US6191365B1 - Medical devices incorporating at least one element made from a plurality of twisted and drawn wires - Google Patents

Medical devices incorporating at least one element made from a plurality of twisted and drawn wires Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US6191365B1
US6191365B1 US09143984 US14398498A US6191365B1 US 6191365 B1 US6191365 B1 US 6191365B1 US 09143984 US09143984 US 09143984 US 14398498 A US14398498 A US 14398498A US 6191365 B1 US6191365 B1 US 6191365B1
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
element
improvement according
wires
twisted
drawn
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime, expires
Application number
US09143984
Inventor
Francisco J. Avellanet
Original Assignee
General Science and Technology Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21CMANUFACTURE OF METAL SHEETS, WIRE, RODS, TUBES OR PROFILES, OTHERWISE THAN BY ROLLING; AUXILIARY OPERATIONS USED IN CONNECTION WITH METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL
    • B21C1/00Manufacture of metal sheets, metal wire, metal rods, metal tubes by drawing
    • B21C1/02Drawing metal wire or like flexible metallic material by drawing machines or apparatus in which the drawing action is effected by drums
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M25/00Catheters; Hollow probes
    • A61M25/01Introducing, guiding, advancing, emplacing or holding catheters
    • A61M25/09Guide wires
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21CMANUFACTURE OF METAL SHEETS, WIRE, RODS, TUBES OR PROFILES, OTHERWISE THAN BY ROLLING; AUXILIARY OPERATIONS USED IN CONNECTION WITH METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL
    • B21C37/00Manufacture of metal sheets, bars, wire, tubes or like semi-manufactured products, not otherwise provided for; Manufacture of tubes of special shape
    • B21C37/04Manufacture of metal sheets, bars, wire, tubes or like semi-manufactured products, not otherwise provided for; Manufacture of tubes of special shape of bars or wire
    • B21C37/045Manufacture of wire or bars with particular section or properties
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/46Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods
    • C02F1/461Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods by electrolysis
    • C02F1/46104Devices therefor; Their operating or servicing
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25BELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COMPOUNDS OR NON-METALS; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25B1/00Electrolytic production of inorganic compounds or non-metals
    • C25B1/02Electrolytic production of inorganic compounds or non-metals of hydrogen or oxygen
    • C25B1/04Electrolytic production of inorganic compounds or non-metals of hydrogen or oxygen by electrolysis of water
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25BELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COMPOUNDS OR NON-METALS; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25B15/00Operating or servicing of cells
    • C25B15/08Supplying or removing reactants or electrolytes; Regeneration of electrolytes
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D07ROPES; CABLES OTHER THAN ELECTRIC
    • D07BROPES OR CABLES IN GENERAL
    • D07B1/00Constructional features of ropes or cables
    • D07B1/06Ropes or cables built-up from metal wires, e.g. of section wires around a hemp core
    • D07B1/0693Ropes or cables built-up from metal wires, e.g. of section wires around a hemp core having a strand configuration
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01BCABLES; CONDUCTORS; INSULATORS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR CONDUCTIVE, INSULATING OR DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES
    • H01B13/00Apparatus or processes specially adapted for manufacturing conductors or cables
    • H01B13/02Stranding-up
    • H01B13/0292After-treatment
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01BCABLES; CONDUCTORS; INSULATORS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR CONDUCTIVE, INSULATING OR DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES
    • H01B5/00Non-insulated conductors or conductive bodies characterised by their form
    • H01B5/08Several wires or the like stranded in the form of a rope
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01BCABLES; CONDUCTORS; INSULATORS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR CONDUCTIVE, INSULATING OR DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES
    • H01B5/00Non-insulated conductors or conductive bodies characterised by their form
    • H01B5/08Several wires or the like stranded in the form of a rope
    • H01B5/10Several wires or the like stranded in the form of a rope stranded around a space, insulating material, or dissimilar conducting material
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01BCABLES; CONDUCTORS; INSULATORS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR CONDUCTIVE, INSULATING OR DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES
    • H01B7/00Insulated conductors or cables characterised by their form
    • H01B7/0009Details relating to the conductive cores
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M25/00Catheters; Hollow probes
    • A61M25/01Introducing, guiding, advancing, emplacing or holding catheters
    • A61M25/09Guide wires
    • A61M2025/09058Basic structures of guide wires
    • A61M2025/09075Basic structures of guide wires having a core without a coil possibly combined with a sheath
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M25/00Catheters; Hollow probes
    • A61M25/01Introducing, guiding, advancing, emplacing or holding catheters
    • A61M25/09Guide wires
    • A61M2025/09191Guide wires made of twisted wires
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/20Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by degassing, i.e. liberation of dissolved gases
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/42Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by ion-exchange
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2201/00Apparatus for treatment of water, waste water or sewage
    • C02F2201/46Apparatus for electrochemical processes
    • C02F2201/461Electrolysis apparatus
    • C02F2201/46105Details relating to the electrolytic devices
    • C02F2201/4611Fluid flow
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2209/00Controlling or monitoring parameters in water treatment
    • C02F2209/42Liquid level
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2301/00General aspects of water treatment
    • C02F2301/06Pressure conditions
    • C02F2301/066Overpressure, high pressure
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/30Hydrogen technology
    • Y02E60/36Hydrogen production from non-carbon containing sources
    • Y02E60/366Hydrogen production from non-carbon containing sources by electrolysis of water

Abstract

Medical devices are provided which utilize a highly flexible cable of two and preferably three or more strands of wire. The strands are twined to form a wire rope which is drawn through successive dies to reduce its diameter until the outer surface of the cable is substantially smooth. A cable so-formed has improved elasticity. The cable is used in medical devices in which increased elasticity of a wire-like element is desired. Twisted and drawn cables incorporating a strand of a radiopaque metal or alloy may be used in devices in which radiopacity of a flexible portion of the device is desired. Twisted and drawn cables incorporating a strand of a metal or alloy having high electrical conductance may be used in devices in which electrical conductivity of a flexible portion of the device is desired.

Description

This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. Ser. No. 09/060,969 filed Apr. 15, 1998 U.S. Pat. No. 6,137,060, a continuation-in-part of U.S. Ser. No. 09/087,476 filed on May 29, 1998 now abandoned, a continuation-in-part of U.S. Ser. No. 09/044,203 filed on Mar. 17, 1998, a continuation-in-part of U.S. Ser. No. 08/843,405 filed May 2, 1997 U.S. Pat. No. 5,994,647, a continuation-in-part of U.S. Ser. No. 08/963,686 filed Nov. 4, 1997 now U.S. Pat. No. 6,049,042, and a continuation-in-part of PCT/US97/18057 filed Oct. 7, 1997 and claiming priority from U.S. Ser. Nos. 08/730,489 filed Oct. 11, 1996, 08/856,571 filed May 15, 1997, and 08/554,336 filed Nov. 6, 1995, all of which are hereby incorporated by reference herein in their entireties.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

This invention relates broadly to medical devices incorporating elements having a low modulus of elasticity. More particularly, this invention relates to medical devices incorporating one or more cable elements made from a plurality of twisted and drawn wires.

2. State of the Art

Wires are utilized throughout the medical arts. In many medical devices a particularly desirable feature for the wires is high elasticity. For example, in baskets and snares high elasticity may be the most important property of the wires used. The elasticity of the wires comprising snares and baskets is a factor in the extent to which each may be compressed for insertion to the surgical site and yet still be able to expand upon use. In addition, higher elasticity permits the baskets and snares to be contracted about smaller radii.

The need for highly flexible self-expanding stents is also well-known. Flexibility not only permits proper stent deployment, but also enables the stent to better conform to the vascular walls.

In endoscopic instruments, a control wire is often coupled between a proximal handle and a distal end effector. The control wire is used to translate movement of the handle into operation of the end effector. The wire must be able to easily bend through the tortuous paths through which endoscopic instruments are guided.

