US84335A - Improvement in apparatus for making- steel and refining- iron - Google Patents

Improvement in apparatus for making- steel and refining- iron Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US84335A
US84335A US84335DA US84335A US 84335 A US84335 A US 84335A US 84335D A US84335D A US 84335DA US 84335 A US84335 A US 84335A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
converter
air
molten
holes
metal
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21CPROCESSING OF PIG-IRON, e.g. REFINING, MANUFACTURE OF WROUGHT-IRON OR STEEL; TREATMENT IN MOLTEN STATE OF FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C21C5/00Manufacture of carbon-steel, e.g. plain mild steel, medium carbon steel or cast steel or stainless steel
    • C21C5/28Manufacture of steel in the converter
    • C21C5/38Removal of waste gases or dust
    • C21C5/40Offtakes or separating apparatus for converter waste gases or dust

Description

,1. ABSTEHDAM.

' Making Steel. No'. 84,335.

n l (all/7,1.'I

Ml ,Hv

N. PETERS Pmwumgmpmr. wnmngmn, nA cA Patented Nov. 24, 1868.

faw.'

JOHN 1ABSTERDAM, O-F lNEW YORK, N. Y.

Letters .Patent No. 84,335, (lated November 24, 18468.

IMPROVEMENT IN APPARATUS FOR MAKING STEEL .AND REFINING IRON.

The Schedule referred to in these Letters Patent. and making part of the sama.

To all 'whom 'it may concern Be it known that 1,'JOHN Ansrnnnan, ofthe city,l county, and State of New York, have invented a new and improved Apparatus for Makin g Steel an d Refining Iron; and I do hereby decla-re the following to be a full, clear, and exact description thereof, which will enable those skilled in the art to make and use the same, reference being had to the accompanyiu drawing, forming part of this specification, in which drawing;

Figure lrepresents a vertical central section of this invention.

Figure 2 isa transverse section thereof', taken in the plane indicated by the line a: a', iig. l.

Figures 3 and 4 are details, which will be referred to-as the description progresses.

Figure 5 shows a modification thereof.

Similar letters indicate corresponding parts.

This invention relates to an apparatus which is intended to calry out a process for. refining iron andmaking steel in Ivacuo, for which Letters Patent were granted to me, January 23, 1866, and which also embodies several valuable and important improvements 'not mentioned in the aforesaid patent..

These improvements consist in the arrangement of a spark-arrester, attached to the mouth of the converter in such a manner that the sparks or solid particles carried out of the converter by the cuirent of air are retained, and the clogging up of the eXha-uster .or suction-apparatus is therebyprevented; also, in the arrangement of a hollow tubular pivot, in combination with the spark-arrester, and with the steam-supply pipe of the exhauster, in such a manner thatA said sparkarrester and exhauster can be swung back or raised from the mouth of the converter Without breaking the connection 4of the steam-supply pipe; further, in the arrangement of a rising and falling perforated chamber, in combination with the converter, and with a pipe supplying hydrocarbon-gas or air under pressure, or both, in such a manner that, by pressing said chamber up against the bottom of the converter, either air or gas, or both, can be injected into the converter with great ease and convenience; also, in the arrangement of movable plugs, in combination with the rising and falling chamber, and with the holes in the bottom of the converter, in such a nia-nner that, by raising said chamber, the holes in the converter can be plugged up simultaneously, and the operation of the apparatus is thereby materially facilitated.

Arepresent-s a converter,which is hung o n trunnions, c, similar to cupolas used in oldeu times in foundries. On the mouth of this converter is placed the sparkarrester, B, which is composed of a metallic jacket,

lined with nre-brick or other refractory material, and which is suspended on apivot, l), so that it can -bereadily swung up from the mouth of the converter, or let down'thereon, as may be desired.

Instead of constructing the spark-arrester in the form shown in iig. l, however, it might be constructed as indicated by iig. 5, where the mouth of the converter is inclined, and tits against the correspondingly-inclined mouthI of the spark-arrester. 1n this case the sparkarrester can remain stationary, and it does not interfere with the necessary motion of the converter.

lu the interior `of said spark-arrester are placed a concave-retainer, af, and one or more screens, b,which serve to arrest the solid impurities which 'are carriedI ont of the mouth of the converter, so that said impurities are prevented from clogging up the suction-appar ratus or exhauster C. l This exhauster is firmly connected to the sparkarrester by a pipe, el, and it consists of au adjustable nozzle, c, which is in line with a conical spout, f, and at righta-ngles with the connecting-pipe d, so that, by passing a current of steam through the nozzle c, a partial vacuum is produced in the pipe d, the sparkarrester B, and the converter A, and the external air is caused to rush in through the openings g 9*, provided fcr this purpose in the bottom and sides of the converter, and to permeate the molten metal in said converter, as has been fully described in my Letters Patent of January 23, 1866.

