US680652A - Circuit-breaker. - Google Patents

Circuit-breaker. Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US680652A
US680652A US65775297A US1897657752A US680652A US 680652 A US680652 A US 680652A US 65775297 A US65775297 A US 65775297A US 1897657752 A US1897657752 A US 1897657752A US 680652 A US680652 A US 680652A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
circuit
lever
armature
break
breaker
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US65775297A
Inventor
Leonard L Elden
Original Assignee
Leonard L Elden
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Leonard L Elden filed Critical Leonard L Elden
Priority to US65775297A priority Critical patent/US680652A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US680652A publication Critical patent/US680652A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02HEMERGENCY PROTECTIVE CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS
    • H02H3/00Emergency protective circuit arrangements for automatic disconnection directly responsive to an undesired change from normal electric working condition with or without subsequent reconnection ; integrated protection
    • H02H3/26Emergency protective circuit arrangements for automatic disconnection directly responsive to an undesired change from normal electric working condition with or without subsequent reconnection ; integrated protection responsive to difference between voltages or between currents; responsive to phase angle between voltages or between currents
    • H02H3/28Emergency protective circuit arrangements for automatic disconnection directly responsive to an undesired change from normal electric working condition with or without subsequent reconnection ; integrated protection responsive to difference between voltages or between currents; responsive to phase angle between voltages or between currents involving comparison of the voltage or current values at two spaced portions of a single system, e.g. at opposite ends of one line, at input and output of apparatus
    • H02H3/30Emergency protective circuit arrangements for automatic disconnection directly responsive to an undesired change from normal electric working condition with or without subsequent reconnection ; integrated protection responsive to difference between voltages or between currents; responsive to phase angle between voltages or between currents involving comparison of the voltage or current values at two spaced portions of a single system, e.g. at opposite ends of one line, at input and output of apparatus using pilot wires or other signalling channel
    • H02H3/302Emergency protective circuit arrangements for automatic disconnection directly responsive to an undesired change from normal electric working condition with or without subsequent reconnection ; integrated protection responsive to difference between voltages or between currents; responsive to phase angle between voltages or between currents involving comparison of the voltage or current values at two spaced portions of a single system, e.g. at opposite ends of one line, at input and output of apparatus using pilot wires or other signalling channel involving phase comparison

Description

Patented Aug. I3, 1901.

L. L. ELDEN. CIRCUIT BREAKER.

(Application filed Nov. 8, 1897.)

3 Sheets-Sheet I.

(No Model.)

A wits'safir H 0 .u A e t ne t a P K ..F- K A E LR EB LN U 6 L 0 2 5 0 no 6 0 N (Application filed Nov. 8, 1897.)

3 Sheets-Sheet 2.

IeonavoL-Zililalw y M m w 1 a in u. I. \Q x w J a V m i g (No Model.)

Patented Aug. [3, IQOL- L L. ELDEN.

cmcun BREAKER.

(Afipliatinn filed Nov. 8, 1397.

3 SheetsSheet 3.

(No lllodeL) IemzmyeZZ.ZZZen/.

UNITED STATES,

PATENT FFICE,

LEONARD L. ELDEN, OF BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS.

CIRCUIT-BREAKER.

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 680,652, dated August 13, 1901.

Application filed November 8, 1897- Serial No. 657,752. (No model.)

ing drawings, is a specification, like letters j on the drawings representing like parts.

safety of and protection to the machinery of a plant, and from fire and loss of life, due to an excessive increase in the amperage, particularly of an alternating generator.

As is well known, an alternating generator rapidly develops an enormous output, liable to burn out the generator and cause other disaster if the generator is short-circuited or overloaded; and it is the object of my invention to provide an automatic circuit breaker or controller which operates by gravity instantly to cut out the generator under such circumstances, my invention also preventing the resetting of the controller or the remaking of the circuit until the difficulty has been remedied; also, providing an ampere adj ustment or means for setting the controller for any given amperage desired without requiring any change whatever in the position of the armature.

In the preferred form of my invention I provide means for entirely killing or stopping the generator from generating current by simultaneously cutting out both the field-exciter and the main current, this feature of my invention also providing means for simultaneously closing both of said circuits by one movement of the circuit-breaker.

A further feature of my invention resides in causing the armature to strike its own tripping or releasing blow for operating the cut-out Without any help from the solenoid, as has been heretofore required, the main advantage of this feature being that thereby fewer turns are required and less power to operate the circuit-breaker.

l-Ieretofore it has been customary to put the cut out or controller on the switchboard removed from the dynamo, so that it has sometimes occurred that the latter has been short-circuited internally Without opening the cutout, resulting in the damage or destruction of the generator; but, as will appear more fully later on, my invention includes such an arrangement that no short-circuit can occur either externally of or internally in the generator without instantly opening the cut-out and killing the machine.

My invention is particularly adapted to generators having a composite field, although My invention is an improvement in elec-: trical circuit-breakers or cut-outs for the applicable to any kind of a generator or wherever a feed-circuit or any other circuitbreaker is required, and my invention is further adapted to multiphase machines operated in multiple, this feature providing means whereby it a mistake occurred in coupling the machines together the cut-out would entirely throw out the dynamo affected, not merely cutting out the main current thereof, but absolutely killing or throwing out the dynamo from the circuit.

