US7259608B2 - System and method for open-loop synthesis of output clock signals having a selected phase relative to an input clock signal - Google Patents

System and method for open-loop synthesis of output clock signals having a selected phase relative to an input clock signal

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US7259608B2
US7259608B2 US11433216 US43321606A US7259608B2 US 7259608 B2 US7259608 B2 US 7259608B2 US 11433216 US11433216 US 11433216 US 43321606 A US43321606 A US 43321606A US 7259608 B2 US7259608 B2 US 7259608B2
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delay
signal
number
delay elements
clock signal
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US20060203606A1 (en )
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David A. Zimlich
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Micron Technology Inc
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Micron Technology Inc
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C7/00Arrangements for writing information into, or reading information out from, a digital store
    • G11C7/22Read-write [R-W] timing or clocking circuits; Read-write [R-W] control signal generators or management 
    • G11C7/222Clock generating, synchronizing or distributing circuits within memory device
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C11/00Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor
    • G11C11/21Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor using electric elements
    • G11C11/34Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor using electric elements using semiconductor devices
    • G11C11/40Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor using electric elements using semiconductor devices using transistors
    • G11C11/401Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor using electric elements using semiconductor devices using transistors forming cells needing refreshing or charge regeneration, i.e. dynamic cells
    • G11C11/4063Auxiliary circuits, e.g. for addressing, decoding, driving, writing, sensing or timing
    • G11C11/407Auxiliary circuits, e.g. for addressing, decoding, driving, writing, sensing or timing for memory cells of the field-effect type
    • G11C11/4076Timing circuits
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C7/00Arrangements for writing information into, or reading information out from, a digital store
    • G11C7/22Read-write [R-W] timing or clocking circuits; Read-write [R-W] control signal generators or management 
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03HIMPEDANCE NETWORKS, e.g. RESONANT CIRCUITS; RESONATORS
    • H03H11/00Networks using active elements
    • H03H11/02Multiple-port networks
    • H03H11/26Time-delay networks

Abstract

Delay circuits are used in a manner similar to a synchronized mirror delay circuit to generate a quadrature clock signal from an input clock signal. The input clock signal is coupled through a series of first delay circuit for one-half the period of the input clock signal. A second series of feedback delay circuits mirror respective first delay circuits. After the input signal has been coupled through the first delay circuits, the mirrored signals from the first delay circuits are coupled through the feedback delay circuits. The delay of the feedback delay circuits is one-half the delay of the first delay circuits to provide a signal that is the quadrature of the clock signal.

Description

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/854,849, filed May 25, 2004, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,084,686.

TECHNICAL FIELD

This invention relates to clock generation systems and methods, and, more particularly, to a system and method for generating a clock signal that has a selected phase relative to another signal despite variations in the frequency of the other signal without using phase-lock loops, delay-lock loops and other closed-loop techniques.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Periodic digital signals are commonly used in a variety of electronic devices. Probably the most common type of periodic digital signals are clock signals that are typically used to establish the timing of a digital signal or the timing at which an operation is performed on a digital signal. For example, data signals are typically coupled to and from memory devices, such as synchronous dynamic random access memory (“SDRAM”) devices, in synchronism with a clock or data strobe signal. More specifically, read data signals are typically coupled from a memory device in synchronism with a read data strobe signal, and write data signals are typically latched into a memory device in synchronism with a write data strobe signal. The read data strobe signal typically has the same phase as the read data signals, and it is normally generated by the same device that generates the read data signals. As a result, it is relatively easy to generate a read data strobe signal.

Unlike a read data strobe signal, a write data strobe signal normally must have a phase that is the quadrature of the write data signals so that a transition of the write data strobe signal occurs at the center of the period in which the write data signals are valid. Therefore, the write data strobe signal can latch the write data signals into the memory device at the center of the “data eye” in which the write data signals are valid. However, as the speed of memory devices continues to increase, the “data eye” becomes smaller and smaller, thus making the timing of the write data strobe signal even more critical.

The write strobe signal is typically generated by the memory controller from a system clock signal and it is coupled to the memory device into which the data are being written. Unfortunately, the phase of the system clock signal is normally substantially the same as the phase of the write data signals. Therefore, it is necessary for the memory controller to generate the write data strobe signal as a quadrature signal having a phase that is 90-degrees relative to the phase of the system clock signal.

Various techniques can be and have been used by memory devices to generate a quadrature write data strobe signal. If the frequency of the system clock signal is fixed, a quadrature write strobe signal can be generated by a timing circuit that simply generates a transition of the write strobe signal a fixed time after a corresponding transition of the system clock signal. However, synchronous memory devices are typically designed and sold to be operated over a wide range of system clock frequencies. Therefore, it is generally not practical to use a fixed timing circuit to generate a write data strobe signal from the system clock signal. Instead, a circuit that can adapt itself to a system clock signal having a range of frequencies must be used.

One conventional circuit that can generate a quadrature write data strobe signal from a system clock signal having a variable frequency is a phase-lock loop in which a voltage controlled oscillator generates a signal that is coupled to a phase detector along with the master clock signal. The phase detector generates an error signal that is used to control the frequency of the signal generated by the voltage controlled oscillator. Various signal processing techniques can be used to generate a quadrature signal from the signal generated by the voltage controlled oscillator.

Closed loop circuits, such as phase-lock loops and delay-lock loops, can accurately generate a quadrature write strobe signal based on the system clock signal over a substantial range of frequencies of the system clock signal. However, closed loop circuits are not without their disadvantages and limitations. Specifically, closed loop circuits typically require a substantial amount of circuitry, which occupies space on a semiconductor die that could otherwise be used for increased memory capacity. Furthermore, it typically requires a substantial period of time for the closed loop circuit to establish “lock” during which time the memory device cannot latch write data signals.