Wire flexibility is also important in numerous other medical devices. For that reason, the medical arts have recently had much interest in nickel-titanium alloy (Nitinol) wires which exhibit superelastic characteristics. However, Nitinol is relatively expensive, and alternatives to Nitinol offering comparable advantage in the medical device arts are desired.

In addition, with respect to many medical devices, the art has gone to great lengths and expense to provide radiopaque materials to the distal end of Nitinol elements (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,520,194 to Miyata et al.). This is particularly required in devices using very fine (i.e., small diameter) Nitinol wires which cannot easily be seen during fluoroscopy. However, radiopaque materials are difficult to attach to the Nitinol components owing, in part, to their dissimilarity with the Nitinol material. Moreover, it is preferable in certain applications to have an elastic component which conducts electricity sufficiently to permit cautery functions or to permit the component to function as an electrical lead. However, nickel-titanium alloys are not particularly good conductors.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is therefore an object of the invention to provide a variety of medical devices which utilize one or more multifilament twisted and drawn cables that exhibit excellent elasticity characteristics.

It is another object of the invention to provide medical devices with a radiopaque elastic element.

It is also object of the invention to provide medical devices which include a conductive elastic element.

It is a further object of the invention to provide medical devices which include a radiopaque, conductive, and elastic element.

In accord with these objects, which will be discussed in detail below, medical devices are provided which utilize a highly flexible cable of two and preferably three or more strands of wire, which are twined to form a wire rope which is drawn through successive dies to reduce its diameter until the outer surface of the cable is substantially smooth. Where the resulting cable is made from strands of a single material, the cable is provided with improvement elasticity and torqueability over of a wire of the same material having the same diameter as the cable. The cable is used in medical devices in which increased elasticity of a wire-like element is desired at a more reasonable cost than nickel-titanium wires. Twisted and drawn cables incorporating at least one strand of a radiopaque metal or alloy may be used in devices in which radiopacity of an elastic portion of the device is desired. Twisted and drawn cables incorporating at least one strand of a highly electrically conductive metal or alloy may be used in devices in which electrical conductivity of an elastic portion of the device is desired. Twisted and drawn cables incorporating at least one strand of a radiopaque metal or alloy with at least one strand of a highly electrically conductive alloy may be used in devices in which radiopacity of an electrically conductive elastic portion of a device is desired.

Additional objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon reference to the detailed description.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

The invention will be described by first introducing the concept of cables formed from multistrand twisted and drawn wires. Then, examples will be provided illustrating how such cables can be substituted for conventional wires (e.g., stainless steel wires and nickel-titanium alloy wires) in medical devices to achieve the beneficial results of the invention.

The invention is the improvement of a variety of medical devices by utilizing therein a cable of two and preferably three or more strands of wire which are twined to form a wire rope. The wire rope is drawn through successive dies to reduce its diameter until the outer surface of the cable is substantially smooth, the cross section of the cable is substantially circular, and the overall diameter of the wire rope is reduced by 20-50%. The cable is then annealed to remove the effects of cold working.

The resulting cable has been found to have an improved flexibility (i.e., a lower modulus of elasticity) relative to a single wires of the same diameter and same constituent metals or alloys. Moreover, such cables have high torqueability and exhibit strong radial strength.

In addition, a twisted and drawn cable including one or more strands of a radiopaque material, e.g., gold, silver, or platinum-iridium, will exhibit both elastic and radiopaque properties. In accord with the invention, the cable so formed may be used in devices in which radiopacity of a flexible portion of a medical device is desired, e.g., for viewing the flexible portion during fluoroscopic procedures.

Also, a cable including one or more strands having high conductance, e.g., platinum, gold, silver, copper, or aluminum strands, will exhibit desirable elastic and electrical conductance properties. In accord with the invention, the cable so formed may be used in devices in which high electrical conductivity of a flexible portion of a medical device is desired.

Moreover, in accord with the invention, cables incorporating at least one strand of a radiopaque metal or alloy, and at least one strand of an electrically conductive metal may be used in devices in which a radiopaque, conductive, and flexible portion of the device is desired. It will be appreciated that the radiopaque strand and strand having high conductance may be the same strand, e.g., a gold or silver strand.

Furthermore, it will be appreciated that cables may be formed from particular ratios of materials by selecting the number and relative diameter of the wire strands of each material used in the manufacture of the cable. Such ratios permit the selection of varying degrees of elasticity, radiopacity, and conductance according to a particular application.

Particular cables, their manufacture, and their properties are described in detail in previously incorporated co-pending U.S. application Ser. Nos. 08/856,571 to Avellanet et al., 08/843,405 and 08/963,686 to Avellanet, 09/044,203 and 09/087,476 to Avellanet et al., 09/048,746 to Bales et al., and 09/060,969 to Avellanet. From reference to the respective disclosures, it will be appreciated that any particular cable composition described herein may be made by one skilled in the art. The following are examples of uses of twisted and drawn cables in medical devices.

EXAMPLE 1 Surgical Baskets

Baskets are typically used to remove calculi in the form of kidney stones, gallstones and the like from the body without requiring major surgery. Baskets are generally formed from wires defining at least two loops relatively oriented to form a cage-like enclosure. U.S. Pat. No. 5,064,428 to Cope et al. discloses a basket device using a plurality of superelastic wires to form a basket at the distal end of the device, and is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. U.S. Pat. No. 5,496,330 to Bates et al., which is also hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety, discloses another device having a basket comprised of a relatively larger number of shape memory wires for increasing the contact between the basket and entrapped calculi. Other baskets utilize stainless steel wires. However, it is noted by Bates et al. that increasing the number of wires requires the use of wires with relatively smaller diameters. Such smaller diameter wires are weaker and limit the radially acting dilating force that the wires exert against surrounding tissue when the retrieval basket expands, thus making it more difficult to entrap calculi. Furthermore, such baskets are difficult to cannulate through the gallbladder anatomy. Baskets are required to pass smoothly through such areas as the cystic ducts, the common bile duct, and the intestines, as well as being able to retrieve stones from distal sites while causing minimal injury and discomfort to the patient.

By using multistrand twisted and drawn elastic cables in lieu of wires in a basket device, a number of disadvantages in the prior art are overcome. First, baskets comprised of elastic twisted and drawn cables can be easily maneuvered through the tortuous pathways of the anatomical systems in which they are used, as the cable loops forming the basket can be tightly compressed. Second, the cables are more torqueable and can be better steered. Third, smaller diameter cables can be used which have comparable strength to relatively larger wires and which can exert the requisite radial force to maneuver surrounding tissue to facilitate capture and removal of the calculi. Fourth, by using a radiopaque twisted and drawn cable, the baskets are more easily and inexpensively seen under for fluoroscopic viewing during surgical procedures. Fifth, the basket device can be manufactured more economically than a basket using nickel-titanium wires.

It will be further appreciated that in a basket construction, not all of the ‘wires’ need by twisted and drawn multifilament cables. In fact, by utilizing the twisted and drawn cables in conjunction with more conventional wires, the basket may be provided with portions of relatively higher and lower radial strengths thereby aiding steerability. Similarly, a combination of cables, and preferably also wires, of varying diameters can also provide an increased level of flexibility in a desired direction. Likewise, by using twisted and drawn cables having selected ratios of materials, steerabilty can also be enhanced.

It will also be understood that a basket made of conventional materials may be provided on a multifilament twisted and drawn cable shaft, e.g., a shaft cable comprised of stainless steel twisted and drawn wires, which is joined to the basket at the distal end of the shaft via a sleeve by welding, soldering, or crimping. This arrangement provides higher torqueability than provided with existing stainless steel wire shaft instruments.

