US8084154B2 - Battery pack safety and thermal management apparatus and method - Google Patents

Battery pack safety and thermal management apparatus and method Download PDF

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US8084154B2
US8084154B2 US12102012 US10201208A US8084154B2 US 8084154 B2 US8084154 B2 US 8084154B2 US 12102012 US12102012 US 12102012 US 10201208 A US10201208 A US 10201208A US 8084154 B2 US8084154 B2 US 8084154B2
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fuse
battery
pack
receptacle
battery pack
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US20080213652A1 (en )
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Karl Frederick Scheucher
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Karl Frederick Scheucher
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    • H01M10/486Accumulators combined with arrangements for measuring, testing or indicating condition, e.g. level or density of the electrolyte for measuring temperature
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    • Y02T10/7055Controlling vehicles with more than one battery or more than one capacitor
    • Y02T10/7061Controlling vehicles with more than one battery or more than one capacitor the batteries or capacitors being of the same voltage
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • Y02T10/7072Electromobility specific charging systems or methods for batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors or double-layer capacitors
    • Y02T10/7077Electromobility specific charging systems or methods for batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors or double-layer capacitors on board the vehicle
    • Y02T10/7083Electromobility specific charging systems or methods for batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors or double-layer capacitors on board the vehicle with the energy being of renewable origin
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • Y02T10/7088Charging stations
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • Y02T10/72Electric energy management in electromobility
    • Y02T10/7208Electric power conversion within the vehicle
    • Y02T10/725AC to AC power conversion
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
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    • Y02T90/12Electric charging stations
    • Y02T90/121Electric charging stations by conductive energy transmission
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • Y02T90/12Electric charging stations
    • Y02T90/124Electric charging stations by exchange of energy storage elements
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • Y02T90/127Converters or inverters for charging
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • Y02T90/128Energy exchange control or determination
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
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    • Y02T90/163Information or communication technologies related to charging of electric vehicle

Abstract

A process of controlling the temperature of a battery pack includes the steps of determining the operating mode and present temperature of the battery pack. Optimal temperature for the battery pack depends on the operating mode and the difference between the present temperature and the previously identified optimal temperature. The battery pack is warmed if the temperature difference (measured minus optimal) is large. The optimal time interval over which the battery pack should be warmed is a function of the operating mode and the previously calculated temperature difference. A heater is switchably operated enabling and disabling the heat generating element to warm the pack to the previously identified optimal temperature.

Description

This patent application claims priority to United States Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/911,564 filed Apr. 13, 2007 and is a continuation-in part of U.S. patent application Ser. Nos. 11/672,853 filed Feb. 8, 2007, Ser. No. 11/672,957 filed Feb. 8, 2007, Ser. No. 11/673,551 filed Feb. 9, 2007 now U.S. Pat. No. 7,838,142 and Ser. No. 11/851,504 filed Sep. 7, 2007 now U.S. Pat. No. 7,948,207. United States Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/911,564 filed Apr. 13, 2007 and U.S. patent application Ser. Nos. 11/672,853 filed Feb. 8, 2007, Ser. No. 11/672,957 filed Feb. 8, 2007 and Ser. No. 11/673,551 filed Feb. 9, 2007 and Ser. No. 11/851,504 filed Sep. 7, 2007 are incorporated herein by reference thereto the same as having been copied verbatim into the instant patent application. United States Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/911,564 filed Apr. 13, 2007, U.S. patent application Ser. Nos. 11/672,853 filed Feb. 8, 2007, Ser. No. 11/672,957 filed Feb. 8, 2007 and Ser. No. 11/673,551 filed Feb. 9, 2007 and Ser. No. 11/851,504 filed Sep. 7, 2007 all have the same inventor.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The field of invention is in the field of intelligent, electronically managed battery rechargeable battery packs having a variety of safety and operating temperature constraints in application.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Velez et. al., U.S. Patent Publication No. US 20020025471A1 discloses a heater for a thermal battery whose chemistry is actually disabled at lower temperature and becomes active at higher temperature, the heater preferably implemented as wire wound around the cell. Kamenoff, U.S. Patent Publication Nos. US 20050017690 and 20060012342 and U.S. Pat. No. 7,327,122, describe a heater for the purpose of discharging a battery more efficiently.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is an elegant solution to achieving the economical and safe shipping and handling of electrical apparatuses comprising large amounts (quantities) of lithium ion batteries. Regulation of the transportation of hazardous materials (49 CFR 173.185 and United Nations ST/SG/AC. 10/C.3/2005/43 for example) stipulate procedures and limitations for lithium ion battery cells and packs (batteries or packs hereinafter). These regulations divide (separate out) hazardous class 9 from exempted non-hazardous material based upon a threshold of 8 grams aggregate equivalent lithium content. The equivalent lithium content is calculated based upon the electrical capacity of the battery, the capacity being measured in units of charge such as amp-hours (Ah). The equivalency factor has been set by regulation at 0.3 grams equivalent lithium per amp-hour capacity. Thus a battery having 8 equivalent grams lithium divided by 0.3 equivalent grams per Ah capacity would have a charge capacity of 26.7 Amp-hour. Batteries with 26.7 Amp-hour capacity or less are exempt from the hazardous materials requirements. Batteries with more than 26.7 Amp-hour are classified as hazardous for the sake of transportation regulation.

The current invention considers batteries and packs that approach but do not exceed this hazardous material classification threshold. One such pack contemplated in the invention comprises twelve (12), 2.15 Amp-hour lithium ion battery cells arranged in a two (2) parallel six (6) series configuration (6S2P configuration). The aggregate charge capacity of this twelve (12)-cell battery pack is simply computed as twelve (12) (cells)/(battery pack) times (2.15 Amp-hours)/(cell) equals 25.8 Amp-hour/battery pack. According to the regulations, therefore, the battery pack contains 25.8 Amp-hours times 0.3 grams per Amp-hour which equals 7.74 grams equivalent lithium, which is less than the hazardous material threshold of 8 grams aggregate. The battery pack so designed and disclosed herein is exempt from hazardous material transportation regulations. This exemption is advantageous for reasons including ease of handling and shipping via commercial air transport as well as inherently safer storage, transport, and operation in general.