Quadrature digital signals are also required for applications other than for use as a write data strobe signal. For example, a “frequency doubler” circuit, which generates an output clock signal having twice the frequency of an input clock signal, can be implemented using an appropriate logic circuit that receives the input clock signal and a quadrature version of the input clock signal. However, generating the necessary quadrature clock signal has the same type of difficulties that are incurred in generating a quadrature write data strobe signal.

There is therefore a need for an open loop system and method for generating a periodic signal having a selected phase relative to another periodic signal despite substantial variations in the frequency of the periodic signal from which the periodic signal is generated.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

A system and method for generating an output clock signal having a selected phase shift relative to an input clock signal is generated in an open-loop manner using a modified synchronized mirror delay circuit. The circuit includes a plurality of first delay circuits coupled in series with each other, each of which having a first delay. A plurality of second delay circuits are coupled in series with each other, each of which is coupled to a respective one of the first delay circuits in a manner of a synchronized mirror delay. Each of the second delay circuits has a second delay that is a predetermined percent of the first delay. The output clock signal is generated by the second delay circuit that is coupled to the first delay circuit to which the input clock signal is applied. The output clock signal has a phase relative to the input clock signal that corresponds to the delay of the second delay circuits relative to the delay of the first delay circuits. One or more series of additional delay circuits may be coupled to the first delay circuits in the manner of a synchronized mirror delay, and the delay of these delay circuits in each series can vary to provide clock signals having a variety of phases relative to the input clock signal.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a circuit for generating quadrature clock signals according to one embodiment of the invention.

FIGS. 2A and 2B are timing diagrams showing the operation of the circuit of FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a block diagram of a circuit for generating quadrature clock signals according to another embodiment of the invention.

FIGS. 4A-C are timing diagrams showing the operation of the circuit of FIG. 3.

FIG. 5 is a block diagram of a circuit for generating clock signals at various phases of an input clock signal to another embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 6 is a logic diagram of one embodiment of a delay circuit that can be used in the circuits of FIGS. 1, 3, and 5.

FIG. 7 is a block diagram of a circuit for generating quadrature clock signals according to another embodiment of the invention.

FIGS. 8A-E are timing diagrams showing the operation of the circuit of FIG. 7.

FIG. 9 is a block diagram of a frequency doubler circuit using the quadrature and in-phase clock signals generated by the circuit of FIG. 7.

FIGS. 10A-H are timing diagrams showing the operation of the frequency doubler circuit of FIG. 7.

FIG. 11 is a block diagram of a memory device using the quadrature and in-phase clock signals generated by the circuit of FIG. 7 as write data and read data strobe signals.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

One embodiment of a signal generating circuit 10 for generating a quadrature clock signal is shown in FIG. 1. The circuit 10 includes a first series of delay circuits 12 a-n that are coupled in series with each other. The first of the delay circuits 12 a receives a compliment of a periodic clock (“CLK”) signal, which is generated by coupling the CLK signal through an inverter 14. The CLK* signal is then coupled through the delay circuits 12 a-n in a “forward” direction from left-to-right as shown in FIG. 1. Each of the delay circuits 12 a-n delays a signal applied to its input by a delay time T. Each of the delay circuits 12 a-n also includes an enable/set* terminal E/R that receives the CLK signal directly. The delay circuits 12 a-n are enabled to allow the CLK* signal to propagate through the delay circuits 12 a-n when the CLK signal is high. When the CLK signal is low, the delay circuits 12 a-n are set to output a logic “1” signal.

The signal generating circuit 10 also includes a second series of delay circuits 16 a-n that are coupled in series with each other. A respective delay circuit 16 in the second series is provided for each of the delay circuits 12 in the first series. Signals are coupled through the delay circuits 16 a-n in a “reverse” direction from right-to-left as shown in FIG. 1. Unlike the delay circuits 12 a-n, which provide a delay time of T, each of the delay circuits 16 a-n provides a delay time of T/2, i.e., a delay time of half the delay time of the delay circuits 12 a-n. Each of the delay circuits 12 in the first set is coupled to its respective delay circuits 16 in the second set in a manner that causes the output of each delay circuit 16 to mirror a low output of its respective delay circuit 12. When the output of a delay circuit 12 is high, the corresponding delay circuit 16 is enabled to allow signals to propagate through the delay circuits 16 a-n. The delay circuits 12 and 16 are thus alternately enabled by the CLK signal since a high CLK signal enables the delay circuits 12, and a low CLK signal sets the delay circuits 12 to output a high, which enables the delay circuits 16. The circuit 10 is similar to a conventional synchronous mirror delay (“SMD”) circuit except that in a typical SMD circuit the delay times of the “forward” delay circuits are normally the same as the delay times of the “reverse” delay circuits.

The operation of the signal generating circuit 10 will now be explained with reference to the timing diagram of FIGS. 2A and 2B. The CLK signal transitions high at time t0 (FIG. 2A), thereby causing a low CLK* signal to be applied to the first delay circuit 12 a. Prior to time t0, the low CLK signal acts as an active low set signal to set the delay circuits 12 a-n so that all of the delay circuits 12 a-n output a high signal. Therefore, assuming for purposes of example that there are 10 delay circuits 12 a-j, the outputs of the delay circuits 12 a-j will be “1111111111” prior to t0. The transition to a high CLK signal at time t0 enables the delay circuits 12 a-n so that the low CLK* signal is sequentially coupled through the delay circuits 12 a-j. When the CLK signal transitions low at time t1, the prior low or logic “0” CLK* signal will have propagated through a number of the delay circuits 12 a-n corresponding to the period of the CLK signal and the value of the delay time T. Assuming for purposes of example that logic “0” CLK* signal propagates through the first 5 of the delay circuits 12 a-e between t0 and t1, the outputs of the delay circuits 12 a-j will be “0000011111” at time t1. The outputs of the delay circuits 16 a-j will also be “0000011111” at time t1 since, as explained above, the output of each of the delay circuits 16 mirrors a low output of a respective one of the respective delay circuits 12.