EXAMPLE 2 Snares

Snares are used for the endoscopic removal of tissue growths within a body cavity. An exemplar snare device is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,201,741 to Dulebohn, which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. Snare devices generally include an elongate tubular member and an elastic wire (e.g., stainless steel or Nitinol) forming a loop movable distally and proximally within the tubular member to cause the loop to change size. The wire is moved relatively distally to the tubular member to enlarge the loop to surround the tissue, and then relatively proximally to constrict the loop about the growth to excise the growth. The wire may be trained to naturally assume the desired enlarged size. However, a concern with snares is the ability to constrict the loop without plastically deforming the wire about a small radius which would destroy the functionality of the snare.

A twisted and drawn cable made from stainless steel wires provides a snare having a relatively high recoverable elastic strain which permits the snare loop to be constricted about a relatively tight radius. In addition, the twisted and drawn cable has high torqueability and can be better steered around the tissue to be excised.

In addition, it is known to construct snare devices having bipolar cautery capability. See, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,493,320 to Treat, which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. Such snare devices include an electrically insulated tubular member having two lumina, a pair of flexible electrically conductive snare wires extending from the lumina, an electrically insulating connector for mechanically uniting but electrically insulating the snare wires in a form of a surgical loop extending from one end of the tubular member, and an attachment for electrically connecting the opposite ends of the snare wires to a cautery current source. It will be appreciated that conductive elastic twisted and drawn cables may be used in such a device in place of the known conductive wires to enhance the elasticity of the snare.

EXAMPLE 3 Control Cables for Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Instruments

Endoscopic instruments typically include a proximal actuation handle, a tubular member, one or two control wires, and a distal end effector. The distal end effector may be any of numerous types. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,507,296 to Bales et al. discloses a biopsy forceps jaw assembly; U.S. Pat. No. 5,667,525 to Ishibashi discloses a grasping forceps; U.S. Pat. No. 5,395,386 to Slater discloses scissors end effectors; and U.S. Pat. No. 5,549,606 to McBrayer et al. discloses a bipolar grasper end effector. Each of the aforementioned patents is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety for their disclosure of the particular end effector described therein, for the operation of endoscopic instruments in general, and for any other disclosure useful to one skilled in the art. It will be appreciated that other end effectors may alternatively be provided.

The tubular member of the endoscopic instrument, which is often a coil, preferably includes a distally positioned clevis means on which the end effectors are rotatably coupled. The control wire (or wires) extends through the tubular member. The actuation handle includes a stationary member, coupled to the proximal end of either the control wire (or wires) or the tubular member, and a movable member coupled to the proximal end of the other of the control wire (or wires) and the tubular member, such that moving the movable member relative to the stationary member imparts movement of the control wire (or wires) relative to the tubular member to operate the end effector.

The control wire is generally a stainless steel wire. However, as the control wire must be able to easily bend through the tortuous paths through which the endoscopic instrument is guided, control wire flexibility is important. Therefore, in accord with the invention, an elastic twisted and drawn stainless steel cable is used as the control wire.

In addition, U.S. Pat. No. 5,482,054 to Bales, which is hereby incorporated herein in its entirety, discloses a bipolar biopsy forceps. The control wires of the disclosed device may be electrically conductive, elastic twisted and drawn cables, as described above, such that bipolar cautery capability is provided via the control ‘cables’.

Similarly, laparoscopic instruments may be provided with one or more control cables in the same manner as the above described endoscopic instruments.

EXAMPLE 4 Rotary Atherectomy (Thrombectomy) Device

U.S. Pat. No. 5,376,100 to Lefebvre, which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety, discloses an atherectomy or thrombectomy device which comprises a rotary member having flexible filiform elements joined at their distal and proximal ends. When the rotary member is rotated at high speed, the elements are transversely expanded by the effect of the centrifugal force.

The flexible filiform elements and the rotary member may both be comprised of twisted and drawn cables. It will be appreciated that such twisted and drawn cables have excellent flexibility, and is well-adapted for the filiform elements. It will be further appreciated that a twisted and drawn cable has high torqueability, and is well-adapted for the rotary member.

EXAMPLE 5 Stents

Self-expanding stents are generally formed from a spring metal or other resilient material and are deployable through a guiding catheter on a delivery catheter covered with a lubricous sleeve. When the sleeve is withdrawn over the self-expanding stent, the stent automatically expands so as to exert pressure against the surrounding vessel wall. Self-expanding stents are disclosed in, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,580,568 to Gianturco; 4,830,003 to Wolff et al.; 5,549,635 to Solar; 5,562,697 to Christiansen; and 5,292,331 and 5,674,278 to Boneau, which are all hereby incorporated by reference herein in their entireties. Such stents are typically formed from a single small diameter wire having a multiplicity of back and forth bends in a zig-zag or sinusoidal path to form an elongate self-expanding structure, or a plurality of self-expanding segments coupled by links, each of the segments defined by a wire having a zig-zag or sinusoidal path, or a plurality of plaited wires.

Self-expanding stents need to be flexible. Such flexibility determines the ease of which the stents may be maneuvered through the curves of blood vessels to the lesion site. In accord with the invention, a stent device is comprised of one or more twisted and drawn cables, preferably comprised of stainless steel wires, and more preferably including at least one radiopaque strand. The enhanced flexibility of a stent device thus comprised facilitates insertion of the stent device to its deployment location. Also, the radiopaque elastic cable of the stent enables improved fluoroscopic viewing of the stent device within the human body to ensure that the device is properly positioned and further to ensure that the device is functioning properly.

EXAMPLE 6 Resection Electrodes

Electrosurgical resection is a procedure in which damaged or enlarged tissue is excised with an electrocautery probe. U.S. Pat. No. 5,569,244 to Hahnen discloses an electrocautery probe, and is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. The electrocautery probe has a distal resection electrode which is mounted between a pair of arms. The arms are joined at their proximal ends to an electrode lead which is coupled via a handle to a source of cautery current. The electrodes are generally made from cobalt chromium or carbonless stainless steel.

The resection procedure involves applying a cauterizing voltage to the electrode and moving the electrode slowly through or over a tissue. Thermal energy is applied through the electrode, and the tissue in contact is excised. The resectoscope and cautery probe are also useful in procedures for resecting the prostate, endometrium, uterus, ureter, or renal pelvis.

The resection electrodes of the art are replaced with resection electrodes comprised of a multistrand twisted and drawn cable. The strands comprising the cable preferably include strands of one or more of stainless steel, nickel-chromium, platinum-iridium, and tungsten. The cable may be trained according to methods well-known in the art, to take various shapes, e.g., curved and angular, which facilitate cutting through and cautery of the tissue being resected.

EXAMPLE 7 Embolization Coils

Metallic microcoils are used to bridge (embolize) aneurysms in cerebral arteries. The procedure for deploying the coil involves the use of a microcatheter which is delivered through the vasculature to the site of the aneurysm. When the catheter is in place, a stainless steel wire with a platinum coil soldered or otherwise coupled to its distal end is fed through the catheter to the site of the aneurysm. The coil is separated from the wire by the application of a small current which causes the solder to melt, or by mechanical means. Embolization coils are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,263,964 to Purdy, 5,639,277 to Mariant et al., 5,601,600 to Ton, 5,423,829 to Pham et al., and 5,122,136 to Guglielmi et al., which are all hereby incorporated by reference herein in their entireties.

According to the invention, the delivery wire and/or the coil is comprised of a multifilament twisted and drawn cable. Preferably, the cable comprising the coil includes at least one strand of platinum or other radiopaque material.

EXAMPLE 8 Myocardial Leads

The use of myocardial leads is well-known, in either bipolar or monopolar configurations, to stimulate the surface of a heart by the application of electrical pulses. U.S. Pat. No. 4,027,677 to Schulman, which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety, discloses the art of pacer leads in general. Typically, a myocardial lead consists of an electrode having a pin extending therefrom. The pin is inserted and secured in the myocardium and electrical pulses are supplied to the electrode from an appropriate source, such as a pacemaker, via a wire connected between the electrode and the pacemaker. The electrode is generally in the form of a bent platinum rod, one end of which serves as the electrode pin. Platinum, while biocompatible and able to pass electrical currents either anodically or cathodically into a saline solution, such as the solution present in the body, without corrosion, tends to break quite easily under the stress of heart motion and body movement.