If the government regulations change the instant invention can accommodate the change. For instance, if the 8 grams aggregate equivalent lithium content should change, the instant invention can be reprogrammed to account for the change.

The present invention discloses a battery powered system comprising a microcontroller, an external controller and plurality of battery packs wherein the controllers communicate battery pack and other information therebetween. Each of the battery packs comprises one or more battery cells, a pack positive and a pack negative electrical contact, a fuse, and a fuse receptacle or connector. The fuse and fuse receptacle are series between the battery cells and the battery pack positive electrical connector. Alternatively, the fuse and fuse receptacle is in series between the battery cells and the pack negative electrical connector. A microcontroller or other logic system is capable of detecting whether or not the fuse is installed into the receptacle and is capable of communicating information (including fuse presence) with an external controller. The microcontroller and the external controller also exchange information which includes the amount of hazardous material (equivalent lithium ion content) contained in the battery pack.

The present invention discloses a battery pack comprising one or more battery cells, a heater, a microcontroller or other logic system for controlling the heater by switchably interconnecting the heater to a power source with the switch being under the control of the microcontroller or other logic system and switchably connecting the power source to the heater. The power source may be the battery cells within the battery pack or an external source such as a battery charger, external battery or power supply. A temperature sensor measures the battery pack temperature and communicates with the microcontroller or other logic system. The microcontroller or other logic system interrogates the temperature sensor periodically and controls a first time during which said switch is closed and power is applied to the heater, and a second time during which the switch is open and power is removed from the heater.

A process of determining the hazardous status of a system comprising a plurality of battery packs for compliance with safety transportation safety and regulation purposes, includes the steps of communicating with each battery pack in the system and determining the amount of hazardous material in each battery pack. The electrical connectivity of each pack with respect to all the other packs is determined. Groups with each group consisting of all battery packs electrically connected with one another are defined and the amount of hazardous material in the battery packs of each group of electrically connected packs is summed (added). The group or groups having the greatest sum (largest amount) of hazardous material are determined and compared to a threshold value thus determining the hazardous status.

A process of controlling the temperature of a battery pack includes the steps of determining the operating mode and present temperature of the battery pack. Optimal temperature for the battery pack depends on the operating mode and the difference between the present temperature and the previously identified optimal temperature. The battery pack is warmed if the temperature difference (measured minus optimal) is large. The optimal time interval over which the battery pack should be warmed is a function of the operating mode and the previously calculated temperature difference. A heater is switchably operated enabling and disabling the heat generating element to warm the pack to the previously identified optimal temperature.

It is an object of the present invention to provide a method for interrogating a battery pack or a group of battery packs to determine the amount of hazardous material therein.

It is an object of the present invention to provide a safe method of transportation of systems containing lithium ion batteries.

It is an object of the present invention to provide a fuse which is readily accessible on the front of the battery pack which enables operation of the pack when the fuse is inserted and disables operation of the pack when the fuse is removed.

It is an object of the present invention to provide a battery pack heater wherein printed circuit boards contain resistive heating traces thereon.

It is an object of the present invention to provide a battery pack heater controlled by a controller which senses battery temperature, determines an optimal temperature and applies a heating algorithm for achieving the optimal battery temperature.

It is an object of the present invention to provide a battery pack heater which is switchably connected to a power supply which may be an internal power supply or an external power supply.

It is an object of the present invention to provide a battery pack heater wherein a microcontroller switchably innerconnects the power supply to resistive heat traces on the printed circuit boards.

These and further objects of the invention will be best understood when reference is made to the remainder of this patent application.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a power supply apparatus containing a plurality of battery packs.

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a quick-connect cartridge type battery pack having electrical and mechanical connections which quickly, easily, and simultaneously engage and disengage the enclosure.

FIG. 3 is an exploded view of the battery pack in FIG. 2.

FIG. 4 is a view of the core battery pack 400 including the battery cells, fuse receptacle and heater elements.

FIG. 5 illustrates the core battery pack including the electrical connections of the controller and the heater elements, the electrical connections of the controller and the thermistor (the temperature sensor), and the electrical connections between the heater elements.

FIG. 6 shows the fuse receptacle of the control module.

FIG. 6A is a side view of the battery pack controller circuit board illustrating the temperature cutoff device.

FIG. 7 is another view of the core pack 700 without the controller circuit board illustrating the heater elements surrounding the battery cells.

FIG. 8 is an exploded view of the assembly shown in FIG. 7.

FIG. 9 is a drawing of one side of a heater element printed circuit board.

FIG. 10 is a drawing of the other side of a heater element printed circuit board.

FIG. 11 is a drawing of one side of the control module printed circuit board wherein the microcontroller, the heater electronic switch, and the thermistor connections are shown.

FIG. 12 is a block diagram showing the connection of the battery cells, fuse receptacle, fuse, battery pack electrical contacts, and information communications contact.

FIG. 13 is a block diagram showing the connections of the battery cells, battery contacts, heater switches, heater elements, controller, and thermistor.

FIG. 14 is a schematic illustrating the process of communicating the hazardous content of the battery packs.

FIG. 15 is a schematic illustrating the process to operate the heater.