On the falling edge of the CLK signal at time t1, the delay circuits 12 a-j are all set so that they each output a high signal. The delay circuits 12 a-j thus collectively output “1111111111.” As explained above, the high signals from the outputs of the delay circuits 12 a-j enable signal propagation through respective delay circuits 16 a-j. Thus, at time t1, the signals “0000011111” in the delay circuits 16 a-j will begin propagating back through the delay circuits from right-to-left as shown in FIG. 1. The logic “1” signal that is being output from the sixth delay circuit 16 f must propagate through the same number of delay circuits 16 a-j that the logic “0” CLK* signal propagated through the delay circuits 12 a-j (i.e., 5 delay circuits 16 a-e). Since the delay time T/2 of the delay circuits 16 is half the delay time T of the delay circuits 12, a logic “1” signal will be output from the delay circuit 16 a as the quadrature clock signal CLKQUAD at time t2, which is one-quarter of a period of the CLK signal after t1, as shown in FIG. 2B.

At time t3, the CLK transitions high, thereby once again coupling a logic “0” CLK* signal to the first delay circuit 12 a and enabling all of the delay circuits 12 a-j. However, just prior to time t3, the outputs of the delay circuits 12 a-j and 16 a-j will each be “1111111111.” At time t4, which is one delay period T after t3, the logic “0” CLK* signal will propagate to the output of the first delay circuit 12 a thereby causing the delay circuit 16 a to output a logic “0” or low CLKQUAD signal. The signal CLKQUAD thus transitions low at time t4, as shown in FIG. 2B. The circuit 10 then repeats the operation explained above starting at time t0.

Although the rising edge of the quadrature clock signal CLKQUAD is shown in FIG. 2B as being in the center of the logic “0” portion of the CLK signal, such may not always be the case. In particular, the period of the CLK signal may not be an integer multiple of the delay time T of the delay circuits 12, 16 so that signals will start or stop propagating through the delay circuits 12 a-n and 16 a-n when the signals have only partially propagated through the delay circuits. For this reason, it is desirable to create an in-phase clock signal CLKIN-PHASE corresponding to the CLK signal using an embodiment of a circuit 30 for generating quadrature clock signals as shown in FIG. 3. The circuit 30 is essentially the same as the circuit 10 shown in FIG. 1 except that it includes a second series of feedback delay circuits 32 a-n. The delay circuits 32 a-n function in the same manner as the delay circuits 16 a-n except that they have a delay of T, which is the same as the delay of the delay circuits 12 a-n, rather than a delay of T/2 like the delay circuits 16 a-n.

Using the above example with reference to FIGS. 4A and 4B, just prior to t0 the outputs of the delay circuits 12 a-j, 16 a-j and 32 a-j will each be “1111111111.” At time t1, the logic “0” CLK* signal will have propagated through the first five delay circuits 12 a-e so the outputs of the delay circuits 12 a-j will be “0000011111.” However, since the outputs of the delay circuits 16 a-j and 32 a-j mirror the outputs of the respective delay circuits 12 a-j, the outputs of the delay circuits 16 a-j and 32 a-j will also be “0000011111.” When the CLK transitions low at time t1, the delay circuits 12 a-j are each set to “1” as explained above, thereby enabling signal propagation through the delay circuits 16 a-j and 32 a-j. The logic “1” signals at the outputs of the sixth through tenth delay circuits 16 f-j and 32 f-j then propagate back through the delay circuits 16 f-j and 32 f-j. As explained above with reference to FIGS. 1, 2A and 2B, the logic “1” signal that was being output from the sixth delay circuit 16 f will propagate to the output of the delay circuit 16 a at time t2, which is one-quarter of a period of the CLK signal after t1, as shown by the CLKQUAD signal in FIG. 4B. However, since the delay T of the delay circuits 32 a-j is twice the delay T/2 of the delay circuits 16 a-j, the logic “1” signal that was being output from the sixth delay circuit 32 f will propagate to the output of the delay circuit 32 a at time t3, as shown in FIG. 4C. The CLKIN-PHASE signal at the output of the delay circuit 32 a will therefore transition high at time t3, which is approximately one-half of a period of the CLK signal after t1. At time t4, the falling edge of the CLK* signal propagates to the output of the first delay circuit 12 a, thereby causing the CLKQUAD signal at the output of the delay circuits 16 a and the CLKIN-PHASE signal at the output of the delay circuit 32 a to transition low, as shown in FIGS. 4B and 4C, respectively.

Another embodiment of a circuit 34 for generating a quadrature clock signal is shown in FIG. 5. The circuit 34 is essentially the same as the circuit 30 shown in FIG. 3 except that it adds a third and fourth series of feedback delay circuits 36 a-n and 38 a-n, respectively. The delay circuits 36 a-n, 38 a-n function in the same manner as the delay circuits 32 a-n except that they have a delay of T/4 and 3T/4, respectively. The delay circuit 36 a outputs a clock signal having a rising edge at substantially the 45 degree or 225 degree phase of the CLK signal, and the delay circuit 38 a outputs a clock signal having a rising edge at substantially 135 degree or 315 degree phase of the CLK signal. The delay circuit 16 a continues to output a clock signal having a rising edge at substantially the 90 degree or 270 degree phase of the CLK signal, and the delay circuit 32 a continues to output a clock signal having a rising edge at substantially the 0 degree or 180 degree phase of the CLK signal. By appropriately selecting the delay of the delay circuits, a clock signal having any phase of the CLK signal can be generated. By selecting the number of sets of feedback delay circuits that are used, clock signals having any number of phases of the CLK signal can be generated.

