US644166A - Cryptographic type-writing machine. - Google Patents

Cryptographic type-writing machine. Download PDF

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US644166A
US644166A US72692599A US1899726925A US644166A US 644166 A US644166 A US 644166A US 72692599 A US72692599 A US 72692599A US 1899726925 A US1899726925 A US 1899726925A US 644166 A US644166 A US 644166A
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type
bar
writing
carrier
intelligible
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US72692599A
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William A Freret Jr
Harry S Lewis
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William A Freret Jr
Harry S Lewis
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09CCIPHERING OR DECIPHERING APPARATUS FOR CRYPTOGRAPHIC OR OTHER PURPOSES INVOLVING THE NEED FOR SECRECY
    • G09C3/00Typewriters for ciphering or deciphering cryptographic text
    • G09C3/04Typewriters for ciphering or deciphering cryptographic text wherein the operative connections between the keys and the type-bars are automatically and continuously permuted, during operation, by a coding or key member
    • G09C3/06Typewriters for ciphering or deciphering cryptographic text wherein the operative connections between the keys and the type-bars are automatically and continuously permuted, during operation, by a coding or key member the connections being mechanical
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07BTICKET-ISSUING APPARATUS; FARE-REGISTERING APPARATUS; FRANKING APPARATUS
    • G07B17/00Franking apparatus
    • G07B17/00733Cryptography or similar special procedures in a franking system

Description

N B/644468. Patented Feb. 27, 1900.
W. A. FRERET, 1R. &, H. S. LEWIS.
CRYP TOGRAPHIC TYPE WRITING MACHINE.
(Application filed Aug. 11, 1899.) No Model.) 2 SheetsSheat l,
1 MW .mnnummnm ,0
Patented Feb. 27, I960. w. A. FRERET, 1n. & H. s. LEWIS. I GBYPTOGBAPHIG TYPE WRITING MACHINE.
A lication filed Aug. 11, 1899.)
2 Sheets-Sheet 2.
(No Modal.)
7f. )1 KM "0., wnsnmumu o r UNi'rEn STATES XVILTIIAM A. FRERET, JR., AND HARRY S. LEVIS, OF NElV ORLEANS PATENT ()FFICE.
LOUISIANA.
BRYPTOGRAPHIC TYPE-WRITING MACHINE.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 644,166, dated February 27, 1900.
Application filed August 11, 1899. Serial No. 726,925. (No model.)
To all 10700727. it may concern.-
Be itknown that we, WILLIAM A. FRERET, Jr., and HARRY S. LEwIs, citizens of the United States, residing at New Orleans, in the parish of Orleans and State of Louisiana, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Cryptographic Attachments for Type-\Vriting'Machines and we do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same.
Our invention relates to improvements in type-writing machines, and particularly to certain improvements for facilitating crypt0- graphic writing by such machines and the transposition by the same machine of cryptographic writing into intelligible words and sentences.
Our invention consists ina type baror segment constructed so as to be adjusted with respect to its carryingstem and locked irrespective of the keyboard, and certain novel features hereinafter described and claimed.
' Our invention will be understood by reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein the same parts are indicated by the same letters throughout the several views.
Figure 1 represents a top plan view of one form of our invention in which the type bar or segment is set for intelligible writing. Fig. 2 isasiinilar view in which the type bar or segment is shown as adjusted for cryptographic writing. Fig. 3 represents an elevation of the type bar or segment, showing the movable type-section. Fig. 4 is an elevation of the anvil or carrier upon which the segmental type-bar may be adj ustably mounted. Fig. 5 is an enlarged detail elevation of the removable and adjustable type-spacer shown in Fig. 3. Fig. 6 is an edge view of said typespacer. Fig.7 is a bottom end view of the same. Fig. 8 is an enlarged sectional view of the type bar orsegment and its carrier, taken on the line 8 8 inFigs. 1 and 3. Fig. 9 is an enlarged perspective view of the type bar or segment carrying the sectional adjustable type, such as shown in Fig. 3. Fig. 10 is asectional view taken on the line 10 1O inFig. 3, somewhat enlarged. Fig. 11 is a face view of one of the sectional type-pieces. Fig. 12 is a sectional view taken on the line 12 12 in Fig. 4, showing passage for the rib on the type-bar. Fig. 13 is a fragmentary face view of a portion of the segmental type-bar, showing a a modified form of type-spacer. Fig. 1'-.t isa sectional view of a modified form of type-bar in which only one set of type is used, the section being taken on the line 14 14 in Fig. 13.