A further feature of my invention herein disclosed relates to means whereby a two or three phase or monocyclic alternator may be entirely out out when any one of its linewires or circuits is short-circuited or overloaded, irrespective of Whichever one it may be, so that no disturbance is possible to the dynamo from outside sources; also, in situations where there are a plurality of circuits interdependent or so related that a short-circuit or rise of current in any one produces effects in connection with others thereof I employ a corresponding number of automatic circuit-breakers and tripping apparatus therefor responding to the opening of any one of the automatic circuit-breakers and operating to positively trip the other or others.

The details of construction of my invention will be more fully pointed out in the following description, and the operation thereof will be particularly set forth, the novel features of my invention being defined in the appended claims.

In the drawings illustrative of a preferred embodiment of my invention, Figure l is a front elevation of a circuitbreaker constructed to embody my invention in its simplest form. Fig. 2 is a central vertical section thereof on the line 2 2, Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary view, in perspective, of a detail of construction. Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 1, showing further details of construction and wiring. Fig. 5 is a View,

partly in section and partly diagrammatic, illustrating the use of my invention in connection with a composite-wound dynamo. Fig. 6 is a fragmentary view in perspective illustrating the connection for operating several of my circuit-breakers simultaneously. Fig. 7 is a view similar to Fig. 1, showing my invention constructed for operating with and for a constant-current circuit. Fig. 8 illustrates diagram matically the application thereof to a multicircuit dynamo. Fig. 9 is a similar diagrammatic view showing the connections of the constant-current break with an alternator.

Referring to Figs. 1 and 2, which show the more simple embodiment of my invention, A designates a suitable base of soapstone or other usual material adapted to be screwed or bolted in vertical position where desired, and on this base are secured brackets 12 b, which support a solenoid a, coiled about a shell 0 or other convenient support and within which an armature 0 may reciprocate. This armature is'herein shown as split at c or otherwise laminated in order to prevent eddy-currents, and is provided at its upper end with alug or hammer c, projecting rearwardly to engage the lip end d of a trip 61, pivotally mounted at d in lugs (9 projecting from the bracket b. This trip is pivotally connected at (Z opposite the lip end cl to a link d pivoted at d to the forward end of a detent d mounted at d between the upper ends of arms 12 of the bracket 7). The detent d is provided witha hooked end (i adapted to retain a similar hooked end 6 of a contact-lever E in looking engagement therewith, as shown in Fig. 2. The lever E is provided with a usual insulating-handle e, of ebonite or other suitable material, mounted between or on the bifurcated copper or brass contactarms 8 6 which have at their outer ends the usual make-and-break devices, comprising contact-blades 6 and carbons e yieldingly aifcl'a'dju-stably supported on brackets e and cooperating with carbons a, yieldingly supported on spring-brackets d and adjacent spring-clips a secured at a to the base A.

The lever E is pivotally mounted at e on stands I), projecting upwardly from the bracket 11 at each side of the armature 0 said lever E having legs a depending adjacent the bracket 11 at its rear upper side, said legs having feet or enlargements e to engage the upper ends of opposite spring-plungers g, carried on a cross-head g, reciprocable on a rod g secured at g in the bracket Z) and at g" in the bracket 1). Between the cross-head and the bracket Z) the rod 9 is surrounded by a stiff spring g so that when the lever E is placed in looking engagement with the detent d, as shown in Fig. 2, the legs 6 are caused to depress the plungers g and compress the spring 9 the result being that when subsequently the detent is automatically released, as will be presently explained, the spring 9 forcibly and instantly throws the lever E backward, thereby breaking the cir cuit. As the lever E is thrown backward it is caught by opposite buffer-springs 7t 7t, flared at 7s and mounted on the bracket b.

The armature c is normally held suspended by a catch or bail a, supported at the free extremities of a spring 0, as clearly shown in Fig. 3, on a tongue h of a dog 7t, pivoted at h in the upper ends of the stands I), said dog having a weight 7L3 mounted on an arm 7r thereof, said arm preferably being graduated, as indicated at h to indicate the amperes to which the weight is set, as will be presently explained, the weight being provided with means of adjustment, a set-screw h being herein shown for the purpose. The armature has opposite studs 0 adapted to travel in ways provided between the vertical rear edges of the stands I), and opposite parallel front edges of guides b projecting from the bracket b, so that when the current in the solenoid is unduly increased from any cause the moment its amperage exceeds that to which the weight 7L3 is set it will draw the armature 0 down out of engagement with the tongue h of the dog, and the moment the armature escapes from the dog it will drop by its own weight, causing its hammer c to strike the trip d and instantly release the detent d from engagement with the lever E, permitting the spring g instantaneously to throw back the lever and break the circuit. The leverE is provided adjacent the bracket 1) with fingers e in the path of the studs 0 adapted to engage the latter and lift the armature, restoring it into engagement with the dog h, the spring 0 yielding for this purpose and permitting the bail c to ride over the curved under side of the tongue h and snap into engagement therewith above the same. It will be understood that this movement takes place with extreme rapidity and automatically, inasmuch as the instant the hammer c strikes the lip d, thereby releasing the detent d, the lever E is at once thrown back, thereby raising its fingers c and at once restoring the armature into its raised position, as shown in Fig. 2. Under ordinary circumstances the lever E will be left in its backwardly-thrown position until the short-circuiting or other cause of the piling up of current in the circuit has been remedied. If, however, any one should attempt to make the circuit again before this has been done by restoring the lever to its original position, my invention provides that such attempt will be ineifectual, for the reason that as long as the amperage of the current remains above the point to which the weight 71. is set the solenoid will hold down the armature out of engagement with the dog h whenever the lever E is raised so as to permit its fingers c to release said armature, and this lowering of the armature will, as is evident, maintain the detent d thrown back, so that it cannot engage the lever E.