One embodiment of a delay circuit 40 that can be used as the delay circuits 12, 16, 32, 36, 38 is shown in FIG. 6. The delay circuit 40 includes a forward delay circuit 42 corresponding to the delay circuits 12, which provide a delay of T, a first mirrored or backward delay circuit 44 corresponding to the delay circuits 32, which provides a delay of T, and a second mirrored or backward delay circuit 46 corresponding to the delay circuits 16, which provides a delay of T/2. The forward delay circuit 42 includes a NAND gate 50 having a first input coupled to Vcc to cause it to function as an inverter. The NAND gate 50 has another input that is either coupled to receive the CLK or CLK* signal when functioning as the first delay circuit 12 a or otherwise coupled to the output of an upstream delay circuit 42.

The output of the NAND gate 50 is coupled to an inverter 52 and to a capacitor 54, which functions to delay signal transitions at the output of the NAND gate 50. The output of the inverter 52 is coupled through another inverter 56 to an input of a NAND gate 58, which receives either the CLK* or CLK signal, depending upon which is the compliment of the signal coupled to the input of the NAND gate 50 for the first delay circuit 40 in the series. Thus, if CLK is coupled to the input of the NAND gate 50 of the first delay circuit 40, CLK* is coupled to the input of the NAND gate 58. If CLK* is coupled to the input of the NAND gate 50 of the first delay circuit 40, CLK is coupled to the input of the NAND gate 58. The output of the NAND gate 58 serves at the output of the delay circuit 42, and it is coupled to an active low set* terminal of a set-reset latch 60, an active low reset* terminal of the latch 60 through an inverter 62, and to a capacitor 64, which provides an additional delay or models interconnecting metal lines for simulation purposes. The delay circuit 40 thus provides a delay of T corresponding to the propagation delay through two NAND gates 50, 56 and two inverters 52, 54.

In operation, assuming that the NAND gate 50 receives the CLK* signal and the NAND gate 58 receives the CLK signal, the output of the delay circuit 42 will be logic “1” whenever the CLK signal is low. This logic “1” signal will set the latch 60 so that it also outputs a logic “1.” When the CLK signal transitions high, the CLK* signal coupled to the NAND gate 50 transitions low, and this low propagates through the NAND gate 50, the inverters 52, 56 and the NAND gate 58 with a delay of T. Thus, after a delay of T, the output of the delay circuit 42 transitions low, which also resets the latch 60 to output a low.

The structure and operation of the backward delay circuits 44, 46 are very similar to each other. The backward delay circuits 44, 46 each include a NAND gate 70 having one input coupled to the output of the latch 60 and another input coupled that is either coupled to Vcc when functioning as the last delay circuit 12 n or otherwise coupled to the output of an upstream delay circuit 44, 46 respectively. The output of the NAND gate 70 is coupled to an inverter 72 and to a capacitor 76. For the delay circuit 46 having a delay of T/2, the output of the inverter 72 serves as the output of the delay circuit 46. The delay of T/2 provided by the delay circuit 46 thus corresponds to the propagation delay through one NAND gate 70 and one inverter 72 in contrast to the delay of T provided by the propagation delays through two NAND gates 50, 56 and two inverters 52, 54.

The delay circuit 44 has an additional delay stage 80 that includes an inverter 82 coupled to the output of the inverter 72 and a NAND gate 84. The NAND gate 84 has one input coupled to VCC so that it functions as an inverter, and another input coupled to the output of the inverter 82. The output of the NAND gate 84 serves as the output of the delay circuit 44, and it is coupled to a latch 86, which serves no function other than to load the NAND gate 84 with the same impedance that the latch 60 loads the NAND gate 58 so that the delay of the delay circuit 44 will be substantially the same as the delay of the delay circuit 42.

In operation, the delay circuits 42, 44, 46 will all output a logic “1” signal when the CLK signal is low, since the logic “1” signal at the output of the latch 60 enables the NAND gates 70. When the CLK signal transitions high, the logic “0” CLK* signal propagates to the output of the delay circuit 42, thereby resetting the output of the latch 60 low. As a result, the NAND gates 70 are disabled, thereby causing the delay circuits 44, 46 to each output a logic “0.” When the CLK signal again transitions low, the latch 60 is set to output a logic “1” thereby enabling the NAND gates 70. The signals output by upstream delay circuits 44, 46 (or VCC in the case of the most upstream delay circuit 40) then propagate through the delay circuits 44, 46, respectively, until the CLK signal transitions high, as explained above with reference to FIGS. 1-5.

It can be observed from FIGS. 4A-C that the CLKQUAD signal shown in FIG. 4B is generated during only the portion of the CLK signal shown in FIG. 4A where the CLK signal is low. Similarly, the CLKIN-PHASE signal shown in FIG. 4C is generated during only the portion of the CLK signal shown in FIG. 4A where the CLK signal is high. However, it is desirable for the CLKQUAD signal and the CLKIN-PHASE signal to also be generated during the other portions of the CLK. This can be accomplished using two of the circuits 30 shown in FIG. 3, which are configured as shown in FIG. 7. A first circuit 30 a is coupled to receive the CLK signal in the same manner as the circuit 30 shown in FIG. 3. With reference to FIGS. 8A-C, the circuit 30 a thus generates a first quadrature clock signal CLKQUAD-1 (FIG. 8B) during the logic “0” portion of the CLK signal (FIG. 8A) with a rising edge at approximately 270 degrees relative to the CLK signal. The circuit 30 a also generates a first in phase clock signal CLKIN-PHASE-1 (FIG. 8C) during the logic “1” portion of the CLK signal with a rising edge at approximately 0 degrees relative to the CLK signal. A second circuit 30 b receives the CLK* signal and thus generates a second quadrature clock signal CLKQUAD-2 (FIG. 8D) during the logic “1” portion of the CLK signal with a rising edge at approximately 90 degrees relative to the CLK signal. The second also generates a second in phase clock signal CLKIN-PHASE-2 (FIG. 8E) during the logic “0” portion of the CLK signal with a rising edge at approximately 180 degrees relative to the CLK signal. The circuits 30 a,b thus generate quadrature signals having rising edges at 90 and 270 degrees and in-phase signals having rising edges at 0 and 180 degrees. These signals can be used in a variety of manners. For example, as explained in greater detail below, the 90 and 270 quadrature signals they can be used as write strobe signals to latch write data into a memory device, and the 0 and 180 degree signals can be used a read strobe signals that are coupled from a memory device along with read data. Other uses for these signals will be apparent to one skilled in the art.