The exhaustcr C is supplied With steam by means of a pipe, hf, which connects with the bearing 't of the pivot l), on which the spark-arrester is hung, and said pivot is made hollow or tubular, being closed at one end, and connected at its opposite open end to a steamgenerator of any suitable construction.

That portion of said tubular pivot which is situated in the interior of the bearing i, is perforated with a hole, j, which registers with the mouth of the pipe h, when the spark-airester is turned down u'pon the mouth of the converter, but when the spark-arrester is raised or swung off from the mouth of the converter, the hole j, in the tubular bearing t, is closed, and the communication between the steam-generator and the exhauster is shut oif.

The bottom of the converter A is fiat, and under it is placed a chamber,D, which is provided with a tubular shank, k, and the top of which is perforated with a series of holes, Z,correspondiu'g in number and position to the holes in the bottom of the converter.

The shank k of the chamber D is fitted into a socket, m, which communicates with a pipe, a, and the joint between said shank and the socket isrendered tight. by a stuffing-box, o.

A lever, y, which embraces the shank It of the chamber D, serves to impart to said chambera rising and. falling motion, so that the upper surface thereof can be pressed up tight against the bottom of the converter, or adjusted at any desired distance therefrom.

The pipe lnf communicates, by means of a pipe, q, with a vessel containing hydrocarbon-gas or liquid, and, by means of a branch-pipe, 7', with an air-forcing apparatus.

The hydrocarbon-gas or liquid is used to supply an additional amount of fuel to the molten metal in the Without trouble or uncertainty.

.the case may require. In the mean time I melt the converter, and this fuel may be introduced into the converter either by the suction of the exhauster C, or by means of a forced current of air admitted tlnough the branch-pipe r, or by the. suction and thc forced current combined.

If the fuel is to be introduced merely by suction, I supply the chamber D with'a series of nipples, s, as shown in fig. l of the drawing.

The hydrocarbon-gas, admitted through the pipe q, on issuing from these nipples, mingles with the air, and is carried into the converter, together with such air, by the suction of the exhauster. v

If hydrocarbon-liquid is used, I make the nipples s in the form of small wick-tubes, as shown in fig-1L, and, by introducing into these tubes suitable wicks, the hydrocarbon-liquid, as it rises in the chamber D, can be ignited, and the gases resulting from this combustion are carried in the converter, with the air, by the suction of the exhauster.

The tips of the nipples s are conical, and the fit into the countersunk ends of the holes y in thebot tom of the converter, so that, by raising the chamber D,the tips of the nipples can be pressed into the openings g.

For the purpose of plugging up the holes g, I use movable plugs t, (see fio'. 3,) which are made in the form of caps, to fit over the nipples s. After those plugs have been adjusted on the nipples, the chamber D is raised, and all the holes g in the bottom of the converter' are plugged up simultaneously.

In order to perform this operation of plugging without fail, it is necessary to coat the plugs with loam or other suitable material, capable to form a luting in the holes g.

In some cases it is desirable to introduce fuel in a powdered or solid state, and to effect this purpose I have made holes y* in the sides of the converter. With these holes I connect hoppers, through which the powdered fuel is introduced, and the suction of the exhauster carries. the fuel into and through the molten metal.

If a forced current of air is to be used, in combination with the suction, or independent thereof,I remove the nipples s, and place a suitable packing-piece on the top of the chamber D. By pressing the chamber up against the bottom ofthe converter, a forced current of air can be injected through the holes g with ease and convenience.

By means of this apparatus, I am enabled to subject the iron in the converter" to a current produced by suction, eitheralone, or in combination with a forced current I am enabled to introduce fuel into the molten metal, either by suction, orfby a forced current; I am enabled to plug up the holes in the bottom of the converter simultaneously, simply by raising -the chamber D; and, finally, I am enabled to regulate the supply of air and fuel with the greatest accuracy, so that the process of refining iron or making steel can be effected- Ihe operation of my invention is as follows, viz:

In order to refine pig-iron, or convert the same into steel, I first kindle a fire in the-converter A, so as' to heat its interior fire-lining to a red or white heat, as

pig-iron in a cupola or reverberatory furnace, if desired, in the usual manner for melting iron in iron-fbumlries.