The improved electrode of the invention comprises a twisted and drawn multifilament cable including one or more highly electrically conductive strands. Preferably the conductive strands (or strands) are made from platinum. More preferably, the cable is constructed from platinum and stainless steel. In accord with the invention, the stainless steel strand (or strands) may be surrounded by the platinum strands to inhibit corrosion, e.g., in a five strand about one strand configuration. Alternatively, the stainless steel strands may surround the one or more platinum strand. As yet another alternative, the strands of stainless steel and platinum may be intertwined. The resulting cable is able to pass current, resist corrosion, and is more elastic than pure platinum wires.

EXAMPLE 9 Orthodontic Cables

U.S. Pat. No. 4,037,324 to Andreasen, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety, discloses the use of dental wires made of nickel-titanium alloys instead of conventional 18-8 stainless steel wires. The Andreasen reference discloses the advantage of using wires which have a lower elastic modulus and higher elastic limit than stainless steel. In accord with the invention, multifilament twisted and drawn cables made from stainless steel strands provide an orthodontic cable having a lower elastic modulus and higher elastic limit than stainless steel orthodontic wires and a significantly lower cost than nickel-titanium wires.

EXAMPLE 10 Heart Valves

U.S. Pat. No. 4,233,690 to Akins, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety, discloses the use of a conventional shape memory alloy ring to hold a sewing cuff to the body of an artificial heart valve. The ring is replaced with a twisted and drawn cable, e.g., made from stainless steel. The resulting ring provides the desired elasticity at a cost more economical than the nickel-titanium constructs.

EXAMPLE 11 IUDs

U.S. Pat. No. 3,620,212 to Fannon et al., the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety, discloses an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) proposed to be formed from a shape memory alloy. In accord with the invention, the IUD is formed from a twisted and drawn cable.

EXAMPLE 12 Cytology Brushes

In some cases, obtaining a forceps biopsy may be difficult. In these cases, the practitioner may obtain cellular samples by brushing with a cytology brush. The cytology brush generally comprises an elongate shaft for extension through an endoscope and a plurality of typically helically arranged bristles at the distal end of the shaft. Exemplar cytology brushes are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,146,928 to Esser and 5,201,323 to Vermeulen, which are hereby incorporated by reference herein in their entireties. In accord with the invention, either or both of the bristles of the brush and the shaft may be comprised of twisted and drawn cable. Bristles of a cable structure are more flexible than the presently-provided bristles, and a twisted and drawn cable shaft is more torqueable than present shafts.

There have been described and illustrated herein a number of medical devices which are improved by utilizing one or more twisted and drawn cable elements in place of elements otherwise constructed. While particular devices and embodiments of the invention have been described (with reference to U.S. patents incorporated herein), it is not intended that the devices be limited to the embodiments disclosed in the incorporated references, only that such references provide the broad teaching of the respective devices. Particularly, each device in the incorporating reference should be read as a representative for all devices of the type of such device and the scope of the invention should be interpreted in this light. In addition, it is clear that other medical devices can be provided which utilize the superelastic cable of the invention. For example, papillotomy knives, surgical staples, braiding elements in catheters, braiding elements for tubes for blood pumps and peristaltic pumps, and other medical devices may incorporate the described cable in accord with the contemplated scope of the invention. Moreover, it will be appreciated that the invention may be utilized in both reusable and disposable instruments. It will therefore be appreciated by those skilled in the art that yet other medical devices could provided with the twisted and drawn cable without deviating from the spirit and scope of the invention as so claimed.

Claims (33)

What is claimed is:
1. In a medical device for temporary or permanent insertion or implantation into a human body, the improvement comprising:
at least one element comprising at least two wires twisted and drawn through at least one die to form a flexible cable.
2. The improvement according to claim 1, wherein:
said at least two twisted wires comprises at least three wires.
3. The improvement according to claim 1, wherein:
said at least two twisted wires includes at least one wire which has greater radiopacity than another of said at least two twisted wires.
4. The improvement according to claim 1, wherein:
said at least two twisted wires comprises at least three stainless steel wires.
5. The improvement according to claim 1, wherein:
said at least two twisted wires includes at least one wire comprised of at least one of platinum, gold, silver, copper, and aluminum.
6. The improvement according to claim 1, wherein:
said at least two twisted wires include at least one wire comprised of at least one nickel-chromium, platinum-iridium, and tungsten.
7. The improvement according to claim 1, wherein:
said at least two twisted wires includes at least one wire made from a first material and at least one wire made from a conductive material having greater conductance than said first material.
8. The improvement according to claim 1, wherein:
said at least one element includes at least one of a first element comprised of at least two wires twisted and drawn through at least one die, and at least one of a second element comprised of at least two wires twisted and drawn through at least one die, said first element being comprised of a material which is present in said first element in a first ratio, and said second element having said material in a second ratio different than said first ratio.
9. The improvement according to claim 1, wherein:
said medical device is an endoscopic instrument.
10. The improvement according to claim 9, wherein:
said at least one element is a control cable in said endoscopic instrument.
11. The improvement according to claim 1, wherein:
said medical device is a surgical basket device having a basket, and said at least one element is a component of said basket.
12. The improvement according to claim 11, wherein:
said basket is comprised of said at least one element and at least one wire.
13. The improvement according to claim 11, wherein:
said at least one element includes at least one of a first element comprised of at least two wires twisted and drawn through at least one die, and at least one of a second element comprised of at least two wires twisted and drawn through at least one die, said second element being comprised of at least one material which is not present in said first element.
14. The improvement according to claim 11, wherein:
said at least one element includes at least one of a first element comprised of at least two wires twisted and drawn through at least one die, and at least one of a second element comprised of at least two wires twisted and drawn through at least one die, said first element being comprised of a material which is present in said first element in a first ratio, and said second element having said material in a second ratio different than said first ratio.
15. The improvement according to claim 1, wherein:
said medical device is a surgical snare device, and said at least one element comprises a snare.
16. The improvement according to claim 15, wherein:
said snare is a bipolar snare.
17. The improvement according to claim 1, wherein:
said medical device is a rotary atherectomy device.
18. The improvement according to claim 17, wherein:
said at least one element comprises a rotary member.
19. The improvement according to claim 17, wherein:
said at least one element comprises a plurality of elements, each of said plurality of elements being a filiform element.
20. The improvement according to claim 1, wherein:
said medical device is a self-expanding stent.
21. The improvement according to claim 1, wherein:
said medical device is an electrocautery probe.
22. The improvement according to claim 21, wherein:
said at least one element is an electrode of said electrocautery probe.
23. The improvement according to claim 1, wherein:
said medical device is an embolization coil.
24. The improvement according to claim 1, wherein:
said medical device is a myocardial lead.
25. The improvement according to claim 24, wherein:
said at least one element is an electrode of said myocardial lead.
26. The improvement according to claim 1, wherein:
said medical device is an orthodontic cable.
27. The improvement according to claim 1, wherein:
said medical device is a heart valve.
28. The improvement according to claim 27, wherein:
said at least one element is a ring component of said heart valve.
29. The improvement according to claim 1, wherein:
said medical device is an IUD.
30. The improvement according to claim 1, wherein:
said medical device is a cytology brush.
31. The improvement according to claim 30, wherein:
said at least one element comprises a plurality of elements, each of said plurality of elements being a bristle of said cytology brush.
32. The improvement according to claim 30, wherein:
said at least one element is a shaft of said cytology brush.
33. The improvement according to claim 1, wherein:
said at least two wires are twisted and drawn through said at least one die without brazing to form said flexible cable.
US09143984 1996-10-11 1998-08-31 Medical devices incorporating at least one element made from a plurality of twisted and drawn wires Expired - Lifetime US6191365B1 (en)

