US5926147A - Planar antenna design - Google Patents

Planar antenna design Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US5926147A
US5926147A US08/836,115 US83611597A US5926147A US 5926147 A US5926147 A US 5926147A US 83611597 A US83611597 A US 83611597A US 5926147 A US5926147 A US 5926147A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
antenna
supply network
radiating elements
junctions
horn antennas
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US08/836,115
Inventor
Tomas Sehm
Arto Lehto
Antti Raisanen
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Nokia Technologies Oy
Original Assignee
Nokia Networks Oy
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to FI954012A priority Critical patent/FI99221C/en
Priority to FI954012 priority
Application filed by Nokia Networks Oy filed Critical Nokia Networks Oy
Priority to PCT/FI1996/000455 priority patent/WO1997008775A1/en
Assigned to NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS OY reassignment NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS OY ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: RAISANEN, ANTTI, LEHTO, ARTO, SEHM, TOMAS
Assigned to NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS OY reassignment NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS OY CORRECTIVE ASSIGNMENT TO CORRECT RECEIVING PARTY ADDRESS. AN ASSIGNMENT PREVIOUSLY RECORED AT REEL 8554, FRAME 0885. Assignors: RAISANEN, ANTTI, LEHTO, ARTO, SEHM, TOMAS
Assigned to NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS OY reassignment NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS OY CORRECTIVE ASSIGNMENT TO CORRECT THE ADDRESS OF THE ASSIGNEE ON A PREVIOUS RECORDING AT REEL 8632 FRAME 0765. Assignors: RAISANEN, ANTTI, LEHTO, ARTO, SEHM, TOMAS
Publication of US5926147A publication Critical patent/US5926147A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Assigned to NOKIA NETWORKS OY reassignment NOKIA NETWORKS OY CHANGE OF NAME (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS OY
Assigned to NOKIA CORPORATION reassignment NOKIA CORPORATION MERGER (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: NOKIA NETWORKS OY
Assigned to NOKIA TECHNOLOGIES OY reassignment NOKIA TECHNOLOGIES OY ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: NOKIA CORPORATION
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q21/00Antenna arrays or systems
    • H01Q21/06Arrays of individually energised antenna units similarly polarised and spaced apart
    • H01Q21/061Two dimensional planar arrays
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q21/00Antenna arrays or systems
    • H01Q21/0087Apparatus or processes specially adapted for manufacturing antenna arrays

Abstract

An antenna design includes a plurality of radiating elements which radiate electro-magnetic energy, and feeders which feed the electromagnetic energy to the radiating elements. The feeders have a supply network substantially at the same level in the antenna thickness direction. In order to achieve a small antenna with adequate properties for radio link usage, the radiating elements are arranged next to the supply network in the thickness direction and include box horn antennas which have a step, characteristic of a box horn, in the plane of the magnetic field.

Description

This application is the national phase of international application PCT/FI96/00455 filed Aug. 23, 1996 which designated the U.S.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to an antenna design, particularly, for radio link applications.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Currently, radio links employ several frequency bands on VHF (30 . . . 300 MHz), UHF (300 MHz . . . 3 GHz), SHE (3 . . . 30 GHz), and EHF (30 . . . 300 GHz) bands. Ever higher frequencies have been used because mobile services have almost entirely used the lower frequency bands (below 3 GHz). Presently, many radio link systems operate in the 38 GHz frequency range, which, at least initially, is the range for the antenna according to the present invention. As the principle of the antenna is not in any way tied to frequency, the antenna design of the invention is intended for use in the micro and millimeter ranges.

Radiation characteristics required of radio link antennas are specified in international standards. For example, the ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) standard prETS 300 197 specifies the highest levels permitted to side lobe levels in the radiation pattern of a 38 GHz radio link antenna. Thus, the starting point of designing radio link antennas is typically such that the antenna gain must be higher than a specific minimum level, but also such that the side lobe levels remain lower than specific limits. The gain cannot, therefore, be increased indefinitely because it would increase the side lobe levels accordingly.

Requirements set for radio link antennas are strict, and, on frequencies presently used, the radiation characteristics specified in the standards have successfully been fulfilled only with different kinds of horn plus lens or reflector antennas (parabolic antennas).

Apart from adequate radiation characteristics, antenna manufacturers and especially antenna users (customers) desire physically small antennas. Particularly when the terminal point of the radio link is at the customer's site, it is important for the antenna to blend into the background as well as possible (i.e., fit into a small space).

Laws of physics largely determine the antenna cross sectional area. In other words, the antenna must have a specific capture area or its aperture must have specific dimensions. Instead, through structural design, dimensions of the antenna in the thickness direction can be modified. For example, the drawback of the aforementioned horn plus lens or reflector antennas is that these antennas cannot be made compact due to their operating principle. In the aforementioned 38 GHz range, for example, such antennas are at least on the order of 20 cm thick.

Small dimensions in the thickness direction can be obtained by planar antennas (a planar antenna refers to a design in which the feeders and reflector elements of the antenna are very close to one another in the thickness direction). Planar antenna designs are often based on microstrip technique, which results in an insufficient gain due to the high loss of the microstrip structure. Many planar antenna designs also share the drawback of being narrow-band (required characteristics are only obtained on a narrow frequency band). Some planar antennas also have the disadvantage of being unsuitable for mass production due to the very strict dimensioning requirements on the higher frequencies used today. Antenna manufacturers desire an antenna design that can be mass produced.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is an object of the present invention to avoid the above drawbacks by providing a new type of an antenna structure which is suitable for radio link use, has sufficient radiation characteristics, is compact, and is suitable for mass production. These objects are achieved by an antenna design of the invention, which has a plurality of radiating elements and feeders.

Such an antenna has specific properties (such as allowing a planar structure, low losses, and wideband operation) through a planar supply network, and incorporates known box horns by radiation characteristics that obviate the above drawbacks as radiating elements. Relating to the present invention, by optimal dimensioning of the box horn in a way suitable even for mass production, it is possible to set the radiation pattern null of a single radiating element to the direction where the array factor indicates a side lobe for the antenna array. In this manner, the side lobe of the antenna array can easily be eliminated, whereby the desired radiation characteristics can be obtained without difficulty.

