X. Le.
Aug. 26, 2010 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 12/131,118.
Berggren, M. et al., "Light-emitting diodes with variable colours from polymer blends", "Nature", Dec. 1, 1994, pp. 444-446, vol. 372.
Berggren, M., et al., "White light from an electroluminescent diode made from poly[3(4-octylphenyl)-2,2′-bithiophene] and an oxadiazole . . . ", "Journal of Applied Physics", Dec. 1994, pp. 7530-7534, vol. 76, No. 11.
Berggren, M., et al., "White light from an electroluminescent diode made from poly[3(4-octylphenyl)-2,2'-bithiophene] and an oxadiazole . . . ", "Journal of Applied Physics", Dec. 1994, pp. 7530-7534, vol. 76, No. 11.
Boonkosum, W. et al., "Novel Flat Panel display made of amorphous SiN:H/SiC:H thin film LED", "Physical Concepts and Materials for Novel Optoelectronic Device Applications II", 1993, pp. 40-51, vol. 1985.
Bradfield, P.L., et al., "Electroluminescence from sulfur impurities in a p-n junction formed in epitaxial silicon", "Appl. Phys. Lett", 07110/1989, pp. 10D-102, vol. 55, No. 2.
Chao, Zhang Jin, et al., "White light emitting glasses", "Journal of Solid State Chemistry", 1991, pp. 17-29, vol. 93.
Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) Technical Report 13.3, 1995, Method of Measuring and Specifying Colour Rendering Properties of Light Sources.
Comrie, M. , "Full Color LED Added to Lumex's Lineup", "EBN", Jun. 19, 1995, p. 28.
CRC Handbook, 63rd Ed., (1983) p. E-201.
Das, N.C., et al., "Luminescence spectra of ann-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor at breakdown", 1990, pp. 1152-1153, vol. 56, No. 12.
Dec. 16, 2004 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 10/623,198, issued by Thao X. Le.
Dictionary Definition of Phosphor, Oxford English Dictionary Online, Mar. 9, 2012.
El Jouhari, N., et al., "White light generation using fluorescent glasses activated by Ce3+, Tb3+ and Mn2+ ions", "Journal De Physique IV, Colloque C2", Oct. 1992, pp. 257-260, vol. 2.
European Patent Office, Extended European Search Report for EP09718586.2, Oct. 21, 2011, 7 pages.
Feb. 21, 2012 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 12/131,118, issued by Abul Kalam.
Feb. 26, 2008 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 11/264,124, issued by Abu I Kalam.
Feb. 4, 2005 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 10/623,198, issued by Thao X. Le.
Feb. 7, 2007 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 11/264,124, issued by Thao X. Le.
Foreign Office Action dated Apr. 28, 2013 for Chinese Appln. No. 200980108036.9.
Foreign Office Action dated Jul. 9, 2013 for Japanese Appln. No. 2010-549890.
Forrest, S. et al. , "Organic emitters promise a new generation of displays", "Laser Focus World ", Feb. 1995, pp. 99-107.
Hamada, Y. et al. , "Blue-Light-Emitting Organic Electroluminescent Devices with Oxadiazole Dimer Dyes as an Emitter", "Jpn. J. Appl. Physics", Jun. 1992, pp. 1812-1816, vol. 31.
Hamakawa, Yoshihiro, et al., "Toward a visible light display by amorphous SiC:H alloy system", "Optoelectronics-Devices and Technologies", Dec. 1989, pp. 281-294, vol. 4, No. 2.
Hamakawa, Yoshihiro, et al., "Toward a visible light display by amorphous SiC:H alloy system", "Optoelectronics—Devices and Technologies", Dec. 1989, pp. 281-294, vol. 4, No. 2.
Hirano, Masao, et al., "Various performances of fiber-optical temperature sensor utilizing infrared-to-visible conversion phosphor", "Electrochemisty (JP)", Feb. 1987, pp. 158-164, vol. 55, No. 2, Publisher: Electrochemical Society of Japan.
International Preliminary Report on Patentability dated Apr. 20, 2009 for International Application No. PCT/US2009/036214.
International Search Report and Written Opinion dated Apr. 20, 2009 for International Application No. PCT/US09/36214, 8 pages.
Jan. 29, 2007 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 10/623,198, issued by Thao X. Le.
Jan. 30, 2006 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 11/264,124, issued by Thao X. Le.
Jan. 7, 2011 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 12/131,119, issued by Steven Y. Horikoshi.
Jang, S., "Effect of Avalanche-Induced Light Emission on the Multiplication Factor in Bipolar Junction Transistors", "Solid-State Electronics", 1991, pp. 1191-1196, vol. 34, No. 11.
Jul. 10, 2008 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 11/264,124, issued by Abu I Kalam.
Jul. 14, 2005 Notice of Allowance, Notice of Allowability, and Examiner's Statement of Reasons for Allowance in U.S. Appl. No. 10/623,198, issued by Thao X. Le.
Jul. 14, 2011 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 12/131,119, issued by Steve Horikoshi.
Jul. 7, 2011 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 12/131,118, issued by Abu I Kalam.
Jun. 14, 2006 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 11/264,124, issued by Thao X. Le.