In all type-writin g machines wherein is used a bar, cylinder, or wheel carrying the type provision is made for so moving the said type bar, cylinder, or wheel when each separate type-key is struck that the type corresponding with the key struck is brought into alinement for producing its impression upon the paper. In type-writing machines of this character as used for ordinary writing the type bar, cylinder, or wheel has one set adj ustment when the machine is at rest, from which it is moved upon the depression of any certain type-key to the position which will bring the corresponding type into position for printing upon the paper. In all such cases the movement of the type bar, cylinder, or wheel follows a predetermined adjustment of the mechanism which causes such movement, the type having such a fixed arrangement upon the type bar, cylinder, or wheel that when any one key is struck the corresponding type will always be presented to its printing position.
Ourinvention, while it utilizes the ordinary function of the mechanism for moving the type-carrier, whether it bea bar, cylinder, or wheel, for presen tin g the type successively to the printing position,'providesmeans for varying the positions of the type with respect to their ordinary fixed positions, so that while the operation of the machine is the same a diiferent effect with respect to the arrangement of characters therein is produced. This result may be produced either by means of a carrier having a set of fixed type (fixed with respect to each other and said carrier having a,single adjustment) having an arran gement at variance to the arrangement for intelligible writing or by means of a carrier having one or more adjustable sets of type. In the former case a separate carrierbecomes necessary for each combination of characters desired to be written, whether as cipher or as intelligible words. In the latter case a single A and its standard A when mounted in the' machines have no rotary motion, but are capable of an axial movement for the purpose of presenting the various banks of type to the printing position. The anvil or carrier support is preferably in the form of a ring provided with a cross-arm A having a central boss A", through which passes and in which is fixed the standard A, as seen most clearly in Fig.8. The ring A is cut away for about half its width along one side thereof, as seen in Figs. 1, 2, 4:, and 8, and is provided with a slot d which extends the whole length of the wider portion of the ring, communicating with both ends of the cut-away portion. The said ring and its standard A are held against rotation by means of a key a, which engages an axial slot a in the upper end of the said standard A.
A represents an arm which is pivotally mounted about the standard A and is secured to a sleeve A through which passes loosely the said standard A. The said sleeve is provided with a lug a at its bottom end, which engages beneath a head ed screw A and allows the sleeve A and the arm A a rotary movement about the standard A, but prevents any vertical movement thereof when the said standard A is moved in the direction of its axis. This arm A is operated at one end a by mechanism cooperating with the keyboard, (not shown,) and the opposite end is provided with an upward extension a at right angles for engaging the type-carrier. This upward extension at of the pivoted arm A should be of elastic metal to allow of its ready adjustment in the notches of the type-carrier.
B represents the type -carrier, which is shown in the shape of asegmental bar. This consists of a bar of thin metal in the form of a segment of a circle, provided upon its interior with a thin notched rib B, the notches Z) being radially disposed with respect to the center of a circle of which the said bar represents a segment. The rib B is provided upon its inner edge with a flange or enlargemonth. The length of the rib Bis somewhat less than the length of the cut-away portion of the carrier-ring A, so that when the bar B is applied to the cut-away portion of the ring A the rib B will rest upon the upper edge a of the said cut-away portion, and when the said segmental bar- B is turned the said rib will enter the slot (t in the wider portion of the said ring, and the said bar B may be turned about the said ring, the flange b on the said rib serving to retain the said bar in position upon the said ring. The ends of the cross-arm A are slotted, as seen at Ct iIl Fig. 12, for the passage of the notched rib B and its retaining-flange b. The segmental b'ar B after being placed in its position upon the carrier-ring in the manner described may now be adjusted and set to any desired position upon the said carrier-ring A and locked in such position by means of the upright extension at upon the pivoted arm A The number of notches Z) formed upon the rib B corresponds with the number of type-sections in what might be called the intermediate set of type which is used with this form of typebar, and these notches are arranged in radii corresponding to the positions of these type characters. The intermediate set of type carried by the bar B is so arranged as to produce intelligible writing when the lockingarm at is adjusted to the center one of the notches b. The type of the intermediate set are arranged upon separate sections 0, as shown most clearly in Fig. 3. These sections are fitted upon the outer face of the type-bar, being retained thereon by flanges 5 extending from the edges of the said bar partially over the face thereof and forming between them a slideway within which the said typesections 0, each carrying a single vertical series of type, may be securely held and adjustment thereof allowed. When in the position for intelligible writing, this group of sections which. compose the intermediate set of type is divided in two equal divisions, the one to the right and the other to the left of the center of the bar, by means of an adjustable spacer D, which is shown in detail in Figs. 5, 6, and 7 and consists of a piece of wood or metal of the proper size having a reduced end (1, arranged to fit beneath one of the flanges b on the type-bar B, and having a movable catch or bolt d, arranged when projected to engage beneath the opposite flange b on the saidtype-bar when the said spacer is applied thereto.
