US773851A - Pneumatic piano-player. - Google Patents

Pneumatic piano-player. Download PDF

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Publication number
US773851A
US773851A US19882204A US1904198822A US773851A US 773851 A US773851 A US 773851A US 19882204 A US19882204 A US 19882204A US 1904198822 A US1904198822 A US 1904198822A US 773851 A US773851 A US 773851A
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chamber
valve
pneumatic
bellows
box
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US19882204A
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Frank V Crofut
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STERLING CO
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STERLING CO
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10FAUTOMATIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
    • G10F1/00Automatic musical instruments
    • G10F1/02Pianofortes with keyboard

Description

No. 773,851.. PATENTBD NOV. 1, 1904.
P. V. CROFUT.
PNEUMATIC PIANO PLAYER.
APPLIGATION FILED MAR. 18, 1904.
NO MODEL. BSEBETS-"SHEET 1. 1 9.1
g/ iw PATENTED Nov. 1, 1904.
I F. v. OROFUT. PNEUMATIC PIANO PLAYER.
APPLIUATION FILED MAR. 18, 1904.
8 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
N0 MODEL.
PATENTED NOV. 1, 1904:
F. V. OROPUT.
PNEUMATIC PIANO PLAYER.
APPLIOATION'IILED MAR. 18, 1904.
8 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
NO MODEL.
No. '773,861. PATENTED NOV. 1, 1904.
'P. V. CROPUT. PNEUMATIC PIANO PLAYER.
APPLICATION IILED MAR. 19, 1904.
8 SHEETS-SHEBT 4 L A m.
N0 MODEL.
No. 773,851. PATENTED NOV. 1. 1904" F. v. OROFUT. V PNEUMATIC PIANO PLAYER.
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP AR. 18, 1904.
PATENTED NOV. 1, 1904.
BSHEETS SHEBT 6.
' F. V. CROFU T.
APPLICATION FILED MAR. 18, 1904.
PNEUMATIU PIANO PLAYER.
no MODEL.
N0 MODEL.
PATENTED NOV. 1, 1904. OROFUT.
PNEUMATIC PIANO PLAYER.
APPLICATION FILED MAR. 18, 1904.
BSHEBTS-BHEET 7.
PATENTED NOV. 1, 1904.
APPLIOATION FILED MAR. 18, 1904.
8 SHEETS-SHEET 8.
J10 MODEL.
M vH m m m b 5 9 ii m ,6, F. m I v W\ AN 5 1 pa [b 7 w w k V UNITED STATES Patented November 1, 1904.
PATENT OFFIC FRANK V. CROFUT, OF DERBY, CONNECTICUT, ASSIGNOR TO THE STERLING CO., OF DERBY, CONNECTICUT, A CORPORATION.
PNEUMATIC PIANO-PLAYER.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 773,851, dated November 1, 1904.
Application filed March 18, 1904.
To all whmn it nwby concern:
Be it known that I, FRANK V. CROFUT, of Derby, in the county of New Haven and State of Connecticut, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Pneumatic Piano-Players; and I do hereby declare the following, when taken in connection with the accompanying drawings and the figures of reference marked thereon, to be a full, clear, and exact description of the same, and which said drawings constitute part of this specification, and represent, in
Figure 1, a front View of a pneumatic pianoplayer constructed in accordance with my invention with the case removed; Fig. 2, aside view of the same looking from the right; Fig. 3, afront view of the right-hand upper end of the instrument, showing the motor connections; Fig. 4:, a broken front view, partially in section, of the left-hand end of the instrument, showing the arrangement and connections of the valve-box; Fig. 5, a sectional view of the pneumatic system, including connections to the tracker; Fig. .6, a top or plan view of the valve-board; Fig. 7 a broken side view, partially in section, looking from the right and showing connection between the motor valve-box and the exhaustchamber and one of the low-pressure bellows; Fig. 8, a broken top or plan view, also partially in section, showing the connections and arrangement of the motorrcontrolling valves; Fig. 9, a broken end view looking from the left, showing the arrangement of the valvebox; Fig. 10, a vertical sectional view through the valve-box, exhaust-chamber, and one of the feeders; Fig. 11, a broken front view showing the valve for cutting ofi the valve: box from the pneumatic-chamber and means for operating the same; Fig. 12, a broken sectional view showing connections between one of the low-pressure bellows and the valvebox; Fig. 13, an inside view of the exhaust-- chamber; Fig. 14, an inside view of the feeders, Figs. 12, 13, and 14 being on different scales.