"When my invention is used simply to cut out a line-wire or feed-circuit, the .connections are as shown in Fig. 1, where m designates the feed or line wire going toa bindingpost an and thence at m to the solenoid, passing at m through the baseA and thence to a post m extending from the right-hand contact, as herein shown, the out wire being connected to the left-hand contact at m. A further feature of my invention, however, resides in adapting it for use in connection with the eXciter-field of a dynamo, this being illustrated in Figs. 4 and 5. Referring to the latter, M designates any kind of an alternator,herein shown as a composite-wound generator and of which on is the compositefield circuit and m the excited field-circuit. In order that the eXciter-circuit may be controlled by the circuit-breaker, I secure to the lever E thereof in any convenient position, herein shown in Fig. 4 as beneath the handle e, a bar a insulated from the handle and having at its ends cont-acts e to cooperate with usual contact-springs 6 secured at e to the base A, the exciting-wire m being connected to these contact-springs 6 as shown in Fig. 4. This construction, as will be evident, insures that whenever the circuit m of the generator is broken the e citer-circuit 121" will be simultaneously broken also, (and this applies for any main circuit and eXciter-circuit whether in a composite-field generator or not,) so that there is no possibility whatever of any piling up of current in the dynamo when any short-circuiting or overloading has occurred at any point. This provision is especially intended for alternators where it is desired entirely and instantly to kill or stop the dynamo generatmg.

Referring further to Figs. 4 and 5, it will be observed that I have provided a resistance-coil 1' across the contacts a ct, connecting under the base A from one post to the other, and have insulated the buffer-springs 7c and at k and connected it by a shortcircuiting wire m through a binder-post m to one side of the commutatorat m said circuit being completed by a tap m from the breakerat 70 to the other side of the commutator, this provision being for the composite type of dynamo. In such dynamos when the breaker is opened destructive arcing occurs at the commutator m on account of the back kick or field or armature discharge, and this resistance r prevents the actual opening of the composite field-circuit upon the release of the lever E, but allows the current to pass through itself (in much-reduced quantity) until the lever E has made contact with the butter-springs 7t 7t, whereupon the composite field is instantly short-circuited through the connections m is, E, m and m at m It will thus be seen that the dynamo is entirely cut out or killed without any sparking at the commutator or strain on the insulation of either armature or field. I

In Fig. 6 I have illustrated a further-tea ture of my invention, where p designates a rod on which are rigidly secured the respective trips cl of a plurality of circuit-breakers mounted side by side, the rod 19 being pivot-v ally supported in brackets 6 The rod is composed of sections, one for each breaker, having insulated joints 1), the construction and wiring of the respective breakers being otherwise the same as already described. This provision is particularly intended for multiphase and monocyclic generators, in which case a circuit-breaker is provided for each line-wire of the generator, so that in a three-phase generator, for example, there will be three circuit-breakers, and these breakers are all coupled together in a gang by the rod 10 or any equivalent therefor. When, therefore, an accident occurs to any one circuit of the generator, not only is that line out out, but the entire generator is instantly killed, because the tripping of any one trip d acts through the rocker-rod p simultaneously to operate all the trips, and thereby release all the levers E, cutting out all the line-wires, as well as the eXciter-wire, of the generator.

Referring to Figs. 7 to 9, I have shown a feature of my invention for use with a single-circuit or a multicircuit series dynamo or with any series circuit-i. 6., where the current is kept constant and the voltage Varies with the load, as distinguished from dynamos or circuits wherein the voltage is kept constant and the current or amperage varies with the load. The latter is the casein those features of myinvention already described. In the former, however, it frequently hap pens a circuit or some part of it will break or a fixture or lamp will prove defective, thereby causing an arc to be made which is liable to cause fires or lead to other danger; but as the amperage remains the same, being held constant by the controller of the dynamo, a break depending upon the main circuit for its operation, as previously described, would notwork, or at least would not be sufficiently sensitive to work,soon enough to cut out the circuit before the damage had been accomplished. Accordingly in Fig. 8 N indicates a usual single or multicircuit dynamo, herein shown as the latter, having commutators n n n 71 from which the circuits 1 2 3 4 are connected in series, as usual. In each circuit I interpose a break R, having the line-wires connected thereto at m, Fig. 7, and passing thence at r to a contact a, preferably through a shunt or resistance coil 4", to the opposite contact a, thence to the lamps or other translating devices, and back through a post r to the dynamo N. The solenoid of the break is wound with a fine wire Win shunt across the line-circuit,being shown connected between the binding-posts on T the break being provided with a short-circuit a W, the same as already described and shown in Fig. 4 at m m Thus when accident occurs in any one of the line-wires of the circuits 1, 2, 3, or 4, as the case may be,

. g Y I the fine wire 0' will cause the break of that particular circuit to respond instantly and cut out that circuit by short-circniting it through the wires 92 11 across the break, and this occurs without in any wise affecting any of the remaining circuits.