The present invention provides a planar design with good (adequate for radio link use) radiation characteristics, a simple structure, low manufacturing costs, and insensitivity to manufacturing flaws. For example, in the aforementioned 38 GHZ range, the antenna according to the present invention is only approximately 4 cm thick, i.e., in practice about one fifth of the minimum thickness of current radio link antennas.

Even though the whole antenna is constructed, according to a preferred embodiment of the invention, by waveguide techniques, a planar structure is still obtained.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

In the following, the invention and its preferred embodiments will be described with reference to the examples in the attached drawings, in which

FIG. 1 shows a perspective view of the antenna according to the present invention, which has 2×2 radiating elements;

FIGS. 2a-2c illustrate a supply network used in the antenna design of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3a illustrates a curved divider of the waveguide T-junction;

FIG. 3b illustrates a divider of the waveguide T-junction in which the divider has been optimized structurally from the divider of FIG. 3a;

FIG. 3c illustrates a divider of the waveguide T-junction that provides an asymmetrical power distribution;

FIG. 4 illustrates the basic structure of a known box horn;

FIG. 5 shows how the ratio of the amplitudes of different wave modes in the box horn is dependent on the ratio of the box horn apertures;

FIG. 6 shows the illumination of the box horn aperture;

FIG. 7a shows the basic structure of a radiating element used in the antenna of FIG. 1;

FIG. 7b illustrates a cross-section of the radiating element of FIG. 1 in plane H;

FIG. 7c illustrates a cross-section of the radiating element of FIG. 1 in plane E;

FIG. 8 shows a supply network intended for a 16×16 element array; and

FIG. 9 shows an array of radiating elements designed for the supply network of FIG. 8.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

FIG. 1 shows an antenna according to the present invention. The antenna comprises two parts, part A1 which contains the supply network, and part A2 which is attached on top of part A1 and contains the radiating element array 10 which (due to reasons of clarity), in this example, has only four radiating elements RE next to one another in a compact manner (two in both planes). Each radiating element RE is a box horn with a step S in the plane of the magnetic field. A feed aperture leading to the supply network is marked with reference mark FA. Both the antenna parts (A, and A2) may be, e.g., closed metal parts that have been produced, e.g., by casting (the manufacturing technique of the antenna will be described in closer detail below).

FIG. 2a shows a top view of the lower part (A1) illustrated in FIG. 1, i.e., the face which is placed against part A2. FIG. 2b shows part A1 viewed in 15 the direction of line 2B--2B of FIG. 2a, and FIG. 2c, in the direction of line 2C--2C. This case uses a rectangular waveguide as a feeder. Using a rectangular waveguide as a feeder is a very advantageous choice due to its simple structure and low losses. The more complicated the structure, the more expensive it is to manufacture, and in most cases, the more prone to manufacturing flaws. The waveguide includes a slot 20 provided on the surface of part A1, and part A2 forms the ceiling of the waveguide. It is advantageous to have as narrow a waveguide as possible to obtain as narrow as possible spacing between the radiating elements (element spacing), and consequently, few side lobes for the antenna array. Thus, a narrow waveguide is advantageous from the standpoint of operating and cut-off frequencies.

In the aforementioned 38 GHz range, a waveguide width of approximately 5 mm can be chosen, whereby, e.g., waveguide WR-28 having the width of 7.11 mm and height of 3.56 mm may be chosen for a standard waveguide (not shown) feeding the antenna. It is thereby possible to choose the depth D of slot 20 provided in part A1 to correspond to the height of the waveguide being used. For the feeding waveguide, an extension 25 is provided at the feed aperture FA. The extension forms a transition from the wider waveguide to the narrower.

The waveguide operates solely on the lowest mode TE10. For example, in the waveguide WR-28, the cutoff frequency of TE20 mode is 60 GHz, and that of the TE01 is 42.13 GHZ, which means that these wave modes cannot propagate in the waveguide when the antenna is used on 38 GHz.)

In a planar supply network according to FIGS. 2a-2c, the power supplied from a common supply source (not shown) is divided by successive T-junctions to different radiating elements. In the example of FIG. 2a, e.g., there are three T-junctions. One of them is marked by reference mark T, and the borders of the junction are indicated by broken lines. As a conventional T-junction has a high reflection coefficient in a waveguide, it is advantageous to employ a rounded divider 22, based on a triangular model, in the T-junctions of the supply network. Such a rounded divider is based on a known divider, illustrated in FIG. 3a, in which the tip 23a of the triangular divider 23 has been made extremely thin. Such a divider, with rounded sides and a thin tip, provides a low reflection coefficient. However, the design is sensitive to the position of the center point (tip 23a) of the divider. As a result, it is advantageous to use the rounded divider 22 described above and illustrated in FIG. 3b. As far as tip 23a is concerned, the ideal shape of the rounded divider has been altered by making the tip less sharp and sturdier, thereby making the divider less prone to manufacturing flaws. Good matching can nevertheless be maintained.

If it is necessary to deviate from evenly feeding the antenna array due to requirements concerning the antenna radiation pattern, the required power distribution ratios can be obtained in the T-junction by shifting the divider 22 in the middle of the junction off the center line. If such an asymmetrical power distribution between the elements is desired, it must be implemented without creating phase difference between the elements. In the T-junction, the phase difference between output gates increases in proportion to distance that the divider shifts further away from the center line. This phase difference equals the phase difference obtained if the position of the input gate is shifted sideways. Thus, phase is determined by distance to the divider, as measured from the output gates. This means that the phase difference can be compensated by shifting the position of the T-junction feeder guide an equidistance sideways to the same extent. This is illustrated in FIG. 3c, in which reference mark X denotes the distance of the sideways shift. As a result, the divider may be located in the center of the T-junction, but the feeder guide may be to the side in relation to the divider.

