US826878A - Form for the construction of plaster and concrete structures. - Google Patents

Form for the construction of plaster and concrete structures. Download PDF

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US826878A
US826878A US24794405A US1905247944A US826878A US 826878 A US826878 A US 826878A US 24794405 A US24794405 A US 24794405A US 1905247944 A US1905247944 A US 1905247944A US 826878 A US826878 A US 826878A
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pliable
walls
retaining
strips
plastic
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US24794405A
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George H Pegram
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George H Pegram
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04GSCAFFOLDING; FORMS; SHUTTERING; BUILDING IMPLEMENTS OR AIDS, OR THEIR USE; HANDLING BUILDING MATERIALS ON THE SITE; REPAIRING, BREAKING-UP OR OTHER WORK ON EXISTING BUILDINGS
    • E04G9/00Forming or shuttering elements for general use
    • E04G9/10Forming or shuttering elements for general use with additional peculiarities such as surface shaping, insulating or heating, permeability to water or air

Description

l CONCRETE STRUCTURES.. APPLICATION FILED MAR.1,1905.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 1.' A- H/gj PA'I'BNTED JULY 24, 1906.
FORM FCR THE CONSTRUCTION 0F PLASTER AND CONCRETE STROCTUR G. H. PEGRAM- APPLICATION FILED MARJI, 1905.
2 51mBTs-sEBBT z.
-ting of the concrete or UNITED sTA'TEs PATENT onirica.
GEORGE 'H. PEGRAM, OF yNEW YORK, N. Y. FORNI FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OFPLAST-ER AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Ju1ye4,1eoe.
To (LZZ whom it may con/cern..- -l
Be it known that I, GEORGE I-I. PEGRAM, of the city, county, and State of New York, have invented an Improvement in Forms for the Construction of Flaster 'and Concrete Structures, of which the following is a speciiication.
My invention has reference to forms for the construction of plaster and concete structures; and it consists of certain im rovements, which are fully set out in the fol owing specification and shown in the drawings which form a part thereof. The retaining surfaces or forms for the construction of concrete and plaster structures which confine the material in its plastic state until it has hardened or set are commonly called forms 1 In the present practice these forms are made of wood, which retain the plastic material by the transverse strength and stiffness of the boards, and in such case the thickness of the boards and frequency of vthe supports must be so formed and roportioned that they will insure a practica ly uniform surface by their strength and stiffness. It has further been diflicult to produce a smooth finish to the surface, because the surplus water of the concrete or plastic mixture escapes through the cracks, -`intensifying the lines of division between the b0ards,rwhich show in any case, and' thiswater when not permitted to escapefowing tp the non-permeability ofthe boards, collects during the setplaster and often leaves worm-marks and its in the surfaces. To give conguration o surface similar to the Joints of masonry, for instance, wooden forms are so costly that they are seldom, if ever, used. In some places wooden forms are unduly costly through the high price of lumber or cost of trans ortation and thev small -value of the lum er after .being so used. y
The object of my invention is to overcome the above objections and produce agreatlyimproved concrete or plaster structure.
My invention consists of forms -in which the retaining material is a )liable and prefere ably permeable fabric, lilie cotton cloth, adapted to retain the plastic material and permit bulging between supporting strips or grillages superimposed to support the fabric and with which it is combined, the strength of which fabric is exerted in tension rather side strips and usuallyl than cross-bending, as in wooden boards. By my improved means any desired configuration of surface is obtained, depending upon the openings between the retainingstrips or grillages. The strips or grillages may be held in place by flexible ties of wire or string, which I usually sew through the fabric to and around similar opposing strips facing upon what will be opposing surfaces of the concrete structure when formed. In the reinforcement of an old wall or where the opposite surface is made by a Vwooden or other fixed forming-surface the ties for holding the pliable fabric and stri s. or grllages are attached to it in any wel -known manner.