Fig. 9 shows an application to an alter nator, M indicating an alternating generator or dyname, which may have its usual multiple circuit on and is provided withacircuit m leading to a transformertand rectifier T,

which produceaconstant current forthelampcircuit m, in which I place my break R, as shown.

The operation of my invention will be readily understood from the above description.

Referring to the more complex form of the invention shown in Fig. i, we will suppose it is fastened, as stated, directly on the dynamo. (Shown in Fig. 5.) If new ashort-circnit occur on the main line or in the generator or the circuit be overloaded, the instant the amperage increases to the point at which the weight 7L3 is set the solenoid 0 will draw down the armature c sufficiently to disengage its bail c from the tongue h, whereby it drops at once by gravity forcibly into contact with the trip d, thereby throwing back the detent 61 out of engagement with the lever E at 6. This permits the latter to be forcibly thrown out by the spring g and plungers breaking the contacts at a and e and immediately making contact with the buffers 7t 7c. The break at e at once cuts out the exciter-circuit m and the break at a a at once cuts out the composite circuit or field. Ordinarily this would kill the generator; but to make it absolutely certain the cont-act made at 7t 7t (or any other place desired) by the lever E as it was thrown down completes the circuit m across the commutator m and short-circuits the entire generator, the resistance 1* effectually preventing any disastrous sparking at the commutator, which would otherwise result from the sudden drop. When my invention is used as a feed-circuit breaker or controller, the eXciter-contacts and connections at m are omitted, as shown in Fig. 1. For a two-phase alternating-current generator two breakers would be coupled together, as indicated in Fig. 6, so that, for example, if one pair of the wires, which might be used to light a building, should get short-circuited or overloaded while the other pair were unaifected, nevertheless the generator will be eifectuallykilled, because whichever solenoid acts its armature and trip rock the shaftp and trip both cut-outs, and thereby prevent any disturbance of the generator from outside sources over the circuit not primarily affected. So, it several multiphase generators were operated in multiple, if a mistake occurred in coupling them together the circuit-breakers would act simultaneously and entirely throw out the generator affected. When the fault which occasioned the break has been remedied, the two circuits of the eXciter-field and the composite field (this being the type with which I have illustrated the use of my invention, Fig. 5) are simultaneously made or restored again by one return movement of the one handle e, the lever E being caught and held by the detent d; but if the fault has not been entirely remedied no one can by accident or design restore the lever, because the armature will constantly fall and hold back the detent, as before explained. In use with a constant-current series circuit, either direct or not, if a break or other accident occurs-for instance, in circuit 2, Fig. 8-the shunt-winding r responds at once and instantly cuts out the main circuit 2 or short-circuits it through a a, so that there is no danger of live wires, the, in the street and at the same time the other circuits 1,3, and lare unaffected. In Fig. 9thesl1untwinding r acts in substantially the same way to cutout the main line or circuit m by the opening of the circuit upon the release of the break-lever.

It will be understood that very many changes in construction and arrangement of parts and in the wiring may be resorted to without departing from the spirit and scope of my invention, the latter not being otherwise limited than as hereinafter expressed in the claims.

Having described my invention, what I claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent,

1. An automatic circuit-breaker, comprising a break-lever, means normally holding it in contact position, and automatic tripping mechanism to trip said holding means, said tripping mechanism including a trip, a gravity device to engage said trip, a dog normally sustaining said gravity device, and a solenoid to release said gravity device and permit it to fall into engagement with said trip, and means preventing the reengagement of said lever by said holding means during the continuance of the disturbance which caused it to be tripped, substantially as described.

2. An an tomatic circuit-breaker, comprising contacts, a break-lever, a detent for said lever, and tripping mechanism for said detent, including a solenoid, and an armature, means independent of the armature for varying the resistance of said armature without affecting in any way the position of the armature, substantially as described.

3. A circuit-breaker, in combination with a dynamo, contacts and connections normally making proper field and line circuits for the latter, and other contacts and short-circuit connections for the dynamo normally broken by said breaker, the break-lever of said circuit-breaker serving to break said first-mentioned connections and thereby make said other connections, the latter when made short-circuiting the dynamo-fields, substantially as described.

4. An automatic circuit-breaker, comprising a break-lever, a solenoid, an armature actuated by said solenoid, and a dog pivoted above said armature, the latter having a catch to engage said dog, and said dog being provided with a Weight adjustable thereon to counterbalance said armature, a detent normally engaging said lever and holding it in closed position, and tripping mechanism in the path of said armature and connected with and to trip said detent, substantially as described.

5. An automatic circuit-breaker, comprising a break-lever, a solenoid, an armature actuated by said solenoid, and a dogpivoted above said armature, the latter having a spring-catch to engage said dog and said dog being provided with a weight adjustable thereon to counterbalance said armature, a detent norm ally engaging said lever and holding it in closed position, and tripping mechanism in the path of said armature and connected with and to trip said detent, whereby upon a predetermined excitation of said solenoid, said armature will be withdrawn from said dog and permitted 'to fall in contact with said tripping mechanism, substantially as described.