The matching of the power divider can further be improved by generating a second reflection which cancels the reflection from the divider. If the amplitude of the reflection that is purposely caused equals the reflection from the divider, and they have opposite phases, the total reflection summed will be zero. A reflection can be generated in the waveguide by placing an obstruction in it. In the example according to the figures, a cancelling reflection has been generated with a cylindrical tap 24 (as shown in FIG. 2c and FIG. 3b). The amplitude of the reflection can be affected by adjusting the height h of the tap, and by shifting the location of the tap (its distance from the power divider), it is possible to obtain a desired phase.

In addition to power distribution in the supply network, the waveguide must be curved. In FIGS. 2a-2c, the waveguide has a plane E curve in a waveguide branch leading to a single radiating element (below, the plane of the electric field will be referred to as plane E, and the plane of the magnetic field will be referred to as plane H). The curve has been implemented by providing the slots with sloping bevels of substantially 45 degrees. The bevels are denoted by reference numbers 21 in FIGS. 2a and 2b. Because this results in polarization that would otherwise have an opposite phase between adjacent radiating elements in plane E, a half wavelength prolongation Δ has been provided on one side. This reverses the signal to be cophasal with the signal of the adjacent element in the plane E. At the bevels, each feeder branch is coupled to the radiating element, i.e., part A2 has a hole in a corresponding location, which is the "feed aperture" of the radiating element.

In the plane E, the spacing between the radiating elements is largely determined by the phase correction required. At least the T-junction and phase correction (Δ) must fit between the elements. On both sides, there will be the curve in the plane E, and on the side where there is no phase correction, the curve cannot be placed right next to the T-junction because it disturbs the fields present in the T-junction. To assure reliable operation, the distance between the T-junction and the curve must in practice be at least one eighth of the wavelength.

The elements can be placed closer to one another in the plane H than in the plane E. If the walls between the waveguides in the supply network were extremely thin, the element spacing would be dH =2× the waveguide width. In determining the spacing, it must, however, be noted (a) that the directivity (and therefore, gain) of the antenna array is at its highest when the element spacing is a multiple of 0.9λ (λ is wavelength in free space), and (b) that the number of side lobes of the antenna array is proportional to how many wavelengths the element spacing represents. Thus, it is possible to increase the element spacing, for example, to 0.9×2×λ, without increasing the number of side lobes. The directivity of the antenna array, thereby, increases to its maximum with element spacings wider than a wavelength.

By design solutions described above (T-junctions, power dividers, and tap matching, which are known solutions), a person skilled in the art is able to dimension the supply network according to the operating frequency arid other requirements set for the antenna at any one time. As far as the invention is concerned, the essential matter concerning the supply network is mainly its planar design and the possibility for a low-loss waveguide implementation. An advantageous detail is also represented by the possibility to taper (referring to decreasing the supply amplitude at the elements located at the edges of the array) the illumination over the antenna surface by dividers. The final supply network is formed by placing the power dividers to obtain a desired amplitude distribution for the radiating elements. Relative amplitudes of the elements are defined by computing the radiation pattern of the antenna array with different taperings. Due to the fact that tapering decreases the gain and widens the main beam, it is advantageous to aim at maintaining the illumination function as close as possible to an evenly illuminated aperture.

As set forth in the above, the antenna design in accordance with the invention uses a box horn as a radiating element. A box horn is a known horn antenna design, which has a greater directivity in the plane of the magnetic field (plane H) than does a conventional horn with an aperture of the same dimensions. The horn is constructed to generate a higher order (third) wave mode having a phase which deviates, e.g., 180 degrees, from the phase of the dominant mode in the antenna aperture. This higher order mode changes the aperture illumination (in the plane H) from a cosine type of an illumination towards one that more resembles an even illumination or two cosine illuminations.

FIG. 4 illustrates the basic design of a known box horn. The horn typically includes a rectangular waveguide element 41, having length L. This part, which measures A in the plane H is referred to as a box. The value of A must be high to allow higher order wave modes Ten0 (n=0 . . . 3) to propagate The horn is open at one end, and is fed from a rectangular waveguide 42 at the other end. The feed can also be carried out by a horn in the plane H (a waveguide whose aperture at the end has been extended in the plane H direction, while keeping the dimensions in the plane E unchanged). The feeding waveguide or horn, with an aperture A', is placed on the center line of the box in order to generate only wave modes with an amplitude deviating from zero at the center of the aperture, i.e., TE10 and TE30 modes. The ratio between the amplitudes of these wave modes is dependent on the apertures ratio A'/A. Assuming that a1 is the amplitude of the TE30 mode and a3 is the amplitude of the TE30 mode, their ratio can be presented as: ##EQU1##

Based on this dependence, the ratio between the amplitudes a3 and a1 can be illustrated as a function of step height A'/A. This is illustrated in FIG. 5.

The amplitude distribution of the box horn aperture (in plane H) also depends on the ratio a3 /a1. FIG. 6 illustrates the amplitude distribution with values 0-0.7 for the ratio a3 /a1. The horizontal axis represents perceptual distance from the aperture center point, and the vertical axis represents proportional level. It is assumed in the figure that the phase difference between two propagating modes at the aperture level is 180 degrees. As the figure shows, the amplitude ratio value of 0.35 provides a relatively good approximation for an even illumination function, and the value of 0.55 for two cosine distributions. In the plane E, the field is evenly distributed in the waveguide, and the area of the antenna aperture is evenly illuminated.

The antenna according to the present invention uses a box horn of the type described above, and particularly, one which has a step characteristic in the plane of the magnetic field. The step provides a simple means for changing the relative amplitudes of wave modes propagating in the horn.

The box horn for an antenna array according to the present invention is designed as follows. At first, the array factor is utilized in computing the direction where the array factor indicates a side lobe. The array factor, as known, is of the form: ##EQU2## where N is the number of elements, and γ depends on the wavelength λ, element spacing d, and the angle of view θ, as follows:

γ=kd sin (θ)+δ,

where the wave number k=2π/λ and δ represents phase difference between the elements.