The drawings will be better understood when reference is made to the remainder of the application.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The invention specifically contemplates applications using a plurality of battery packs assembled into a single apparatus. FIG. 1 depicts such an apparatus having a plurality of battery packs 102. Further, these co-resident packs are electrically connected with one another in series, parallel, or series-parallel configurations. Under these circumstances, the aggregate lithium content is calculated by adding the equivalent lithium content of all of the packs that are electrically connected in common. For example, suppose two of the above-described packs having 7.74 grams equivalent lithium each are connected in parallel. The aggregate lithium content of the device considered as a whole will be 2×7.74 grams or 15.48 grams, more than the 8 gram limit. The apparatus would therefore be considered hazardous (non-exempt) material requiring special treatment as such under the previously described hazardous materials regulations. This imparts greater cost and various limitations to the device and its usage.

The present invention utilizes battery packs which are of the quick-connect cartridge type 102 (battery packs hereinafter), the differentiating feature of such packs being an electrical and mechanical connection scheme that is quickly, easily, and simultaneously engaged and disengaged without the use of tools. See the pack in FIG. 2.

The present invention addresses the economical and safe electrical disconnection of battery packs while they are in place within an enclosure or other structure. This feature of the invention allows the enclosure which contains battery packs whose aggregate equivalent lithium content in sum would render the apparatus hazardous to remain exempt (non-hazardous) even while the packs remain removably affixed within the enclosure or apparatus. The alternative approach of removing the packs both electrically and mechanically separating them from one another is not desirable as it leads to additional packaging volume and complexity thus burdening handling and transportation processes.

The essence of this aspect of the invention includes using a switch or removable link, located to be easily accessed while the battery pack remains plugged in place, to electrically disconnect the pack. The switch or removable link is electrically in series with the battery cells and either the pack's negative quick connector, the positive quick connector, or both. In the case of a switch, the switch may be operated to the open state to effect the electrical disconnection. In the case of a removable link, the link is unplugged from its mating location in the pack thus opening the circuit. In either case, reconnecting the pack is simply a matter of reversing the disconnection operation, for example, changing the state of a switch or in the case of a fuse, reinserting the fuse.

In the case of a switch, a toggle switch, slide switch, rocker switch, pushbutton switch or other applicable switch variant is contemplated. A switchable circuit breaker is also contemplated and may be used to provide not only the switching function but also the advantageous additional function of providing over current shutdown protection whenever the switch is in the connected, operating state.

In the case of a removable link, a shaped, conductive element is contemplated including a simple segment of round or other shaped conductive wire. The present invention specifically contemplates using a fuse 205, the fuse being any one of many readily accepted and available commercial varieties including automotive blade type, round glass type, screw-in, and various other snap in, quickly removable fuse types, fuse 205 in FIG. 2 being but one example. The unplugging and re-plugging of the fuse in a mating socket or holder 603 of the pack as shown in FIG. 6 achieves the disconnection and re-connection functions respectively. As with the circuit breaker variant of the switch, the fuse variant of the removable link has the additional advantage of providing over current shutdown protection while plugged in and operating. A further advantage is that, unlike a switch, there is little or no danger of the accidental re-connection of the circuit during transport. With a switch, this accidental reconnection could occur if the switch is accidentally actuated as a result of mechanical shock, vibration, or inadvertent actuation of any sort.

The present invention specifically includes intelligent battery packs incorporating microcontrollers 1101 or other logic circuitry as exemplified by the printed circuit board shown in FIG. 11, the controller being capable of monitoring pack operating status and communicating the status information to other control elements within the system in which it resides, for example, with a main controller in the encompassing apparatus. Importantly, the battery pack controller is capable of determining the state of its electrical connectivity, i.e., whether the switch (removable link) controlling the electrical connectivity is in the open (removed) or closed (installed) state. A further important aspect of the invention is the ability of the controller to communicate the electrical connectivity state information to an external or master controller within the apparatus encompassing the battery pack. These features in combination allow the master controller to acquire the electrical connectivity status of all battery packs within its control scope, to compute the worst case equivalent lithium (or other hazardous material) content based upon the largest group of packs found to exist in common electrical connection, to compare the worst case equivalent lithium content to a threshold such as the aforementioned 8 gram (or other amount or limit) threshold, and to determine based upon the comparison whether the apparatus exists in an exempt (non-hazardous) or hazardous state or condition. Personnel can be notified by display or other mechanism of this latter determination and, if a hazardous status (state or condition) exists, the personnel may take further actions to alleviate the hazardous condition or to implement special handling procedures for transport.

Another aspect of the present invention includes incorporating a heater 905, 907, 1304 and associated control circuitry into a battery pack to augment the environmental and other operating capabilities of the pack.

Often the predominant goal in battery pack design and applications is to maintain low pack temperatures to maximize the safety and life span of the batteries. In cold environments, however, the complementary goal, maintaining sufficiently high pack temperatures, may predominate. Many types of batteries are often limited to a minimum temperature below which they may not be safely or efficiently charged or discharged. In applications where low temperatures prevail, heating rather than cooling of battery packs may be required for efficient and safe operation.

A heating element 905, 907 for general use may be formed from an electrically resistive element or resistor. The heater dissipates heat during the flow of electric current therein in an amount proportional to the power in the heater which in turn is equal to the square of the magnitude of the electrical current multiplied by the resistance of the heater. The dissipated power will be in units of Watts, electrical current is in units of Amps and the resistance is in units of Ohms.

The present invention includes fabricating a resistive element for use as a heater using a carefully controlled layout of copper traces on a printed circuit board as depicted in FIGS. 9 and 10. The resistance of the trace work on a printed circuit board so designed is controlled by the trace material and geometry. The trace resistance is affected by the electrical resistivity of the trace material expressed in units of ohms times unit length, e.g., ohms-centimeters.