6. An automatic circuit-breaker, comprising a break-lever, a solenoid, an armature actuated by said solenoid, and a dog pivoted above said armature, the latter having a spring-catch to engage said dog, and said dog being provided with a weight adjustable thereon to counterbalance said armature, a detent normally engaging said lever and holding it in closed p0 sition,and tripping mechanism in the path of said armature and connected with and to trip said detent, whereby upon a predetermined excitation of said solenoid, said armature will be withdrawn from said dog and permitted to fall in contact with said tripping mechanism, said lever having means tending to restore said armature to its engaged position with said dog, substantially as described.

7. A circuit-breaker, comprising a breaklever, automatic actuating mechanism therefor, separated contacts adapted to be opened and closed by said break-lever, a resistance device between said contacts, a main circuit including said actuating mechanism and normally made by the closing of said lever with said contacts, a second circuit normally broken, and means closing said second circuit by the full opening movement of said lever,

said resistance preventing destructive sparking at said contacts by the opening movement of said lever while the lever is moving from closed position to fully-openposition, substantially as described.

8. Trippingapparatus forautomatic circuitbreakers comprising the combination with two or more automatic circuit-breakers and their circuits, of means responding to the opening of any one of the automatic circuitbreakers and operating to positively trip the other or others, substantially as described.

9. A plurality of circuit-breakers, each provided with its own independently-movable lever having their releasing devices coupled together by insulated sections whereby electrical action in one produces corresponding mechanical action in all, substantially as described.

10. The combination with a constant-current circuit, of a break in said circuit, and automatic break-operating means responding instantly to the initial rise in potential in the circuit due to a break or other accident therein, substantially as described.

11. The combination with a constant-currentcircuit, of a break in said circuit, and a shunt across and in direct, uninterrupted connection with said circuit and including the break, said break being responsive to said shunt for cutting out the said circuit, substantially as described.

12. The combination with a constant-cur= rent circuit, of a circuit-breaker in said cir cuit, short-circuit connections from the terminals of said circuit to said circuit-breaker and normally broken thereat, and automatic means to operate said circuit-breaker respon= sive to rise in potential in the circuit due to a break or other accident therein, said short circuit connections being closed by the said automatic operation of the circuit-breaker, substantially as described.

In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.

LEONARD L. ELDEN.

Witnesses:

G110. H. MAXWELL, FREDERICK L. EMERY.

US65775297A 1897-11-08 1897-11-08 Circuit-breaker. Expired - Lifetime US680652A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US65775297A US680652A (en) 1897-11-08 1897-11-08 Circuit-breaker.

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US65775297A US680652A (en) 1897-11-08 1897-11-08 Circuit-breaker.

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US680652A true US680652A (en) 1901-08-13

Family

ID=2749197

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US65775297A Expired - Lifetime US680652A (en) 1897-11-08 1897-11-08 Circuit-breaker.

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US680652A (en)