One embodiment of a frequency doubler circuit 100 that uses the signals generated by the circuits 30 a,b configured as shown in FIG. 7 is shown in FIG. 9. The frequency doubler circuit 100 includes a pair of set/reset flip-flops 102, 104 that are coupled to receive the clock signals from the circuits 30 a,b configured as shown in FIG. 7. The first flip-flop 102 is set by the CLKIN-PHASE-2 signal at 180 degrees relative to the CLK signal, as shown in FIG. 10B. The first flip-flop 102 is reset by the CLKQUAD-1 signal at 270 degrees relative to the CLK signal, as shown in FIG. 10C. The output of the flip-flop 102 is therefore a signal that transitions high at 180 degrees and transitions low at 270 degrees, as shown in FIG. 10D. The second flip-flop 104 is set by the CLKIN-PHASE-1 signal at 0 degrees relative to the CLK signal, as shown in FIG. 10E. The second flip-flop 104 is reset by the CLKQUAD-2 signal at 90 degrees relative to the CLK signal, as shown in FIG. 10F. The output of the flip-flop 104 is therefore a signal that transitions high at 0 degrees and transitions low at 90 degrees, as shown in FIG. 10G. The outputs of the flip-flops 102, 104 are combined by a NAND gate 108 to generate the CLK2 signal shown in FIG. 10H. It will be apparent from comparing the CLK2 signal to the CLK signal shown in FIG. 10A that the CLK2 signal has twice the frequency of the CLK signal.

As mentioned above, the quadrature clock generating circuits of the present invention can be used to generate a read data strobe signal and a write data strobe signal in a memory device. With reference to FIG. 11, a synchronous dynamic random access memory (“SDRAM”) 200 includes a command decoder that controls the operation of the SDRAM 200 responsive to high-level command signals received on a control bus 206 and coupled thorough input receivers 208. These high level command signals, which are typically generated by a memory controller (not shown in FIG. 11), are a clock enable signal CKE*, a clock signal CLK, a chip select signal CS*, a write enable signal WE*, a row address strobe signal RAS*, a column address strobe signal CAS*, and a data mask signal DQM, in which the “*” designates the signal as active low. The command decoder 204 generates a sequence of command signals responsive to the high level command signals to carry out the function (e.g., a read or a write) designated by each of the high level command signals. These command signals, and the manner in which they accomplish their respective functions, are conventional. Therefore, in the interest of brevity, a further explanation of these command signals will be omitted.

The SDRAM 200 includes an address register 212 that receives row addresses and column addresses through an address bus 214. The address bus 214 is generally coupled through input receivers 210 and then applied to a memory controller (not shown in FIG. 11). A row address is generally first received by the address register 212 and applied to a row address multiplexer 218. The row address multiplexer 218 couples the row address to a number of components associated with either of two memory banks 220, 222 depending upon the state of a bank address bit forming part of the row address. Associated with each of the memory banks 220, 222 is a respective row address latch 226, which stores the row address, and a row decoder 228, which decodes the row address and applies corresponding signals to one of the arrays 220 or 222. The row address multiplexer 218 also couples row addresses to the row address latches 226 for the purpose of refreshing the memory cells in the arrays 220, 222. The row addresses are generated for refresh purposes by a refresh counter 230, which is controlled by a refresh controller 232. The refresh controller 232 is, in turn, controlled by the command decoder 204.

After the row address has been applied to the address register 212 and stored in one of the row address latches 226, a column address is applied to the address register 212. The address register 212 couples the column address to a column address latch 240. Depending on the operating mode of the SDRAM 200, the column address is either coupled through a burst counter 242 to a column address buffer 244, or to the burst counter 242 which applies a sequence of column addresses to the column address buffer 244 starting at the column address output by the address register 212. In either case, the column address buffer 244 applies a column address to a column decoder 248.

Data to be read from one of the arrays 220, 222 is coupled to the column circuitry 254, 255 for one of the arrays 220, 222, respectively. The data is then coupled through a data output register 256 and data output drivers 257 to a data bus 258. The data output drivers 257 apply the read data to the data bus 258 responsive to a read data strobe signal generated by a clock generating circuit 259 in accordance with the present invention. The clock generating circuit 259 receives a periodic CLK signal and generates CLKQUAD and CLKIN-PHASE signals, as explained above. The CLKIN-PHASE signal is used as a read data strobe signal so that the read data are coupled to the data bus 258 in substantially in phase with the CLK signal.

Data to be written to one of the arrays 220, 222 are coupled from the data bus 258 through data input receivers 260 to a data input register 261. The data input receivers 260 couple the write data from the data bus 258 responsive to the CLKQUAD signal, which is used as a write data strobe signal. As a result, the write data are coupled into the SDRAM 200 from the data bus 258 at the center of a “data eye” corresponding to the phase of the CLK signal. The write data are coupled to the column circuitry 254, 255 where they are transferred to one of the arrays 220, 222, respectively. A mask register 264 responds to a data mask DM signal to selectively alter the flow of data into and out of the column circuitry 254, 255, such as by selectively masking data to be read from the arrays 220, 222.