In order to compute the direction of the side lobe, element spacing and frequency must be known. Element spacing is known based on the supply network dimensions.

By computing the radiation pattern of the box horn for different amplitude ratios, the amplitude ratio which has a null in the direction in which the array factor indicates a side lobe will be determined. The radiation pattern of an aperture antenna is determined by the field present at the aperture. A Fourier transformation can be used in computing the antenna radiation pattern when the field present at the aperture is known. Particularly, the radiation pattern can be defined as a Fourier transformation of the aperture distribution. Thus, if the function representing amplitude distribution is F(y), the radiation pattern can be computed as a function of angle φ in plane xy by the formula: ##EQU3## where β represents a propagation coefficient and L is the dimension of the aperture in the measuring level. Hence, E(φ) represents a Fourier transformation of the function F(y).

After establishing the amplitude ratio at which the null of a single radiating element occurs in the same direction where the array factor indicates a side lobe, the amplitude ratio can be used to define the aperture ratio A'/A this amplitude ratio. Based on the aperture ratio, the radiating element can be given its final measures, because based on the ratio, the dimension of the step in the plane of the magnetic field is known. Accordingly, by using the size of the step, a desired radiation pattern has been obtained, after defining the step position which also has an influence on the result, for a single radiating element with a null in the direction in which the array factor indicates a side lobe.

FIGS. 7a-7c illustrate the basic structure of a horn antenna 70, disclosed in FIG. 1 and used as a radiating element in the antenna according to the present invention. "Feed-throughs" matching the horn antennas will be provided in part A2. FIG. 7a shows a perspective view of the radiating element, FIG. 7b shows a cross-section of the element in plane H, and FIG. 7c, a cross-section of the element in plane E. In this example, the horn opens linearly in both the plane H and E. In the plane H. this holds true both prior to the step S (cf., face 71) and after the step S (cf., face 72). In such a design, with changing dimensions in the plane H, the propagation factor of the wave changes when travailing from the step to the aperture level. A design with an enlargement in the plane H after the step has the advantage that the aperture of the radiating element can be made as large as possible and yet the walls between the radiating elements can have a specific thickness for reasons of processibility.

In the above, those principles have been described according to which the antenna of the invention can be designed to match requirements set for it at any one time. By following the corresponding principles, the radiating element, for example, may be realized in a completely different shape. The radiating element may, e.g., open nonlinearly manner, or the enlargement may not be realized at all (this holds true for both the plane E and plane H). As far as manufacturing technique is concerned, the nonlinear enlargement is clearly worse than the linearly opening radiating element described above.

The number of radiating elements may also vary according to requirements set for the antenna. FIG. 8 shows a top view of a supply network for 256 elements, corresponding to the view of FIG. 2a. The feed aperture FA of the antenna in this case is in the middle of the supply network. As shown by the figure, the supply network in this case comprises 64 basic modules illustrated in FIG. 2a. Each module has four parallel feeding branches for four different radiating elements. In a preferred embodiment, the number of radiating elements equals a power of two (e.g., 28 =256), because this results in a symmetrical antenna design. The number of elements required depends on the gain, size, and radiation pattern requirements set for the antenna.

In general, it can be noted that, if there are n radiating elements, power is divided in the supply network in (n-1) T-junctions so that each element is fed by a line having an equal electrical length, if the aforementioned phase correction is not taken into account. FIG. 9 shows (from above) part A2, analogous with part A1 of FIG. 8, which contains a total of 256 radiating elements as in FIG. 7a.

In practice, the antenna design according to the invention may be varied, e.g., in the following ways.

In the supply network, it is possible to use different kinds of generally known matching methods and divider structures. The same holds true for dimensioning the waveguide. Wave lines other than a waveguide can also be used.

The coupling of the signal from the supply network to the element can be implemented in various ways, for example, through a probe, if a microstrip is used.

The antenna can be manufactured from various kinds of conductive materials, or by coating a suitable material with a conductive layer. Since the antenna is comprised of two closed parts, casting is, in practice, a noteworthy manufacturing technique. The surfaces of the parts must be conductive and even, to work well. In addition, manufacturing methods exist in which the parts can be casted from plastic and provided with a thin metal coating. Such a method is well suitable for mass production.

By using power dividers described above or other conventional power dividers, it is also possible to influence the relative amplitude of a single radiating element, and accordingly, shape the aperture illumination function as desired.

Although the invention is described above with reference to the examples illustrated in the accompanying drawings, it is obvious that the invention is not restricted thereto, but it may be varied within the inventive idea of the attached claims.

Claims (14)