Cited By (50)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8374018B2 (en) 2010-07-09 2013-02-12 Crossbar, Inc. Resistive memory using SiGe material
US8391049B2 (en) 2010-09-29 2013-03-05 Crossbar, Inc. Resistor structure for a non-volatile memory device and method
US8394670B2 (en) 2011-05-31 2013-03-12 Crossbar, Inc. Vertical diodes for non-volatile memory device
US8404553B2 (en) 2010-08-23 2013-03-26 Crossbar, Inc. Disturb-resistant non-volatile memory device and method
US8441835B2 (en) 2010-06-11 2013-05-14 Crossbar, Inc. Interface control for improved switching in RRAM
US8450209B2 (en) 2010-11-05 2013-05-28 Crossbar, Inc. p+ Polysilicon material on aluminum for non-volatile memory device and method
US8450710B2 (en) 2011-05-27 2013-05-28 Crossbar, Inc. Low temperature p+ silicon junction material for a non-volatile memory device
US8467227B1 (en) 2010-11-04 2013-06-18 Crossbar, Inc. Hetero resistive switching material layer in RRAM device and method
US8492195B2 (en) 2010-08-23 2013-07-23 Crossbar, Inc. Method for forming stackable non-volatile resistive switching memory devices
US8519485B2 (en) 2010-06-11 2013-08-27 Crossbar, Inc. Pillar structure for memory device and method
US8558212B2 (en) 2010-09-29 2013-10-15 Crossbar, Inc. Conductive path in switching material in a resistive random access memory device and control
US8658476B1 (en) 2012-04-20 2014-02-25 Crossbar, Inc. Low temperature P+ polycrystalline silicon material for non-volatile memory device
US8659929B2 (en) 2011-06-30 2014-02-25 Crossbar, Inc. Amorphous silicon RRAM with non-linear device and operation
US8716098B1 (en) 2012-03-09 2014-05-06 Crossbar, Inc. Selective removal method and structure of silver in resistive switching device for a non-volatile memory device
US8765566B2 (en) 2012-05-10 2014-07-01 Crossbar, Inc. Line and space architecture for a non-volatile memory device
US8791010B1 (en) 2010-12-31 2014-07-29 Crossbar, Inc. Silver interconnects for stacked non-volatile memory device and method
US8809831B2 (en) 2010-07-13 2014-08-19 Crossbar, Inc. On/off ratio for non-volatile memory device and method
US8815696B1 (en) 2010-12-31 2014-08-26 Crossbar, Inc. Disturb-resistant non-volatile memory device using via-fill and etchback technique
US8884261B2 (en) 2010-08-23 2014-11-11 Crossbar, Inc. Device switching using layered device structure
US8889521B1 (en) 2012-09-14 2014-11-18 Crossbar, Inc. Method for silver deposition for a non-volatile memory device
US8930174B2 (en) 2010-12-28 2015-01-06 Crossbar, Inc. Modeling technique for resistive random access memory (RRAM) cells
US8946669B1 (en) 2012-04-05 2015-02-03 Crossbar, Inc. Resistive memory device and fabrication methods
US8946046B1 (en) 2012-05-02 2015-02-03 Crossbar, Inc. Guided path for forming a conductive filament in RRAM
US8947908B2 (en) 2010-11-04 2015-02-03 Crossbar, Inc. Hetero-switching layer in a RRAM device and method
US8946673B1 (en) 2012-08-24 2015-02-03 Crossbar, Inc. Resistive switching device structure with improved data retention for non-volatile memory device and method
US8982647B2 (en) 2012-11-14 2015-03-17 Crossbar, Inc. Resistive random access memory equalization and sensing
US9012307B2 (en) 2010-07-13 2015-04-21 Crossbar, Inc. Two terminal resistive switching device structure and method of fabricating
US9087576B1 (en) 2012-03-29 2015-07-21 Crossbar, Inc. Low temperature fabrication method for a three-dimensional memory device and structure
US9153623B1 (en) 2010-12-31 2015-10-06 Crossbar, Inc. Thin film transistor steering element for a non-volatile memory device
US9252191B2 (en) 2011-07-22 2016-02-02 Crossbar, Inc. Seed layer for a p+ silicon germanium material for a non-volatile memory device and method
US9312483B2 (en) 2012-09-24 2016-04-12 Crossbar, Inc. Electrode structure for a non-volatile memory device and method
US9385319B1 (en) 2012-05-07 2016-07-05 Crossbar, Inc. Filamentary based non-volatile resistive memory device and method
US9401475B1 (en) 2010-08-23 2016-07-26 Crossbar, Inc. Method for silver deposition for a non-volatile memory device
US9406379B2 (en) 2013-01-03 2016-08-02 Crossbar, Inc. Resistive random access memory with non-linear current-voltage relationship
US9412790B1 (en) 2012-12-04 2016-08-09 Crossbar, Inc. Scalable RRAM device architecture for a non-volatile memory device and method
US9543359B2 (en) 2011-05-31 2017-01-10 Crossbar, Inc. Switching device having a non-linear element
US9564587B1 (en) 2011-06-30 2017-02-07 Crossbar, Inc. Three-dimensional two-terminal memory with enhanced electric field and segmented interconnects
US9570678B1 (en) 2010-06-08 2017-02-14 Crossbar, Inc. Resistive RAM with preferental filament formation region and methods
US9576616B2 (en) 2012-10-10 2017-02-21 Crossbar, Inc. Non-volatile memory with overwrite capability and low write amplification
US9583701B1 (en) 2012-08-14 2017-02-28 Crossbar, Inc. Methods for fabricating resistive memory device switching material using ion implantation
USRE46335E1 (en) 2010-11-04 2017-03-07 Crossbar, Inc. Switching device having a non-linear element
US9601692B1 (en) 2010-07-13 2017-03-21 Crossbar, Inc. Hetero-switching layer in a RRAM device and method
US9601690B1 (en) 2011-06-30 2017-03-21 Crossbar, Inc. Sub-oxide interface layer for two-terminal memory
US9620206B2 (en) 2011-05-31 2017-04-11 Crossbar, Inc. Memory array architecture with two-terminal memory cells
US9627443B2 (en) 2011-06-30 2017-04-18 Crossbar, Inc. Three-dimensional oblique two-terminal memory with enhanced electric field
US9633723B2 (en) 2011-06-23 2017-04-25 Crossbar, Inc. High operating speed resistive random access memory
US9685608B2 (en) 2012-04-13 2017-06-20 Crossbar, Inc. Reduced diffusion in metal electrode for two-terminal memory
US9735358B2 (en) 2012-08-14 2017-08-15 Crossbar, Inc. Noble metal / non-noble metal electrode for RRAM applications
US9741765B1 (en) 2012-08-14 2017-08-22 Crossbar, Inc. Monolithically integrated resistive memory using integrated-circuit foundry compatible processes
US10290801B2 (en) 2014-02-07 2019-05-14 Crossbar, Inc. Scalable silicon based resistive memory device