More specifically my invention may be described as follows:v In making a wall or partition I commonly employ a metal core of wire-cloth of about No. l0 wire, with mesh about a foot square, which is held in place by angle-irons or wooden studs. The angle-iron studs are com osed of two angle-irons, one on each side o the core and bolted together under the horizontal wires of the core for its better support. VThe angle-irons serve to determine the uniformthickness of the wall as Well as to stien it. Where, however, the angle-irons are crooked or too light or too far apart, 'I may employ removable spacingstri s to secure the desired uniformity of thic ness, said strips being withdrawn before the plastic material or concrete sets and these laces filled with the plaster or cement. The p iable fabric is stretched on the outside of the studs, and strips of wood about an inch square are laid against it at distances of about a foot apart. These are secured in place by wire or twine, which is sewed through the fabric, passing around the out supported vertically by the wires of the metal core. The water of the plaster or. concrete mixture oozes through the pliable fabric, thustakmg the particles of cement to the surfaeelwhere they are retained by the fabric as the Water escapes, resulting in a 'line smooth surface. After the concrete has hardened and sufficiently set the ties of string or wire are cut and the strips and fabric removed and kused again in forming other ortions of the wall. The metallic core may e dispensed with, if desired., as may also the spacing-strips; butI prefer to use either or both of them in the practical application of my invention.
IOO
tion on the line 3 3 of Fig. 1.
My invention alsocomprehends details of construction which, together with the features above specified, will be better-understood by reference to tne drawings, in which- Figure 1 shows a front elevation of such apparatus. Fig. 2 is a horizontal section on the line 2 2 of Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a vertical sec- Fig. 4 is a front elevation of another form, shovging the` retaining-strips horizontal on one side and vertical on the other. Fig. 5 is a horizontal section on the line 5 5`of Fig. 4. Fig. 6 is a front elevation showing the method of producing any desired surface conformation by the use of a grillage, and Fig.' 7 is a vertical section on the line 7 7 of Fig. 6 and shows one way in `whichthe patterned grillage can be retained in position.
A represents the internal strengthening metallic core, which may be a stout wire mesh (of wire, say, one-eighth-inch diameter and having meshes a foot square) or a frame of expanded metal or any-suitable material.
B is the pliable material, preferably permeable to liquids, which may be either cotton cloth, canvas, or other suitable woven material, whether of metal or combined metal and fiber or 'fiber alone. To keep the pliable fabric at proper distance from the internal mesh and angle-irons of the core when desired, there are inserted at suitable intervals removable spacing-strips C;
D represents removably-attached strips for retaining the pliable material in proper relation to the core A and for producing the surface configuration desired. These retaining-strips can evidently be retained in position by any well-known means-as, for instance, strings or wires E, sewed through the pliablel material and passing around the oppositely-located retaining-strips D. (See Figs. 3 and '4.) Any other suitable means, such' as bolts, for holding the retaining-strips l) or grillages may be employed in lieu of the strings or wire. The parts being thus spaced and retained, I pour into the space between the pliable external limiting-walls the plastic material desired, which may be mortar, eement mncrete, plaster-of-paris, &c'. This iills the space within the pliable walls and causes the pliable material to take on the desired configuration. then preferably removed and the holes left by the sparing-strips illed with the plastif-y material, and in this condition the material and strilelureare lel'l until the said plasii-f' nia l iional spaeing-sirips C may be omitted, as
lerialI has set and hardened. 'lhe strings or wires lC (or theequivalent fastening den vives) can then. be cui Yand removed, and the pliable. material stripped oil' and used over again in further construction.