Although the present invention has been described with reference to the disclosed embodiments, persons skilled in the art will recognize that changes may be made in form and detail without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (61)

1. A method, comprising:
propagating a first signal through a plurality of serially-coupled first delay elements responsive to a first transition of an input clock signal, each of the first delay elements providing a first delay;
determining a first number of first delay elements of the plurality of first delay elements that the first signal has propagated through between the first transition of the input clock signal and a second transition of the input clock signal;
propagating a second signal through the first number of a plurality of serially-coupled second delay elements, each of the second delay elements providing a second delay that is different from the first delay;
propagating a third signal through the first number of a plurality of serially-coupled third delay elements, each of the third delay elements providing a third delay that is different from the first delay and the second delay;
propagating a fourth signal through the first number of a plurality of serially-coupled fourth delay elements, each of the fourth delay elements providing a fourth delay that is different from the first delay, the second delay and the third delay; and
propagating a fifth signal through the first number of a plurality of serially-coupled fifth delay elements, each of the fifth delay elements providing a fifth delay that is different from the first delay, the second delay, the third delay and the fourth delay.
2. The method of claim 1, further comprising generating an output clock signal, the output clock signal having a predetermined phase relative to the input clock signal.
3. The method of claim 2 wherein the first delay comprises a fraction of a cycle of the input clock signal.
4. The method of claim 3 wherein the second delay comprises substantially 50% of the first delay.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein the first signal comprises a signal complement of the input clock signal.
6. The method of claim 1, further comprising generating an output clock signal, the output clock signal having a predetermined phase relative to the input clock signal.
7. The method of claim 6 wherein the second delay comprises substantially 50% of the first delay, and wherein the third delay substantially 25% of the first delay.
8. The method of claim 6 wherein the second delay comprises substantially 50% of the first delay, and wherein the third delay substantially equals the first delay.
9. The method of claim 1, further comprising generating an output clock signal having a predetermined phase relative to the input clock signal by appropriately selecting the second delay, the third delay, the fourth delay, and the fifth delay in relation to the first delay.
10. The method of claim 9 wherein the second delay comprises substantially 50% of the first delay, wherein the third delay substantially equals the first delay, wherein the fourth delay comprises substantially 25% of the first delay, and wherein the fifth delay comprises substantially 75% of the first delay.
11. The method of claim 1, further comprising generating an output clock signal having a predetermined phase relative to the input clock signal by appropriately selecting a number of serially-coupled first and second delay elements that are used.
12. The method of claim 1, further comprising generating an output clock signal having a predetermined phase relative to the input clock signal by appropriately selecting the second delay, the third delay, the fourth delay, and the fifth delay in relation to the first delay, and by appropriately selecting a number of serially-coupled first, second, third, fourth and fifth delay elements that are used.
13. The method of claim 12 wherein the second delay comprises substantially 50% of the first delay, wherein the third delay substantially equals the first delay, wherein the fourth delay comprises substantially 25% of the first delay, and wherein the fifth delay comprises substantially 75% of the first delay.
14. The method of claim 1 wherein the first signal comprises a signal complement of the input clock signal.
15. A circuit, comprising:
a plurality of serially-coupled first delay elements, the first delay elements operable to propagate a first signal through a first number of the plurality of first delay elements between a first transition of an input clock signal and a second transition of the input clock signal, each of the first delay elements providing a first delay;
a plurality of serially-coupled second delay elements, each of the second delay elements coupled to a respective one of the first delay elements, the second delay elements operable to propagate a second signal through a second number of the plurality of second delay elements, the value of the second number being determined by the first number, the time required for the second signal to propagate through the second number of the second delay elements being a predetermined percentage of the time required for the first signal to propagate through the first number of the first delay elements;
a plurality of serially-coupled third delay elements, each of the third delay elements coupled to a respective one of the first delay elements, the third delay elements operable to propagate a third signal through a third number of the plurality of third delay elements, the value of the third number being determined by the first number, the time required for the third signal to propagate through the third number of the third delay elements being a predetermined percentage of the time required for the first signal to propagate through the first number of the first delay elements;
a plurality of serially-coupled fourth delay elements, each of the fourth delay elements coupled to a respective one of the first delay elements, the fourth delay elements operable to propagate a fourth signal through a fourth number of the plurality of fourth delay elements, the value of the fourth number being determined by the first number, the time required for the fourth signal to propagate through the fourth number of the fourth delay elements being a predetermined percentage of the time required for the first signal to propagate through the first number of the first delay elements; and
a plurality of serially-coupled fifth delay elements, each of the fifth delay elements coupled to a respective one of the first delay elements, the fifth delay elements operable to propagate a fifth signal through a fifth number of the plurality of fifth delay elements, the value of the fifth number being determined by the first number, the time required for the fifth signal to propagate through the fifth number of the fifth delay elements being a predetermined percentage of the time required for the first signal to propagate through the first number of the first delay elements.
16. The circuit of claim 15 wherein each of the second delay elements providing a second delay different from the first delay.
17. The circuit of claim 15 wherein the second number equal to the first number.
18. The circuit of claim 15 wherein the second number different from the first number.
19. The circuit of claim 15 wherein the plurality of serially-coupled second delay elements further operable to generate an output clock signal having a predetermined phase relative to the input clock signal.
20. The circuit of claim 16 wherein the first delay comprises a fraction of a cycle of the input clock signal.
21. The circuit of claim 20 wherein the second delay comprises substantially 50% of the first delay.
22. The circuit of claim 15 wherein the first signal comprises a signal complement of the input clock signal.
23. The circuit of claim 15 wherein the plurality of serially-coupled second delay elements further operable to generate a first output clock signal having a predetermined phase relative to the input clock signal, and wherein the plurality of serially-coupled third delay elements further operable to generate a second output clock signal having a predetermined phase relative to the input clock signal.