Cited By (66)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9570678B1 (en) 2010-06-08 2017-02-14 Crossbar, Inc. Resistive RAM with preferental filament formation region and methods
US8993397B2 (en) 2010-06-11 2015-03-31 Crossbar, Inc. Pillar structure for memory device and method
US8599601B2 (en) 2010-06-11 2013-12-03 Crossbar, Inc. Interface control for improved switching in RRAM
US8441835B2 (en) 2010-06-11 2013-05-14 Crossbar, Inc. Interface control for improved switching in RRAM
US8519485B2 (en) 2010-06-11 2013-08-27 Crossbar, Inc. Pillar structure for memory device and method
US8374018B2 (en) 2010-07-09 2013-02-12 Crossbar, Inc. Resistive memory using SiGe material
US8750019B2 (en) 2010-07-09 2014-06-10 Crossbar, Inc. Resistive memory using SiGe material
US9601692B1 (en) 2010-07-13 2017-03-21 Crossbar, Inc. Hetero-switching layer in a RRAM device and method
US9012307B2 (en) 2010-07-13 2015-04-21 Crossbar, Inc. Two terminal resistive switching device structure and method of fabricating
US9755143B2 (en) 2010-07-13 2017-09-05 Crossbar, Inc. On/off ratio for nonvolatile memory device and method
US8809831B2 (en) 2010-07-13 2014-08-19 Crossbar, Inc. On/off ratio for non-volatile memory device and method
US9590013B2 (en) 2010-08-23 2017-03-07 Crossbar, Inc. Device switching using layered device structure
US9401475B1 (en) 2010-08-23 2016-07-26 Crossbar, Inc. Method for silver deposition for a non-volatile memory device
US8648327B2 (en) 2010-08-23 2014-02-11 Crossbar, Inc. Stackable non-volatile resistive switching memory devices
US9412789B1 (en) 2010-08-23 2016-08-09 Crossbar, Inc. Stackable non-volatile resistive switching memory device and method of fabricating the same
US10224370B2 (en) 2010-08-23 2019-03-05 Crossbar, Inc. Device switching using layered device structure
US8884261B2 (en) 2010-08-23 2014-11-11 Crossbar, Inc. Device switching using layered device structure
US8404553B2 (en) 2010-08-23 2013-03-26 Crossbar, Inc. Disturb-resistant non-volatile memory device and method
US8492195B2 (en) 2010-08-23 2013-07-23 Crossbar, Inc. Method for forming stackable non-volatile resistive switching memory devices
US9129887B2 (en) 2010-09-29 2015-09-08 Crossbar, Inc. Resistor structure for a non-volatile memory device and method
US8391049B2 (en) 2010-09-29 2013-03-05 Crossbar, Inc. Resistor structure for a non-volatile memory device and method
US8558212B2 (en) 2010-09-29 2013-10-15 Crossbar, Inc. Conductive path in switching material in a resistive random access memory device and control
US8912523B2 (en) 2010-09-29 2014-12-16 Crossbar, Inc. Conductive path in switching material in a resistive random access memory device and control
US8467227B1 (en) 2010-11-04 2013-06-18 Crossbar, Inc. Hetero resistive switching material layer in RRAM device and method
USRE46335E1 (en) 2010-11-04 2017-03-07 Crossbar, Inc. Switching device having a non-linear element
US8947908B2 (en) 2010-11-04 2015-02-03 Crossbar, Inc. Hetero-switching layer in a RRAM device and method
US8659933B2 (en) 2010-11-04 2014-02-25 Crossbar, Inc. Hereto resistive switching material layer in RRAM device and method
US8450209B2 (en) 2010-11-05 2013-05-28 Crossbar, Inc. p+ Polysilicon material on aluminum for non-volatile memory device and method
US8930174B2 (en) 2010-12-28 2015-01-06 Crossbar, Inc. Modeling technique for resistive random access memory (RRAM) cells
US9153623B1 (en) 2010-12-31 2015-10-06 Crossbar, Inc. Thin film transistor steering element for a non-volatile memory device
US8791010B1 (en) 2010-12-31 2014-07-29 Crossbar, Inc. Silver interconnects for stacked non-volatile memory device and method
US8815696B1 (en) 2010-12-31 2014-08-26 Crossbar, Inc. Disturb-resistant non-volatile memory device using via-fill and etchback technique
US8450710B2 (en) 2011-05-27 2013-05-28 Crossbar, Inc. Low temperature p+ silicon junction material for a non-volatile memory device
US9543359B2 (en) 2011-05-31 2017-01-10 Crossbar, Inc. Switching device having a non-linear element
US9620206B2 (en) 2011-05-31 2017-04-11 Crossbar, Inc. Memory array architecture with two-terminal memory cells
US8394670B2 (en) 2011-05-31 2013-03-12 Crossbar, Inc. Vertical diodes for non-volatile memory device
US9633723B2 (en) 2011-06-23 2017-04-25 Crossbar, Inc. High operating speed resistive random access memory
US9627443B2 (en) 2011-06-30 2017-04-18 Crossbar, Inc. Three-dimensional oblique two-terminal memory with enhanced electric field
US8659929B2 (en) 2011-06-30 2014-02-25 Crossbar, Inc. Amorphous silicon RRAM with non-linear device and operation
US9564587B1 (en) 2011-06-30 2017-02-07 Crossbar, Inc. Three-dimensional two-terminal memory with enhanced electric field and segmented interconnects
US9570683B1 (en) 2011-06-30 2017-02-14 Crossbar, Inc. Three-dimensional two-terminal memory with enhanced electric field and segmented interconnects
US9601690B1 (en) 2011-06-30 2017-03-21 Crossbar, Inc. Sub-oxide interface layer for two-terminal memory
US9252191B2 (en) 2011-07-22 2016-02-02 Crossbar, Inc. Seed layer for a p+ silicon germanium material for a non-volatile memory device and method
US8716098B1 (en) 2012-03-09 2014-05-06 Crossbar, Inc. Selective removal method and structure of silver in resistive switching device for a non-volatile memory device
US9087576B1 (en) 2012-03-29 2015-07-21 Crossbar, Inc. Low temperature fabrication method for a three-dimensional memory device and structure
US8946669B1 (en) 2012-04-05 2015-02-03 Crossbar, Inc. Resistive memory device and fabrication methods
US9673255B2 (en) 2012-04-05 2017-06-06 Crossbar, Inc. Resistive memory device and fabrication methods
US9685608B2 (en) 2012-04-13 2017-06-20 Crossbar, Inc. Reduced diffusion in metal electrode for two-terminal memory
US8658476B1 (en) 2012-04-20 2014-02-25 Crossbar, Inc. Low temperature P+ polycrystalline silicon material for non-volatile memory device
US9793474B2 (en) 2012-04-20 2017-10-17 Crossbar, Inc. Low temperature P+ polycrystalline silicon material for non-volatile memory device
US8946046B1 (en) 2012-05-02 2015-02-03 Crossbar, Inc. Guided path for forming a conductive filament in RRAM
US9972778B2 (en) 2012-05-02 2018-05-15 Crossbar, Inc. Guided path for forming a conductive filament in RRAM
US9385319B1 (en) 2012-05-07 2016-07-05 Crossbar, Inc. Filamentary based non-volatile resistive memory device and method
US8765566B2 (en) 2012-05-10 2014-07-01 Crossbar, Inc. Line and space architecture for a non-volatile memory device
US10096653B2 (en) 2012-08-14 2018-10-09 Crossbar, Inc. Monolithically integrated resistive memory using integrated-circuit foundry compatible processes
US9741765B1 (en) 2012-08-14 2017-08-22 Crossbar, Inc. Monolithically integrated resistive memory using integrated-circuit foundry compatible processes
US9583701B1 (en) 2012-08-14 2017-02-28 Crossbar, Inc. Methods for fabricating resistive memory device switching material using ion implantation
US9735358B2 (en) 2012-08-14 2017-08-15 Crossbar, Inc. Noble metal / non-noble metal electrode for RRAM applications
US8946673B1 (en) 2012-08-24 2015-02-03 Crossbar, Inc. Resistive switching device structure with improved data retention for non-volatile memory device and method
US8889521B1 (en) 2012-09-14 2014-11-18 Crossbar, Inc. Method for silver deposition for a non-volatile memory device
US9312483B2 (en) 2012-09-24 2016-04-12 Crossbar, Inc. Electrode structure for a non-volatile memory device and method
US9576616B2 (en) 2012-10-10 2017-02-21 Crossbar, Inc. Non-volatile memory with overwrite capability and low write amplification
US8982647B2 (en) 2012-11-14 2015-03-17 Crossbar, Inc. Resistive random access memory equalization and sensing
US9412790B1 (en) 2012-12-04 2016-08-09 Crossbar, Inc. Scalable RRAM device architecture for a non-volatile memory device and method
US9406379B2 (en) 2013-01-03 2016-08-02 Crossbar, Inc. Resistive random access memory with non-linear current-voltage relationship
US10290801B2 (en) 2014-02-07 2019-05-14 Crossbar, Inc. Scalable silicon based resistive memory device