In the arrangement for intelligible writing the spacer is set opposite the central notch in the rib B, in which is engaged the lockingarm a", as hereinbefore described. This intermediate set of type-sections when adjusted as just described is the equivalent of a solid bar of type such as would be used for intelligible writing, and in such arrangement intelligible writing may be produced by the usual manipulation of the keyboard. The other set of type characters come into use only in writing cipher and may be called hereinafter cipher set. Its arrangement is as follows: The set is divided into two parts, corresponding exactly as to the arrangement of the characters with the right and left hand divisions, respectively, of the intermediate set, as the latter is used for intelligible writing, and that division of the cipher set of type corresponding to the right-hand division of the interme- IIO diate set is arranged as a continuation of the left-hand division of the intermediate set, while, on the other hand, that division of the cipher set corresponding to the left-hand division of the intermediate set is arranged as a continuation of the right-hand division of the intermediate set. Thus, beginning with the end type character of the left division of the intermediate set, the type characters on that side are continued alongt he bar, following the order of arrangement of the type characters of the right division, starting with its outer end character and stopping with its character next to the spacer D, which represents the center of the set, and, conversely, beginning with the end type character of the right division of the intermediate set, the type characters are continued along the bar on that side, following the order of arrangement of the type characters of the left division of the intermediate set, starting with its outer end type character and stopping with its type character next to the spacer D. The type characters of the two divisions of the cipher set may be formed in separate sections similar to the sections 0, composing the intermediate set, or, if preferred, the type characters of each of the two divisions of the cipher set may be formed in a single solid group after the manner in which type-bars of this character are usually formed, inasmuch as the operating center of the type-bar, as represented by the notch in the rib B, into which the locking-arm a is engaged, will never be shifted farther to the one side or the other of its normal center than the position corresponding with either of the end type of the intermediate set, which also represent the limit of adjustment of the spacer D. As will be seen, this limit of adjustment will allow the bringing into action of as many of the type characters in either of the two divisions of the cipher set as may be desired. For intelligible writing the spacer is adjusted to the central position of the intermediate set, and the locking-arm a, which represents the operating center of the typebar, is adjusted to the central notch in the series of notches Z), as hereinbefore described.
For writing in cipher the spacer D is removed from its central position and adjusted as many spaces to the right or to the left in the intermediate set of type as desired, the movable typesections C, intervening between the center of the bar and the position to which it is desired to adj nst the spacer, being slid along toward the center by means of any suitable instrument, and the vacancy left by the spacer is thus filled. The locking-bar a is then adjusted to the notch corresponding to the position occupied by the spacer D as so adj usted, and the operating center of the type-bar is thus shifted to the desired position for cipherwriting. Manipulation ,of the keyboard in the usual manner produces not intelligible writing, but unintelligible combinations of characters, due to the shifted position of the operating center of the type-bar. In transposing these unintelligible combinations of characters the type-sections are shifted first to their normal position for intelligible writing, and then, knowing the number of spaces covered by the original adjustment, the spacer is set at a position as many spaces to the other side of the normal center of the bar as it was adjusted in producing the unintelligible message. If now the keyboard be manipulated, following the characters of the unintelligible message in succession as they appear, the result will be an intelligible writing which corresponds to the keys originally struck.
Instead of using two sets of type, as hereinbefore described, we may accomplish the same result by means of a single set of sectional adjustable type carried by the typebar. Such a construction is illustrated in Fig. 14, wherein the type-bar E is shorter than the type-bar shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 9, the
said type-bar E being of such length as to accommodate but a single set of type. In such a construction the type-sections C are arranged so as to be shifted from one end of the bar to the other in adjusting the said typesections for cipher writing or transposing. This type-bar has a single adjustment, in which the locking-arm (L66!) gages in the notch 6 upon the rib Eof the type-bar. The typeseetions are spaced at the center of the bar by means of a spacer, which may be similar to that shown in Figs. 5, (3, and 7, and here inbefore described, or may be of such a construction as is shown in Fig. 13, wherein F represents a spring-wire device, bent into an inverted elongated U shape, which is inserted through openings in the flanges upon the type-bar at the central point of the said bar.