This invention relates to an improvement in pneumatic piano-players, and particularly Serial No. 198,822. (No model.)
to that class in which a perforated strip of paper is passed over a tracker communicating through tubes with pneumatics by which hammers are caused to be depressed upon the keys of a piano, the object of the invention being to so construct the instrument that the parts may be perfectly assembled and readily accessible in case repairs are necessary.
A further object of the invention is to simplify the construction and arrangement of parts and produce uniform action.
A further object of the invention is to improve the means in instruments of this character for regulating the movement of the hammers whereby greater expression is obtained in playing and to improve means for regulating the tempo; and the invention consists in certain details of construction and arrangement of parts, as will be hereinafter described, and particularly recited in the claims.
In carrying out my invention I employ a frame including a tracker over which a perforated paper is drawn onto aroller which is driven from the motive power, as will be hereinafter described, the tracker communicating through tubes with pneumatics by which hammers are depressed over the keys of a piano, the pneumatics being controlled by pedals which move feeders which exhaust air from an exhaust-chamber and operate bellows which maintain the pressure and through means hereinafter described operate the pneumatics, it being understood that there is a separate pneumatic for each hammer, all as usual in instruments of this character.
Extending across the instrument is what I shall hereinafter term a valve-board 2, having mounted thereon three pneumatic-boards 3, 4, and 5, which support three rows of pneumatics 6, 7, and 8, all of which are connected with hammers 9. In the top of this valveboard are three rows of holes 10, 11, and 12, and in the bottom of each'hole is a port 13, 1e, and 15, opening into a pneumatic-chamber 16 directly below the valve-board. In each hole are double valves 17, 18, or 19, normally closing the ports 13, 14:, and 15, but adapted to be raised to close the holes 10, 11, and 12,
which are provided with metal valve-seats 20. Each of the holes and 11 is connected by passages 21 and 22, which extend rearwardly through the valve-board and upward through the pneumatic-boards 3 and 1 with the respective pneumatics 6 and 7, while the holes 12 are each connected with their respective pneumatics 8 by passages 23, which extend forward, thence upward through the top of the valve-board to a tube 2 1, which extends rearward above the valve-board into a passage in the pneumatic-board 5, opening into the said pneumatics 8. By connecting the holes 23 with the pneumatics 8 by a forwardlyex tending passage and by the tube 24 I am enabled to arrange the valves in the same plane and in the same board.
The pneumatic-chamber 16 connects with an exhaust-chamber 26, through a port 27 and connections, which will be hereinafter described, and in this pneLunatic-chamber are three rows of disk pneumatics 2829 30, one arranged below each of the valves 17, 18, and 19, the stems 31 of which extend downward, so as torest upon the pneumatics 28, 29, and 30, to be operated thereby. Beneath each of the pneumatics 28, 29, and and opening to them are forwardly-extending passages 32, which open upward and which are connected by short tubes 33 with channels 34, leading to a primary pneumatic chamber 35 and through a port 36 to the atmosphere, the pneumatic-chamber being arranged parallel with the valve-board 2. 1n the chamber 35 are series of primary pneumatics 37, operating-valves 38 to close the passage to the channels 34 and open said ports 36. Opening to the under side of the primary pneumatics 37 are passages 39, connected by tubes 410 with vertical passages 41 in a rail 12, the upper ends of the said passages 4:1 being connected by tubes 4E3, which extend upward into engagement with nipples formed on the under side of a tracker 45, which is formed from metal, with holes et6 opening through said nipples.