We claim:
1. An antenna, said antenna comprising:
a plurality of radiating elements which radiate electromagnetic energy; and
feeders which feed said electromagnetic energy to said radiating elements, said feeders comprise a supply network substantially at the same level in an antenna thickness direction,
wherein said radiating elements are arranged next to said supply network in said antenna thickness direction and comprise box horn antennas, said box horn antennas having a step in the plane of the magnetic field.
2. The antenna as claimed in claim 1, said antenna further comprising
a first part and a second part, said second part being disposed on said first part, said first part comprising said supply network and said second part comprising said box horn antennas.
3. The antenna as claimed in claim 1, wherein said supply network comprises waveguides, said waveguides having a substantially rectangular cross-section and in which power is divided to said radiating elements by T-junctions.
4. The antenna as claimed in claim 3, wherein at least some of said T-junctions being provided with a triangular divider, said triangular divider having a rounded tip to improve matching.
5. An antenna, said antenna comprising:
a plurality of radiating elements which radiate electromagnetic energy; and
feeders which feed said electromagnetic energy to said radiating elements, said feeders comprise a supply network substantially at the same level in an antenna thickness direction,
wherein said radiating elements are arranged next to said supply network in said antenna thickness direction and comprise box horn antennas, said box horn antennas having a step in the plane of the magnetic fields,
wherein said supply network comprises waveguides, said waveguides having a substantially rectangular cross-section and in which power is divided to said radiating elements by T-junctions,
wherein at least some of said T-junctions being provided with a triangular divider, said triangular divider having a rounded tip to improve matching, and
wherein at least in some of said T-junctions, said triangular divider, and said feeder guide being shifted sideways in relation to each other so as to alter power distribution from an even distribution.
6. An antenna, said antenna comprising:
a plurality of radiating elements which radiate electromagnetic energy; and
feeders which feed said electromagnetic energy to said radiating elements, said feeders comprise a supply network substantially at the same level in an antenna thickness direction,
wherein said radiating elements are arranged next to said supply network in said antenna thickness direction and comprise box horn antennas, said box horn antennas having a step in the plane of the magnetic field, and
wherein said box horn antennas open linearly in the plane of the magnetic field at least after said step.
7. An antenna, said antenna comprising:
a first planar element;
a second planar element, said second planar element being mounted on top of said first planar element,
wherein said second planar element comprising a plurality of horn antennas for radiating electromagnetic energy, each of said box horn antennas having a waveguide with an output and a feeding opening, said output opens to a top surface of said second planar element and said feeding opening opens to a bottom surface of said second planar element,
wherein said first planar element comprising a supply network of waveguides on a top surface thereof, said supply network feeds said electromagnetic energy to said box horn antennas through said feeding openings, and
wherein each of said box horn antennas comprising a step-like change, said step-like change having a diameter in a direction parallel to the magnetic field of said electromagnetic energy.
8. The antenna as claimed in claim 7, wherein said diameter of said box horn antenna waveguide increases linearly from said step-like change to said top surface of the second planar element.
9. An antenna as claimed in claim 7, wherein said supply network comprises waveguides, said waveguides having a substantially rectangular cross-section and in which power is divided to said radiating elements by T-junctions.
10. An antenna as claimed in claim 8, wherein said supply network comprises waveguides, said waveguides having a substantially rectangular cross-section and in which power is divided to said radiating elements by T-junctions.
11. An antenna as claimed in claim 9, wherein at least some of said T-junctions being provided with a triangular divider, said triangular divider having a rounded tip to improve matching.
12. An antenna as claimed in claim 10, wherein at least some of said T-junctions being provided with a triangular divider, said triangular divider having a rounded tip to improve matching.
13. An antenna as claimed in claim 11, wherein at least some of said T-junctions, said triangular divider, and said feeder guide being shifted sideways in relation to each other so as to alter power distribution from an even distribution.
14. An antenna as claimed in claim 12, wherein at least some of said T-junctions, said triangular divider, and said feeder guide being shifted sideways in relation to each other so as to alter power distribution from an even distribution.
US08/836,115 1995-08-25 1996-08-23 Planar antenna design Expired - Lifetime US5926147A (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FI954012A FI99221C (en) 1995-08-25 1995-08-25 Planar antenna structure
FI954012 1995-08-25
PCT/FI1996/000455 WO1997008775A1 (en) 1995-08-25 1996-08-23 Planar antenna design

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US5926147A true US5926147A (en) 1999-07-20

Family

ID=8543919

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US08/836,115 Expired - Lifetime US5926147A (en) 1995-08-25 1996-08-23 Planar antenna design

Country Status (6)

Country Link
US (1) US5926147A (en)
EP (1) EP0793866B1 (en)
JP (1) JP3718527B2 (en)
DE (2) DE69619496D1 (en)
FI (1) FI99221C (en)
WO (1) WO1997008775A1 (en)