Applicable trace materials include copper typically (resistivity of approximately 1.7×10−6 ohm-cm) but may also include any type of conductive material such as carbon graphite (resistivity of approximately 1×10−3 ohm-cm), gold (resistivity approximately 2.4×10−6 ohm-cm), etc. For a given material, the resistance will be further determined by the trace geometry, the resistance being inversely proportional to the cross section of the trace and proportional to the length of the trace. Larger cross section (thickness times width) results in less resistance. Longer trace length results in greater resistance. The total resistance of the traces in the printed circuit board(s) may be estimated my multiplying the trace material resistivity by the total trace length and dividing by the average trace cross sectional area. For example, a printed circuit board having a copper trace 725 cm in length with a trace width of 0.05 cm and a trace thickness of 0.005 cm would conduct with a resistance of approximately 5 ohms. If a potential of 12 V were applied to the trace, a current of 12 V/5 ohms equals 2.4 Amps would flow. The power dissipated in the trace under these conditions would be 2.4 Amps squared multiplied by 5 ohms or approximately 29 Watts. In FIG. 9, reference numeral 907 points to a fatter or wider part of the heater trace work. The fat or wide trace is located where the cylindrical battery cells touch the heater PCB. As explained above, the power dissipated in the trace work and therefore the temperature of the trace work is proportional to the resistance of the trace work which in turn is inversely proportional to the width of the trace work. For example, the trace work gets hottest where it is narrow at 905 removed from the cell contact point and, ignoring thermal conduction in the copper for the moment, stays cooler where it is fattest at 907 and in contact with the cell thus protecting against over-heating the cell insulating material at the point of contact.

One or more printed circuit boards may be connected in parallel or series configurations to achieve almost any desired resistance in almost any mechanical form factor. The shape and size of printed circuit boards to be used in a pack heater application will be dictated by the geometry of the pack, the space available within the pack and the locations within the pack where the production of heat is desired. The resistance of the traces will be dictated by the anticipated voltage to be applied and by the peak or maximum power dissipation desired or allowed.

Several electrical energy sources may be utilized for heating including the batteries themselves (internal source) and external sources such as battery chargers, other batteries, or power supplies. The present invention includes the use of either internal, external, or both types of sources in any combination.

The application of electrical energy to the heating resistances may be constant or intermittently switched. In the constant case, a switching element is controlled to be either in the off (not heating) state, or in the on (heating) state. When in the on state, the heating is proportional to the relatively constant power dissipation which is in turn is equal to the current squared times the heater resistance as demonstrated above. In the case where the applied voltage is known, this power level is equally well calculated as equal to the applied voltage squared divided by the resistance.

The intermittently switched case uses the well-known technique of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) to control the average power dissipated in the heater and therefore the average heat generation. The electrical supply to the heater is switched on for a first time period then switched off for a second time period. This on-off pattern is repeated indefinitely to the effect that the duty cycle or percentage on time becomes equal to the ratio of the on time divided by the total time (on plus off time). For example, if the switch is on for 1 ms and off for 2 ms, the duty cycle is equal to 1 divided by (1 plus 2) equals 1 divided by 3 or 1/3. The average current is therefore the on current multiplied by the duty cycle. For example, if the “on” current is 2 Amps, the average current with 1/3 duty cycle will be 2/3 Amps. The average power dissipation is as before the square of the average current multiplied by the resistance of the heater. Any level of power may be achieved up to the maximum possible given the applied voltage and the heater resistance by varying the duty cycle between zero and unity, equivalently varying the on time between zero and always on.

The present invention utilizes a battery pack incorporating a microcontroller or other logic system (controller) and an electronic switch such as a field effect transistor 1102 as shown located in FIG. 11 or other type switch enabling or disabling electrical power to be applied to the heater. Further, the controller can control the electronic or other switch energizing or de-energizing a heater in either the constant or intermittently switched modes.

The invention herein further utilizes the measurement of the temperature of the battery pack by means of an electronic or other type of temperature sensing element such as a thermistor 901 which can be located as shown in FIGS. 9 and 10, thermocouple, platinum RTD, or silicon junction based sensor. The aforementioned controller is envisioned to determine the pack temperature by interfacing with this sensor.

The controller may utilize the aforementioned temperature information in its operation of the heater switch. The way in which temperature information is utilized includes a thermostatic control mode wherein the heater switch is operated in a way to achieve and maintain a target temperature.

The controller may operate the heater according to more complex algorithms in various situations. Consider a scenario where the battery is used to operate a load for a period of time in cold temperature. As the battery nears complete discharge it must be detached from the load and recharged. After recharging is complete the battery must again be returned to its role operating the load. This pattern repeats ad infinitum. Assume the preceding proceeds in a cold environment, e.g., −30 degrees centigrade. Further assume that the temperature of the battery must be raised to a minimum of 0 degrees centigrade before recharging can begin and proceed safely and efficiently. The battery utilization duty cycle includes the time the battery is operating the load (top, operation time), the time in transit from the load to the charger (ttrans, transit time), the time the battery is warming to begin recharging (twarm, warming time), the recharging time (tcharge, charging time), and the time in transit from the charger back to the load (ttrans, transit time again). The total cycle time is the sum of the above times, ttotal=top+ttrans+twarm+tcharge+ttrans. The operating duty cycle is simply the time operating divided by the total time, top/ttotal. The warming time may be quite significant, perhaps as long or longer than the operating time, in the absence of internal heating. Put another way, internal heating in direct proximity to the battery cells may be the most efficient means of quickly and uniformly warming the cells throughout a pack.