The exhaust-chamber 26 is arranged below the valve-board, and the air is exhausted therefrom through the back by feeders 47 48, operated by pedals 19 and 5 0 in the usual way, and this chamber is connected by ports 51, 52, and with bellows 5%, 55, and 56, which are hung upon a bellows-board 57, which also forms the front wall of the exhaust-chamber 26, the bellows equalizing the pressure, as will hereinafter appear. The bellows and 56 are moved against the pressure of externally-arranged springs 58 and 59 and the bellows 5 L against the pressure of an internallyarranged spring, (not shown,) the springs for these bellows being differentiated in tension. Air from the pneumatic-chainber 16 is exhausted through a valve-box 60, secured to the front face of the bellows-board 57 below the valve-board 2, and by thus securing it to the bellows-board it is accessible when the front of the case is removed. This valve-box 6O communicates with the exhaust-chamber 26 through a port 62, and this port is normally open, so that the pressure of the bellows 5 1 draws the air from the pneumatic-chamber 16 through a tube 63, opening through the port 27, and through a small chamber 64, located at one side of the valve-box 60 and connected therewith by a port 65, which may be closed by a valve 66.
The primary-pneumatic chamber 35 is connected with the pneumatic-chamber 16 by a tube 67, and the primary-pneumatic chamber is connected by a tube 68 with a longitudinal chamber 69, secured to the rail 12 and communicating through small holes 70 with the passages 4.1. The valve-box 60 is also connected with the bellows 56 through a box 71, secured to the bellows-board 57 inside the exhaust-chamber 26, a port 72, opening from the valve-box 60 to the box 71, and a port 73, opening from the box 71 to the bellows 56.
The instrument will normally play loud, and, as usual in instruments of this class, the forte effects are produced by the usual loud pedal of a piano, operated by a lever 7 1, arranged in front of the instrument convenient to the hand of the operator, this lever 7st turning a bell-crank lever 75, which leads through mechanism (not shown) to the loud pedal of the piano.
To obtain piano or soft effects, the port'62 will be closed by a lift-valve 76, carried by a bar 77, pivoted near the top of the box 60, and raised by a bell-crank lever 78, turned by a connecting-rod 79 with a rocker 80, which is turned through a rod 81 by a lever 82, extending up in front of the player. if the valve be closed, the air in the valve-box can be exhausted only through the port 72, which connects through the box 71 with the bellows 56, and the spring 59 of this bellows being light a softer effect is produced, or, in other words, the hammer is depressed with less force upon the keys.
In order to equalize the pressure, the port 53 from the exhaust-chamber 26 to the bellows 56 will be provided inside the bellows with a metal seat 83, and a block 8% will be secured to the cap 85 and have a soft-leather face 86, adapted to close the port 53, so that the force exerted by the bellows 56 will be the force of its spring 59.
In rear of the tracker L5 are means for holding a perforated music-roll, and in front and below the tracker is a roller 87, onto which the music is wound after passing over the tracker, a wind-motor being arranged at the right-hand side to drive one or the other, accordingly as the music-roll is drawn onto the roller or rewound. This motor mechanism includes a crank-shaft 88 and chain-gearing, which is thrown into or out of engagement neath the motor for the motor-box.
with the rolls by a shifting-lever 89. The motor is operated through a motor valve-box 90, located below the cut-offs 91, and by arranging the valves for the pneumatics in the same plane and all the primary pneumatics in the same plane, as described, I obtain room ble- T is makes it possible to connect the motor-box directly with the motor. As shown in Fig. 3, the motor-box 90 includes a chamber 92 below the box and connected therewith by a port 93, which may be opened or closed by a slidevalve 94, controlled .by a rod 95, operated by a handle 96 in front of the roller 87. Air from the chamber 92 is exhausted by the bellows 55, the bellows connecting with this chambeu through a box 97, located in the right-hand upper corner of the exhaust-chamber 26, a port 98 opening from the bellows into the box, While the box is connected by a passage 99, extending through the valveboard 2, with a tube 100, leading to the chamber 92. As the port 93 is opened to a greater or less extent the motor is run faster or slower and the desired tempo secured. ,VVhen, however, it is desired to rewind the perforated strip, greater speed is desired, and for this purpose I form a port 101 in the rear wall of the motor-box 90 and open or close the port by means of a slide valve 102, operated through a connecting-rod 103 with the lever 89, which also throws the motor into or out of engagement with the roller 87. i v