Jun. 26, 2007 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 10/623,198, issued by Thao X. Le.
Kido, J. et al. , "1,2,4-Triazole Derivative as an Electron Transport Layer in Organic Luminescent Devices", "Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. ", Jul. 1, 1993, pp. L917-L920, vol. 32.
Kido, J. et al. , "Bright blue electroluminescence from poly(N-vinylcarbazole)", "Appl. Phys. Letters", Nov. 8, 1993, pp. 2627-2629, vol. 63, No. 19.
Kido, J., et al., "White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with . . . ", "Appl. Phys. Lett.", Feb. 14, 1994, pp. 815-817, vol. 64, No. 7.
Krames, M., et al., "Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-Slate Lighting", "Journal of Display Technology", Jun. 2007, pp. 160-175, vol. 3, No. 2.
Kudryashov, V., et al., "Spectra of Superbright Blue and Green InGaN/AlGaN/GaN Light-Emitting diodes", "Journal of the European Ceramic Society", May 1996, pp. 2033-2037, vol. 17.
Larach, S., et al., "Blue emitting luminescent phosphors: Review and status", "Int'l Workshop on Electroluminescence", 1990, pp. 137-143.
LEDs and Laser Diodes, Electus Distribution, copyright 2001, available at URL:http://www.jaycar.com.au/images-uploaded/ledlaser.Pdf.
LEDs and Laser Diodes, Electus Distribution, copyright 2001, available at URL:http://www.jaycar.com.au/images—uploaded/ledlaser.Pdf.
Lester, S., et al., "High dislocation densities in high efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes", "Appl. Phys. Lett.", Mar. 6, 1995, pp. 1249-1251, vol. 66, No. 10.
Lumogen® F Violet 570 Data Sheet; available at the BASF Chemical Company website Lumogen® F Violet 570 Data Sheet; available at the BASF Chemical Company website URL,http://worldaccount.basf.com/wa/EUen-GB/Catalog/Pigments/doc4/BASF/PRD/30048274/.pdt?title=Technicai%20Datasheet&asset-type=pds/pdf&language=EN&urn=urn:documentum:eCommerce-soi-EU :09007bb280021e27.pdf :09007bb280021e27.pdf.
Lumogen® F Violet 570 Data Sheet; available at the BASF Chemical Company website Lumogen® F Violet 570 Data Sheet; available at the BASF Chemical Company website URL,http://worldaccount.basf.com/wa/EUen—GB/Catalog/Pigments/doc4/BASF/PRD/30048274/.pdt?title=Technicai%20Datasheet&asset—type=pds/pdf&language=EN&urn=urn:documentum:eCommerce—soi—EU :09007bb280021e27.pdf :09007bb280021e27.pdf.
Mar. 2, 2009 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 10/623,198, issued by Abu I Kalam.
Mar. 22, 2012 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 12/131,119, issued by Steven Y. Horikoshi.
Mar. 28, 2006 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 10/623,198, issued by Thao X. Le.
Mar. 4, 2011 Notice of Allowance, Notice of Allowability, Examiners Interview Summary, Examiners Amendment/Comment and Examiners Statement of Reason for Allowance in U.S. Appl. No. 11/264,124, issued by Abu I Kalam.
Mar. 7, 2008 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 10/623,198, issued by Abu I Kalam.
Maruska, H.P., "Gallium nitride light-emitting diodes (dissertation)", "Dissertation Submitted to Stanford University", Nov. 1973.
Maruska, H.P., et al., "Violet luminescence of Mg-doped GaN", "Appl. Phys. Lett.", Mar. 15, 1973, pp. 303-305, vol. 22, No. 6.
May 4, 2010 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 12/131,119.
McGraw-Hill, "McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, Third Edition", "McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms", 1984, pp. 912 and 1446, Publisher: McGraw-Hill.
McGraw-Hill, "McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Sixth Edition", "McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology", 1987, pp. 582 and 60-63, vol. 9-10, Publisher: McGraw-Hill.
Mimura, Hidenori, et al., "Visible electroluminescence from uc-SiC/porous Si/c-Si p-n junctions", "Int. J. Optoelectron.", 1994, pp. 211-215, vol. 9, No. 2.
Miura, Noboru, et al., "Several Blue-Emitting Thin-Film Electroluminescent Devices", "Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.", Jan. 15, 1992, pp. L46-L48, vol. 31, No. Part 2, No. 1A IB.
Morkoc et al., "Large-band-gap SIC, 111-V nitride, and II-VI ZnSe-based semiconductor device technologies", J. Appl. Phys. 76(3), 1; Mar. 17, 1994; Illinois University.
Muench, W.V., et al., "Silicon carbide light-emitting diodes with epitaxial junctions", "Solid-State Electronics", Oct. 1976, pp. 871-874, vol. 19, No. 10.
Mukai, T., et al., "Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices", "Phys. Stat. Sol.", Sep. 2003, pp. 52-57, vol. 200, No. 1.
Naeshiro et al., "Light-Emitting Device", English Machine Translation JP 2006128456 A, May 18, 2006, 13 pages. *
Nakamura, S., et al., "High-power InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue and violet light-emitting diodes", "Appl. Phys. Lett.", Sep. 25, 1995, pp. 1868-1870, vol. 67, No. 13.