After the iron is melted, and the interior of the converter A is sufficiently heated, I incline said converter, with its mouth downwards, so as to dischfrge the fuel contained therein. I again turn up theconverter in its natural position, the holes g git, in the bottom andv sides of the converter, being plugged up with the plugs coated with clay. I then draw out the melted pig-iron from the vmelting-furnace, and introduce it into thc converter A by means of a ladle, or by placing the melting-furnace at such an elevation above the mouth of the converter that, by simply tapping the meltingfurnace in the usual manner, as now practised in ironfoundries for cast-ing car-wheels, the molten iron will run into the mouth of thecomf'ertcr. Y

After having introduced the melted iron into the converter, I let down the month of the spark-arrester upon the mouth of the converter A, so as to make an air-tight `joint, which joint I pack with-tempered clay or other suitable luting.

Having thus made the connection between the sparkarrester B and converter A, I innnediately open the stop-cock u on the pipe h, and set the exhauster C in operation, thereby causing and maintaining a continuous vacuum or partial vacuum in the converter. Now, just as soon as the vacuum-gauge indicates a sufficient amount of vacuum, I open the holes y g* in the bottom end of the converter, and the air rushes up through the molten metal in the converter. I then immediately open the cock on the pipe q, and allow the gasto dow through the chamber D, out of the holes l under the bottomof the converter, and the air and gas are both drawn into the converter through the molten metal, the air furnishing oxygen, and the carburetted gas furnishing fuel, for heating and continuing to heat the molten iron therein during its refining or its conversion into steel.

I commence b v allowing a larger supply of fuel to enter with the air, when the converter is first set in y operatio'n, but, towards the end of the refilling or converting-process of the molten metal, I diminish the supply of gas in such a manner that it will still continue to heat the metal to be refined or converted in y theconverter, and, at the same time, it allows the carbon of the converting-metal to be lconverted to burn away, together with the introduced fuel, until the requisite amount of carbon is contained in the moltenmetal under conversion but, if it should be desired to pass the streams of air through a higher column of molten metal in the converter than the vacuum therein would permit, then I introduce just so much of a column of molten Inetal into the converter A as the vacuum will sustain therein without danger' of the molten metal running out of the holes g y* in the bottom o'f the converter, when the same are open.

Having thus introduced the required amount of molten metal, and set the converter in operation, as before described, I immediately raise up the chamber D against the bottom of the converter, and cause a current of air from a blast-engine or other suitable apparatus to pass through the chamber D, up the holes g, and through the molten metal in the converter. In this case, I introduce the carburetted hydrogen-gas together with the air, and the amount of fuel admitted with the air is regulated as in the previous operation.

Now, in order to test the molten metal in the conT verter while the same is refining or converting, I introduce an iron rod through the holes g* in the side of the converter, and draw it out coated with molten metal contained therein, and try its quality by hammering, nipping, or otherwise, as the operator may find most convenient, and I repeat the operation every few seconds, until I find that the molten'metal in the converter has arrived at its proper purification or conversion into steel.

Just as soon as the molten metal is properly refined or converted, I immediately stop the holes in the bottom and sides ofthe converter, and continue, for a little while, the suction or vacuum in the converter, so

as to draw off the impurities that may remain in the v molten mass; also to draw out of the molten metal the remaining particles of gas or air that might have been retained in said metal, more free from blow-holes than if the said particles of air or gas had remained in the same.

Then the process of refining or converting has been' finished, I lift up the spark-arrester, and incline the convener, and turn the mouth downwards, so as to cause the metl to run out, and I cast the ingots either directly from the mouth of the converter, or by means of a. ladle, as is generally practised in foundries.

If the process is to be continued, the converter is immcdiatcljr recharged. and the operation is repeated, as above stated.

It wilibereadily understood lthat this process of refining iron or making steel, with' the exception of the introduction offfuel, and the combiimtion ofthe forced-air process with the suction-process, is precisely the same as described in my patent for retining iron or making steel in. mwuo, dntcd J :mumv 23, i866. f

Having thus described my invention,

WhntI claini as new, a-nd desire to seciue by Letters- Patent, is-

1. The spnrk-arrester B, in combination with the onverter A, substantially as and for the purpose set 2. The tubular pivot b, in combination with the sparksms 3 arrestenB, steam-pipe d, and exhauster O, subsaiitiztllyy and for the purpose described.