Priority Applications (7)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US08843405 US5994647A (en) 1997-05-02 1997-05-02 Electrical cables having low resistance and methods of making same
PCT/US1997/018057 WO1998016274A1 (en) 1996-10-11 1997-10-07 Guidewire for catheter
US08963686 US6049042A (en) 1997-05-02 1997-11-04 Electrical cables and methods of making same
US4420398 true 1998-03-17 1998-03-17
US09060969 US6137060A (en) 1997-05-02 1998-04-15 Multifilament drawn radiopaque highly elastic cables and methods of making the same
US8747698 true 1998-05-29 1998-05-29
US09143984 US6191365B1 (en) 1997-05-02 1998-08-31 Medical devices incorporating at least one element made from a plurality of twisted and drawn wires

Applications Claiming Priority (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US09143984 US6191365B1 (en) 1997-05-02 1998-08-31 Medical devices incorporating at least one element made from a plurality of twisted and drawn wires
US09237420 US6352539B1 (en) 1997-05-02 1999-01-26 Surgical instrument with rotatable shaft
JP2000568094A JP2002524113A (en) 1998-08-31 1999-08-25 Medical equipment
PCT/US1999/019324 WO2000013193A1 (en) 1998-08-31 1999-08-25 Medical devices incorporating at least one element made from a plurality of twisted and drawn wires
EP19990942466 EP1114426A4 (en) 1998-08-31 1999-08-25 Medical devices incorporating at least one element made from a plurality of twisted and drawn wires

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US8747698 Continuation-In-Part 1998-05-29 1998-05-29

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09143751 Continuation-In-Part US6278057B1 (en) 1996-10-11 1998-08-31 Medical devices incorporating at least one element made from a plurality of twisted and drawn wires at least one of the wires being a nickel-titanium alloy wire

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US6191365B1 true US6191365B1 (en) 2001-02-20

Family

ID=22506559

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09143984 Expired - Lifetime US6191365B1 (en) 1996-10-11 1998-08-31 Medical devices incorporating at least one element made from a plurality of twisted and drawn wires

Country Status (4)

Country Link
US (1) US6191365B1 (en)
EP (1) EP1114426A4 (en)
JP (1) JP2002524113A (en)
WO (1) WO2000013193A1 (en)

Cited By (34)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1277447A2 (en) 2001-07-18 2003-01-22 Cordis Corporation Integral vascular filter system
US20030045901A1 (en) * 2001-09-06 2003-03-06 Nmt Medical, Inc. Flexible delivery system
US20050027212A1 (en) * 2003-07-31 2005-02-03 Segner Garland L. Guide wire with stranded tip
US20050093821A1 (en) * 2003-10-30 2005-05-05 Sensable Technologies, Inc. Force reflecting haptic interface
US20070255278A1 (en) * 2006-04-28 2007-11-01 Nobis Rudolph H Apparatus and method for deploying a cutting element during an endoscopic mucosal resection
US20070255277A1 (en) * 2006-04-28 2007-11-01 Nobis Rudolph H Apparatus and method for performing an endoscopic mucosal resection
US20070255268A1 (en) * 2006-04-28 2007-11-01 Nobis Rudolph H Method for performing an endoscopic mucosal resection
US20080086149A1 (en) * 2006-10-06 2008-04-10 Cook Incorporated Retrieval snare for extracting foreign objects from body cavities and method for manufacturing thereof
US7571010B2 (en) 2005-05-06 2009-08-04 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Cable electrode assembly for a lead terminal and method therefor
US20100076543A1 (en) * 2008-09-05 2010-03-25 Cook Incorporated Multi-strand helical stent
US20100114279A1 (en) * 2006-10-31 2010-05-06 Hans Strandberg Medical implantable lead
US20100198333A1 (en) * 2009-01-31 2010-08-05 Macatangay Edwin E Preform for and an endoluminal prosthesis
US20100206612A1 (en) * 2009-02-19 2010-08-19 W. C. Heraeus Gmbh Coiled ribbon as conductor for stimulation electrodes
US20100211147A1 (en) * 2009-02-19 2010-08-19 W. C. Heraeus Gmbh Electrically conducting materials, leads, and cables for stimulation electrodes
US20100280592A1 (en) * 2009-04-30 2010-11-04 Kyong-Min Shin Drawstring for removal of stent
US9044614B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2015-06-02 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research High voltage monitoring successive approximation analog to digital converter
US9155901B2 (en) 2013-07-29 2015-10-13 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research Implant charging field control through radio link
US9166441B2 (en) 2013-07-29 2015-10-20 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research Microprocessor controlled class E driver
US9205273B2 (en) 2013-07-29 2015-12-08 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research High efficiency magnetic link for implantable devices
US9221119B2 (en) 2013-05-03 2015-12-29 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research High reliability wire welding for implantable devices
US9308378B2 (en) 2013-05-03 2016-04-12 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research Implant recharger handshaking system and method
US9427574B2 (en) 2014-08-15 2016-08-30 Axonics Modulation Technologies, Inc. Implantable lead affixation structure for nerve stimulation to alleviate bladder dysfunction and other indication
US9433779B2 (en) 2013-05-03 2016-09-06 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research Multi-branch stimulation electrode for subcutaneous field stimulation
US9446241B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-09-20 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research Current sensing multiple output current stimulators
CN106086920A (en) * 2016-06-01 2016-11-09 中国人民解放军第二军医大学 Portable implantable type hydrogen generator
US9517338B1 (en) 2016-01-19 2016-12-13 Axonics Modulation Technologies, Inc. Multichannel clip device and methods of use
US9533155B2 (en) 2014-08-15 2017-01-03 Axonics Modulation Technologies, Inc. Methods for determining neurostimulation electrode configurations based on neural localization
US9555246B2 (en) 2014-08-15 2017-01-31 Axonics Modulation Technologies, Inc. Electromyographic lead positioning and stimulation titration in a nerve stimulation system for treatment of overactive bladder
US9700731B2 (en) 2014-08-15 2017-07-11 Axonics Modulation Technologies, Inc. Antenna and methods of use for an implantable nerve stimulator
US9728981B2 (en) 2012-08-31 2017-08-08 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research Feedback controlled coil driver for inductive power transfer
US9802051B2 (en) 2014-08-15 2017-10-31 Axonics Modulation Technologies, Inc. External pulse generator device and associated methods for trial nerve stimulation
US9895546B2 (en) 2015-01-09 2018-02-20 Axonics Modulation Technologies, Inc. Patient remote and associated methods of use with a nerve stimulation system
US9925031B2 (en) 2009-12-28 2018-03-27 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Endoluminal device with kink-resistant regions
US9925381B2 (en) 2015-07-10 2018-03-27 Axonics Modulation Technologies, Inc. Implantable nerve stimulator having internal electronics without ASIC and methods of use

Families Citing this family (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2003024274A (en) * 2001-07-18 2003-01-28 Pentax Corp Endoscope
JP2005185386A (en) * 2003-12-25 2005-07-14 Asahi Intecc Co Ltd Medical guide wire
US9339323B2 (en) 2005-05-12 2016-05-17 Aesculap Ag Electrocautery method and apparatus
US7862565B2 (en) 2005-05-12 2011-01-04 Aragon Surgical, Inc. Method for tissue cauterization
JP4784840B2 (en) * 2007-11-30 2011-10-05 独立行政法人産業技術総合研究所 Field response solid polymer composites and actuator element
US8870867B2 (en) 2008-02-06 2014-10-28 Aesculap Ag Articulable electrosurgical instrument with a stabilizable articulation actuator
KR101786410B1 (en) 2010-02-04 2017-10-17 아에스쿨랍 아게 Laparoscopic radiofrequency surgical device
US8419727B2 (en) 2010-03-26 2013-04-16 Aesculap Ag Impedance mediated power delivery for electrosurgery
US8827992B2 (en) 2010-03-26 2014-09-09 Aesculap Ag Impedance mediated control of power delivery for electrosurgery
US9173698B2 (en) 2010-09-17 2015-11-03 Aesculap Ag Electrosurgical tissue sealing augmented with a seal-enhancing composition
US9339327B2 (en) 2011-06-28 2016-05-17 Aesculap Ag Electrosurgical tissue dissecting device
ES2628297T3 (en) 2012-09-26 2017-08-02 Aesculap Ag Cutting apparatus and sealing tissue
KR101685166B1 (en) * 2014-03-19 2016-12-20 권병수 An endopautch for laparoscopic surgery and endopautch assembly for single port laparoscopic surgery