A pack equipped with a controller, temperature sensor, and switch controlled heater described above may implement an algorithm to maximize the operating duty cycle as follows: When the pack is operating and approaching the point of becoming discharged, its controller may divert energy to the heater to begin warming. This will shorten the operating time somewhat. The controller will continue to apply any remaining energy to the heater during transit time to the charger further warming the cells. Once placed on charge, the controller will divert initial charge energy as required to the heater to complete warming of the batteries. As the pack becomes sufficiently warm to accept initial charge current, the controller will begin diverting an increasing amount of charge energy to charging the batteries correspondingly decreasing the energy diverted to the heater. When completely warm the controller will apply all charge energy to recharging the batteries. All of the independent variables mentioned in the above algorithm may be varied to the effect that the operating duty cycle is optimized under every conceivable condition and situation. Although the operating time may be slightly shortened by using some battery energy for heating, the corresponding decrease in warming time may yield a great gain in operating duty cycle. For example assume, in the absence of the above algorithm, the operating time is 4 hours, the transit time is 10 minutes, the warming time is 90 minutes, the charging time is 2 hours, and the return transit time is 10 minutes. Thus the operating duty cycle is 240/470 or about 51%. Applying the above-mentioned heating algorithm, the scenario times may be changed as follows: operating time is 230 minutes (10 minutes shorter since 10 minutes of energy will be used for warming in transit), transit time 10 minutes, warming time 10 minutes, charging time 2 hours, and return transit time 10 minutes. The operating duty cycle is now 230/380 or 60.5%. The improvement is due to the warming time being reduced from 90 to 20 minutes, 10 minutes of which are overlapped with the first transit time using the energy from the foreshortened operating time. The second 10 minutes of warming proceed with energy sourced from the charger.

The pack controller may also deploy the heater to preheat the pack prior to discharge operation in certain cold circumstances. It is generally known that battery internal resistance increases with decreasing temperature. Under certain circumstances, the battery resistance when first connected to the load may be so high that the current available at the voltage needed to operate the load is insufficient. In such cases it may be desirable or necessary to preheat the batteries prior to connecting the pack to the load. The decision to begin preheating the pack may be undertaken automatically by the controller based upon time and temperature. Alternatively, the user may signal that connection is imminent by pressing a button on the pack, the button being another element of the present invention, and the controller receiving the signal may decide how best to preheat the pack depending upon the temperature and the anticipated load once connected. The latter parameter, the anticipated load, may be learned by the pack controller over several cycles of operation by measuring and logging the actual load applied. The degree of preheating then is controlled to raise the pack temperature to the point where the battery internal resistance has decreased sufficiently to allow the anticipated load to be sufficiently supplied immediately when the pack is connected to the load. Alternatively, the pack may be preprogrammed to heat to a particular temperature regardless of the anticipated load. Many variations of the algorithm are possible given that the controller has the heater, the heater control switch, the measured temperature, a pushbutton user interface, and the energy in the batteries themselves at its disposal.

FIG. 1 is a front perspective view 100 of the intelligent power supply device illustrating a plurality of removable cartridge energy packs 102 in a rack residing in an enclosure 101. Referring again to FIG. 1 the rack is not fully populated with batteries. The removable cartridge energy packs 102 are preferably batteries and those shown are representative of a nominal 18 VDC Li-Ion cordless tool battery manufactured and sold by Makita®. Makita® is believed to be a trademark of Makita Corporation of Anjo-shi, Aichi-ken, Japan. Any type of battery may be used but Li-ion (lithium ion), NiMH (Nickel Metal Hydride), NiCd (Nickel Cadmium), Li-ion polymer, lead acid or alkaline batteries are presently contemplated. Li-Ton is one preferable choice because of its gravimetric (energy per unit mass/weight) and volumetric (energy per unit volume) efficiencies.

Referring, again to FIG. 1, a partially populated rack is illustrated to demonstrate that the power supply device will operate with at least one back-up battery 102. The batteries 102 may be removed at any time even while they are in operation and even while the power supply device is in operation. This is known as being hot swappable. Reference numeral 110 indicates a printed circuit board which contains battery interface circuits thereon. Alternatively, the printed battery interface circuit board may be attached to the rack through the use of adhesives or by interlocking aspects of the circuit board and the shelves or rack implementing a “snap together” construction.

Referring to FIG. 1, shelves 103 are adapted to receive the Makita® 18 VDC Li-Ion batteries 102. The batteries of the instant invention are illustrated and shown in FIGS. 2-15. The batteries shown and described in FIGS. 2-15 are useable in place of the Makita batteries illustrated in FIG. 1. FIG. 1 shows by way of example one such enclosure or apparatus which may house the batteries shown and described in FIGS. 2-15.

Shelves 103 may be made of an electrical insulator such as polycarbonate. Recesses 106 receive spring loaded locks 111, 112. In the case of the battery of the instant invention, pack latch mechanism 203 would interengage the recesses 106. Parts labeled 111, 112 are integral such that as button 111 is depressed downwardly. Parts labeled 112 recedes into the battery pack enabling insertion and withdrawal into the rack. In this way tongue 112 engages the recess 106 of each shelf 103 and securely positions the battery into place such that it cannot be removed even if the enclosure 101 is accidentally or purposefully knocked over or subject to such shock and vibration as is typically present in vehicle, aircraft, vessel, or spacecraft born applications.

Still referring to FIG. 1, front door portion 107 is shown in the open position exposing the interior of the enclosure 101 and the interior of the door. Door 107 can be securely locked and padlocked to protect the power supply device through known means. A threaded screw 109 is illustrated as one way to secure the closure of the door.

Door 107 includes vents 117A which allow ventilation of the interior of the enclosure when door 107 is closed. Filters may be placed over vents 117A to protect from the intrusion of unwanted dust, debris, insects or other foreign matters. Fans 117 located in the upper portion of the door 107 expel warmer air from the device creating negative pressure thus drawing cooler air in through vents 117A. Duct or baffling elements (not shown) can be included to the effect of directing cooler air entering via vents 117A first beneath battery rack lower shelf 103 wherefrom it flows upward across a motherboard (not shown) before traversing over top of the uppermost shelf and exiting via fans 117. In this way cooling of power conversion elements and other electronic and electrical elements housed on the motherboard is efficiently accomplished. Operation of the fans 117 may be controlled by a master controller based upon various temperature measurements. Wire harness 122A powers fans 117.

Still referring to FIG. 1, lip 118 is affixed to door 107 and is used to temporarily store the battery rack. Loop 118A is used in conjunction with one of the threaded interconnecting rods 104 to secure the rack in the door. Lip 118 secures another of the threaded interconnecting rods 104. Door open sensor 108 interacts with block 108A on door 107 to sense the position of the door.