Nakamura, S., et al., "The Blue Laser Diode: GaN Based Light Emitters and Lasers", Mar. 21, 1997, p. 239, Publisher: Springer-Verlag.
Nakamura, S., et al., "The Blue Laser Diode: The Complete Story, 2nd Revised and Enlarged Edition", Oct. 2000, pp. 237-240, Publisher: Springer-Verlag.
Nov. 30, 2010 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 12/131/118.
Oct. 20, 2008 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 10/623,198, issued by Abu I Kalam.
Office Action for Chinese Patent Application No. 200980108036.9 dated Feb. 13, 2012.
Office Action for Chinese Patent Application No. 200980108036.9 dated Jan. 14, 2013.
Office Action for European Application No. 09718586.2 dated Jan. 28, 2013.
Pankove, J.I., et al., "Scanning electron microscopy studies of GaN", "Journal of Applied Physics", Apr. 1975, pp. 1647-1652, vol. 46, No. 4.
Pavan, P., et al., "Explanation of Current Crowding Phenomena Induced by Impact Ionization in Advanced Si Bipolar Transistors by Means of . . . ", "Microelectronic Engineering", 1992, pp. 699-702, vol. 19.
Pei, Q, et al., "Polymer Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells", "Science", Aug. 25, 1995, pp. 1086-1088, vol. 269, No. 5227.
Reexam Advisory Action dated Sep. 28, 2012 for U.S. Appl. No. 90/010,940.
Reexam Final Office Action dated May 24, 2012 for U.S. Appl. No. 90/010,940.
Reexam Final Office Action dated Nov. 7, 2011 for U.S. Appl. No. 90/010,940.
Reexam Non-Final Office Action dated Jan. 26, 2012 for U.S. Appl. No. 90/010,940.
Reexam Non-Final Office Action dated Mar. 3, 2011 for U.S. Appl. No. 90/010,940.
Reexam Non-Final Office Action dated Sep. 20, 2010 for U.S. Appl. No. 90/010,940.
Roman. D., "LEDs Turn a Brighter Blue", "Electronic Buyers' News", Jun. 19, 1995, pp. 28 and 35, vol. 960, Publisher: CMP Media LLC.
Saleh and Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1991, pp. 592-594.
Sato, Yuichi, et al., "Full-color fluorescent display devices using a near-UV light-emitting diode", "Japanese Journal of Applied Physics", Jul. 1996, pp. L838-L839, vol. 35, No. ?A.
Sep. 17, 2009 Notice of Allowance, Notice of Allowability, Examiners Amendmeni/Comment, and Examiners Statement of Reasons for Allowance in U.S. Appl. No. 10/623,198, issued by Abul Kalam.
Sep. 29, 2009 Office Action in U.S. Appl. No. 11/264,124, issued by Abu I Kalam.
Tanaka, Shosaku, et al., "Bright white-light electroluminescence based on nonradiative energy transfer in Ce-and Eu-doped SrS thin films", "Applied Physics Letters", Nov. 23, 1987, pp. 1661-1663, vol. 51, No. 21.
Tanaka, Shosaku, et al., "White Light Emitting Thin-Film Electroluminescent Devices with SrS:Ce,Cl/ZnS:Mn Double Phosphor Layers", "Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.", Mar. 20, 1986, pp. L225-L227, vol. 25, No. 3.
The Penguin Dictionary of Electronics, 3rd edition, pp. 315,437-438, 509-510, copyright 1979, 1988, and 1998.
Ura, M. , "Recent trends of development of silicon monocarbide blue-light emission diodes", "Kinzoku ", 1989, pp. 11-15, vol. 59, No. 9.
Werner, K. , "Higher Visibility for LEDs", "IEEE Spectrum", Jul. 1994, pp. 30-39.
Wojciechowski, J. et al. , "Infrared-To-Blue Up-Converting Phosphor", "Electron Technology", 1978, pp. 31-47, vol. 11, No. 3.
Yamaguchi, Y. et al., "High-Brightness SiC Blue LEDs and Their Application to Full Color LED Lamps", "Optoelectronics-Devices and Technologies", Jun. 1992, pp. 57-67, vol. 7, No. 1.
Yamaguchi, Y. et al., "High-Brightness SiC Blue LEDs and Their Application to Full Color LED Lamps", "Optoelectronics—Devices and Technologies", Jun. 1992, pp. 57-67, vol. 7, No. 1.
Yang, Y., et al., "Voltage controlled two color light-emitting electrochemical cells", "Appl. Phys. Lett.", 1996, vol. 68, No. 19.
Yen, William M. et al., Inorganic Phosphors, Section 8: Commercial Phosphors and Scintillators and Appendix II, 2004 CRC Press, New York.
Yoshimi, Masashi, et al., "Amorphous carbon basis blue light electroluminescent device", "Optoelectronics-Devices and Technologies", Jun. 1992, pp. 69-81, vol. 7, No. 1.
Yoshimi, Masashi, et al., "Amorphous carbon basis blue light electroluminescent device", "Optoelectronics—Devices and Technologies", Jun. 1992, pp. 69-81, vol. 7, No. 1.
Zanoni, E., et al., "Impact ionization, recombination, and visible light emission in ALGaAs/GaAs high electron mobility transistors", "J. Appl. Phys.", 1991, pp. 529-531, vol. 70, No. 1.
Zanoni, E., et al., "Measurements of Avalanche Effects and Light Emission in Advanced Si and SiGe Bipolar Transistors", "Microelectronic Engineering", 1991, pp. 23-26, vol. 15.
Zdanowski, Marek, "Pulse operating up-converting phosphor LED", "Electron Technol. ", 1978, pp. 49-61, vol. 11, No. 3.
Zhiming, Chen, et al., "Amorphous thin film white-LED and its light-emitting mechanism", "Conference Record of the 1991 International Display Research Conference", Oct. 1991, pp. 122-125.