For holding the internal core in position l have employed angle-irons (`r and [ind the boli s l-l` a convenient and satisfactory method ol' supporting the horizontal wires of the .n-
'lhe spacing-strips C arey 'ternal mesh A and holding the angle-irons together. However, the core may be dispensed with,if so desired, and the supportingstrips D may' be sustained and positioned in any suitable manner so long as they support the pliable fabric.
or ridges formed by the bulging of the pliable partition-walls horizontal on one side of the structure and vertical on the other, in which case the strips retaining the pliable fabric are correspondingly arranged, as shown in Figs. 4 and 5. By using a grillage J for retaining the pliable walls I am enabled to imitate any configuration l desire, the pliable material bulging out into the open spaces of the grillage and producing the desired effectmasonry blocks, for example, as shown in Fig. 6. The grillage can be sewed throughthe pliable material or bolted or buttoned, like the retaining-strips, or it can be supported by removable props K, as shown in Fig. 7. The fabric in many cases may be used over and over again, or, because of its cheapness, it can be left in plaee on the concrete.
The method of operation with my invention is as follows: The apparatus, provided with walls of pliable material permeable to liquids, beingprepared in any of the manners above described or in any equivalent manner, the cement or mortar mixed with water to the proper consistency is introduced in the spaces left between the fabric surfaces. The pliable walls B bulge out or assume thedesired shapes dictated by the manner in which they are s'upported by the said retainingstrips D and wires or cords. The surplus'liquid 'drains olf through the permeable walls and carries the finer material to the surfaces, thus giving a iine hard finish to the wall and accelerating' and drying of the structure. After setting and drying, the grillage or retaining strips and cloth are removed, leaving a solid wall Without joints or seams on its faces. The spacing-stri ps maybe leit in place or be withdrawn before the material has set orA after one section of. wall is set partly, so as to be self-sustaining, the spacing-strips may be removed, and the next section joine to the iirst directly. 1
The core of wire mesh may be dispensed pliable walls are employed, such as grillages. Where angle-irons or similar upright supports extending from one side of the struc- 'ure to the other are employed,` the addisaid angle-irons perform the spacing funetion themselves.
lt is obvious that in cases where one side of the. wall is conlined by boarding or an old wall of which the new wall is to form a face or reinforeeinent the ties may be attached thereto in any well-knrnvn manner and but one wall of flexible material employed.
with where other means of supporting theA It is at times desirable to have the waves IOO IIO
ISC
I vmaterial consisting of the combination of two my invention, what'I claim isremovable when the plastic materia a continuous space between them, and means v able retaining parts Having 'therefore described and illustrated 1. In a form for constructing Walls of plastic material, the combination of two walls of pliable material permeable to liquids arranged to provide a continuous s ace between them, and means for retaining t e walls in position during the introduction and setting of the plastic material consisting of frames upon the outer surfaces of the pliable material for supporting it at intervals only and removable spacing-strips C C between the walls of the. pliable material for supporting them upon their inner surfaces said spacing-strips being\ ciently set whereby the spaces left [therebyy maly be filled with additional plasticv ria 2. In a form for constructing walls of lasticmaterial, the combination of two wa ls of pliable material permeable to liquids forming consisting of bindin strands extending through and between t e flexible walls at numerous intervals in their area for retaining the sainein position duringlthe introduction and setting of the plastic material.
3. Means for constructing walls ofplastic walls of pliable material permeable to liquids separated throughout their entire length, re.- taining-strip's exterior to the walls for retaining the walls acting upon said walls at intervals only in position during 'the introduction and setting of the plastic material, and means for temporarily holding the retaining-strips in position. l
4. In a form for constructing walls ofl lasti'c material, the combination of a wall o pliable material permeable to liquids, and means for' retaining same in position during tlieintroduction and setting of the plastic material comprising one or more sets of grillage forming a substantially flat structure arranged exteriorly of said wall and temporarily supporting it at intervals in its surface.
5. Meansfor constructing partitions or walls of plastic material, consisting of a fiat sheet of pliable material, combined with nonpliable retaining parts resting against portions only of the pliable material and the areas between the retaining parts in contact with the pliable material being materially less than the area of the corres onding pliable material so as to permit the ree portions of the said pliable material toA bulge between the retaining partst 6. Means for` const walls of lastic material, of pliab e material,
sting partitions or consisting of a sheet combined with non-pliresting against portions area less than the actual pliable material so as to permit portions thereof-"to bulge between the VlLining parts, and means passing through only and covering an surface of the other the pliable material and space occupied 'by the plasticmaterial for holding the retaining partsl in place against the outer face of the pliable material.