Citations (47)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB197692A (en) * 1922-05-13 1923-09-27 Siemens-Schuckertwerke Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter Haftung
US3131469A (en) * 1960-03-21 1964-05-05 Tyler Wayne Res Corp Process of producing a unitary multiple wire strand
US3261908A (en) * 1964-03-26 1966-07-19 Kaiser Aluminium Chem Corp Composite aluminum electrical conductor cable
US3620212A (en) 1970-06-15 1971-11-16 Robert D Fannon Jr Intrauterine contraceptive device
US4027677A (en) 1976-01-09 1977-06-07 Pacesetter Systems, Inc. Myocardial lead
US4037324A (en) 1972-06-02 1977-07-26 The University Of Iowa Research Foundation Method and system for orthodontic moving of teeth
US4215703A (en) 1978-08-29 1980-08-05 Willson James K V Variable stiffness guide wire
US4233690A (en) 1978-05-19 1980-11-18 Carbomedics, Inc. Prosthetic device couplings
US4493320A (en) 1982-04-02 1985-01-15 Treat Michael R Bipolar electrocautery surgical snare
US4665906A (en) 1983-10-14 1987-05-19 Raychem Corporation Medical devices incorporating sim alloy elements
US4830003A (en) 1988-06-17 1989-05-16 Wolff Rodney G Compressive stent and delivery system
US4830262A (en) 1985-11-19 1989-05-16 Nippon Seisen Co., Ltd. Method of making titanium-nickel alloys by consolidation of compound material
US4925445A (en) 1983-09-16 1990-05-15 Fuji Terumo Co., Ltd. Guide wire for catheter
US5064428A (en) 1990-09-18 1991-11-12 Cook Incorporated Medical retrieval basket
US5067957A (en) 1983-10-14 1991-11-26 Raychem Corporation Method of inserting medical devices incorporating SIM alloy elements
EP0480427A1 (en) 1990-10-12 1992-04-15 Nippon Seisen Co., Ltd. Guide wire for a catheter
US5112136A (en) 1990-09-24 1992-05-12 Kiyoshi Sakuma Method of and apparatus for measuring thermal conductivity
US5118906A (en) * 1989-12-14 1992-06-02 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Wire conductors for automobiles
US5146928A (en) 1992-01-30 1992-09-15 Theodor Esser Sampling device for collecting microbiological biopsy specimen
US5201323A (en) 1991-02-20 1993-04-13 Brigham & Women's Hospital Wire-guided cytology brush
US5201741A (en) 1990-07-24 1993-04-13 Andrew Surgical, Inc. Surgical snare with shape memory effect wire
US5213111A (en) 1991-07-10 1993-05-25 Cook Incorporated Composite wire guide construction
US5263964A (en) 1992-05-06 1993-11-23 Coil Partners Ltd. Coaxial traction detachment apparatus and method
US5282824A (en) 1990-10-09 1994-02-01 Cook, Incorporated Percutaneous stent assembly
US5292331A (en) 1989-08-24 1994-03-08 Applied Vascular Engineering, Inc. Endovascular support device
US5322508A (en) 1993-04-08 1994-06-21 Cordis Corporation Guidewire fluid delivery system and method of use
US5376100A (en) 1991-12-23 1994-12-27 Lefebvre; Jean-Marie Rotary atherectomy or thrombectomy device with centrifugal transversal expansion
US5395386A (en) 1990-05-10 1995-03-07 Symbiosis Corporation Endoscopic pericardial scissors
EP0649636A2 (en) 1993-09-20 1995-04-26 JOHNSON & JOHNSON PROFESSIONAL Inc. Surgical cable
US5423829A (en) 1993-11-03 1995-06-13 Target Therapeutics, Inc. Electrolytically severable joint for endovascular embolic devices
US5429139A (en) 1993-05-19 1995-07-04 Schneider (Europe) A.G. Guide wire
US5439000A (en) 1992-11-18 1995-08-08 Spectrascience, Inc. Method of diagnosing tissue with guidewire
US5483022A (en) * 1994-04-12 1996-01-09 Ventritex, Inc. Implantable conductor coil formed from cabled composite wire
US5482054A (en) 1990-05-10 1996-01-09 Symbiosis Corporation Edoscopic biopsy forceps devices with selective bipolar cautery
US5496330A (en) 1993-02-19 1996-03-05 Boston Scientific Corporation Surgical extractor with closely angularly spaced individual filaments
US5507296A (en) 1990-05-10 1996-04-16 Symbiosis Corporation Radial jaw biopsy forceps
US5520194A (en) 1993-12-07 1996-05-28 Asahi Intecc Co., Ltd. Guide wire for medical purpose and manufacturing process of coil thereof
US5549635A (en) 1994-01-24 1996-08-27 Solar, Rita & Gaterud, Ltd. Non-deformable self-expanding parallel flow endovascular stent and deployment apparatus therefore
US5549606A (en) 1993-06-10 1996-08-27 Symbiosis Corporation Endoscopic bipolar electrocautery instruments
US5562697A (en) 1995-09-18 1996-10-08 William Cook, Europe A/S Self-expanding stent assembly and methods for the manufacture thereof
US5569244A (en) 1995-04-20 1996-10-29 Symbiosis Corporation Loop electrodes for electrocautery probes for use with a resectoscope
US5597378A (en) 1983-10-14 1997-01-28 Raychem Corporation Medical devices incorporating SIM alloy elements
US5601600A (en) 1995-09-08 1997-02-11 Conceptus, Inc. Endoluminal coil delivery system having a mechanical release mechanism
US5639277A (en) 1995-04-28 1997-06-17 Target Therapeutics, Inc. Embolic coils with offset helical and twisted helical shapes
US5667525A (en) 1994-08-25 1997-09-16 Olympus Optical Co. Grasping forceps for endoscope
US5674278A (en) 1989-08-24 1997-10-07 Arterial Vascular Engineering, Inc. Endovascular support device
US5718159A (en) * 1996-04-30 1998-02-17 Schneider (Usa) Inc. Process for manufacturing three-dimensional braided covered stent

Family Cites Families (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5324328A (en) * 1992-08-05 1994-06-28 Siemens Pacesetter, Inc. Conductor for a defibrillator patch lead