Cited By (43)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6208313B1 (en) * 1999-02-25 2001-03-27 Nortel Networks Limited Sectoral antenna with changeable sector beamwidth capability
EP1109252A2 (en) * 1999-12-13 2001-06-20 Space Systems / Loral Inc. Injection-molded phased array antenna system
EP1122816A1 (en) * 2000-02-02 2001-08-08 Space Systems/Loral, Inc. High efficiency dual polarized horn antenna
DE10028937A1 (en) * 2000-06-16 2002-01-17 Comet Vertriebsgmbh Planar antenna with waveguide configuration
WO2002025774A2 (en) * 2000-09-22 2002-03-28 Sarnoff Corporation Low loss rf power distribution network
US6476772B1 (en) * 2001-04-16 2002-11-05 Space Systems/Loral, Inc. Waveguide slot array capable of radiating shaped beams
US20040160917A1 (en) * 1999-06-22 2004-08-19 Eliznd Ihab H. Multibeam antenna for a wireless network
US20060132360A1 (en) * 2004-10-15 2006-06-22 Caimi Frank M Method and apparatus for adaptively controlling antenna parameters to enhance efficiency and maintain antenna size compactness
US20060281423A1 (en) * 2004-10-15 2006-12-14 Caimi Frank M Methods and Apparatuses for Adaptively Controlling Antenna Parameters to Enhance Efficiency and Maintain Antenna Size Compactness
US20070222697A1 (en) * 2004-10-15 2007-09-27 Caimi Frank M Methods and Apparatuses for Adaptively Controlling Antenna Parameters to Enhance Efficiency and Maintain Antenna Size Compactness
WO2008102987A1 (en) * 2007-02-21 2008-08-28 Idoit Co., Ltd. Horn array type antenna for dual linear polarization
US7420522B1 (en) 2004-09-29 2008-09-02 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Electromagnetic radiation interface system and method
KR100865956B1 (en) * 2006-12-08 2008-10-30 주식회사 아이두잇 Horn array type antenna for dual linear polarization
WO2008147132A1 (en) * 2007-06-01 2008-12-04 Idoit Co., Ltd. Horn array type antenna for dual linear polarization
KR100918957B1 (en) 2007-09-03 2009-09-25 주식회사 아이두잇 Horn array type antenna for dual linear polarization
WO2009093875A3 (en) * 2008-01-25 2009-11-05 이용종 Feed network structure and arrangement method of planar waveguide antenna
US20110114600A1 (en) * 2008-06-11 2011-05-19 Tokyo Electron Limited Plasma processing apparatus and plasma processing method
WO2012169709A1 (en) * 2011-06-09 2012-12-13 위월드 주식회사 Ultra-wideband dual linear polarized wave waveguide antenna for communication
US8558746B2 (en) 2011-11-16 2013-10-15 Andrew Llc Flat panel array antenna
US8866687B2 (en) 2011-11-16 2014-10-21 Andrew Llc Modular feed network
US9160049B2 (en) 2011-11-16 2015-10-13 Commscope Technologies Llc Antenna adapter
US9244280B1 (en) 2014-03-25 2016-01-26 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Near eye display system and method for display enhancement or redundancy
US9244281B1 (en) 2013-09-26 2016-01-26 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Display system and method using a detached combiner
US9274339B1 (en) 2010-02-04 2016-03-01 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Worn display system and method without requiring real time tracking for boresight precision
US9341846B2 (en) 2012-04-25 2016-05-17 Rockwell Collins Inc. Holographic wide angle display
US9366864B1 (en) 2011-09-30 2016-06-14 Rockwell Collins, Inc. System for and method of displaying information without need for a combiner alignment detector
US20160211582A1 (en) * 2015-01-15 2016-07-21 Israel SARAF Antenna formed from plates and methods useful in conjunction therewith
US9507150B1 (en) 2011-09-30 2016-11-29 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Head up display (HUD) using a bent waveguide assembly
US9519089B1 (en) 2014-01-30 2016-12-13 Rockwell Collins, Inc. High performance volume phase gratings
US9523852B1 (en) 2012-03-28 2016-12-20 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Micro collimator system and method for a head up display (HUD)
US20170040709A1 (en) * 2015-08-04 2017-02-09 Nidec Elesys Corporation Radar apparatus
US9674413B1 (en) 2013-04-17 2017-06-06 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Vision system and method having improved performance and solar mitigation
US9715067B1 (en) 2011-09-30 2017-07-25 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Ultra-compact HUD utilizing waveguide pupil expander with surface relief gratings in high refractive index materials
US9715110B1 (en) 2014-09-25 2017-07-25 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Automotive head up display (HUD)
US9933684B2 (en) 2012-11-16 2018-04-03 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Transparent waveguide display providing upper and lower fields of view having a specific light output aperture configuration
US10088675B1 (en) 2015-05-18 2018-10-02 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Turning light pipe for a pupil expansion system and method
US10108010B2 (en) 2015-06-29 2018-10-23 Rockwell Collins, Inc. System for and method of integrating head up displays and head down displays
US10126552B2 (en) 2015-05-18 2018-11-13 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Micro collimator system and method for a head up display (HUD)
US10156681B2 (en) 2015-02-12 2018-12-18 Digilens Inc. Waveguide grating device
US10241330B2 (en) 2014-09-19 2019-03-26 Digilens, Inc. Method and apparatus for generating input images for holographic waveguide displays
US10247943B1 (en) 2015-05-18 2019-04-02 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Head up display (HUD) using a light pipe
US10295824B2 (en) 2017-01-26 2019-05-21 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Head up display with an angled light pipe
US10359736B2 (en) 2015-08-05 2019-07-23 Digilens Inc. Method for holographic mastering and replication

Families Citing this family (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6034647A (en) * 1998-01-13 2000-03-07 Raytheon Company Boxhorn array architecture using folded junctions
DE10150086B4 (en) * 2001-10-14 2013-12-12 Uhland Goebel Group antenna with a regular array of apertures
EP2188870A1 (en) * 2007-09-13 2010-05-26 Aerosat Corporation Communication system with broadband antenna
US8427384B2 (en) 2007-09-13 2013-04-23 Aerosat Corporation Communication system with broadband antenna
KR100953728B1 (en) * 2008-05-06 2010-04-19 세원텔레텍 주식회사 Horn array antenna
WO2010124867A1 (en) * 2009-04-30 2010-11-04 Qest Quantenelektronische Systeme Gmbh Broadband antenna system for satellite communication
CN104937777A (en) 2013-01-21 2015-09-23 日本电气株式会社 antenna

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE2408610A1 (en) * 1973-02-23 1974-09-12 Thomson Csf Optimized monopulse radiation source
US4096482A (en) * 1977-04-21 1978-06-20 Control Data Corporation Wide band monopulse antennas with control circuitry
EP0205212A1 (en) * 1985-06-04 1986-12-17 Laboratoires D'electronique Philips Modular microwave antenna units and antenna composed of such units
EP0213646A1 (en) * 1985-06-04 1987-03-11 Laboratoires D'electronique Philips Modular microwave antenna units and antenna comprising such units
US5568160A (en) * 1990-06-14 1996-10-22 Collins; John L. F. C. Planar horn array microwave antenna

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE2408610A1 (en) * 1973-02-23 1974-09-12 Thomson Csf Optimized monopulse radiation source
US4096482A (en) * 1977-04-21 1978-06-20 Control Data Corporation Wide band monopulse antennas with control circuitry
EP0205212A1 (en) * 1985-06-04 1986-12-17 Laboratoires D'electronique Philips Modular microwave antenna units and antenna composed of such units
EP0213646A1 (en) * 1985-06-04 1987-03-11 Laboratoires D'electronique Philips Modular microwave antenna units and antenna comprising such units
US4743915A (en) * 1985-06-04 1988-05-10 U.S. Philips Corporation Four-horn radiating modules with integral power divider/supply network
US5568160A (en) * 1990-06-14 1996-10-22 Collins; John L. F. C. Planar horn array microwave antenna