Similar spring devices F are used at the ends of the typebar for retaining the type thereon, these retainers being inserted through openings c (Shown in Fig. 14:.) In using this form of type-bar the type thereon'have one predetermined arrangement for intelligible writing, and in adjusting the type for writing cipher the type-sections are adjusted from one end of the bar toward the other the desired number of spaces, and in accomplishing this a corresponding number of type-sections are removed from one end of the typebar and successively inserted at the other end thereof, the result being the same as if the type-bar were in the form of a continuous cylinder or circle and the type simply moved along in the desired direction. In transposing the cipher message produced by a typebar having an adjustment of this sort the type are similarly adjusted, though in an inverse manner and to an equal extent from the normal position.
It will be obvious that the principle involved in our invention may be applied to any typewriting machines in which the type characters are carried ordinarily in the form of a solid group, as is the case with many different makes of type-writin g machines now commonly used, and instead of the type-carrier being in the form of a segment, as herein described, and shown in the drawings, the type-carrier may be in the form of a straight bar having a normal adjustment for intelligible Writing and made adaptable for cipher writing and transposing by an arrangement of sectional type characters similar to that hereinbefore described. The type carrier may just as well for the purposes of our invention be in the form of a cylinder or wheel, in which case the sectional type characters would also have a normal adjustment for ordinary Writing and an adjustment about the periphery of the cylinder or wheel for cipher writing and transposing. We therefore do not wish to limit ourselves to the details of construction nor to the precise embodiment of our invention hereinbefore described, and shown in the accompanying drawings, as many modifications and adaptations thereof other than those hereinbefore specifically shown and referred to might be used without departing from the spirit of our invention.
Having thus described our invention, what we claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States, is
1. In a type-writing machine, the combination with a type-carrier; of a set of sectional printing-type arranged adj ustably in said carrier, and a device for separating the group of type into divisions,substantially as described.
2. In a type-writing machine, the combination with the type-carrier; of a set of sectional printing-type mounted therein and relatively adjustable; of a spacing device adjustably mounted in the carrier arranged to separate the group of type into divisions, substantially as described.
3. In a type-writing machine, the combination with a type-carrier; of a set of type arranged in sections adjustable thereon, and having a normal operating adjustment for intelligible writing; means for spacing said typesections and means for securing the same in any adjustment; substantially as described.
4:. In a type-writing machine, the combination with a type-carrier; of a set of sectional type adj ustably mounted therein, and having a normal operating center for intelligible writing; a second set of type arranged in two divisions forming continuations of the firstnamed set, and means for varying the operating center of the type-carrier, substantially as described.
5. In a type-writing machine, the combination with a type-carrier; of a set of sectional type adj ustably mounted thereon; and hav ing a normal operating center for intelligible writing; a second set of type forming a continuation of the first-named set; and means for varying the operating center of the typecarrier; substantially as described.
6. In a type-writing machine, the combination with a type-carrier comprising a bar provided with oppositely-disposed edge flanges; of a series of separate type-sections mounted upon the face of said bar, with their ends engaging beneath the said flanges thereon; means for retainingsaid sections upon said bar, and means for permitting the adjustment of said sections along the face of the bar, substantially as described.
7. In a type-writing machine, the combination With the type-carrier consisting of a bar having oppositely-disposed edge flanges; of a series of separate type-sections mounted upon the face of the said bar, with their ends engaging beneath said flanges; another set of type also mounted upon the face of the said bar in two separate divisions, forming continuations of the ends of the first set, and means for varying the operating center of the said bar and the type thereon, substantially as described.
8. In a type-writing machine, the combination with a type-carrier provided with a slideway for the type upon its face, and flanges for retaining the type in position; of a series of printing-type in separate sections, comprising a full set, mounted in said slideway upon the face of the bar and adjustable along the said slideway, substantially as described.
9. In a type-Writing machine, the combination with a type-carrier provided with a slideway for the type upon its face, and flanges for retaining the type in position; of a series of printing-type in separate sections, comprising a full set, mounted in said slideway upon the face of the bar and adjustable along the said slideway; a second set of type supplementary to the first set, arranged to be brought into position for printing by an adjustment of the carrier, substantially as described.
In testimony whereof we affix our signatures in presence of two witnesses.
WVILLIAM A. FRERET, JR. HARRY S. LEIVIS.
Witnesses:
FRANK D. BLACKISTONE, JOHN OHALMERs WILsON.
US72692599A 1899-08-11 1899-08-11 Cryptographic type-writing machine. Expired - Lifetime US644166A (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2523538A (en) * 1948-11-08 1950-09-26 De Forest F Neely Type shuttle and actuating mechanism therefor

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2523538A (en) * 1948-11-08 1950-09-26 De Forest F Neely Type shuttle and actuating mechanism therefor

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