24. The circuit of claim 23 wherein each of the second delay elements providing a second delay different from the first delay, and wherein each of the third delay elements providing a third delay different from the first delay and the second delay.
25. The circuit of claim 23 wherein the second number equal to the first number, and wherein the third number different from the first number.
26. The circuit of claim 23 wherein the second number different from the first number, and wherein the third number equal to the first number.
27. The circuit of claim 23 wherein the second number equal to the first number, and wherein the third number equal to the first number.
28. The circuit of claim 23 wherein the second number different from the first number, and wherein the third number different from the first number.
29. The circuit of claim 24 wherein the second delay comprises substantially 50% of the first delay, and wherein the third delay substantially equals the first delay.
30. The circuit of claim 15 wherein the plurality of serially-coupled second delay elements further operable to output a second output clock signal having a predetermined phase relative to the input clock signal, wherein the plurality of serially-coupled third delay elements further operable to output a third output clock signal having a predetermined phase relative to the input clock signal, wherein the plurality of serially-coupled fourth delay elements further operable to output a fourth output clock signal having a predetermined phase relative to the input clock signal, and wherein the plurality of serially-coupled fifth delay elements further operable to output a fifth output clock signal having a predetermined phase relative to the input clock signal.
31. The circuit of claim 30 wherein the second delay comprises substantially 50% of the first delay, wherein the third delay substantially equals the first delay, wherein the fourth delay comprises substantially 25% of the first delay, and wherein the fifth delay comprises substantially 75% of the first delay.
32. The circuit of claim 15 wherein the first signal comprises a signal complement of the input clock signal.
33. A memory device, comprising:
a memory cell array operable to store data; and
a signal generator operable to generate a write data strobe signal, the signal generator comprising:
a plurality of serially-coupled first delay elements, the first delay elements operable to propagate a first signal through a first number of first delay elements of the plurality of first delay elements between a first transition of an input clock signal and a second transition of the input clock signal, each of the first delay elements providing a first delay;
a plurality of serially-coupled second delay elements, each of the second delay elements coupled to a respective one of the first delay elements, the second delay elements operable to propagate a second signal through a second number of the plurality of second delay elements, , the value of the second number being determined by the first number, the time required for the second signal to propagate through the second number of the second delay elements being a predetermined percentage of the time required for the first signal to propagate through the first number of the first delay elements;
a plurality of serially-coupled third delay elements, each of the third delay elements coupled to a respective one of the first delay elements, the third delay elements operable to propagate a third signal through a third number of the plurality of third delay elements, the value of the third number being determined by the first number, the time required for the third signal to propagate through the third number of the third delay elements being a predetermined percentage of the time required for the first signal to propagate through the first number of the first delay elements;
a plurality of serially-coupled fourth delay elements, each of the fourth delay elements coupled to a respective one of the first delay elements, the fourth delay elements operable to propagate a fourth signal through a fourth number of the plurality of fourth delay elements, the value of the fourth number being determined by the first number, the time required for the fourth signal to propagate through the fourth number of the fourth delay elements being a predetermined percentage of the time required for the first signal to propagate through the first number of the first delay elements; and
a plurality of serially-coupled fifth delay elements, each of the fifth delay elements coupled to a respective one of the first delay elements, the fifth delay elements operable to propagate a fifth signal through a fifth number of the plurality of fifth delay elements, the value of the fifth number being determined by the first number, the time required for the fifth signal to propagate through the fifth number of the fifth delay elements being a predetermined percentage of the time required for the first signal to propagate through the first number of the first delay elements.
34. The memory device of claim 33, further comprising:
a row address circuit coupled to the memory cell array, the row address circuit operable to receive and decode row address signals applied to external address terminals of the memory device;
a column address circuit coupled to the memory cell array, the column address circuit operable to receive and decode column address signals applied to the external address terminals;
a read data path circuit coupled to the memory cell array, the read data path circuit operable to couple read data signals from the memory cell array to external data terminals of the memory device, the read data path circuit further operable to apply the read data signals to the external data terminals responsive to a read data strobe signal;
a write data path circuit coupled to the memory cell array, the write data path circuit operable to couple write data signals from the external data terminals to the memory cell array, the write data path circuit further operable to apply the write data signals to the memory cell array responsive to the write data strobe signal; and
a command decoder coupled to the row address circuit and the column address circuit, the command decoder operable to decode a plurality of command signals applied to respective external command terminals of the memory device, the command decoder further operable to generate control signals corresponding to the decoded command signals.
35. The memory device of claim 33 wherein the plurality of serially-coupled second delay elements further operable to output an output clock signal having a predetermined phase relative to the input clock signal.
36. The memory device of claim 33 wherein the second number equal to the first number.
37. The memory device of claim 33 wherein the second number different from the first number.
38. The memory device of claim 33 wherein the plurality of serially-coupled second delay elements further operable to generate an output clock signal having a predetermined phase relative to the input clock signal.
39. The memory device of claim 35 wherein the first delay comprises a fraction of a cycle of the input clock signal.
40. The memory device of claim 39 wherein the second delay comprises substantially 50% of the first delay.
41. The memory device of claim 33 wherein the first signal comprises a signal complement of the input clock signal.
42. The memory device of claim 33 wherein the plurality of serially-coupled second delay elements further operable to generate a first output clock signal having a predetermined phase relative to the input clock signal, and wherein the plurality of serially-coupled third delay elements further operable to generate a second output clock signal having a predetermined phase relative to the input clock signal.