The port 101 opens into a tube 104, leading to a block 105, mounted on the upper end of the pneumatic-boards 5, this block and board being formed with a passage 106, leading to a passage 107 in the top of the valve-board 2, which opens directly into the exhaust-chamber 26. If the valve 102 be open so as to open the port 101, the pressure in the exhaust-chamber 26, which is maintained by the pressure of the main bellows 54, will act directly upon the motor, whereas if this port be closed the motor will be operated only by the low-pressure bellows 55. g This bellows is operated primarily by the exhaust from the chamber 26, and to equalize the pressure of this bellows upon the motor the port 52 from the bellows 55 to the chamber 26 is provided with a metal seat 108, against which a block 109, having a soft-leather face 110 and secured to the cap 111 of the bellows, is drawn to close the port 52, so that the pressure then exerted on the bellows 55 is the pressure of its spring 58, tending to open it and exhaust air from the chamber 92, which through the port 93 communicates with the motor when the valve 94 is open. The opening of the port 91 to the atmosphere through the chamber 92 allows the bellows 55 to open against the pressure of the exhaust-chamber 26, and
this movement is very slight, owing to the excess of pressure in the exhaust-chamber ated through the passages 21 or 22. i the ports in thisnormal position aloud effect over the spring 58 of the bellows, so that the pressure exerted upon the motor is really the pressure of the spring 58 of the motor 55 and not the pressure of the exhaust-chamber 26. An equal pressure is thus maintained in the motor, and this pressure is regulated through the valve 94, so as to cause the motor to move fast or slow. When the roll is rewound, it is desirable that the pneumatic-chamber should be cut off, and this is done by means of the valve 66, located on the small chamber 64 over the port 65, between the said small chamber 64 and the valvebox 60. This valve 66 is operated by a lever 112, which is moved by an arm 113, connected by a rod 114 with the shifting-lever 89, and so that when the lever is thrown to reroll the paper the valve 66 will be closed to out off the pneumatic-chamber. It may here be mentioned that by exhausting the air from the longitudinal chamber 69, which communicates with the tubes 41, a slight reactive pressure will be exerted upon the primary pneumatics 37 to close the same when the holes in the tracker are closed by an imperforated portion of the music-strip.
A roll of music being placed in position and connected with the roller 87 passes over the tracker 45, the holes in the paper registering with the holes in the tracker, the motor being connected with the roll 87. The pedals being operated move the feeders 47 48 and exhaust. the air from the exhaust-chamber 26 and operate the bellows 54, 55, and 56, and these bellows maintain the pressure. The port 62 over the chamber 26 to the valve-box being normally open, the air in that box is exhausted, as is also the air in the pneumatic-chamber 16, through the small chamber 64 and tube 63, depressing all the disk pneumatics 30 and hold ing the valves 17, 18, and 19 closed. The same pressure also holds the valves 36 closed. If now the tubes 40 43, leading to the primary pneumatics, be open to the atmosphere by the registration of an opening in the music-roll with a corresponding hole in the tracker, air will be admitted through the tubes 43 40 to a primary pneumatic 37, allowing it to open, and in opening it lifts a valve 36 and opens a passage 34 to the atmosphere, admitting air through that passage to the under side of the disk pneumatics 28, 29, or 30, allowing it to rise. If it be the pneumatic 30, it lifts the stem 31 of a valve 19 and opens that valve, which communicates, through a passage 23 and tube 24, to a pneumatic 8, which closes and moves a hammer, causing it to be depressed upon the keys of the piano and so as to strike the note corresponding, to the opening in the tracker. If one of the pneumatics '28 or 29 be raised, the ports 13 or 14 will be opened and the pneumatics 6 or 7 by pressure oper- With will be produced. To obtain a soft effect, the port 62 will be closed by the valve 76, so that pressure in the valve box will be maintained through the low pressure bellows 56. To regulate the tempo, the valve 9 1 will be open to greater or less extent by the operating-handle 96, so as to open or close the port93,whieh communicates, through the chamber 92, tube 100, and box 97, with the bellows 55, which, as before described, maintains a regular pressure, and hence regular movement of the motor. By opening the valve 94 to a greater extent the speed of the motor will be increased. After the roll has been run off, or it is desired to rewind it the shifting-lever 89 will be thrown, which throws the motor out of engagement with the roller and into engagement with the music-roll. At the same time this lever, through the connecting-rod 11 i, closes the valve 66 in the valvebox 60, so as to cut off communication between the valve-box and the pneumatic-chamher, and at the same time will move the valve 102 to open the port 101, which eommuni-- cates through the tube 10 directly with the exhaust-chamber 26. Hence full power of the exhaust-chamber is exerted upon the motor, which will rewind theroll with great rapidity.