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20100244740A1 (en) * 2007-08-24 2010-09-30 Photonic Developments Llc Multi-chip light emitting diode light device
US9374876B2 (en) * 2007-08-24 2016-06-21 Martin A. Alpert Multi-chip light emitting diode light device
US20120098460A1 (en) * 2009-07-07 2012-04-26 Shin Miyasaka Light emitting device
US20130257920A1 (en) * 2012-03-29 2013-10-03 Nichia Corporation Display apparatus and method of controlling the same
US9691320B2 (en) * 2012-03-29 2017-06-27 Nichia Corporation Display apparatus with color filters and light sources and method of controlling the same
US20140340869A1 (en) * 2012-05-24 2014-11-20 Lumen Dynamics Group, lnc. High brightness solid state illumination system for fluorescence imaging and analysis
US9239133B2 (en) * 2012-05-24 2016-01-19 Excelitas Canada, Inc. High brightness solid state illumination system for fluorescence imaging and analysis
US9952442B2 (en) 2012-05-24 2018-04-24 Excelitas Canada, Inc. High brightness solid state illumination system for fluorescence imaging and analysis
US20140055993A1 (en) * 2012-08-21 2014-02-27 Advanced Optoelectronic Technology, Inc. Light emitting diode illuminating device having uniform color temperature
US20150162505A1 (en) * 2013-12-10 2015-06-11 Gary W. Jones Inverse visible spectrum light and broad spectrum light source for enhanced vision
US9551468B2 (en) * 2013-12-10 2017-01-24 Gary W. Jones Inverse visible spectrum light and broad spectrum light source for enhanced vision