Still referring to FIG. 1, wires 139 are illustrated in conduit 138 interconnecting with enclosure 101. Wires 139 include AC and DC inputs and outputs and communication lines.

Still referring to FIG. 1, shelves 103 include apertures 106 into which spring loaded locks 111, 112 of removable cartridge energy packs (batteries) 102 fit. Front door portion 107 engages gasket 128 when the door is closed. Fans 117 and vents 117A provide ventilation to the enclosure. Threaded screw 109 ensures that the door remains closed. Connecting rods 104 and 125 support the shelves. Tube spacers 105 provide for the vertical spacing of the shelves 103. Nuts 127 and fastening bars 129 secure connecting rods 125 which extend from fasteners (not shown) on the back of the cabinet.

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the quick-connect intelligent, fused, heated cartridge type battery pack having electrical and mechanical connections which quickly, easily, and simultaneously engage and disengage the enclosure without the use of tools. Pack upper housing 201 and pack lower housing 206 join together with screws not shown in this view. Removable fuse 205, pull ring 204, status light and pushbutton overlay 202, latch mechanism 203 and latch pushbutton 203 are illustrated protruding from the front of the battery pack. Reference numeral 207 indicates space for a manufacturer's logo or trademark. Pull ring 204 provides a convenient way for a user of the power supply system to remove the battery pack from the enclosure while simultaneously depressing the latch mechanism push button. Pull ring 204 also provides a convenient handle by which the battery pack may be easily carried or clipped to a belt or other structure for ease of handling. Indicia, namely, positive, negative and information indicators denote respective electrical interconnection slots. Removal of fuse 205 isolates the lithium ion battery cells within the battery pack from the remainder of the battery packs stored or in use in the power supply enclosure exemplified in FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is an exploded view 300 of the intelligent battery pack in FIG. 2. Light pipe 301 communicates light from an LED positioned on the controller circuit/printed circuit board 306. Spring 302 provides variable resistance to the depression of the latch pushbutton/latch mechanism 203 which enables the intelligent heated battery pack to be removed form the power supply. Rubber ball 303 acts as a compression spring securing pull ring 204 in place when it is in detents in its deactivated position against the battery pack. Fasteners 304 secure the battery pack lower housing 206 to the upper housing 201. Core pack 305 and controller circuit 206 are also illustrated in FIG. 3.

FIG. 4 is a view of the core battery pack 400 including the battery cells, fuse receptacle and heater elements. Reference numeral 401 is the controller circuit programming interface. Core pack locator tabs 402 are illustrated interengaging apertures in the upper printed circuit board. These core pack locator tabs 402 provide stability and rigidity to the core pack. Cell electrical interface 403 allows power or electrical measurements to be effected through communication with the upper printed circuit board. Spring retaining hole 404 serves to retain spring 302 which opposes depression of the latch mechanism. Upper housing interlocking hole 405 mates with the pack upper housing and provides stability for the assembly.

FIG. 5 illustrates the core battery pack 500 including electrical connections of the controller and the heater elements. Reference is made to FIG. 11, an illustration 1100 of one side of the battery pack controller circuit board wherein the microcontroller 1101, the heater electronic switch 1102, heater wire connections 503, and the thermistor connections 504 are shown. Referring to FIG. 5, wires 503 connect the controller module 306 to the middle heater board 702 and to the bottom heater board 704. Wire 502 connects the middle heater board 702 with the bottom heater board 704. The top heater board 701 is not used in this example. Being so connected by wires as shown, current is enabled to flow through switch located at 1102 on the controller board 306 to the shorter of the wires 503, through the shorter wire 503 to the middle heater board 702, through the heating element 905 of the middle heating board 702 to the terminal at wire 502, through wire 502 to the bottom heating board 704, through the heating element of the bottom heating board 704 to the terminal at the longer wire 503, through the longer wire 503 back to the controller board 306 thus completing the heater circuit using two heater boards in a series configuration.

Still referring to FIG. 5, temperature measurements based upon a thermistor located on the middle heater board 702 at location 901 as shown in FIG. 9 are enabled by wire connections 504 between the controller board 306 and the aforementioned thermistor located at 901.

Still referring to FIG. 11, the thermal cutoff (TCO) electrical interface 1106, the core pack locator tab hole 1103 and a cell electrical interface 1104 is shown. The pack latch mechanism clearance notch 1105 at one end of the battery pack controller circuit board is also illustrated making mechanical clearance for the latch mechanism 203 shown in FIG. 3 and elsewhere.

FIG. 6 illustrates 600 the battery pack controller circuit board, the pushbutton switch 601 to query the status of or communicate pre-heating or other commands to the battery pack, the LED 602 which may indicate the status of the battery pack in response to the user pressing the pushbutton switch 601. Additionally, the fuse connector 603 is illustrated to receive the fuse 205. The negative pack electrical contact 604, the positive pack electrical contact 606 and the information pack electrical contact 605 are illustrated in FIG. 6. FIG. 6A is a side view of the battery pack controller circuit board illustrating the temperature cut off device 607.

FIG. 7 is another view of the core pack 700 without the controller circuit board heater elements surrounding the battery cells. Top heater element 701, middle heater element 702, heater element support member 703, and bottom heater element 704 are illustrated in FIG. 7.

Battery cell 705, H-shaped weld tab 706, and I-shaped weld tab 707 and a clearance or void 708 for the thermal cutoff device are also illustrated in FIG. 7. FIG. 8 is an exploded view 800 of the assembly shown in FIG. 7. A cell positive terminal 801 is illustrated as is a cell negative terminal 802. FIG. 8 does not illustrate any of the heating traces, these traces being clearly exemplified in FIGS. 9 and 10.