Patent Citations (48)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB197692A (en) * 1922-05-13 1923-09-27 Siemens-Schuckertwerke Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter Haftung
US3131469A (en) * 1960-03-21 1964-05-05 Tyler Wayne Res Corp Process of producing a unitary multiple wire strand
US3261908A (en) * 1964-03-26 1966-07-19 Kaiser Aluminium Chem Corp Composite aluminum electrical conductor cable
US3620212A (en) 1970-06-15 1971-11-16 Robert D Fannon Jr Intrauterine contraceptive device
US4037324A (en) 1972-06-02 1977-07-26 The University Of Iowa Research Foundation Method and system for orthodontic moving of teeth
US4027677A (en) 1976-01-09 1977-06-07 Pacesetter Systems, Inc. Myocardial lead
US4233690A (en) 1978-05-19 1980-11-18 Carbomedics, Inc. Prosthetic device couplings
US4215703A (en) 1978-08-29 1980-08-05 Willson James K V Variable stiffness guide wire
US4493320A (en) 1982-04-02 1985-01-15 Treat Michael R Bipolar electrocautery surgical snare
US4925445A (en) 1983-09-16 1990-05-15 Fuji Terumo Co., Ltd. Guide wire for catheter
US5067957A (en) 1983-10-14 1991-11-26 Raychem Corporation Method of inserting medical devices incorporating SIM alloy elements
US4665906A (en) 1983-10-14 1987-05-19 Raychem Corporation Medical devices incorporating sim alloy elements
US5597378A (en) 1983-10-14 1997-01-28 Raychem Corporation Medical devices incorporating SIM alloy elements
US4830262A (en) 1985-11-19 1989-05-16 Nippon Seisen Co., Ltd. Method of making titanium-nickel alloys by consolidation of compound material
US4830003A (en) 1988-06-17 1989-05-16 Wolff Rodney G Compressive stent and delivery system
US5292331A (en) 1989-08-24 1994-03-08 Applied Vascular Engineering, Inc. Endovascular support device
US5674278A (en) 1989-08-24 1997-10-07 Arterial Vascular Engineering, Inc. Endovascular support device
US5118906A (en) * 1989-12-14 1992-06-02 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Wire conductors for automobiles
US5482054A (en) 1990-05-10 1996-01-09 Symbiosis Corporation Edoscopic biopsy forceps devices with selective bipolar cautery
US5395386A (en) 1990-05-10 1995-03-07 Symbiosis Corporation Endoscopic pericardial scissors
US5507296A (en) 1990-05-10 1996-04-16 Symbiosis Corporation Radial jaw biopsy forceps
US5201741A (en) 1990-07-24 1993-04-13 Andrew Surgical, Inc. Surgical snare with shape memory effect wire
US5064428A (en) 1990-09-18 1991-11-12 Cook Incorporated Medical retrieval basket
US5112136A (en) 1990-09-24 1992-05-12 Kiyoshi Sakuma Method of and apparatus for measuring thermal conductivity
US5282824A (en) 1990-10-09 1994-02-01 Cook, Incorporated Percutaneous stent assembly
US5230348A (en) 1990-10-12 1993-07-27 Nippon Seisen Co., Ltd. Guide wire for a catheter
EP0480427A1 (en) 1990-10-12 1992-04-15 Nippon Seisen Co., Ltd. Guide wire for a catheter
US5201323A (en) 1991-02-20 1993-04-13 Brigham & Women's Hospital Wire-guided cytology brush
US5213111A (en) 1991-07-10 1993-05-25 Cook Incorporated Composite wire guide construction
US5376100A (en) 1991-12-23 1994-12-27 Lefebvre; Jean-Marie Rotary atherectomy or thrombectomy device with centrifugal transversal expansion
US5146928A (en) 1992-01-30 1992-09-15 Theodor Esser Sampling device for collecting microbiological biopsy specimen
US5263964A (en) 1992-05-06 1993-11-23 Coil Partners Ltd. Coaxial traction detachment apparatus and method
US5439000A (en) 1992-11-18 1995-08-08 Spectrascience, Inc. Method of diagnosing tissue with guidewire
US5496330A (en) 1993-02-19 1996-03-05 Boston Scientific Corporation Surgical extractor with closely angularly spaced individual filaments
US5322508A (en) 1993-04-08 1994-06-21 Cordis Corporation Guidewire fluid delivery system and method of use
US5429139A (en) 1993-05-19 1995-07-04 Schneider (Europe) A.G. Guide wire
US5549606A (en) 1993-06-10 1996-08-27 Symbiosis Corporation Endoscopic bipolar electrocautery instruments
EP0649636A2 (en) 1993-09-20 1995-04-26 JOHNSON & JOHNSON PROFESSIONAL Inc. Surgical cable
US5423829A (en) 1993-11-03 1995-06-13 Target Therapeutics, Inc. Electrolytically severable joint for endovascular embolic devices
US5520194A (en) 1993-12-07 1996-05-28 Asahi Intecc Co., Ltd. Guide wire for medical purpose and manufacturing process of coil thereof
US5549635A (en) 1994-01-24 1996-08-27 Solar, Rita & Gaterud, Ltd. Non-deformable self-expanding parallel flow endovascular stent and deployment apparatus therefore
US5483022A (en) * 1994-04-12 1996-01-09 Ventritex, Inc. Implantable conductor coil formed from cabled composite wire
US5667525A (en) 1994-08-25 1997-09-16 Olympus Optical Co. Grasping forceps for endoscope
US5569244A (en) 1995-04-20 1996-10-29 Symbiosis Corporation Loop electrodes for electrocautery probes for use with a resectoscope
US5639277A (en) 1995-04-28 1997-06-17 Target Therapeutics, Inc. Embolic coils with offset helical and twisted helical shapes
US5601600A (en) 1995-09-08 1997-02-11 Conceptus, Inc. Endoluminal coil delivery system having a mechanical release mechanism
US5562697A (en) 1995-09-18 1996-10-08 William Cook, Europe A/S Self-expanding stent assembly and methods for the manufacture thereof
US5718159A (en) * 1996-04-30 1998-02-17 Schneider (Usa) Inc. Process for manufacturing three-dimensional braided covered stent

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Hesterlee, Jerry M., "Trapwire Constructions," Wire Technology International, pp. 51-52, Mar. 1997. *