43. The memory device of claim 42 wherein each of the second delay elements providing a second delay different from the first delay, and wherein each of the third delay elements providing a third delay different from the first delay and the second delay.
44. The memory device of claim 42 wherein the second number equal to the first number, and wherein the third number different from the first number.
45. The memory device of claim 42 wherein the second number different from the first number, and wherein the third number equal to the first number.
46. The memory device of claim 42 wherein the second number equal to the first number, and wherein the third number equal to the first number.
47. The memory device of claim 42 wherein the second number different from the first number, and wherein the third number different from the first number.
48. The memory device of claim 43 wherein the second delay comprises substantially 50% of the first delay, and wherein the third delay substantially equals the first delay.
49. The memory device of claim 33 wherein the plurality of serially-coupled second delay elements further operable to output a second output clock signal having a predetermined phase relative to the input clock signal, wherein the plurality of serially-coupled third delay elements further operable to output a third output clock signal having a predetermined phase relative to the input clock signal, wherein the plurality of serially-coupled fourth delay elements further operable to output a fourth output clock signal having a predetermined phase relative to the input clock signal, and wherein the plurality of serially-coupled fifth delay elements further operable to output a fifth output clock signal having a predetermined phase relative to the input clock signal.
50. The memory device of claim 49 wherein the second delay comprises substantially 50% of the first delay, wherein the third delay substantially equals the first delay, wherein the fourth delay comprises substantially 25% of the first delay, and wherein the fifth delay comprises substantially 75% of the first delay.
51. The memory device of claim 33 wherein the first signal comprises a signal complement of the input clock signal.
52. A clock doubler circuit, comprising:
a first clock delay circuit operable to receive an input clock signal having an input clock frequency and to generate a first quadrature signal and a first in-phase signal;
a second clock delay circuit operable to receive a complementary input clock signal that is complement of the input clock signal and to generate a second quadrature signal and a second in-phase signal;
a first flip-flop circuit coupled to the first and second clock delay circuits, the first flip-flop circuit operable to be reset by the first quadrature signal and to be set by the second in-phase signal, and to generate a first flip-flop signal;
a second flip-flop circuit coupled to the first and second clock delay circuits, the second flip-flop circuit operable to be set by the first in-phase signal and to be reset by the second quadrature signal, and to generate a second flip-flop signal; and
a logic gate coupled to the first and second flip-flop circuits, the logic gate operable to receive the first and second flip-flop signals and to generate an output clock signal, the output clock signal at 0 degree relative to the input clock signal and having an output clock frequency that is twice the input clock frequency.
53. The clock doubler circuit of claim 52 wherein the first quadrature signal is at 270 degrees relative to the input clock signal, wherein the first in-phase signal is at 0 degree relative to the input clock signal, wherein the second quadrature signal is at 90 degrees relative to the input clock signal, and wherein the second in-phase signal is at 180 degrees relative to the input clock signal.
54. The clock doubler circuit of claim 52 wherein the first clock delay circuit comprises:
a plurality of serially-coupled first delay elements, the first delay elements operable to propagate a first signal through a first number of first delay elements of the plurality of first delay elements between a first transition of an input clock signal and a second transition of the input clock signal, each of the first delay elements providing a first delay;
a plurality of serially-coupled second delay elements, each of the second delay elements coupled to a respective one of the first delay elements, the second delay elements operable to propagate a second signal through a second number of second delay elements of the plurality of second delay elements responsive to the second transition of the input clock signal, each of the second delay elements providing a second delay different from the first delay, the second number equal to the first number; and
a plurality of serially-coupled third delay elements, each of the third delay elements coupled to a respective one of the first delay elements, the third delay elements operable to propagate a third signal through a third number of third delay elements of the plurality of third delay elements responsive to the second transition of the input clock signal, each of the third delay elements providing a third delay different from the first delay, the third number equal to the first number.
55. The clock doubler circuit of claim 54 wherein the first delay comprises a fraction of a cycle of the input clock signal.
56. The clock doubler circuit of claim 55 wherein the second delay comprises substantially 50% of the first delay, and wherein the third delay substantially equals the first delay.
57. The clock doubler circuit of claim 56 wherein the second clock delay circuit comprises:
a plurality of serially-coupled fourth delay elements, the fourth delay elements operable to propagate a fourth signal through a fourth number of fourth delay elements of the plurality of fourth delay elements between the first transition of the input clock signal and the second transition of the input clock signal, each of the fourth delay elements providing a fourth delay;
a plurality of serially-coupled fifth delay elements, each of the fifth delay elements coupled to a respective one of the fourth delay elements, the fifth delay elements operable to propagate a fifth signal through a fifth number of fifth delay elements of the plurality of fifth delay elements responsive to the second transition of the input clock signal, each of the fifth delay elements providing a fifth delay different from the fourth delay, the fifth number equal to the fourth number; and
a plurality of serially-coupled sixth delay elements, each of the sixth delay elements coupled to a respective one of the fourth delay elements, the sixth delay elements operable to propagate a sixth signal through a sixth number of sixth delay elements of the plurality of sixth delay elements responsive to the second transition of the input clock signal, each of the sixth delay elements providing a sixth delay different from the fourth delay, the sixth number equal to the fourth number.
58. The clock doubler circuit of claim 57 wherein the fourth delay substantially equals the first delay.
59. The clock doubler circuit of claim 58 wherein the fifth delay comprises substantially 50% of the fourth delay, wherein the sixth delay substantially equals the fourth delay.
60. The clock doubler circuit of claim 57 wherein the first signal comprises a signal complement of the input clock signal, and wherein the fourth signal comprises a signal complement of the first signal.
61. The clock doubler circuit of claim 59 wherein the first quadrature signal is at 270 degrees relative to the input clock signal, wherein the first in-phase signal is at 0 degree relative to the input clock signal, wherein the second quadrature signal is at 90 degrees relative to the input clock signal, and wherein the second in-phase signal is at 180 degrees relative to the input clock signal.
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US7084686B2 (en) 2006-08-01 grant
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US20080018373A1 (en) 2008-01-24 application
US20050264325A1 (en) 2005-12-01 application

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