Cited By (60)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6208313B1 (en) * 1999-02-25 2001-03-27 Nortel Networks Limited Sectoral antenna with changeable sector beamwidth capability
US20040160917A1 (en) * 1999-06-22 2004-08-19 Eliznd Ihab H. Multibeam antenna for a wireless network
EP1109252A3 (en) * 1999-12-13 2002-08-28 Space Systems / Loral Inc. Injection-molded phased array antenna system
EP1109252A2 (en) * 1999-12-13 2001-06-20 Space Systems / Loral Inc. Injection-molded phased array antenna system
EP1122816A1 (en) * 2000-02-02 2001-08-08 Space Systems/Loral, Inc. High efficiency dual polarized horn antenna
DE10028937A1 (en) * 2000-06-16 2002-01-17 Comet Vertriebsgmbh Planar antenna with waveguide configuration
US6897824B2 (en) 2000-06-16 2005-05-24 Walter Gerhard Planar antenna with wave guide configuration
US20040113857A1 (en) * 2000-06-16 2004-06-17 Walter Gerhard Planar antenna with wave guide configuration
WO2002025774A3 (en) * 2000-09-22 2002-07-04 Sarnoff Corp Low loss rf power distribution network
US6621468B2 (en) 2000-09-22 2003-09-16 Sarnoff Corporation Low loss RF power distribution network
WO2002025774A2 (en) * 2000-09-22 2002-03-28 Sarnoff Corporation Low loss rf power distribution network
US6476772B1 (en) * 2001-04-16 2002-11-05 Space Systems/Loral, Inc. Waveguide slot array capable of radiating shaped beams
US7420522B1 (en) 2004-09-29 2008-09-02 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Electromagnetic radiation interface system and method
US7663555B2 (en) 2004-10-15 2010-02-16 Sky Cross Inc. Method and apparatus for adaptively controlling antenna parameters to enhance efficiency and maintain antenna size compactness
US20060281423A1 (en) * 2004-10-15 2006-12-14 Caimi Frank M Methods and Apparatuses for Adaptively Controlling Antenna Parameters to Enhance Efficiency and Maintain Antenna Size Compactness
US8000737B2 (en) 2004-10-15 2011-08-16 Sky Cross, Inc. Methods and apparatuses for adaptively controlling antenna parameters to enhance efficiency and maintain antenna size compactness
US20060132360A1 (en) * 2004-10-15 2006-06-22 Caimi Frank M Method and apparatus for adaptively controlling antenna parameters to enhance efficiency and maintain antenna size compactness
US7834813B2 (en) 2004-10-15 2010-11-16 Skycross, Inc. Methods and apparatuses for adaptively controlling antenna parameters to enhance efficiency and maintain antenna size compactness
US20070222697A1 (en) * 2004-10-15 2007-09-27 Caimi Frank M Methods and Apparatuses for Adaptively Controlling Antenna Parameters to Enhance Efficiency and Maintain Antenna Size Compactness
KR100865956B1 (en) * 2006-12-08 2008-10-30 주식회사 아이두잇 Horn array type antenna for dual linear polarization
WO2008102987A1 (en) * 2007-02-21 2008-08-28 Idoit Co., Ltd. Horn array type antenna for dual linear polarization
WO2008147132A1 (en) * 2007-06-01 2008-12-04 Idoit Co., Ltd. Horn array type antenna for dual linear polarization
KR100918957B1 (en) 2007-09-03 2009-09-25 주식회사 아이두잇 Horn array type antenna for dual linear polarization
KR100929165B1 (en) 2007-09-03 2009-12-01 주식회사 아이두잇 Dual linear polarization horn array antenna
KR100918956B1 (en) 2007-09-03 2009-09-25 주식회사 아이두잇 Horn array type antenna for dual linear polarization
WO2009093875A3 (en) * 2008-01-25 2009-11-05 이용종 Feed network structure and arrangement method of planar waveguide antenna
US20110114600A1 (en) * 2008-06-11 2011-05-19 Tokyo Electron Limited Plasma processing apparatus and plasma processing method
US9274339B1 (en) 2010-02-04 2016-03-01 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Worn display system and method without requiring real time tracking for boresight precision
WO2012169709A1 (en) * 2011-06-09 2012-12-13 위월드 주식회사 Ultra-wideband dual linear polarized wave waveguide antenna for communication
US9461366B2 (en) 2011-06-09 2016-10-04 Wiworld Co., Ltd. Ultra-wideband dual linear polarized wave waveguide antenna for communication
US9715067B1 (en) 2011-09-30 2017-07-25 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Ultra-compact HUD utilizing waveguide pupil expander with surface relief gratings in high refractive index materials
US9599813B1 (en) 2011-09-30 2017-03-21 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Waveguide combiner system and method with less susceptibility to glare
US9977247B1 (en) 2011-09-30 2018-05-22 Rockwell Collins, Inc. System for and method of displaying information without need for a combiner alignment detector
US9366864B1 (en) 2011-09-30 2016-06-14 Rockwell Collins, Inc. System for and method of displaying information without need for a combiner alignment detector
US9507150B1 (en) 2011-09-30 2016-11-29 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Head up display (HUD) using a bent waveguide assembly
US8866687B2 (en) 2011-11-16 2014-10-21 Andrew Llc Modular feed network
US9160049B2 (en) 2011-11-16 2015-10-13 Commscope Technologies Llc Antenna adapter
US8558746B2 (en) 2011-11-16 2013-10-15 Andrew Llc Flat panel array antenna
US9523852B1 (en) 2012-03-28 2016-12-20 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Micro collimator system and method for a head up display (HUD)
US9341846B2 (en) 2012-04-25 2016-05-17 Rockwell Collins Inc. Holographic wide angle display
US9933684B2 (en) 2012-11-16 2018-04-03 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Transparent waveguide display providing upper and lower fields of view having a specific light output aperture configuration
US9674413B1 (en) 2013-04-17 2017-06-06 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Vision system and method having improved performance and solar mitigation
US9679367B1 (en) 2013-04-17 2017-06-13 Rockwell Collins, Inc. HUD system and method with dynamic light exclusion
US9244281B1 (en) 2013-09-26 2016-01-26 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Display system and method using a detached combiner
US9519089B1 (en) 2014-01-30 2016-12-13 Rockwell Collins, Inc. High performance volume phase gratings
US9244280B1 (en) 2014-03-25 2016-01-26 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Near eye display system and method for display enhancement or redundancy
US9766465B1 (en) 2014-03-25 2017-09-19 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Near eye display system and method for display enhancement or redundancy
US10241330B2 (en) 2014-09-19 2019-03-26 Digilens, Inc. Method and apparatus for generating input images for holographic waveguide displays
US9715110B1 (en) 2014-09-25 2017-07-25 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Automotive head up display (HUD)
US9899722B2 (en) * 2015-01-15 2018-02-20 Mti Wireless Edge, Ltd. Antenna formed from plates and methods useful in conjunction therewith
US20160211582A1 (en) * 2015-01-15 2016-07-21 Israel SARAF Antenna formed from plates and methods useful in conjunction therewith
US10205213B2 (en) 2015-01-15 2019-02-12 Mti Wireless Edge, Ltd. Antenna formed from plates and methods useful in conjunction therewith
US10156681B2 (en) 2015-02-12 2018-12-18 Digilens Inc. Waveguide grating device
US10247943B1 (en) 2015-05-18 2019-04-02 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Head up display (HUD) using a light pipe
US10088675B1 (en) 2015-05-18 2018-10-02 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Turning light pipe for a pupil expansion system and method
US10126552B2 (en) 2015-05-18 2018-11-13 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Micro collimator system and method for a head up display (HUD)
US10108010B2 (en) 2015-06-29 2018-10-23 Rockwell Collins, Inc. System for and method of integrating head up displays and head down displays
US20170040709A1 (en) * 2015-08-04 2017-02-09 Nidec Elesys Corporation Radar apparatus
US10359736B2 (en) 2015-08-05 2019-07-23 Digilens Inc. Method for holographic mastering and replication
US10295824B2 (en) 2017-01-26 2019-05-21 Rockwell Collins, Inc. Head up display with an angled light pipe