Cited By (61)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20030018354A1 (en) * 2001-07-18 2003-01-23 Roth Noah M. Integral vascular filter system with core wire activation
US6656203B2 (en) 2001-07-18 2003-12-02 Cordis Corporation Integral vascular filter system
EP1277447A2 (en) 2001-07-18 2003-01-22 Cordis Corporation Integral vascular filter system
US7226466B2 (en) * 2001-09-06 2007-06-05 Nmt Medical, Inc. Flexible delivery system
US20030045901A1 (en) * 2001-09-06 2003-03-06 Nmt Medical, Inc. Flexible delivery system
US20050027212A1 (en) * 2003-07-31 2005-02-03 Segner Garland L. Guide wire with stranded tip
US20110230862A1 (en) * 2003-07-31 2011-09-22 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Guide wire with stranded tip
US9737689B2 (en) 2003-07-31 2017-08-22 Covidien Lp Guide wire with stranded tip
US7951091B2 (en) * 2003-07-31 2011-05-31 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Guide wire with stranded tip
US20050093821A1 (en) * 2003-10-30 2005-05-05 Sensable Technologies, Inc. Force reflecting haptic interface
US8994643B2 (en) 2003-10-30 2015-03-31 3D Systems, Inc. Force reflecting haptic interface
US7571010B2 (en) 2005-05-06 2009-08-04 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Cable electrode assembly for a lead terminal and method therefor
US7651491B2 (en) 2006-04-28 2010-01-26 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Method for performing an endoscopic mucosal resection
US20070255268A1 (en) * 2006-04-28 2007-11-01 Nobis Rudolph H Method for performing an endoscopic mucosal resection
US7867228B2 (en) 2006-04-28 2011-01-11 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Apparatus and method for performing an endoscopic mucosal resection
US20070255277A1 (en) * 2006-04-28 2007-11-01 Nobis Rudolph H Apparatus and method for performing an endoscopic mucosal resection
US20070255278A1 (en) * 2006-04-28 2007-11-01 Nobis Rudolph H Apparatus and method for deploying a cutting element during an endoscopic mucosal resection
US20080086149A1 (en) * 2006-10-06 2008-04-10 Cook Incorporated Retrieval snare for extracting foreign objects from body cavities and method for manufacturing thereof
US9271746B2 (en) 2006-10-06 2016-03-01 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Retrieval snare for extracting foreign objects from body cavities and method for manufacturing thereof
US8224457B2 (en) 2006-10-31 2012-07-17 St. Jude Medical Ab Medical implantable lead
US20100114279A1 (en) * 2006-10-31 2010-05-06 Hans Strandberg Medical implantable lead
US8394138B2 (en) 2008-09-05 2013-03-12 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Multi-strand helical stent
US20100076543A1 (en) * 2008-09-05 2010-03-25 Cook Incorporated Multi-strand helical stent
US20100198333A1 (en) * 2009-01-31 2010-08-05 Macatangay Edwin E Preform for and an endoluminal prosthesis
US8641753B2 (en) 2009-01-31 2014-02-04 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Preform for and an endoluminal prosthesis
US8926687B2 (en) 2009-01-31 2015-01-06 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Preform for and an endoluminal prosthesis
DE102009009558B4 (en) * 2009-02-19 2013-08-29 Heraeus Precious Metals Gmbh & Co. Kg Wound tape as an electrical conductor for stimulation electrodes
US20100206612A1 (en) * 2009-02-19 2010-08-19 W. C. Heraeus Gmbh Coiled ribbon as conductor for stimulation electrodes
DE102009009557A1 (en) 2009-02-19 2010-09-02 W.C. Heraeus Gmbh Electrically conductive materials, cables and cables for stimulation electrodes
US20100211147A1 (en) * 2009-02-19 2010-08-19 W. C. Heraeus Gmbh Electrically conducting materials, leads, and cables for stimulation electrodes
DE102009009558A1 (en) 2009-02-19 2010-08-26 W.C. Heraeus Gmbh Wound tape as an electrical conductor for stimulation electrodes
US20100280592A1 (en) * 2009-04-30 2010-11-04 Kyong-Min Shin Drawstring for removal of stent
US9925031B2 (en) 2009-12-28 2018-03-27 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Endoluminal device with kink-resistant regions
US9728981B2 (en) 2012-08-31 2017-08-08 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research Feedback controlled coil driver for inductive power transfer
US9981130B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2018-05-29 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research Current sensing multiple output current stimulators
US9446241B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-09-20 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research Current sensing multiple output current stimulators
US9044614B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2015-06-02 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research High voltage monitoring successive approximation analog to digital converter
US9682237B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2017-06-20 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research High voltage monitoring successive approximation analog to digital converter
US9221119B2 (en) 2013-05-03 2015-12-29 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research High reliability wire welding for implantable devices
US9433779B2 (en) 2013-05-03 2016-09-06 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research Multi-branch stimulation electrode for subcutaneous field stimulation
US9308378B2 (en) 2013-05-03 2016-04-12 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research Implant recharger handshaking system and method
US9789325B2 (en) 2013-05-03 2017-10-17 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research Implant recharger handshaking system and method
US9675807B2 (en) 2013-05-03 2017-06-13 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research High reliability wire welding for implantable devices
US9855436B2 (en) 2013-07-29 2018-01-02 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research High efficiency magnetic link for implantable devices
US9166441B2 (en) 2013-07-29 2015-10-20 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research Microprocessor controlled class E driver
US9780596B2 (en) 2013-07-29 2017-10-03 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research Microprocessor controlled class E driver
US9155901B2 (en) 2013-07-29 2015-10-13 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research Implant charging field control through radio link
US9205273B2 (en) 2013-07-29 2015-12-08 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research High efficiency magnetic link for implantable devices
US9802038B2 (en) 2014-08-15 2017-10-31 Axonics Modulation Technologies, Inc. Implantable lead affixation structure for nerve stimulation to alleviate bladder dysfunction and other indication
US9802051B2 (en) 2014-08-15 2017-10-31 Axonics Modulation Technologies, Inc. External pulse generator device and associated methods for trial nerve stimulation
US9855423B2 (en) 2014-08-15 2018-01-02 Axonics Modulation Technologies, Inc. Systems and methods for neurostimulation electrode configurations based on neural localization
US9561372B2 (en) 2014-08-15 2017-02-07 Axonics Modulation Technologies, Inc. Electromyographic lead positioning and stimulation titration in a nerve stimulation system for treatment of overactive bladder
US9555246B2 (en) 2014-08-15 2017-01-31 Axonics Modulation Technologies, Inc. Electromyographic lead positioning and stimulation titration in a nerve stimulation system for treatment of overactive bladder
US9533155B2 (en) 2014-08-15 2017-01-03 Axonics Modulation Technologies, Inc. Methods for determining neurostimulation electrode configurations based on neural localization
US9700731B2 (en) 2014-08-15 2017-07-11 Axonics Modulation Technologies, Inc. Antenna and methods of use for an implantable nerve stimulator
US9427574B2 (en) 2014-08-15 2016-08-30 Axonics Modulation Technologies, Inc. Implantable lead affixation structure for nerve stimulation to alleviate bladder dysfunction and other indication
US9770596B2 (en) 2015-01-09 2017-09-26 Axonics Modulation Technologies, Inc. Antenna and methods of use for an implantable nerve stimulator
US9895546B2 (en) 2015-01-09 2018-02-20 Axonics Modulation Technologies, Inc. Patient remote and associated methods of use with a nerve stimulation system
US9925381B2 (en) 2015-07-10 2018-03-27 Axonics Modulation Technologies, Inc. Implantable nerve stimulator having internal electronics without ASIC and methods of use
US9517338B1 (en) 2016-01-19 2016-12-13 Axonics Modulation Technologies, Inc. Multichannel clip device and methods of use
CN106086920A (en) * 2016-06-01 2016-11-09 中国人民解放军第二军医大学 Portable implantable type hydrogen generator

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
EP1114426A1 (en) 2001-07-11 application
EP1114426A4 (en) 2003-07-23 application
JP2002524113A (en) 2002-08-06 application
WO2000013193A1 (en) 2000-03-09 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US6942673B2 (en) Releasable basket
US6926712B2 (en) Clamp having at least one malleable clamp member and surgical method employing the same
US6607505B1 (en) Catheter distal assembly with pull wires
US6402745B1 (en) Intravenous whip electrode for vein ablation
US6872204B2 (en) Tissue cutting catheter and RF cutting method
US5522836A (en) Electrolytically severable coil assembly with movable detachment point
US5509411A (en) Intravascular sensing device
US6932816B2 (en) Apparatus for converting a clamp into an electrophysiology device
US6464700B1 (en) Loop structures for positioning a diagnostic or therapeutic element on the epicardium or other organ surface
US7104990B2 (en) Loop structure including inflatable therapeutic device
US5626576A (en) Electrosurgical catheter for resolving atherosclerotic plaque by radio frequency sparking
US6102908A (en) Rotatable apparatus having ablation capabilities
US6159206A (en) Medical implement for depositing implanted device and method of depositing implanted device
US5720754A (en) Device or apparatus for manipulating matter
US7175619B2 (en) Loop structures for positioning a diagnostic or therapeutic element on the epicardium or other organ surface
US5910129A (en) Catheter distal assembly with pull wires
US6623493B2 (en) Vaso-occlusive member assembly with multiple detaching points
US6203525B1 (en) Catheterdistal assembly with pull wires
US6221039B1 (en) Multi-function surgical instrument
US7955345B2 (en) Thrombus removal system and process
US5820628A (en) Device or apparatus for manipulating matter
US5868754A (en) Medical retrieval device
US6692491B1 (en) Surgical methods and apparatus for positioning a diagnostic or therapeutic element around one or more pulmonary veins or other body structures
US20030158549A1 (en) Apparatus for securing an electrophysiology probe to a clamp
US5423849A (en) Vasoocclusion device containing radiopaque fibers

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: GENERAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION, FLORIDA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:AVELLANET, FRANCISCO J.;REEL/FRAME:009435/0428

Effective date: 19980828

CC Certificate of correction
REMI Maintenance fee reminder mailed
SULP Surcharge for late payment
FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

AS Assignment

Owner name: AVELLANET, FRANCISCO J., CONNECTICUT

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:GENERAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:019077/0938

Effective date: 20070327

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 8

REMI Maintenance fee reminder mailed
SULP Surcharge for late payment

Year of fee payment: 11

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 12