7. A forni for constructing partitions or walls of plastic material, consisting of a pliable -sheet permeable to uids, combined with retaining parts for firmly holding the pliable material against outward pressure at;
intervals in its surface and in which the remaining portion of the pliablematerial 1s bulged between the retaining .parts to form projecting or bulging portions in the wall and allow the surplus water toescape.
l 8. A'form for constructing partitions or .Wallsof lastic material, consisting of athin partsfor holding them firmly. in position' upon the pliable sheet. and. against the outward thrust of the'plas'tic material.
9. A form for 'constructing rectilinear p artitions or walls of plastic material consisting against outward ressure atinr of a sheet of pliable material permeable tofiuids, combined with substantially parallel y retaining-stri s forming a grille structure with vertical and iorizontal bars for supporting the pliable material at intervals in its surface and in substantially one plane; and means extending into the space to be occupied by the plastic material for connecting the retaining-strips to the pliable material and ,holding them in osition.
10. A orm for constructing partitions or walls of plastic materials consisting of two opposed sheets of pliable material forming .a space between them open throughout their length combined with retaining-strips resting against their outer surfaces at intervals only, and flexible ties passing through the two sheets of pliable material and around retaining-strips at numerous of the pliable material.
11. A form for constructing walls or partitions of plastic materials consisting of the roc IIC
points'of thelsurfac'es i combination of two walls of liable material,
arranged to provide a continuousmspace between them, a frame actingnp'on one olf the walls at intervals in its ureaJ to hold it in positiun. and a sec-ond frame comprising a senos nl vertical and :i .si-ries nf horlzontul bars coniwi-ted tugether und in substantially the Saune I plum-1 for suppnrting the other pliable wall at rtmzingz interval:J in its aren.
lli. ln u form for constructing Walls nl' plastic material` the combination of two walls nl' pliable nniterial permeable tu liquids und arranged to pruviile it inntinlmus space be-4 tween them, it frame tit-ting upon one of the mill. :it intervals in its uren tn hold it in posi-- tion, ai sumntl l'raine mmpridng :i series ol vertical und u series nl lmriznntnl bars con-. nt-cted together und in substantially thi` I stime plano for supporting the other pliable mill at ('rnseing intervalle in its area, and means consisting ol binding iiexible strands between the twu frames pliablt Walls and the space between them for holding the frames and pliable material in relatively fixed position. during the introductin and-setting of the plastic material.
In testimony nl' which invention 1` have hereunto set ny hand.
y GEORGE H. PEGRNL Witnesses:
WM. F. LOCKWOOD. Q. D. HOLMAN.
US24794405A 1905-03-01 1905-03-01 Form for the construction of plaster and concrete structures. Expired - Lifetime US826878A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2689473A (en) * 1950-07-11 1954-09-21 Frank G Voss Building structure
US3468088A (en) * 1966-04-14 1969-09-23 Clarence J Miller Wall construction
US8827235B1 (en) * 2012-05-11 2014-09-09 William L. Fisher, III Concrete form for building foundation construction with form insert creating recessed sections
US9630340B2 (en) * 2012-03-01 2017-04-25 John Milner McCary, SR. System of forming walls with exterior applied finish panels

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2689473A (en) * 1950-07-11 1954-09-21 Frank G Voss Building structure
US3468088A (en) * 1966-04-14 1969-09-23 Clarence J Miller Wall construction
US9630340B2 (en) * 2012-03-01 2017-04-25 John Milner McCary, SR. System of forming walls with exterior applied finish panels
US8827235B1 (en) * 2012-05-11 2014-09-09 William L. Fisher, III Concrete form for building foundation construction with form insert creating recessed sections

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