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3402326A (en) Insulation fault control device with light sensitive elements
US3213321A (en) Miniature differential circuit breaker
US3512045A (en) Ground fault responsive apparatus for electric power distribution apparatus
US5946180A (en) Electrical connection safety apparatus and method
US5510946A (en) Circuit breaker protection against "arc short circuit" hazards
US4858054A (en) Protective circuits and devices for the prevention of fires
US6532139B2 (en) Arc fault circuit interrupter and circuit breaker having the same
US4733321A (en) Solid-state instantaneous trip device for a current limiting circuit breaker
EP0193395B1 (en) Universal fault circuit interrupter
US4949214A (en) Trip delay override for electrical circuit breakers
US7751161B2 (en) Leakage current detection and interruption circuit
AU749563B2 (en) Power distribution system with circuit breakers remotely resettable by signals transmitted over the power lines
JP2011091995A (en) String and system using direct-current power module and lots of string protection apparatuses
US6456471B1 (en) Test, reset and communications operations in an ARC fault circuit interrupter with optional memory and/or backup power
CA1151279A (en) Solid state trip unit for an electrical circuit breaker
US7336457B2 (en) Ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) end-of-life (EOL) status indicator
US7203040B2 (en) Method and circuit breaker for reducing arc flash during maintenance in a low voltage power circuit
US508652A (en) Electric cut-out
US7215520B2 (en) Circuit interrupter including arc fault test and/or ground fault test failure indicator
US4194231A (en) Dual voltage ground fault protector
US3873887A (en) Alternating-current power delivery system
US3132287A (en) High frequency circuit breaker utilizing silicon controlled rectifiers
US1982986A (en) Sectionalizing relay apparatus
ES2340079T3 (en) Provision of load sectioners.
US4853821A (en) Alternating current power sensing device for preventing start-up at power restoration