Having fully described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is
1. In a pneumatic piano-player, the combination with the power-pneumatics, of a transversely-arranged valve-board on which the power-pneumatics are vertically arranged, said board containing valves for controlling the said power-pneumatics, the valves being all arranged in substantially the same plane and forward of the said pneumatics.
2. In a pneumatic pia'no-player, the combination with the power-pneumatics, of a valve board on which the power-pneumaties are vertically arranged, said board having a series of valves for controlling the said pneumatics, all the valves arranged in the same plane and forward of the said pneumaties, and a single pneumatic chamber arranged below the valves, substantially as described.
3. In a pneumatic piano-player, the combination with the power-pneumatics arranged in two or more rows, of a valve-board in which all the valves controlling the pn eumatics are arranged in the same plane and in two or more longitudinal rows, passages from one or more rows rearward to the rear-most pneumatics, and passages from the forward row of valves extending forward and upward through said board and connected with the foremost row of pneumaties by tubes extending rearward over the valve-board.
1. In a pneumatic piano-player, the combination with an exhaust-chamber, bellows, and pneumatic-chamber, of a valve-box interposed between the exhaust-chamber and the pneumatic-chamber and located on the front wall of the exhaust-chamber, and connections between the valve-box and one of the bellows and between the valve-box and the exhaustchamber.
5. In a pneumatic piano-player, the combination with an exhaust-chamber, bellows, and pneumatic-chamber, of a valve-box interposed between the exhaust-chamber and the pneumatic-chamber and located on the front wall of the exhzuist-chamber, direct connection between the valve-boX and one of the bellows and connectionbetween the valve-boxand the exhaust-chamber.
6. In a pneumatic piano-player, the combination with an exhaust-chamber, bellows, and pneumatic-chamber, of a valve-box interposed between the exhaust-chamber and the pneumatic-chamber and located on the front wall of the exhaust-chaniber, a passage from said valve-box to the pneumatic-chamber, and a valve adapted to close said passage.
7. In a pneumatic piano-player, the combination of an exhaust-chamber, a pneumaticchamber and bellows, of a valve-box secured to the outer wall of said exhaustchamber, indirect connection between the valve-box and the pneumatic-chamber, an opening between the valve-box and the exhaustehamber, a valve in said box to close the said openinginto the exhaust-chamber, and direct open connection between the said valve-box and bellows, substantially as described.
8. In a pneumatic 1)l(t1'1()1)l 1,y61, the combination with the power-pneumatics of a valveboard in which the valves controlling the power-pneumatics are all arranged in the same plane and forward of the said power-pneumatics, a primary -pneulnatic chamber ar ranged above the valve-board parallel therewith, and in which all the primany pneumatics are arranged in the same plane, and connections between the pneumatic-chamber and the primary-pneumatic chamber, substantially as described.
9. A pneumatic piano-player having a high pressure and a lowpressure bellows, an exhaust-chamber, winding and music rolls, and a motor for operating the same, an independently-organized motor valve-box arranged di rectly beneath themotor, connections between the low-pressure bellows and the motor valvebox and between the exhaust-chamber and the motor valve-box, and valves for controlling said connections.
10. A pneumatic piano-player having a high-pressure and two low-pressure bellows, an exhaList-chamber, a pneumatic-chamber and motor valve-box, connections from oncof the low-pressure bellows to the pneumatic-chamber, and connection from the other low-pressure bellows to the motor valve-box independent of the main exhaust-chamber, the open- In testimony whereof I have signed this specification in the presence of two subscribing Witnesses.
FRANK V. CROFUT. Witnesses:
J. R. MASON,
FREDERIC C. EARLE.
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