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
KR20100132968A (en) 2010-12-20
EP2269207A4 (en) 2011-11-23
JP2011513996A (en) 2011-04-28
CN102017044A (en) 2011-04-13
US20090224652A1 (en) 2009-09-10
EP2269207A2 (en) 2011-01-05
WO2009114390A2 (en) 2009-09-17
US20140027799A1 (en) 2014-01-30
EP2269207B1 (en) 2014-05-21
KR101641377B1 (en) 2016-07-20
WO2009114390A3 (en) 2009-12-30
US9324923B2 (en) 2016-04-26
TW200951343A (en) 2009-12-16

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US7648649B2 (en) Red line emitting phosphors for use in led applications
KR100951065B1 (en) Aluminate-based blue phosphors
TWI415923B (en) Illumination system comprising a radiation source and a fluorescent material
TWI615995B (en) Illuminating device
US7262439B2 (en) Charge compensated nitride phosphors for use in lighting applications
US6982045B2 (en) Light emitting device having silicate fluorescent phosphor
KR100811054B1 (en) Silicated-based green phosphors
TWI392829B (en) Fluorescent lighting creating white light
EP1339109B1 (en) Red-deficiency compensating phosphor light emitting device
EP2006924B1 (en) Light source with a light-emitting element
US7038370B2 (en) Phosphor converted light emitting device
US7026755B2 (en) Deep red phosphor for general illumination applications
CN1214471C (en) Illumination device with at least one LED as light source
JP3985486B2 (en) The semiconductor light emitting device and a light emitting apparatus using the same
US20060231851A1 (en) Red phosphor for LED based lighting
US7453195B2 (en) White lamps with enhanced color contrast
US7345418B2 (en) Phosphor mixture and light emitting device using the same
US7646032B2 (en) White light LED devices with flat spectra
US20070018573A1 (en) Phosphor, production method thereof and light-emitting device using the phosphor
JP4543253B2 (en) Phosphor mixture and the light emitting device
US8729788B2 (en) Light emitting device provided with a wavelength conversion unit incorporating plural kinds of phosphors
AU2004322660B2 (en) Novel phosphor systems for a white light emitting diode (LED)
EP1566426A2 (en) Phosphor converted light emitting device
EP1447853B1 (en) Semiconductor light emitting element and light emitting device using this
US20080093979A1 (en) Illumination System Comprising a Radiation Source and a Luminescent Material

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: INTEMATIX CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:LI, YI-QUN;WANG, GANG;CHEN, LI-DE;REEL/FRAME:022633/0901;SIGNING DATES FROM 20090401 TO 20090423

Owner name: INTEMATIX CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:LI, YI-QUN;WANG, GANG;CHEN, LI-DE;SIGNING DATES FROM 20090401 TO 20090423;REEL/FRAME:022633/0901

STCF Information on status: patent grant

Free format text: PATENTED CASE

AS Assignment

Owner name: EAST WEST BANK, CALIFORNIA

Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:INTEMATIX HONG KONG CO. LIMITED;INTEMATIX CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:036967/0623

Effective date: 20151022

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

SULP Surcharge for late payment
FEPP Fee payment procedure

Free format text: ENTITY STATUS SET TO UNDISCOUNTED (ORIGINAL EVENT CODE: BIG.); ENTITY STATUS OF PATENT OWNER: LARGE ENTITY