3. The chamber D, haring a. rising and falling motion in its socket m1,'in combination witlran air Urges-supply pipe, one or both, and with the converter A, substantia-ily as und for the purpose sct forth.

4. The arrangement of nipples s in the chamber D,

scribed.

JOHN ABSTERDAM.

Vitnesses:

J.. VAX SANTvooR'D, W. HAUFF.

substnntizdly ns and for the purpose described. 1 l

US84335A Improvement in apparatus for making- steel and refining- iron Expired - Lifetime US84335A (en)

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US84335A true US84335A (en) 1868-11-24

Family

ID=2153825

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US84335A Expired - Lifetime US84335A (en) Improvement in apparatus for making- steel and refining- iron

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US84335A (en)

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2799492A (en) * 1954-02-15 1957-07-16 Oestereichisch Alpine Montange Steelmaking plant
US2855194A (en) * 1954-07-21 1958-10-07 Brassert Oxygen Technik A G System for sealing a converter
US2956794A (en) * 1955-07-05 1960-10-18 Institnt De Rech S De La Sider Method and means for blowing gases containing possibly pulverulent material into a bath of molten metal
US3215425A (en) * 1953-12-28 1965-11-02 Kaiser Ind Corp Metallurgical apparatus
US3223397A (en) * 1962-05-22 1965-12-14 Kaiser Ind Corp Rotatable hood assembly
US4502670A (en) * 1984-02-02 1985-03-05 Allied Corporation Gas hook-up to a ladle
US5171739A (en) * 1989-02-14 1992-12-15 Incyte Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Treatment of endotoxin-associated shock and preventation thereof using a BPI protein
US5770694A (en) * 1990-08-13 1998-06-23 Incyte Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Genetically engineered BPI variant proteins

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3215425A (en) * 1953-12-28 1965-11-02 Kaiser Ind Corp Metallurgical apparatus
US2799492A (en) * 1954-02-15 1957-07-16 Oestereichisch Alpine Montange Steelmaking plant
US2855194A (en) * 1954-07-21 1958-10-07 Brassert Oxygen Technik A G System for sealing a converter
US2956794A (en) * 1955-07-05 1960-10-18 Institnt De Rech S De La Sider Method and means for blowing gases containing possibly pulverulent material into a bath of molten metal
US3223397A (en) * 1962-05-22 1965-12-14 Kaiser Ind Corp Rotatable hood assembly
US4502670A (en) * 1984-02-02 1985-03-05 Allied Corporation Gas hook-up to a ladle
US5171739A (en) * 1989-02-14 1992-12-15 Incyte Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Treatment of endotoxin-associated shock and preventation thereof using a BPI protein
US5770694A (en) * 1990-08-13 1998-06-23 Incyte Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Genetically engineered BPI variant proteins

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US4176157A (en) Calcining calcium sulphate dihydrate
US3920447A (en) Steel production method
US3125043A (en) Method of removing volatile constituents
US3216714A (en) Heating and blowing device for metallurgical purposes
US3424573A (en) Process for combined oxygen iron refining and producing of ferrous melts
US3908969A (en) Method and apparatus for air pollution control combined with safe recovery and control of gases from a bottom-blown steel converter vessel
US2638626A (en) Apparatus for the production of metal powder
US3599949A (en) Manufacture of steel
US3316082A (en) Oxygen steelmaking
US2161180A (en) Apparatus for melting metals
US1799885A (en) Process of generating producer gas
US1924856A (en) Continuous gas manufacture
US2801158A (en) Method of and apparatus for gasification of pulverized coal
US916314A (en) Pneumatic apparatus for discharging furnaces.
US194043A (en) Improvement in glass-furnaces
US2035550A (en) Process for producing pig iron or steel simultaneously with portland cement
US4180387A (en) Process for removing slag during pressure gasification of solid fuels
US3759702A (en) Method of melting aluminum
US2960943A (en) Incinerator with water cooled ignition chamber
US2997288A (en) Cupola furnace installation
US3912243A (en) Apparatus and process for refining hot metal to steel
US3345054A (en) Steel melting and more particularly gas fired regenerative furnaces
US1031257A (en) Process and apparatus for extracting and refining metals and alloys.
Groen Scrap Preheating in the Basic Oxygen Furnace at Wisconsin Steel Works
US3260514A (en) Vertical kiln and a method for the preparation of calcined products