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
EP0793866A1 (en) 1997-09-10
FI99221C (en) 1997-10-27
FI954012D0 (en)
DE69619496D1 (en) 2002-04-04
JP3718527B2 (en) 2005-11-24
WO1997008775A1 (en) 1997-03-06
FI99221B (en) 1997-07-15
FI954012A0 (en) 1995-08-25
DE69619496T2 (en) 2002-10-31
JPH10508173A (en) 1998-08-04
EP0793866B1 (en) 2002-02-27
FI954012A (en) 1997-02-26

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Rudge et al. The handbook of antenna design
Chlavin A new antenna feed having equal E-and H-plane patterns
Wang et al. Dielectric Loaded Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) ${H} $-Plane Horn Antennas
KR100624049B1 (en) Circular polarized wave receiving tetragonal lattice horn array antenna
US5349363A (en) Antenna array configurations employing continuous transverse stub elements
Hirokawa et al. Single-layer feed waveguide consisting of posts for plane TEM wave excitation in parallel plates
US7728772B2 (en) Phased array systems and phased array front-end devices
AU606303B2 (en) Compensated microwave feed horn
US6317094B1 (en) Feed structures for tapered slot antennas
US6445354B1 (en) Aperture coupled slot array antenna
Carrasco et al. Reflectarray element based on aperture-coupled patches with slots and lines of variable length
US4843403A (en) Broadband notch antenna
James et al. Investigations and Comparisons of New Types of Millimetre-Wave Planar Arrays Using Microstrip and Dielectric Structures.
US6424298B1 (en) Microstrip array antenna
EP0086351B1 (en) Geodesic dome/lens antenna
US5337065A (en) Slot hyperfrequency antenna with a structure of small thickness
US4743915A (en) Four-horn radiating modules with integral power divider/supply network
US5245349A (en) Flat-plate patch antenna
US6747606B2 (en) Single or dual polarized molded dipole antenna having integrated feed structure
Ettorre et al. Multi-beam multi-layer leaky-wave SIW pillbox antenna for millimeter-wave applications
US4775866A (en) Two-frequency slotted planar antenna
Hansen Phased array antennas
US5262791A (en) Multi-layer array antenna
US3803623A (en) Microstrip antenna
Fang et al. Designs of single-, dual-, wide-band rectangular dielectric resonator antennas

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS OY, FINLAND

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:SEHM, TOMAS;LEHTO, ARTO;RAISANEN, ANTTI;REEL/FRAME:008554/0885;SIGNING DATES FROM 19970217 TO 19970225

AS Assignment

Owner name: NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS OY, FINLAND

Free format text: CORRECTIVE ASSIGNMENT TO CORRECT RECEIVING PARTY ADDRESS. AN ASSIGNMENT PREVIOUSLY RECORED AT REEL 8554, FRAME 0885;ASSIGNORS:SEHM, TOMAS;LEHTO, ARTO;RAISANEN, ANTTI;REEL/FRAME:008632/0765;SIGNING DATES FROM 19970217 TO 19970225

AS Assignment

Owner name: NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS OY, FINLAND

Free format text: CORRECTIVE ASSIGNMENT TO CORRECT THE ADDRESS OF THE ASSIGNEE ON A PREVIOUS RECORDING AT REEL 8632 FRAME 0765;ASSIGNORS:SEHM, TOMAS;LEHTO, ARTO;RAISANEN, ANTTI;REEL/FRAME:009012/0128;SIGNING DATES FROM 19970217 TO 19970225

STCF Information on status: patent grant

Free format text: PATENTED CASE

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 8

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 12

AS Assignment

Owner name: NOKIA NETWORKS OY, FINLAND

Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS OY;REEL/FRAME:036742/0510

Effective date: 19990930

AS Assignment

Owner name: NOKIA CORPORATION, FINLAND

Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:NOKIA NETWORKS OY;REEL/FRAME:036852/0151

Effective date: 20011001

AS Assignment

Owner name: NOKIA TECHNOLOGIES OY, FINLAND

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:NOKIA CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:036965/0233

Effective date: 20150116