FIG. 9 is an illustration 900 of one side, for example, the front side of a heater element printed circuit board. In FIG. 9, reference numeral 907 points to a fatter or wider part of the heater trace work. The fat or wide trace is located where the cylindrical cells touch the heater PCB. The power dissipated in the trace work and therefore the temperature of the trace work is proportional to the resistance of the trace work which in turn is inversely proportional to the width of the trace work. For example, the trace work gets hottest away from the cell contact point and, ignoring thermal conduction in the copper for the moment, stays cooler where it is fat and in contact with the cell. Thermistor solder location 901 is illustrated approximately in the middle of the board and traces interconnect terminal thermistor wire interface locations 902 which in turn communicate with electrical connections 504 as illustrated in FIG. 5 and described above. Heater element wire interface locations 903 are illustrated for interconnection with the controller via wires 503 as illustrated in FIG. 5 as well.

Still referring to FIG. 9, reference numeral 904 is the front side of the printed circuit board and the heater printed circuit trace-work 905 is well viewed. The printed circuit substrate 904 may be made of fiberglass reinforced epoxy material or many other materials well suited for printed circuit implementations and a variety of temperature and mechanical environments. Support member interlocking notches 906 and the fatter heater relief circuit trace-work 907 are also shown in FIG. 9.

FIG. 10 is an illustration 1000 of opposite side (back side) 1001 of the heater element printed circuit board of FIG. 9.

FIG. 12 is a schematic block diagram illustrating the connection of the battery cells 705, fuse receptacle 603, fuse 205, battery pack electrical contacts 604, 606, and information communications contact 605. A fuse detector senses the voltage on positive electrical contact 606 and communicates the presence of the fuse to the controller 1101. Controller 1101 is also sensing the battery temperature as measured by the thermistor located at 901 for example. Alternatively, fuse socket or receptacle 603 could be placed in series with the negative electrical contact.

FIG. 13 is a schematic diagram 1300 illustrating the connections of the battery cells 705, battery contacts 604, 606, heater switches 1301, 1302, heater elements 1304, 905, 907, controller 1101, and thermistor 1303. A certain liberty has been taken with the drawing figures in that heater elements are denoted symbolically using reference numeral 1304 on FIG. 13 while the physical resistive elements of an actual heater are referred to using reference numerals 905, 907 on FIG. 9. Reference numeral 1301 indicates the switch to the external source supplied by contact 606 and reference numeral 1302 indicates that the heating circuit is supplied internally by the battery cells 705. Pushbutton 601 may be used to signal the controller to initiate heating or to acquire status information about the battery pack of interest.

FIG. 14 is a schematic 1400 illustrating the process of communicating the hazardous content of the battery packs. A process of determining the hazardous status of a system comprising a plurality of battery packs for transportation safety purposes, comprises the steps of:

communicating with each battery pack in the system 1401; determining the amount of hazardous material in each battery pack 1402; determining the electrical connectivity of each pack with all other packs 1403; defining one or more groups, each group consisting of all packs electrically connected with one another 1404; summing the amount of hazardous material in the packs of each group of electrically connected packs 1405; identifying the group or groups having the greatest sum of hazardous material 1406; comparing the greatest sum value with a threshold value 1407; determining the hazardous status based upon the result of the preceding comparison 1409, 1410, and, communicating the result of the hazardous status determination 1411.

FIG. 15 is a schematic 1500 illustrating the process to operate the heater 1304. A process of controlling the temperature of a battery pack comprises the steps of: determining the operating mode of the battery pack 1501; determining the present temperature of the battery pack 1502;

identifying the optimal temperature for the battery pack as a function of the previously determined operating mode 1503; calculating the difference between the previously measured present temperature and the previously identified optimal temperature 1504; deciding if the temperature difference indicates that the battery pack should be warmed 1505; determining the optimal time interval over which the battery pack should be warmed as a function of the previously determined operating mode and the previously calculated temperature difference 1506; and, operating a heater by switchably enabling and disabling the heat generating element in a fashion to warm the pack to the previously identified optimal temperature in the previously determined optimal time interval 1507.

LIST OF REFERENCE NUMERALS

100 Intelligent power supply device comprising multiple battery packs

101 enclosure

102 removable cartridge energy packs

103 shelves

104 connecting rods

105 tube spacers

106 aperture in shelf

107 front door portion

108 door open sensor

109 threaded screw

110 printed circuit board

111 spring loaded lock

112 spring loaded lock

117 fan

117A vent

118 lip

122A cabling

125 connecting rods

127 nuts

129 fastening bars

138 conduit

139 wires

200 Intelligent heated battery pack

201 Pack upper housing

202 Overlay

203 Pack latch mechanism

204 Pull ring

205 Fuse

206 Pack lower housing

207 Label site

300 Intelligent heated battery pack, exploded view

301 Light pipe

302 Spring

303 Rubber ball

304 Fasteners

305 Core pack

306 Controller circuit

400 Core battery pack

401 Controller circuit programming interface

402 Core pack locator tabs

403 Cell electrical interface

404 Spring retaining hole

405 Upper housing interlocking hole

500 Core battery pack showing heater interconnection

501 Temperature cutoff (TCO) device interface

502 Electrical connection between heater elements

503 Electrical connection between controller and heater elements

504 Electrical connections to thermistor

600 Battery pack controller circuit board

601 Pushbutton switch

602 LED

603 Fuse connector

604 Negative pack electrical contact

605 Information pack electrical contact

606 Positive pack electrical contact

600A Battery pack controller circuit board, side view

607 Temperature cutoff (TCO) device

700 Core pack without controller circuit board

701 Top heater element

702 Middle heater element

703 Heater element support member

704 Bottom heater element

705 Battery cell

706 Weld tab, H-shaped

707 Weld tab, I-shaped

708 Clearance for TCO

800 Core pack without controller circuit board, exploded view

801 Cell positive terminal

802 Cell negative terminal

900 Heater circuit board, front side

901 Thermistor solder location

902 Thermistor wire interface location

903 Heater element wire interface location

904 Printed circuit board, front side

905 Heater printed circuit trace-work

906 Support member interlocking notch

907 Heater relief circuit trace-work

1000 Heater circuit board, back side

1001 Printed circuit board, back side

1100 Battery pack Controller circuit board

1101 Microcontroller

1102 Heater control switch

1103 Core pack locator tab hole

1104 Cell electrical interface

1105 Pack latch mechanism clearance notch

1106 TCO electrical interface

1200 Schematic of fuse detector function

1201 Fuse detector circuit

1300 Schematic of heater function

1301 External source to heater switch

1302 Internal source to heater switch

1303 Thermistor

1304 Heater elements

1400 Schematic illustration of the process of communicating the hazardous content of the battery packs.

1401 Communicating with each battery pack in the system

1402 Determining the amount of hazardous material in each battery pack

1403 Determining the electrical connectivity of each pack with all other packs

1404 Defining one or more groups, each group consisting of all packs electrically connected with one another

1405 Summing the amount of hazardous material in the packs of each group of electrically connected packs;

1406 Identifying the group or groups having the greatest sum of hazardous material;

1407 Comparing the greatest sum value with a threshold value

1408 Determining the hazardous status based upon the result of the preceding comparison

1409 Communicating the result of the hazardous status determination

1500 Schematic illustrating the process to operate the heater

1501 Determining the operating mode of the battery pack

1502 Determining the present temperature of the battery pack

1503 Identifying the optimal temperature for the battery pack as a function of the previously

determined operating mode

1504 Calculating the difference between the previously measured present temperature and the previously identified optimal temperature

1505 Deciding if the temperature difference indicates that the battery pack should be warmed

1506 Determining the optimal time interval over which the battery pack should be warmed as a function of the previously determined operating mode and the previously calculated temperature difference

1507 Operating a heater by switchably enabling and disabling the heat generating element in a fashion to warm the pack to the previously identified optimal temperature in the previously determined optimal time interval

The invention described herein has been set forth by way of example only. Those skilled in the art will readily recognize that changes may be made to the invention without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the claims which are set forth below.

Claims (13)

1. A battery pack, comprising:
one or more battery cells;
a pack positive electrical contact;
a pack negative electrical contact;
a fuse;
a fuse receptacle;
said fuse removably inserted into said fuse receptacle;
said fuse protecting said battery cells when said fuse is inserted in said receptacle;
said fuse rendering said battery cells in safe mode when said fuse is removed from said fuse receptacle;
a microcontroller;
said microcontroller measuring when said fuse is inserted in said receptacle;
said microcontroller measuring when said fuse is removed from said receptacle;
said microcontroller communicates with an external controller in regard to insertion status of said fuse in said receptacle and removal status of said fuse from said receptacle;
said battery pack includes hazardous material;
said microcontroller determines the amount of hazardous material in said battery pack;
and, said microcontroller communicates said amount of hazardous material in said battery pack to said external controller.
2. A battery pack as claimed in claim 1, wherein said fuse receptacle is in series between said one or more battery cells and said pack positive electrical contact.
3. A battery pack as claimed in claim 1, wherein said fuse receptacle is in series between said one or more battery cells and said pack negative electrical contact.
4. A battery pack as claimed in claim 1, wherein said hazardous material comprises equivalent lithium content by weight.
5. A battery pack as claimed in claim 1, further comprising: a heater, a power source, a switch, said switch being under the control of said microcontroller and switchably connecting said power source to said heater.
6. A battery pack as claimed in claim 5, wherein said power source is the battery cells within said battery pack.
7. A battery pack as claimed in claim 5, wherein said power source is an external source selected from the group of a battery charger, an external battery, and a power supply.
8. A battery pack as claimed in claim 5, further comprising: a temperature sensor; said microcontroller measuring battery pack temperature by interrogating said temperature sensor.
9. A battery pack as claimed in claim 5, wherein said microcontroller controls a first time during which said switch is closed and power is applied to said heater; and, a second time during which said switch is open and power is removed from said heater.
10. A plurality of battery packs, each battery pack includes:
one or more battery cells;
a pack positive contact;
a pack negative electrical contact;
a fuse;
a fuse receptacle;
said fuse removably inserted into said fuse receptacle;
said fuse protecting said battery cells when said fuse is inserted in said receptacle;
said fuse rendering said battery cells in safe mode when said fuse is removed from said fuse receptacle;
each of said battery packs includes: a microcontroller; said microcontroller measuring when said fuse is inserted in said receptacle, and, said microcontroller measuring when said fuse is removed from said receptacle;
said microcontroller of each of said battery packs communicates with an external controller in regard to insertion status of said fuse in said receptacle and removal status of said fuse from said receptacle;
each of said battery packs includes: hazardous material, said microcontroller determines said amount of hazardous material in said battery pack;
and, said microcontroller communicates said amount of hazardous material in said battery pack to said external controller.
11. A plurality of battery packs as claimed in claim 10, wherein each of said battery packs includes said fuse receptacle in series between said battery cells and said pack positive electrical contact.
12. A plurality of battery packs as claimed in claim 10, wherein each of said battery packs includes said fuse receptacle in series between said battery cells and said pack negative electrical contact.
13. A plurality of battery packs as claimed in claim 10 wherein said hazardous material comprises equivalent lithium content by weight.
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US11672957 US8860377B2 (en) 2006-02-09 2007-02-08 Scalable intelligent power supply system and method
US11673551 US7838142B2 (en) 2006-02-09 2007-02-09 Scalable intelligent power supply system and method
US91156407 true 2007-04-13 2007-04-13
US11851504 US7948207B2 (en) 2006-02-09 2007-09-07 Refuelable battery-powered electric vehicle
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